WorldWideScience

Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation

    Čakarić Jasenka

    2010-01-01

    This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

  2. Morphological transformation of NGC 205?

    Saviane, Ivo; Monaco, Lorenzo; Hallas, Tony

    2010-04-01

    NGC 205 is a small galaxy (M/M? = 0.7 109; MV = -16.6) currently located 36? NW of M31. It is classified as dE because in ground-based images it appears as an elliptical body. However past investigations have revealed characteristics that are more typical of a disk galaxy: the specific frequency of globular clusters is 1.8; the large scale dynamics shows partial rotational support; there is a significant amount (106 M?) of rotating gas (molecular and atomic) and dust; the central regions harbor a fairly complex stellar population, including a 100-500 Myr old nucleus surrounded by 50- and 100-Myr old stellar associations (see references in Monaco et al. 2009; M09). Very recently, thanks to hst/acs imaging we have been able to reveal a young central field population (M09), extending out to ~40? in radius (~160 pc). The luminosity function of the main sequence can be fitted with Saviane et al. (2004) model of continuous star formation (SF) from at least ~600 Myr ago to ~60 Myr ago. We found that 1.5 105 M? in stars were produced from ~300 Myr to ~60 Myr ago, with a SF rate of 7 10-4 M? yr-1. A continuous SF seems to support the latest simulations of NGC 205 orbit: Howley et al. (2008) found that the galaxy must be moving with a velocity 300-500 km s-1 (comparable to the escape velocity) along an almost radial orbit, and it should be approaching M31 for the first time. An episodic SF triggered by passages through M31 disk every ~300 Myr in a bound orbit (Cepa & Beckman 1988) is excluded by our data.

  3. The Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance: Morphology and Tectonic Development

    Bandy, William L.; Michaud, Franois; Mortera Gutirrez, Carlos A.; Dyment, Jrme; Bourgois, Jacques; Royer, Jean-Yves; Calmus, Thierry; Sosson, Marc; Ortega-Ramirez, Jose

    2011-08-01

    To better define the morphotectonic elements and tectonic development of the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, multichannel seismic reflection and total field marine magnetic data were collected along the entire Rivera Transform west of 107W during the BART and FAMEX campaigns of the N.O. L'Atalante conducted in 2002. These data show that, although the transform tectonized zone of the Rivera Transform west of 10730'W is a single continuous morphologic basin, this basin consists of two distinct morphotectonic domains: an eastern domain which morphologically is a deep rhombochasm within which organized seafloor spreading has occurred, and a western `leaky transform' domain. These new data, in conjunction with the results of previous studies, support the idea that the Rivera-Pacific Euler pole is migrating southward towards the eastern half of the Rivera Transform, and further indicate a recent (<0.14 Ma), and most likely ongoing, clockwise reorganization of the principle transform displacement zones of the Rivera Transform west of 108W. We propose that the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance owes its origin to this eastward progressing, clockwise reorganization of the transform segments that is occurring in response to recent changes in Rivera-Pacific relative plate motion.

  4. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  5. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  6. Morphological Transformation and Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

    Wiklind, Tommy

    2015-08-01

    The average morphology of the most massive galaxies change dramatically with cosmic time. At z>1.5, the most massive galaxies are characterized by an exponential light distribution, while galaxies at lower redshift are spheroidal with a de Vaucoleur light profile. This morphological transformation is accompanied by a drastic change in star formation activity. The mechanism(s) responsible for these two transformations are unknown, although several leading theories exist. This work presents the median morphological and star formation activity for five samples of galaxies across a look-back time of 12 Gyr. The galaxy samples are selected using the Mean Abundance Matching technique as a way of matching progenitors and descendant galaxies. The five samples represent z=0 stellar masses of log(M*/Msun)=10.0 - 11.2, corresponding to z=0 dark matter halos of log(Mh/Msun)=11.5 - 13.5. Using the CANDELS GOODS-S and UDS samples we are complete up to z=2.2, 2.6, 3.6 for the three lowest mass bins and up to z=4 for the two highest mass bins. The morphology of each galaxy is quantified through the single-component Sersic index. With the exception of the galaxies in least massive bin, the average Sersic index at high redshift indicates a disk-like morphology, while at lower redshift the average Sersic index indicates a spheroidal light distribution. The morphology for galaxies in the lowest mass bin remains disk-like from z~2.2 to the limit of completeness at z~0.5. The star formation rate is derived for each galaxy using the dust corrected restframe 1500A luminosity. The galaxies undergo a decrease in star formation activity by ~2-3 orders of magnitude with the most massive systems starting their transformation of star formation activity at earlier times than less massive systems. The transformation of morphology and star formation is decoupled in the sense that galaxies transforms from actively star forming disk-like systems to quiescent disks and only subsequently transform into spheroidal or bulge dominated systems.

  7. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ve Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT present new possibilities for human-expert diagnostics, and for automated ischaemia detection. PMID:26863140

  8. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of ...

  9. Development of anisotropic particle morphology in an isotropically transforming matrix

    III, Dunbar P. Birnie; Weinberg, Michael C.

    2000-10-01

    In the present work we consider the growth of a very dilute concentration of anisotropic particles, nucleated with random orientations, in a matrix of growing spherical particles. It is assumed that the matrix particles obey the usual JMAK kinetics. We concentrate on describing the change in anisotropic particle grain morphology as the transformation process proceeds. An eccentric shaped particle will have certain growth directions that are rapid and others that are slower. Faster growing directions impinge upon the matrix particles much sooner than slower growing directions, and this feature leads to an effective change in particle morphology as the transformation process progresses. We analyze such changes in particle morphology by deriving expressions for the probabilities that growth rays will travel a certain distance before encountering matrix particles and that the length ratio of fast-axis to slow-axis growth of the anisotropic particle will attain certain values. The changes in particle morphology are examined as a function of the relative speeds of growth of anisotropic particle growth rays to matrix particle growth rates.

  10. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  11. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  12. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces. (paper)

  13. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-03-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces.

  14. Morphological Multiscale Stationary Wavelet Transform based Texture Segmentation

    Mosiganti Joseph Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is an important step in several computer vision applications. The segmentation of images into homogeneous and meaningful regions is a fundamental technique for image analysis. Textures occupy a vital role in a wide range of computer vision research fields; from microscopic images to images sent down to earth by satellites, from the analysis of multi-spectral scan images to outdoor scenes, all consist of texture. Although several methods have been proposed, less work has been done in developing suitable techniques for segmentation of texture images. After a careful and in-depth survey on wavelet transforms, the present study found that efficient numerical solutions in the signal processing applications can be found using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT. SWT is redundant, linear and shift invariant, thats why it gives a better approximation than the DWT. In this paper a novel texture segmentation method based on SWT and Textural Properties is proposed. Multi scale SWT with Textural Properties and morphological treatment is used in the present study to detect fine edges from texture images for a fine segmentation.

  15. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Webers Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  16. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Joëlle V. F. Coumans; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J.; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ) revealed a to...

  17. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  18. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shells during maturation process

    Konevtsova, O V; Rochal, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a minimal phenomenological model for a morphological transformation in viral capsid shells. The transformation takes place during virus maturation process which renders virus infectious. The theory is illustrated on the example of the HK97 bacteriophage and viruses with similar morphological changes in the protective protein shell. The transformation is shown to be a structural phase transition driven by two order parameters. The first order parameter describes the isotropic expansion of the protein shell while the second one is responsible for the shape symmetry breaking and the resulting shell faceting. The group theory analysis and the resulting thermodynamic model make it possible to choose the parameter which discriminates between the icosahedral shell faceting often observed in viral capsids and the dodecahedral one observed in viruses of the Parvovirus family. Calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus morpholog...

  19. Nuclear morphology and morphometry of B-lymphocyte transformation. Implications for follicular center cell lymphomas.

    Dardick, I.; Sinnott, N. M.; Hall, R.; Bajenko-Carr, T. A.; Setterfield, G.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major tenets of current non-Hodgkin's lymphoma classifications is the relationship of morphologic subtypes to stages in the sequence of normal B-lymphocyte transformation occurring in the germinal follicle. To test this hypothesis, quantitative morphometric image analysis was carried out on in vivo and in vitro samples of mouse splenic lymphocytes in which transformation was induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a specific B-cell mitogen. The results were compared with a s...

  20. Morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in Fe-0.15C binary alloy.

    Zhang, Di; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an in situ observation method, combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction, was used to investigate the morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in a Fe-0.15C binary alloy. The nucleation at a grain boundary and inclusions, sympathetic nucleation, and impingement event of bainitic ferrite were directly shown in real time. The variant evolution during bainite transformation and misorientation between bainitic ferrites were clarified. Strong variant selection was observed during sympathetic nucleation. PMID:19588518

  1. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  2. Blood Vessels Extraction in Retinal Image Using New Generation Curvelet Transform and Adaptive Weighted Morphology Operators

    Saleh Shahbeig

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to many medical and biometric applications of retinal images, the automatic and accurate extraction of the retinal blood vessels is very important. In this paper, an effective method is introduced to extract the blood vessels from the background of colored images of retina. In this algorithm, by applying the equalizer function on the retinal images, the brightness of the images is considerably uniformed. Because of high ability of Curvelet transform in introducing image borders in various scale and directions, borders and, consequently the contrast of retinal images can be enhanced. Therefore, the enhanced retinal image can be prepared for the extraction of blood vessels by improving Curvelet coefficients of the retinal images, adaptively and locally. Since the blood vessels in retinal images are distributed in various directions, we use the adaptive weighted morphology operators to extract the blood vessels from retinal images. Morphology operators based on reconstruction are used to refine the appeared frills with the size of smaller than arterioles in images properly. Finally, by analyzing the connected component in the images and applying adaptive filter on the components locally, all residual frills are refined from the images. The proposed algorithm in this paper has been evaluated by the images in the DRIVE database. The results how that the blood vessels are extracted from background of the retinal images of DRIVE database with the high accuracy of 96.15%, which in turn shows the high ability of the proposed algorithm in extracting the retinal blood vessels.

  3. Chemical transformation and morphology change of nickel-silica hybrid nanostructures via nickel phyllosilicates.

    Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Hyun Ju; Bang, Jung Up; Park, Kang Hyun; Song, Hyunjoon

    2009-12-21

    Ni@SiO(2) core-shell nanoparticles were transformed to Ni particles on silica spheres via a branched nickel phyllosilicate phase by hydrothermal and hydrogen reduction reactions; the final morphology was successfully employed as an active nanocatalyst for the hydrogen transfer reaction of acetophenone. PMID:20024223

  4. Secular Evolution and the Morphological Transformation of Cluster and Field Galaxies

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiaolei; Buta, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Deep surveys conducted during the past decades have shown that galaxies in the distant universe are generally of more irregular shapes, and are disky in appearance and in their star formation rate, compared to galaxies in similar environments in the nearby universe. Given that the merger rate between z=2 and the local universe is far from adequate to account for this observed morphological transformation rate, an internal mechanism for the morphological transformation of galaxies is to be sought, whose operation can be further aided by environmental factors. The secular evolution mechanism, especially with the discovery of a collisionless dissipation mechanism for stars within the secular evolution paradigm, has provided just such a framework for understanding the morphological evolution of galaxies across the Hubble time. In this paper we will summarize the past theoretical results on the dynamical mechanisms for secular evolution, and highlight new results in the analysis of the observational data, which co...

  5. Characterization of morphology and kinetics of bainite transformation in a low alloy steel

    Bainite transformation is ubiquitous in steels for pressure vessel applications in thermal and nuclear power plants. In this class of steels bainite is the dominant phase found in the microstructure, after industrial thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatment of pressure vessel component. The study of bainite transformation has been carried out using both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions. Previous studies have reported significant differences in the morphology and the type of bainite formed under these two conditions. Continuous cooling has been shown to result in a wider variety of bainite transformation products as compared with isothermal treatments. This has important implications for the technological properties of power plant components such as strength, toughness and hardenability. In the present study the cooling transformation characteristics of a new CrMo pressure vessel steel has been examined using dilatometry supplemented with TEM examination. The dilatometric data were analyzed to determine the activation energy and Avrami exponents. It was found that bainite with different morphologies formed over the cooling rates employed and were kinetically distinct. The dilatometric study along with TEM studies has shown that non-isothermal decomposition of austenite in this steel results in a complex microstructure containing an array of bainite morphologies. The bainitic ferrite plates are seen to be associated with various inter- and intra- plate constituents as the cooling rate changes. Despite this the transformation remains essentially bainitic over the range of cooling rates studied. Three different cooling rate regimes with distinctly different calculated Avrami exponents have been observed. (author)

  6. Sequential Anion and Cation Exchange Reactions for Complete Material Transformations of Nanoparticles with Morphological Retention.

    Hodges, James M; Kletetschka, Karel; Fenton, Julie L; Read, Carlos G; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-07-20

    Ion exchange reactions of colloidal nanocrystals provide access to complex products that are synthetically challenging using traditional hot-injection methods. However, such reactions typically achieve only partial material transformations by employing either cation or anion exchange processes. It is now shown that anion and cation exchange reactions can be coupled together and applied sequentially in one integrated pathway that leads to complete material transformations of nanocrystal templates. Although the product nanocrystals do not contain any of the original constituent elements, the original morphology is retained, thereby fully decoupling morphology and composition control. The sequential anion/cation exchange process was applied to pseudo-spherical CdO nanocrystals and ZnO tetrapods, producing fully transformed and shape-controlled nanocrystals of copper and silver sulfides and selenides. Furthermore, hollow core-shell tetrapod ZnS@CdS heterostructures were readily accessible. PMID:26110653

  7. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  8. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    Jiao, Dongling, E-mail: dljiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe{sub 4}N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior.

  9. Pannexin-1 channels show distinct morphology and no gap junction characteristics in mammalian cells.

    Beckmann, Anja; Grissmer, Alexander; Krause, Elmar; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-03-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins with a similar membrane topology to connexins, the integral membrane protein of gap junctions. Panx1 channels are generally of major importance in a large number of system and cellular processes and their function has been thoroughly characterized. In contrast, little is known about channel structure and subcellular distribution. We therefore determine the subcellular localization of Panx1 channels in cultured cells and aim at the identification of channel morphology in vitro. Using freeze-fracture replica immunolabeling on EYFP-Panx1-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, large particles were identified in plasma membranes, which were immunogold-labeled using either GFP or Panx1 antibodies. There was no labeling or particles in the nuclear membranes of these cells, pointing to plasma membrane localization of Panx1-EYFP channels. The assembly of particles was irregular, this being in contrast to the regular pattern of gap junctions. The fact that no counterparts were identified on apposing cells, which would have been indicative of intercellular signaling, supported the idea of Panx1 channels within one membrane. Control cells (transfected with EYFP only, non-transfected) were devoid of both particles and immunogold labeling. Altogether, this study provides the first demonstration of Panx1 channel morphology and assembly in intact cells. The identification of Panx1 channels as large particles within the plasma membrane provides the knowledge required to enable recognition of Panx1 channels in tissues in future studies. Thus, these results open up new avenues for the detailed analysis of the subcellular localization of Panx1 and of its nearest neighbors such as purinergic receptors in vivo. PMID:26386583

  10. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. J. Morphol. 277:575-584, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26880690

  11. Eric Shinsekis failure at the Department of Veterans Affairs shows the difficulty in evaluating transformational public sector executives

    Van Wart, Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after his election President Obama nominated former Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, Eric Shinseki, to head the beleaguered Department of Veterans Affairs. Despite Shinsekis reputation as a transformational leader, he largely failed to transform the Department of Veterans Affairs, and resigned in early 2014. Montgomery Van Wart writes that Shinsekis example shows how difficult it is to be a transformational administrative leader, and the difficulties there are in evaluating them.

  12. Text Detection in Video Using Haar Wavelet Transformation and Morphological Operator

    Dinesh AnnajiKene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simple and efficient method for text detection, extraction and localization from video or static images using Haar wavelet and Morphological operator. Haar wavelet transform have its coefficients either 1 or -1 , so that the operation speed of Haar wavelet transformation is fastest among all wavelets. The sub bands contain both text edges and non-text edges however the intensity of text edges is different that of the non-text edges. Instead of using Canny operator we used Sobal operator for edge detection because Sobal operator detect more edges than Canny operator when there is text information. Morphological operators are applied to edit or smoothing out the text region. Then detected text regions are further decomposed into character level. Then using some refinement the final text region are obtained.

  13. Kinetics and morphology of product of bainite transformations in the range of swing back

    Dilatometric investigations were carried out during isothermal transformation in high carbon steel in the vicinity of Ms and complementary research with quantitative analysis was made.The time-temperature-transformation diagram was drawn on the base of kinetic curves of austenite transformation at temperatures 403-523 K. Activation energies in all characteristic ranges were determined. Two separate levels of activation energy were found in the area of lower bainite - BD, which is related to the change in growth rates and nucleation rates of bainitic ferrite during advancement of the reaction. A 'butterfly' morphology has been observed in the range of lower bainite with midrib - BDM. The occurrence of this morphology entails deviation from thermodynamics law. It was found that the classical methods used to calculate activation energy would totally neglect the initial ranges of transformations at lower temperatures and the final range at upper temperatures. The application of Johnson-Mehl equation was confined as useful to describe mutually overlaying fragments of phase transitions in the range of swing back. (author)

  14. Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO2, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM

    Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO2 is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe2(COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 0.6 nm.

  15. Transforming growth factor-β2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-β2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-β2 at the concentration of 3-15 μg/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 μg/L was the peak concentration. TGF-β2 (9 μg/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-β2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  16. The effect of cooling rate and austenite grain size on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in microalloyed steels

    The effect of different austenite grain size and different cooling rates on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in one Nb-microalloyed high strength low alloy steel has been investigated. Three different austenite grain sizes were selected and cooled at two different cooling rates for obtaining austenite to ferrite transformation temperature. Moreover, samples with specific austenite grain size have been quenched, partially, for investigation on the microstructural evolution. In order to assess the influence of austenite grain size on the ferrite transformation temperature, a temperature differences method is established and found to be a good way for detection of austenite to ferrite, pearlite and sometimes other ferrite morphologies transformation temperatures. The results obtained in this way show that increasing of austenite grain size and cooling rate has a significant influence on decreasing of the ferrite transformation temperature. Micrographs of different ferrite morphologies show that at high temperatures, where diffusion rates are higher, grain boundary ferrite nucleates. As the temperature is lowered and the driving force for ferrite formation increases, intragranular sites inside the austenite grains become operative as nucleation sites and suppress the grain boundary ferrite growth. The results indicate that increasing the austenite grain size increases the rate and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite in two different cooling rates. Moreover, by increasing of cooling rate, the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature decreases and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite increases.

  17. QRS Detection by Combination of Wavelet Transform and Multi-resolution Morphological Decomposition

    Pu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available QRS complex detecting algorithm was core of ECG auto-diagnosis method, heart rate variability analysis and deeply influences cardiac cycle division for signal compression. However, ECG signals collected by noninvasive surface electrodes were confused by several kinds of noise and its waveform variation was the main reasons for the hard realization of 100% detection accruracy. QRS complex detecting algorithms based on mixed methods were studied. This study proposed a QRS complex detecting algorithm based on wavelet transform and multi-resolution mathematical morphological decomposition (WMR algorithm. This algorithm possessed superiorities in R peak detection of the two methods. Moreover, a pre-processing method based on lifting scheme constructing multi-resolution morphological decomposition was adopted to reduce noise affection. And an efficient R peak search-back algorithm was employed to reduce the False Positives (FP and False Negatives (FN. According to simulation results in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QRS detection accuracy was over 99.8%.

  18. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  19. Objective Morphological Quantification of Microscopic Images Using a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) Analysis

    Taylor, Samuel E.; Cao, Tuoxin; Talauliker, Pooja M.; Lifshitz, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and immunofluorescence (IF) using image intensity depends on a number of variables. These variables add a subjective complexity in keeping a standard within and between laboratories. Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) algorithms, however, allow for a rapid and objective quantification (via statistical analysis) using cell morphologies when the microscopic structures are oriented or aligned. Quantification of alignment is given in terms of a ratio of FFT intensity to the intensity of an orthogonal angle, giving a numerical value of the alignment of the microscopic structures. This allows for a more objective analysis than alternative approaches, which rely upon relative intensities.

  20. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  1. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ∼9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe3−δO4) generated from F (δ∼0.04) and L (δ∼0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (δ∼0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ► Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ► Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ► Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ► Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ► Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  2. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools predicated on assumptions of…

  3. Mechanically alloyed and hot pressed Ni-49.7Ti alloy showing martensitic transformation

    The Ni-49.7Ti (at.%) alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and different steps of milling were investigated. An almost fully amorphous alloy was obtained after 32 h of milling. After consolidation by uniaxial hot die pressing and annealing at 1000 deg. C for 28 h, a complicated multiphase structure composed of Ni3Ti, NiTi2 and NiTi phases was formed. The β-NiTi phase undergoes reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation (MT) with Ms temperature as high as 172 deg. C. This phenomenon was explained by Fe and Cr solute content introducing during milling and formation of the 4H martensite structure. The structure observations performed using scanning electron microscopy allowed to conclude that the average chemical composition of individual grains was Ti--49.7, Ni--47.76, Fe--2.54 (all in at.%). The second phase between the rounded β-NiTi grains was identified as the Ni3Ti phase and additionally, in some other places of the sample the Ni3Ti phase was also found. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sintered samples confirmed the presence of 4H martensite within fine grains of the β-NiTi phase

  4. Performance analysis of wavelet transforms and morphological operator-based classification of epilepsy risk levels

    Harikumar, Rajaguru; Vijayakumar, Thangavel

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of singular value decomposition (SVD), expectation maximization (EM), and modified expectation maximization (MEM) as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals. Out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaksand spike and sharp waves, events and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym 8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. Then, the performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as performance index (PI) and quality value (QV).The performance index and quality value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

  5. Automatic detection of micro-aneurysms in retinal images based on curvelet transform and morphological operations

    Mohammad Alipour, Shirin Hajeb; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes that changes the blood vessels of the retina and distorts patient vision that finally in high stages can lead to blindness. Micro-aneurysms (MAs) are one of the first pathologies associated with DR. The number and the location of MAs are very important in grading of DR. Early diagnosis of micro-aneurysms (MAs) can reduce the incidence of blindness. As MAs are tiny area of blood protruding from vessels in the retina and their size is about 25 to 100 microns, automatic detection of these tiny lesions is still challenging. MAs occurring in the macula can lead to visual loss. Also the position of a lesion such as MAs relative to the macula is a useful feature for analysis and classification of different stages of DR. Because MAs are more distinguishable in fundus fluorescin angiography (FFA) compared to color fundus images, we introduce a new method based on curvelet transform and morphological operations for MAs detection in FFA images. As vessels and MAs are the bright parts of FFA image, firstly extracted vessels by curvelet transform are removed from image. Then morphological operations are applied on resulted image for detecting MAs.

  6. Retinal image analysis using curvelet transform and multistructure elements morphology by reconstruction.

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Mahloojifar, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Retinal images can be used in several applications, such as ocular fundus operations as well as human recognition. Also, they play important roles in detection of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Intrinsic characteristics of retinal images make the blood vessel detection process difficult. Here, we proposed a new algorithm to detect the retinal blood vessels effectively. Due to the high ability of the curvelet transform in representing the edges, modification of curvelet transform coefficients to enhance the retinal image edges better prepares the image for the segmentation part. The directionality feature of the multistructure elements method makes it an effective tool in edge detection. Hence, morphology operators using multistructure elements are applied to the enhanced image in order to find the retinal image ridges. Afterward, morphological operators by reconstruction eliminate the ridges not belonging to the vessel tree while trying to preserve the thin vessels unchanged. In order to increase the efficiency of the morphological operators by reconstruction, they were applied using multistructure elements. A simple thresholding method along with connected components analysis (CCA) indicates the remained ridges belonging to vessels. In order to utilize CCA more efficiently, we locally applied the CCA and length filtering instead of considering the whole image. Experimental results on a known database, DRIVE, and achieving to more than 94% accuracy in about 50 s for blood vessel detection, proved that the blood vessels can be effectively detected by applying our method on the retinal images. PMID:21147592

  7. In vitro comet and micronucleus assays do not predict morphological transforming effects of silica particles in Syrian Hamster Embryo cells.

    Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Terzetti, Francine; Fontana, Caroline; Binet, Stéphane; Gaté, Laurent; Guichard, Yves

    2016-01-15

    Crystalline silica particles and asbestos have both been classified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, because of the limited data available, amorphous silica was not classifiable. In vitro, the carcinogenic potential of natural crystalline and amorphous silica particles has been revealed by the Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. On the other hand, the genotoxic potential of those substances has not been investigated in SHE cells. And yet, genotoxicity assays are commonly used for hazard evaluation and they are often used as in vitro assays of reference to predict a possible carcinogenic potential. The main objective of this study was to compare the genotoxic potential and the carcinogenic potential of different crystalline and amorphous silica particles in SHE cells. Three silica samples of different crystallinity were used: natural amorphous silica, partially crystallized silica and quartz silica particles. Their genotoxicity were tested through the in vitro micronucleus assay and the comet assay in SHE, and their carcinogenic potential through the SHE transformation assay. In addition, silica samples were also tested with the same genotoxicity assays in V79 hamster-lung cells, a common in vitro model for particle exposure. Results obtained in the micronucleus and the comet assays show that none of the silica was capable of inducing genotoxic effects in SHE cells and only the amorphous silica induced genotoxic effects in V79 cells. However in the SHE cell transformation assays, the partially crystallized and quartz silica were able to induce morphological cell transformation. Together, these data suggest that, in vitro, the short-term genotoxic assays alone are not sufficient to predict the hazard and the carcinogenic potential of this type of particles; SHE transformation assay appears a more reliable tool for this purpose and should be included in the "in vitro battery assays" for hazard assessment. PMID:26778506

  8. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  9. Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water

    Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

  10. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  11. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Boyer, Justin G; Bhanot, Kunal; Kothary, Rashmi; Boudreau-Larivire, Cline

    2010-01-01

    Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt) mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66%) beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95%) and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%), all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development. PMID:20209123

  12. Morphology transformation of Cu2O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO3)23H2O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu2O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu2O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H2O2. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu2O samples and the addition of H2O2 also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu2O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. - Highlights: Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn2+ doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn4+ doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu2O)

  13. Range disjunctions, speciation, and morphological transformation rates in the liverwort genus Leptoscyphus.

    Devos, Nicolas; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2009-03-01

    Bryophytes and angiosperms exhibit similar intercontinental disjunct distributions that have traditionally been explained by continental drift. Such disjunct distributions are, however, typically observed at the species level in bryophytes, whereas they occur at much higher taxonomic level in angiosperms. The corollary of this observation is that morphological evolution in bryophytes is exceedingly slow. These hypotheses can now be explicitly tested with the advent of molecular dating. In this article, we show that the trans-Atlantic disjunctions observed in the mostly tropical liverwort genus Leptoscyphus date back to 5.5 Myr, thus largely postdating the opening of the South Atlantic. The temporal calibration of the phylogeny allows us to estimate for the first time the absolute timing of morphological evolution in bryophytes. The time frame necessary for shifts to occur between character states was estimated on average at ca. 4.05+/-1.86 Myr. As opposed to the traditional view that bryophyte evolution has been triggered by episodic shifts in habitat conditions, our analyses furthermore suggest that morphological and molecular divergence gradually accumulated in the genus, which contrasts with the rapid diversification documented in some tropical trees. PMID:19154356

  14. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfideoctadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    Lenenko, Natalia D.; Semina, Elena N. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskii, Vladimir I. [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 prosp. Ak. Lavrentieva, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Golub, Alexandre S., E-mail: golub@ineos.ac.ru [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS{sub 2} on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS{sub 2} layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 11.5 nm and 0.60.7 nm after heating at 250 C and 400 C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS{sub 2} layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 34 nm was observed. - Highlights: Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS{sub 2}octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS{sub 2} layers are formed on heating. Removal of organic guest at 400 C induces strong bending of MoS{sub 2} monolayers.

  15. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfideoctadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS2 on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS2 layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 11.5 nm and 0.60.7 nm after heating at 250 C and 400 C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS2 layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 34 nm was observed. - Highlights: Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS2octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS2 layers are formed on heating. Removal of organic guest at 400 C induces strong bending of MoS2 monolayers

  16. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates

    Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Detailed surveys of the transform margin morphology in the Gulf of California

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Gwiazda, R.; Herguera, J.; McGann, M. L.; Edwards, B. D.; Hinojosa, A.; Mejia Mercado, B.; Sanchez, A.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) conducted detailed surveys of the seafloor morphology at nine representative sections of the North American - Pacific Plate boundary on the floor of the Gulf of California during a two-ship expedition in March and April 2012. One of the objectives of this program was to better understand how the fault is manifested on the seafloor and whether any secondary deformation adjacent to the fault can be observed. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) provided detailed bathymetry of the seafloor, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) allowed ground-truth observations and sampling of the surveyed area. The AUV surveys provide high-resolution multibeam bathymetry with a vertical precision of 0.15 m, horizontal resolution of 1.0 and 2-10 kHz CHIRP seismic reflection profiles. Each of the surveys covered ~ 14 km2 areas and were spread out over 400 m, between water depths of 350 and 2800 m and separated by three seafloor spreading centers. The bathymetry shows the morphology of these fault zones in unprecedented detail. The maps allowed the active fault trace to be located so that it could be inspected and the seafloor sampled during ROV dives. The bathymetry from a representative survey on the southern side of the Guaymas Basin shows an obvious NW-SE lineation, only a few meters wide, formed by distinct scarps and/or troughs on the seafloor, and inferred to be the trace of the active fault. CHIRP profiles show offsets in reflecting horizons extend to the modern seafloor, further supporting the concept that these lineations are the trace of the active fault. This survey is unique in that an extensive section of the seafloor and near subsurface contains a wave-like fabric that only occurs on the North American side of the fault, with crests that run ~ E-W, characteristically ~ 3 m in amplitude and ~ 100 in wavelength. Ultimately, whether this fabric is a result of a depositional process or structural deformation associated with the regional tectonics is unclear. However, this was the only morphology observed that suggests secondary deformation.

  18. Morphology transformation of patterned, uniform and faceted GaN microcrystals

    We report on the growth and characterization of patterned and uniformly distributed GaN microcrystals with well-defined facets and epitaxy. The microcrystals were grown on a mask patterned by lithography. The GaN microcrystals were formed by selective-area epitaxy using metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The GaN microcrystals have similar sizes and shapes. Each microcrystal consists of an upper and a lower part, which are rotated by 30 deg. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there is a rather clear interface between the two parts of the crystal, suggesting a sudden change in the growth direction. We performed ab initio calculations for the surface energies of hexagonal GaN, and the growth morphology is explained based on surface energy considerations

  19. A method for automatic infrared point target detection in a sea background based on morphology and wavelet transform

    Wen, Peizhi; Shi, Zelin; Yu, Haibin; Wu, Xiaojun

    2003-09-01

    A method is developed for the detection and segmentation of spot targets at sea surface. Firstly, the Sea-Sky-Division-Line (SSDL), close to the horizon, is detected by wavelet-transform to mark out the Target Recognition Region (TPR), which can reduce the target searching range. A Row average grayscale substraction (RAGS) operation is employed to correct the blur caused by the non-linearity distribution of the temperature field. To repress the clutter in the background and increase the SNR of the image, a morphology Top-Hat filter is utilized. Then, the image is opening by selecting a proper structuring element to acquire a few potential target points. Through searching the maximal intensity and determining a threshold, most of the false alarms can be eliminated and the doubtful targets can be segmented. When the SSDL is visible, the real point-target can be retained according to the TPR and the false target can be discarded. Under the conditions of invisibility of SSDL for it is outsdie of the image or it is obscure due to the weather, the segmented target is the real target. The experiment result shows that the method can effectively detect and segment infrared point target in complex sea background.

  20. Karyotypic changes with neoplastic conversion in morphologically transformed golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays

    Chromosomes from nine morphologically transformed (MT) cell lines (designated MT14 to MT22) of Golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays and from tumor-derived cell lines (MT14T to MT22T), obtained after injection of MT cells, were analyzed by the Giemsa banding method. MT cell lines showed a variety of numerical abnormalities. All of the MT cell lines involved trisomy of chromosomes 11 (80 to 100% of cells in each cell line) and 3 (8% of MT22 cells and 100% in other cell lines). Although the latent period for tumor growth differed greatly, eight of nine MT cell lines (MT14 to MT21) produced tumors at the site of injection. All tumor-derived cell lines involved trisomy of chromosome 3 at a 100% rate of incidence. Seven of nine tumor-derived cell lines (MT15T to MT18T, MT20T to MT22T) lost one chromosome 11 from the trisomic condition, resulting in disomy of chromosome 11. These results suggest that trisomies of chromosomes 11 and 3 may play a role in X-ray-induced neoplastic progression

  1. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing places particularly predisposed to accumulate annually laminated lacustrine sediments. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  2. Transformation from Fluvial to Karstic Morphology - Case Study of Mid Altitude Alpine Plateau in NW Slovenia

    Brencic, Mihael

    2010-05-01

    Geomorphology of Alpine area is very often related to fast processes related to tectonic events, glaciations and postglacial development. Where rocks prone to karstification are present interesting geomorphic pleasures can developed. In the area of the Dinaric Alpine karst transition zone process where the transformation from fluvial geomorphic system to the karstic geomorphic system is present is rarely preserved. In this study we are presenting results of detailed geomorphological mapping of Meakla plateau (between 1100 and 1700 m a.s.l.) in the region of NW Slovenia. On all sides plateau is limited with deep valleys where in the Pleistocene glaciers were present. However, available evidences show that in the last glacial period plateau was not covered with ice. The plateau consists mainly of Triasic carbonates. In the south, in the stratigraphical lower part thin bedded limestone with chert is present, on the north thick bedded Dachstein limestone and dolomite is present. The whole area is dissected by NW-SE faults and thin bedded limestone is frequently folded. In the whole plateau karstic features are developed. They geomorphology differ according to underlying lithology, however differences are also the consequence of different surface development. On north part with Dachstein beds typical karstic surface with large concentric dolines is formed. On the south thin bedded limestone is covered with thick soils and shallow valleys and dolines are developed within. Some sediment collapse features are also present. They are indicating the transformation from fluvial system to the karstic system due to the drop of groundwater level. This event has probably developed after the retreat of the glacier.

  3. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ∼300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline α-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  4. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    Vilar, R.; Sharma, S.P. [Instituto de Cincia e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfcies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Tcnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, A., E-mail: amelia.almeida@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Cincia e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfcies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Tcnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Cangueiro, L.T. [Instituto de Cincia e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfcies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Tcnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto de Cincia e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfcies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Tcnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emdio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  5. Sphere to ring morphological transformation in drying nanofluid droplets in a contact-free environment

    Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the transients of buckling in drying colloidal suspensions is pivotal for producing new functional microstructures with tunable morphologies. Here, we report first observations and elucidate the buckling instability induced morphological transition (sphere to ring structure) in an acoustically levitated, heated nanosuspension droplet using dynamic energy balance. Droplet deformation featuring the formation of symmetric cavities is initiated by capillary pressure that is two to t...

  6. Transformation of Face Transplants: Volumetric and Morphologic Graft Changes Resemble Aging After Facial Allotransplantation.

    Kueckelhaus, M; Turk, M; Kumamaru, K K; Wo, L; Bueno, E M; Lian, C G; Alhefzi, M; Aycart, M A; Fischer, S; De Girolami, U; Murphy, G F; Rybicki, F J; Pomahac, B

    2016-03-01

    Facial allotransplantation restores normal anatomy to severely disfigured faces. Although >30 such operations performed worldwide have yielded promising short-term results, data on long-term outcomes remain scarce. Three full-face transplant recipients were followed for 40 months. Severe changes in volume and composition of the facial allografts were noted. Data from computed tomography performed 6, 18 and 36 months after transplantation were processed to separate allograft from recipient tissues and further into bone, fat and nonfat soft tissues. Skin and muscle biopsies underwent diagnostic evaluation. All three facial allografts sustained significant volume loss (mean 19.55%) between 6 and 36 months after transplant. Bone and nonfat soft tissue volumes decreased significantly over time (17.22% between months 6 and 18 and 25.56% between months 6 and 36, respectively), whereas fat did not. Histological evaluations showed atrophy of muscle fibers. Volumetric and morphometric changes in facial allografts have not been reported previously. The transformation of facial allografts in this study resembled aging through volume loss but differed substantially from regular aging. These findings have implications for risk-benefit assessment, donor selection and measures counteracting muscle and bone atrophy. Superior long-term outcomes of facial allotransplantation will be crucial to advance toward future clinical routine. PMID:26639618

  7. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  8. The 10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the group environment since z~1

    Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Bolzonella, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Sargent, M; Cucciati, O; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L A M; Scodeggio, M; Kampczyk, P; Peng, Y; Oesch, P; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N Z

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z=1 using a large well defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with M_B luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z~0.5 and log(M*/Msol)~10.2, the "effect" of group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving colour and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to 3-4 times higher correcting for infall and the ...

  9. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae: Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    A'wani Aziz Nurdalila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  10. Hearts of Dystonia musculorum Mice Display Normal Morphological and Histological Features but Show Signs of Cardiac Stress

    Boyer, Justin G.; Bhanot, Kunal; Kothary, Rashmi; Boudreau-Larivire, Cline

    2010-01-01

    Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt) mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency lead...

  11. Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

    2012-10-15

    The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  12. Horizon's patient-centered medical home program shows practices need much more than payment changes to transform.

    Patel, Urvashi B; Rathjen, Carl; Rubin, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Skyrocketing costs and the uneven quality of patient care challenge the US health care system. Some health insurance companies are exploring patient-centered medical homes as a way to change incentives and transform the health care delivery system by increasing primary care providers' accountability for care coordination and outcomes. Horizon Healthcare Services, Inc., New Jersey's oldest and largest health insurance company, developed medical home programs that include financial incentives with essential support tools. Our experience in implementing and evaluating various approaches indicates that medical homes require intensive and targeted patient care coordination supported by committed primary care leadership, as well as new payment structures that include a monthly care coordination fee and outcome-based payments. Our experience also indicates that considerable nonmonetary support-such as an education program for population care coordinators, a medical home guide that offers effective ways to transform a practice into a medical home, and useful data sharing-are needed to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. PMID:22949451

  13. [Cyclic groups of nonlinear transformations in morphology and the conception of cyclogenesis].

    Petukhov, S V

    1986-12-01

    When describing multiunit organic forms, it is expedient to generalize the classic science on biological symmetries of similarity at the expense of transition to symmetry operations from wider groups of transformations, first of all mebiusian and projective. A vast class of biological structures is successfully modelled on the base of cyclic groups not only the linear, but also non-linear transformations. This is evidently connected with existence of morphogenetically significant biochemical cycles. The suggested means of mathematical modelling for biological symmetries open new possibilities of morphometrical analysis and investigation of a known problem of morphogenetic parallelisms. The results obtained prove V. V. Vernadsky's hypothesis on biological significance of the non-Euclidian geometry. PMID:3827610

  14. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

  15. Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis

    Kamala Devi.K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

  16. Electron irradiation induced buckling, morphological transformation, and inverse Ostwald ripening in nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube

    Singh, Anshika; Kumari, Reetu; Kumar, Vinay; Krishnia, Lucky; Naqvi, Zainab; Panwar, Amrish K.; Bhatta, Umananda M.; Ghosh, Arnab; Satyam, P. V.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to deduce the in-situ response of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube (CNT) under electron irradiation. Electron irradiation on Fe3C filled-CNT at both high and room temperature (RT) has been performed inside transmission electron microscope. At high temperature (HT), it has been found that ?-Fe atoms in lattice of Fe3C nanorod accumulate first and then form the cluster. These clusters follow the inverse Ostwald ripening whereas if e-irradiation is performed at RT then only the morphological changes in both carbon nanotube as well as nanorod are observed. Compression generated either by electron beam heating or by shrinkage of CNT walls is observed to be a decisive factor.

  17. Transformation

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  18. TRANSFORMATION

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  19. Transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon and carbon in rice straw-derived biochars under different pyrolytic temperatures.

    Xiao, Xin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-03-18

    Biochars are increasingly recognized as environmentally friendly and cheap remediation agents for soil pollution. The roles of silicon in biochars and interactions between silicon and carbon have been neglected in the literature to date, while the transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon in Si-rich biochars remain largely unaddressed. In this study, Si-rich biochars derived from rice straw were prepared under 150-700 C (named RS150-RS700). The transformation and morphology of carbon and silicon in biochar particles were monitored by FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. With increasing pyrolytic temperature, silicon accumulated, and its speciation changed from amorphous to crystalline matter, while the organic matter evolved from aliphatic to aromatic. For rice straw biomass containing amorphous carbon and amorphous silicon, dehydration (silicic acid polymerize, resulting in a closer integration of carbon and silicon. At medium pyrolysis temperatures (250-350 C), an intense cracking of carbon components occurred, and, thus, the silicon located in the inside tissue was exposed. At high pyrolysis temperatures (500-700 C), the biochar became condensed due to the aromatization of carbon and crystallization of silicon. Correspondingly, the carbon release in water significantly decreased, while the silicon release somewhat decreased and then sharply increased with pyrolytic temperature. Along with SEM-EDX images of biochars before and after water washing, we proposed a structural relationship between carbon and silicon in biochars to explain the mutual protection between carbon and silicon under different pyrolysis temperatures, which contribute to the broader understanding of biochar chemistry and structure. The silicon dissolution kinetics suggests that high Si biochars could serve as a novel slow release source of biologically available Si in low Si agricultural soils. PMID:24601595

  20. TRANSFORMER

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  1. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  2. The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics

    Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

  3. Morphological transformations and fusion of PbSe nanocrystals studied using atomistic simulations

    Schapotschnikow, P.Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304824348; Van Huis, M. A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304097586; Zandbergen, H.W.; Vanmaekelbergh, D.A.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829137; Vlugt, T.J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205040187

    2010-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed on capped and uncapped PbSe nanocrystals, employing newly developed classical interaction potentials. Here, we show that two uncapped nanocrystals fuse efficiently via direct surface attachment, even if they are initially misaligned. In sharp contrast to the general belief, interparticle dipole interactions do not play a significant role in this “oriented attachment” process. Furthermore, it is shown that presumably polar, capped PbSe{111} facets a...

  4. Morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Deng, Xiaolong, E-mail: sps_dengxl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wsqrq@126.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhou, E., E-mail: 1297524677@qq.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ji, Changjian, E-mail: 171600621@qq.com [Qilu Normal University, Jinan, 250200, Shandong Province (China); Huang, Jinzhao, E-mail: ss_huangjinzhao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Shao, Minghui, E-mail: ss_shaomh@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ding, Meng, E-mail: sps_dingm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: sps_xuxj@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-11-15

    Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O samples and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn{sup 2+} doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn{sup 4+} doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu{sub 2}O)

  5. Analysis of cell variants showing differential susceptibilities to radiation- or chemical-induced neoplastic transformation: Differences in their responses to growth factors

    The induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent, density-arrested Balb/c 3T3 cells is known to be controlled by the sequential action of at least two functionally distinct sets of growth factors, so-called competence factors and progression factors. Here we examined this induction pathway in Balb/c 3T3 A31-I variants, which showed differential susceptibilities to radiation- and chemical-induced neoplastic transformation despite their similar susceptibilities to radiation- or chemical-induced cell killing and mutagenesis. DNA synthesis was acquired only with the exposure to progression factors in a highly susceptible cell variant (A31-1-13) whereas both competence factors and progression factors were required for a less susceptible cell variant (A31-I-1). The competent state constitutively produced by an autologous mechanism in the highly transformation-susceptible A31-I-13 cells suggests the existence of an endogenous promoter that acts for the expression of the transformed phenotype in an autocrine fashion when the cells have been initiated by radiation or chemical carcinogens. The growth factor requirements acting as a determining factor for susceptibilities to transformation are discussed

  6. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  7. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    Abraham, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant ...

  8. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  9. Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-03-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  10. Controlled synthesis of crystalline calcium carbonate aggregates with unusual morphologies involving the phase transformation from amorphous calcium carbonate

    Peanut-shaped CaCO3 aggregates, featured of two dandelion-like heads built up from rod-like subunits, have been synthesized via a facile precipitation reaction between Na2CO3 and CaCl2 at ambient temperature in the presence of magnesium ions and ethanol solvent. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that a high magnesium concentration and ethanol solvent are necessary for the formation of the unusual peanut-like aggregates. In addition, a multistep phase transformation process from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) to a mixture of ACC and calcite and ultimately to calcite and aragonite was observed in the formation process of the unusual structures. A possible mechanism for the formation of the unusual peanut-shape aggregates has been proposed and discussed

  11. Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania

    Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Cmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the near future. Three main areas of erosion were identified, where the river has cut real gorges, up to over 4m depths. These findings where correlated with geological, morphological and land use data in a complex vulnerability approach, incorporated in a Geographical Information System. The results obtained could be very useful for local authorities when developing risk mitigation programs.

  12. Ti doping-induced magnetic and morphological transformations in Sr- and Ca-substituted BiFeO3

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation focuses on the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15; δ  =  (0.1  -  x)/2) multiferroics prepared by a solid-state reaction method. All the samples have been found to be isostructural with the pure BiFeO3 (the material crystallizes in a polar rhombohedral structure belonging to the space group R3c). It has been shown that the pattern of changes in the lattice parameters of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ samples can be interpreted as consistent with the doping-driven elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The readjustment of the defect structure associated with the mechanism of charge compensation in the aliovalent-substituted BiFeO3 is accompanied by correlated changes in the morphology, ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain structure and magnetic properties of the materials. In particular, it has been found that the deviation from the ideal (δ  =  0) cation-anion stoichiometry in the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ system leads to a significant decrease in the average size of crystal grain and ferroelectric domains and gives rise to an antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transformation. Results of this study have been compared with those obtained for equally substituted samples of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ series (Khomchenko and Paixão 2015 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27 436002) to demonstrate how the variation in the chemical pressure introduced by the partial replacement of Bi3+ with bigger (Sr2+) and smaller (Ca2+) ions can affect the multiferroic behavior of Ti-doped bismuth ferrites.

  13. Proteomic analysis reveals a novel set of cell wall proteins in a transformed tobacco cell culture that synthesises secondary walls as determined by biochemical and morphological parameters.

    Blee, K A; Wheatley, E R; Bonham, V A; Mitchell, G P; Robertson, D; Slabas, A R; Burrell, M M; Wojtaszek, P; Bolwell, G P

    2001-02-01

    A cell suspension culture of a tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Petit Havana) cell line derived from a cultivar transformed with the Tcyt gene from Agrobacterium, which leads to high endogenous levels of cytokinin, has been established. This cell line shows increased cell aggregation, elongated cells and a 5-fold increase in wall thickness. If allowed to carry on growing it can form a single mass without shedding cells into the medium. When analysed at an earlier growth stage, these cultures were found to produce improved levels of vascular nodule formation than in other systems that employ exogenous cytokinin. This differentiation was optimised with respect to sucrose and auxin signals in order to induce maximum production of cells with thickened walls and a morphology characteristic of fibre cells and tracheids, in addition to cells that remain meristematic. In order to establish the validity of this system for studying secondary wall formation, the walls and associated biosynthetic changes were analysed in these cells by chemical analysis of the walls, changes in activities of enzymes of xylan and monolignol synthesis, and expression of mRNAs coding for enzymes of lignin biosynthesis. The wall composition of the transformed cells was compared with that determined for primary walls from a typical untransformed tobacco cell line. Recovery of wall material was 50% greater in the transformed culture. In this material a major difference was found in the pectin fraction where there was a distinct difference in size distribution together with a lower level of methylation for the transformed line, which may be related to increased adhesiveness. There were increased amounts of xylan, although the ratio of xyloglucan to xylan content was not substantially different due to the mixture of cell types. There was also an increase in cellulose and phenolic components. Increased activity of enzymes involved in the synthesis of xylan as a marker for the secondary wall occurred around the time of tracheid differentiation and coincided with a broad peak of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The expression of mRNAs coding for enzymes of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, catechol O-methyl transferase was relatively constitutive in the cultures while transcripts of ferulate 5-hydroxylase, cinnamoyl CoA-reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and lignin peroxidase were induced. The walls of the transformed cells also showed considerable differences in the subset of extractable proteins from that found in primary walls of tobacco when these were subjected to proteomic analysis. Many of these proteins appear to be novel and not present in primary walls. However an Mr-32,000 chitinase, an Mr-34,000 peroxidase, an Mr-65,000 polyphenoloxidase/laccase and possibly an Mr-68,000 xylanase could be identified as well as structural proteins. PMID:11289605

  14. Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-12-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  15. Morphology and kinetics of polymorphic transformations in K0.965Rb0.035NO3 single crystals

    Polymorphic transformations in K0.965Rb0.035NO3 single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III of the crystal studied is determined to be T = 452 ± 0.5 K. It is found that polymorphic transformations are of the single crystal ↔ single crystal type and occur with the formation and growth of nuclei of new crystals in matrix ones at II ↔ III transformations. An empirical dependence of the growth rate of modification III on temperature is established in the form ϑ = ϑ = (–0.478ΔT + 0.712ΔT2–0.00041ΔT3) × 10–2 cm/s (ΔT = Ttr–T0, where Ttr is the transformation temperature and T0 is the equilibrium temperature)

  16. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  17. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  18. Morphology and Crystallography of Bainite Transformation in a Single Prior-Austenite Grain of Low-Carbon Steel

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yu-ichi

    2013-06-01

    To elucidate the difference in the microstructure development of the bainite and the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents between blocks (groups with bainitic ferrite having a similar crystal orientation), in a single prior-austenite grain, the microstructural development and morphology of bainite in one coarse grain formed in a simulated heat-affected zone of low-carbon steel were analyzed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and an electron back-scattering diffraction method. The correlation between the morphologies of bainitic ferrite and the M-A constituent was elucidated by analyzing blocks in a coarse and single prior-austenite grain. The possibility of M-A constituent formation was enhanced when the misorientation between bainite ferrite was large. Furthermore, it was found via in situ observations that bainitic ferrite units belonging to the same Bain group were formed synchronously, although they were apparently separated from each other by another Bain group.

  19. Phase transformation and morphology tuning of β-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal phase and morphology with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The phase changes to the mixture of β-NaYF4 and β-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, β-NaYF4 disappears gradually and β-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the morphology changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different phases and morphologies are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).

  20. Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite transformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics

  1. Shock wave induced martensitic transformations and morphology changes in Fe-Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Bischoff, A. J.; Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Zimmer, K.; Mayr, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Combining experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, we explore the martensitic transformation in Fe70Pd30 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films induced by laser shock peening. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements at shock wave pressures of up to 2.5 GPa reveal formation of martensitic variants with preferred orientation of the shorter c-axis of the tetragonal unit cell perpendicular to the surface plane. Moreover, consequential merging of growth islands on the film surface is observed. MD simulations unveil the underlying physics that are characterized by an austenite-martensite transformation with a preferential alignment of the c-axis along the propagation direction of the shock wave, resulting in flattening and in-plane expansion of surface features.

  2. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

  3. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic ?'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal ?-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) ?-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from ?'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

  4. Copper salts mediated morphological transformation of Cu2O from cubes to hierarchical flower-like or microspheres and their supercapacitors performances.

    Chen, Liang; Zhang, Yu; Zhu, Pengli; Zhou, Fengrui; Zeng, Wenjin; Lu, Daoqiang Daniel; Sun, Rong; Wong, Chingping

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse Cu2O of different microstructures, such as cubes, flower-like, and microspheres, have been extensively synthesized by a simple polyol reduction method using different copper salts, i.e. (Cu(acac)2, Cu(OH)2, and Cu(Ac)2·H2O). The effects of copper salts on the morphology of Cu2O were investigated in details through various characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The effects of morphology on the electrochemical properties were further studied. Among the different structures, Cu2O with the microspheric morphology shows the highest specific capacitance and the best cycling stability compared with those of the other two structures, thus bear larger volume charge during the electrochemical reaction due to the microspheres of small nanoparticles. PMID:25857362

  5. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  6. Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable β titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects

    As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable β Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (β → ω and β → α″) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}〈1 1 3〉 and {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned β zones. The {3 3 2}〈1 1 3〉 twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (∼2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (∼1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

  7. A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits.

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498-499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron-ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of iron aggregates in the striatum. Our data show that our 498-499InsTC mouse models recapitulate early pathological and clinical traits of the human neuroferritinopathy, thus providing a valuable model for the study of the disease. Finally, we propose a mechanistic model of lipofuscine formation that can account for the etiopathogenesis of human neuroferritinopathy. PMID:25447222

  8. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  9. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μEDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. μEDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pEndodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  10. Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire

    Highlights: → High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. → Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. → Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. → Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 oC temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 oC is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 oC the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 1010/cm2. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

  11. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  12. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

  13. Two bisthienylethene-Ir(III) complexes showing acid/base-induced structural transformation and on-off luminescence switching in solution.

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Hu, Jiong-Sheng; Li, Min-Qiang; Gong, Dan-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Ward, Michael D

    2015-12-28

    Complexes [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdtiH)](PF6)·2CHCl3 (1-H) and [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdti)] (1) were synthesized by the reaction of bisthienylethene pbdtiH and an [Ir(dfppy)2Cl]2 dimer under neutral and basic conditions, respectively. Thus, the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit is coordinated by pbdtiH in 1-H, and by pbdti(-) in 1, which are confirmed by their crystal structures. The structures of 1-H and 1 could be interconverted in solution, upon alternately adding NEt3 and TFA, thus resulting in reversible luminescence switching between the on-state of 1-H and the off-state of 1 at room temperature. In addition, both 1-H and 1 show solid-state luminescence, with a broad emission at 534 nm and 525 nm, respectively. The free pbdtiH ligand shows photochromic behavior in CH2Cl2 solution. However, no photochromism has been observed in 1-H and 1, indicating that the coordination of the pbdtiH/pbdti(-) ligand to the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit could suppress their photochromic behaviors. PMID:26586364

  14. Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress

    Su, T.J. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Aeby-Gautier, E. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France)]. E-mail: Elisabeth.Gautier@mines.inpl-nancy.fr; Denis, S. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite sformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics.

  15. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results

  16. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves, Piva; Joo Lucas Rangel, Silva; Leandro Jos, Raniero; Carmen Silvia Passos, Lima; Emilia Angela Loschiavo, Arisawa; Cristiane de, Oliveira; Renata de Azevedo, Canevari; Juliana, Ferreira; Airton Abraho, Martin.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR [...] ) is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4), adenoma (n = 4), and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4) from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining). The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02). Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells), central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  17. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    Guo, Yanbing; Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhuguo; Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  18. Banded-like morphology and martensitic transformation of dual-phase Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy with enhanced ductility

    Two of the current challenges facing producers of Ni–Mn–In alloys are the achievement of small hysteresis and good ductility. Here, we present a dual-phase (β-Ni51.8Mn31.4In16.8 and γ-Ni62.4Mn32.5In5.1) Ni52Mn32In16 alloy prepared by the zone melting liquid metal cooling directional solidification method, which simultaneously shows small hysteresis (ΔT < 10 K) and good ductility (6.6%). In addition, and more importantly, an inter-martensitic transition with a large magnetization jump occurs in this alloy. This is expected to further broaden the working temperature range of actuators and sensors that use this magnetic shape memory alloy. The sequence of the martensitic transformation can be shown by in situ X-ray diffraction to be austenite → 10M → 14M. Additionally, the second (γ) phase dramatically enhances the entropy change of these structural transformations and shifts them to higher temperatures. During the directional solidification, a novel banded-like microstructure, consisting of two layers, one of the β single phase and the other of the two phases coupled, forms at the low growth rate. A qualitative model is presented to explain the experimental observation, taking into account both the competitive nucleation and the growth of the phases. Experimental and theoretical analysis in the present work shows a linear relationship between the maximum spacing of the β single phase layer and the growth rate

  19. Galaxy Morphology

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  20. Evaluation of three Polymerase chain reaction tests targeting morphological transforming region II, UL-83 gene and glycoprotein O gene for the detection of Human Cytomegalovirus genome in clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients in Chennai, India

    Therese KL

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most sensitive and commonly used method for the assessment of HCMV infection in the immunocompromised patients at risk from severe associated clinical manifestations. However, there is little consistency in the qualitative PCR used for different regions of HCMV genome. Therefore, the performance of three Qualitative PCR tests to detect HCMV genome in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients was evaluated. With pp65 antigenemia assay as the "gold standard", nested PCR for morphological transforming region II (mtr II and glycoprotein O (gO gene and uniplex PCR for UL 83 gene were applied on 92 consecutive clinical specimens obtained from 74 immunocompromised patients with clinically suspected HCMV disease. Virus isolation was attempted on 12 clinical specimens from six pp65 antigenemia positive patients. Based on the pp 65 antigenemia results as "gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each PCR was calculated. Results The PCR targeting mtr II region showed a higher sensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% than the other two PCRs in detecting HCMV DNA from clinical specimens obtained from different immunocompromised patient population of Chennai region, India. Conclusion The results suggests that the optimal method of detection of HCMV DNA could be achieved by PCR using primer sequences targeting mtr II region of genome of HCMV in Chennai region, India.

  1. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  2. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Three-Dimensional Reconstructions of Unbiased Sampled Microglia Shows not Continuous Morphological Changes from Stage 1 to 2 after Multiple Dengue Infections in Callithrix penicillata

    Diniz, Daniel G.; Silva, Geane O.; Naves, Thaís B.; Fernandes, Taiany N.; Araújo, Sanderson C.; Diniz, José A. P.; de Farias, Luis H. S.; Sosthenes, Marcia C. K.; Diniz, Cristovam G.; Anthony, Daniel C.; da Costa Vasconcelos, Pedro F.; Picanço Diniz, Cristovam W.

    2016-01-01

    It is known that microglial morphology and function are related, but few studies have explored the subtleties of microglial morphological changes in response to specific pathogens. In the present report we quantitated microglia morphological changes in a monkey model of dengue disease with virus CNS invasion. To mimic multiple infections that usually occur in endemic areas, where higher dengue infection incidence and abundant mosquito vectors carrying different serotypes coexist, subjects received once a week subcutaneous injections of DENV3 (genotype III)-infected culture supernatant followed 24 h later by an injection of anti-DENV2 antibody. Control animals received either weekly anti-DENV2 antibodies, or no injections. Brain sections were immunolabeled for DENV3 antigens and IBA-1. Random and systematic microglial samples were taken from the polymorphic layer of dentate gyrus for 3-D reconstructions, where we found intense immunostaining for TNFα and DENV3 virus antigens. We submitted all bi- or multimodal morphological parameters of microglia to hierarchical cluster analysis and found two major morphological phenotypes designated types I and II. Compared to type I (stage 1), type II microglia were more complex; displaying higher number of nodes, processes and trees and larger surface area and volumes (stage 2). Type II microglia were found only in infected monkeys, whereas type I microglia was found in both control and infected subjects. Hierarchical cluster analysis of morphological parameters of 3-D reconstructions of random and systematic selected samples in control and ADE dengue infected monkeys suggests that microglia morphological changes from stage 1 to stage 2 may not be continuous. PMID:27047345

  3. Immunologic and biochemical detection of cell surface alterations following morphological transformation or mutation of C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells by chemical carcinogens

    The C3H/10T1/2 C1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cell line is a permanent, cultured line whose hypotetraploid cells are contact inhibited and nontumorigenic in immunosuppressed syngeneic mice. Upon treatment with certain chemical carcinogens or radiation, some of these cells become morphologically transformed so that they are no longer contact inhibited and form foci, which are tumorigenic in immunosuppressed, syngeneic mice. Resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain can also be chemically induced in these cells, presumably by mutation of the gene encoding the Na+, K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase cation transport enzyme. Thus C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells find utility as in vitro neoplastic transformation and mutation systems. Morphologic transformation induced by chemical carcinogens in C3H/10T1/2 cells is accompanied by complex antigenic changes. These changes were studied using 125I labelled Protein A IRMA and fluorescence-activated cell sorter immunofluorescence assays. A panel of thirty different polyclonal antisera was prepared against transformed and nontransformed C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. Mutation of the gene encoding the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme is hypothesized to be responsible for the chemical carcinogen inducation of the ouabain resistance (Oua/sup r/) phenotype in C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. In order to test this hypothesis, the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme activity of wild type and Oua/sup r/ C3H/10T1/2 cells were characterized for resistance to ouabain

  4. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision. PMID:18285181

  5. Morphology and kinetics of polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals

    Nasirov, V. I.; Bairamov, R. B., E-mail: bayramov.razim@mail.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2015-12-15

    Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III of the crystal studied is determined to be T = 452 ± 0.5 K. It is found that polymorphic transformations are of the single crystal ↔ single crystal type and occur with the formation and growth of nuclei of new crystals in matrix ones at II ↔ III transformations. An empirical dependence of the growth rate of modification III on temperature is established in the form ϑ = ϑ = (–0.478ΔT + 0.712ΔT{sup 2}–0.00041ΔT{sup 3}) × 10{sup –2} cm/s (ΔT = T{sub tr}–T{sub 0}, where T{sub tr} is the transformation temperature and T{sub 0} is the equilibrium temperature)

  6. Copper Salts Mediated Morphological Transformation of Cu2O from Cubes to Hierarchical Flower-like or Microspheres and Their Supercapacitors Performances

    Chen, Liang; ZHANG, YU; ZHU, PENGLI; Zhou, Fengrui; Zeng, Wenjin; Lu, Daoqiang Daniel; Sun, Rong; Wong, Chingping

    2015-01-01

    Monodisperse Cu2O of different microstructures, such as cubes, flower-like, and microspheres, have been extensively synthesized by a simple polyol reduction method using different copper salts, i.e. (Cu(acac)2, Cu(OH)2, and Cu(Ac)2·H2O). The effects of copper salts on the morphology of Cu2O were investigated in details through various characterization methods, including X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis absorption spectra. The effects...

  7. The chromosome 16q-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA): A newly identified degenerative ataxia in Japan showing peculiar morphological changes of the Purkinje cell: The 50th Anniversary of Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

    Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2010-10-01

    The chromosome 16q22.1-linked autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA) is a form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) common in Japan. It is clinically characterized by late-onset purely cerebellar ataxia. The neuropathologic hallmark of 16q-ADCA is degeneration of Purkinje cells accompanied by an eosinophilic structure which we named "halo-like amorphous materials". By immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structure has been so far found to contain two components: the somatic sprouts from the Purkinje cells and presynaptic terminals of unknown origin. As far as we are aware, this peculiar morphological change of Purkinje cells has not been previously described. Further investigations may disclose unique pathological processes in SCA. PMID:20667009

  8. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and possibly even DNA molecules. Light-concentrating devices, such as the optical black hole, can be used for efficient solar light collection in photovoltaic elements for renewable energy. With the dramatic advances in micro- and nanofabrication methods, we are presented with the opportunity to control light in a way that was not possible with the materials provided to us by nature. In an artificial pattern of sub-wavelength elements, the propagation of electromagnetic energy can be defined by an equivalent spatial and spectral dispersion of effective dielectric and magnetic properties. These synthetic structures, which can be fabricated with a desired spatial distribution of effective permittivity epsilon(r) and permeability μ(r), offer a unique potential to guide and control the flow of electromagnetic energy in such an engineered optical space. No longer are we constrained by the electromagnetic response of natural materials and their chemical compounds. Instead, we can tailor the shape and size of the structural units of the metamaterials, or tune their composition and morphology to provide new functionality.

  9. Dispersibility, stabilization, and chemical stability of ultrathin tellurium nanowires in acetone: morphology change, crystallization, and transformation into TeO2 in different solvents.

    Lan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Shu-Hong; Qian, Hai-Sheng; Wan, Yong

    2007-03-13

    The dispersibility and stabilization of freshly synthesized ultrathin tellurium nanowires with diameters of 4-9 nm using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as a capping agent can be well controlled through an easy acetone-addition process. Ultrathin Te nanowires synthesized by a hydrothermal method using PVP as a capping agent will aggregate in a water/acetone system, and their aggregation state strongly relies on the volume of water and acetone in this mixed solution. This phenomenon is due to the different solubility of PVP in water and acetone, which has significant influence on the dispersibility and stabilization of the nanowires. The results also demonstrate that the freshly prepared Te nanowires are not stable after being stored for a prolonged time in contact with air, ethanol, and water. Ultrathin Te nanowires can be oxidized easily with various final morphologies, which are core-shell structures in contact with air, amorphous nanoparticles and nanoplatelets in ethanol, and large square flakes in water. The entire conversion process from crystalline Te nanowires to amorphous TeO2 nanoparticles or single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2) at room temperature was carefully studied, implying that tellurium nanowires synthesized by other chemical methods and other nanomaterials after synthesis could also not be stable, and their storage methods require special attention. PMID:17295530

  10. Influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers orientation relationship and variants morphology during β → α phase transformation in a near α titanium alloy

    Highlights: ► We studied prior β deformation and cooling rate influence on Burgers OR obeying. ► Stress/strain elastic anisotropy at grain-scale were evaluated by CPFEM simulation. ► External factors have no significant influence on the Burgers OR respecting. ► Strain and cooling rate has a significant influence on morphologies of α variants. ► Elastic anisotropy but not the mean value significantly affect Burgers OR obeying. - Abstract: High temperature compression deformation studies of Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V titanium alloy in full β phase region with different strains/strain rates and then with subsequent varied cooling rates were performed to understand the microstructure evolution. Crystal orientation information and microstructure morphology of all tested samples were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The crystal orientations of prior high temperature β grains were estimated by reconstructing the retained β phase at room temperature. The theoretical crystal orientations of all possible α variants within an investigated prior β grain were calculated according to the Burgers orientation relationship (OR) between parent and product phase. The calculated and experimental results were then compared and analyzed. The influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers OR between prior β matrix and precipitated α phase were investigated. Full discussions have been conducted by combination of crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) grain-scale simulation results. The results indicate that external factors (such as deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate) have a slight influence on the obeying of Burgers OR rule during β → α phase transformation. However, strain rate and cooling rate have a significant effect on the morphology of precipitated α phase.

  11. Morphology Map of Bainites in 2% Si Steels

    Okamoto, H.; Oka, M.

    1995-01-01

    A metallographic study of isothermal transformation products formed at the early stage of transformation was made in silicon alloyed high-carbon steels (C wt%=0.6, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4) in the temperature range between 700 and 200 C. Observations are summarized as a "morphology map" showing the formation temperature-carbon content fields of isothermal transformation products. In all steels investigated, the proeutectoid ferrite, upper bainite and lower bainite are formed at temperatures below th...

  12. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    Song, H.; Sjstad, Anja O.; Fjellvg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, rnulv B.; Arstad, Bjrnar; Norby, Poul

    2011-01-01

    during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly...... are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb...

  13. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  14. Scaling and shear transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's finches.

    Campàs, O; Mallarino, R; Herrel, A; Abzhanov, A; Brenner, M P

    2010-02-23

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in a remarkable diversity of organism morphologies that has long fascinated scientists and served to establish the first relations among species. Despite the essential role of morphology as a phenotype of species, there is not yet a formal, mathematical scheme to quantify morphological phenotype and relate it to both the genotype and the underlying developmental genetics. Herein we demonstrate that the morphological diversity in the beaks of Darwin's Finches is quantitatively accounted for by the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same relationship holds true for all the beak shapes of Tree, Cocos, and Warbler Finches (three distinct genera). This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, which are genetically controlled by Bmp4 and Calmodulin. By measuring Bmp4 expression in the beak primordia of the species in the genus Geospiza, we provide a quantitative map between beak morphology and the expression levels of Bmp4. The complete morphological variation within the beaks of Darwin's finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variation, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes. PMID:20160106

  15. In situ x-ray diffraction of an arc weld showing the phase transformations of Ti and Fe as a function of position in the weld performed at a synchrotron

    The synchrotron x-ray source provides a unique opportunity to observe open-quotes in-situclose quotes processes. The formation of the open-quotes short-livedclose quotes intermediate species, Ta2C, during the combustion synthesis of TaC, has been observed and reported by monitoring the Bragg diffraction peaks of the reactants and products. Similarly, the synthesis of the ferroelectric material, BaTiO3, and subsequent phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal have also been investigated. These experiments would not have been possible without the high incident x-ray flux available at a synchrotron source. The physical and mechanical properties of a weld join are highly independent upon the thermal history of the weld. Factors such as grain size, which increases with annealing, influence the tensile strength of the weld. This work presents the results of an investigation of the phase changes in two materials, titanium and stainless steel, which occur during the welding process. 4 refs., 3 figs

  16. Index transforms

    Iakubovich, Semen B

    1996-01-01

    This book deals with the theory and some applications of integral transforms that involve integration with respect to an index or parameter of a special function of hypergeometric type as the kernel (index transforms). The basic index transforms are considered, such as the Kontorovich-Lebedev transform, the Mehler-Fock transform, the Olevskii Transform and the Lebedev-Skalskaya transforms. The L p theory of index transforms is discussed, and new index transforms and convolution constructions are demonstrated. For the first time, the essentially multidimensional Kontorovich-Lebedev transform is

  17. Mathematical morphology

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  18. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  19. Generalized transforms and convolutions

    David Skoug

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

  20. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  1. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  2. Effect of Boron on the Isothermal Bainite Transformation

    Song, Taejin; De Cooman, Bruno Charles

    2013-04-01

    The role of Boron on the isothermal bainitic transformation in low-C, lean-alloyed steel was investigated. B clearly affected both the transformation kinetics and the morphology of isothermally transformed bainite. The effect of B was more noticeable in the high-temperature range of the bainitic transformation. The microstructure of bainite formed at 773 K (500 C) consisted of a bainitic ferrite matrix and the martensite/austenite constituent. While the martensite/austenite constituent had an elongated morphology in B-free steel, the martensite/austenite constituents in the B-added steel had a granular morphology. Two types of bainite unit nucleation were considered: the initial nuclei and the nuclei formed on previously formed units. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that the initial bainitic ferrite nuclei were formed at austenite grain boundaries with a Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) crystallographic orientation relationship with respect to one of the neighboring austenite grains, revealing the importance of interfacial energy reduction in the nucleation stage. The nuclei of the bainite transformation in the B-added steel were confined to the austenite grain interior, and the bainitic ferrite nuclei had crystallographic orientations limited to K-S variants within the same Bain variant. The characteristic bainite microstructure in B-added steel is due to the inhibition of the bainitic ferrite nucleation at austenite grain boundaries.

  3. Show-Bix &

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  4. Integral transformation and Darboux transformation

    Takemura, Kouichi

    2009-01-01

    We review Darboux-Crum transformation of Heun's differential equation. By rewriting an integral transformation of Heun's differential equation into a form of elliptic functions, we see that the integral representation is a generalization of Darboux-Crum transformation. We also consider conservation of monodromy with respect to the transformations.

  5. Musical morphology

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting op...... analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians....

  6. Galaxy Morphology

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or...

  7. Research of Gear Fault Detection in Morphological Wavelet Domain

    Hong, Shi; Fang-jian, Shan; Bo, Cong; Wei, Qiu

    2016-02-01

    For extracting mutation information from gear fault signal and achieving a valid fault diagnosis, a gear fault diagnosis method based on morphological mean wavelet transform was designed. Morphological mean wavelet transform is a linear wavelet in the framework of morphological wavelet. Decomposing gear fault signal by this morphological mean wavelet transform could produce signal synthesis operators and detailed synthesis operators. For signal synthesis operators, it was just close to orginal signal, and for detailed synthesis operators, it contained fault impact signal or interference signal and could be catched. The simulation experiment result indicates that, compared with Fourier transform, the morphological mean wavelet transform method can do time-frequency analysis for original signal, effectively catch impact signal appears position; and compared with traditional linear wavelet transform, it has simple structure, easy realization, signal local extremum sensitivity and high denoising ability, so it is more adapted to gear fault real-time detection.

  8. Transforming magnets

    Sun, F

    2014-01-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

  9. Transformational leadership.

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  10. River morphology

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  11. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of ?-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  12. Specification of individual adult motor neuron morphologies by combinatorial transcription factor codes.

    Enriquez, Jonathan; Venkatasubramanian, Lalanti; Baek, Myungin; Peterson, Meredith; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Mann, Richard S

    2015-05-20

    How the highly stereotyped morphologies of individual neurons are genetically specified is not well understood. We identify six transcription factors (TFs) expressed in a combinatorial manner in seven post-mitotic adult leg motor neurons (MNs) that are derived from a single neuroblast in Drosophila. Unlike TFs expressed in mitotically active neuroblasts, these TFs do not regulate each other's expression. Removing the activity of a single TF resulted in specific morphological defects, including muscle targeting and dendritic arborization, and in a highly specific walking defect in adult flies. In contrast, when the expression of multiple TFs was modified, nearly complete transformations in MN morphologies were generated. These results show that the morphological characteristics of a single neuron are dictated by a combinatorial code of morphology TFs (mTFs). mTFs function at a previously unidentified regulatory tier downstream of factors acting in the NB but independently of factors that act in terminally differentiated neurons. PMID:25959734

  13. Talking with TV shows

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  14. MorphoCol: an ontology-based knowledgebase for the characterisation of clinically significant bacterial colony morphologies

    Sousa, A M; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Lourenço, Anália

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the major concerns of the biomedical community is the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Recent findings show that the diversification of colony morphology may be indicative of the expression of virulence factors and increased resistance to antibiotic therapeutics. To transform these findings, and upcoming results, into a valuable clinical decision making tool, colony morphology characterisation should be standardised. Notably, it is importa...

  15. General ?-transformations

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan; Thorbjrnsen, Steen

    In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lvy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as ?transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID......(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lvy processes....

  16. Violence and TV Shows

    ZTRK, Yrd. Do. Dr. ?inasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  17. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  18. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which

  19. Cell transformation and mutagenesis

    This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

  20. Obesity in show dogs.

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  1. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  2. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  3. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  4. Morphological Filtering Algorithm for Restoring Images Contaminated by Impulse Noise

    Jorge Domingo Mendiola-Santibaez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology to restore gray scale images with pixels polluted by random impulsive noise is presented. Noise is discovered using a criterion based on the white top-hat by reconstruction. Pixels detected as corrupted are restored using an iterative morphological algorithm built with extensive and antiex- tensive morphological transformations. The proposal is compared with the rank ordered mean filter (ROM and other morphological transformations reported in the current literature.

  5. Transformer models in the EMTP

    Dommel, H.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-08-01

    The effects that transformers have on power systems and how these effects are represented in the EMTP, were discussed. The support routines which are available for creating EMTP transformer models were summarized. A simple delta/wye-connected generator step-up transformer bank was used to show different ways of modelling transformers and EMTP data input files showed the formats for creating the models. 5 refs., 18 figs.

  6. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and morphological changes in response to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in primary human tumour cells, established and transformed cell lines

    Rance, A J; Thönnes, M; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells, established and SV40-transformed human cell lines was compared after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). In fibroblasts and primary tumour cell cultures, stimulation of S6 phosphorylati...

  7. The involvement of chromosome 13 in the X-ray-induced in vitro transformation of mouse m5S cells

    The transformation of an immortalized but nonmalignant near-diploid mouse cell line (m5S) by X-ray irradiation was studied, and the chromosome constitutions of the morphologically transformed foci were analyzed. The frequency of transformation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Chromosome analysis revealed that 17 out of 24 transformants showed a common chromosome change, being characterized by a diminution of the C2-ter region of chromosome 13 as compared with the chromosome constitution of the parental untransformed cells. In these transformants, the diminution of 13(C2-ter) was critical in forming transformed foci, but was not sufficient to engender anchorage independence and tumorigenicity. The agar clonability and tumorigenicity were associated with the further appearance of an extra chromosomal segment seen as an abnormally banded region, probably consisting of tandem repeats of actively functioning genes. This experimental system thus revealed the progressive multistep nature of neoplastic transformation initiated by a loss of suppressive function. (author)

  8. Catalytic coherence transformations

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  9. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  10. Filament identification through mathematical morphology

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FILFINDER. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FILFINDER identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far-infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where data are available. There is a suggestive but noisy correlation between typical filament brightness and literature values of the star formation rates for clouds in the Gould Belt.

  11. Wavelet transforms versus Fourier transforms

    Strang, Gilbert

    1993-01-01

    This note is a very basic introduction to wavelets. It starts with an orthogonal basis of piecewise constant functions, constructed by dilation and translation. The ``wavelet transform'' maps each $f(x)$ to its coefficients with respect to this basis. The mathematics is simple and the transform is fast (faster than the Fast Fourier Transform, which we briefly explain), but approximation by piecewise constants is poor. To improve this first wavelet, we are led to dilation equations and their u...

  12. Laplace transform

    Bellman, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The classical theory of the Laplace Transform can open many new avenues when viewed from a modern, semi-classical point of view. In this book, the author re-examines the Laplace Transform and presents a study of many of the applications to differential equations, differential-difference equations and the renewal equation.

  13. Visualizing Transformation

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the...

  14. 'Ex-Situ' Annealing and Structural Transformations in Gold Nanoparticles

    The atomic structure and morphology of gold nanoparticles have been studied using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The structural transformations of these particles have been probed through ex-situ annealing experiments, yielding population statistics on structure as a function of particle size and annealing temperature. The results show that for an original structurally heterogeneous particle population, there is a rise in the percentage of particles with the decahedral morphology as annealing temperature is increased. This can be correlated with a reduction in the number of icosahedral particles as a function of annealing temperature. HRTEM imaging following low temperature annealing reveals a range of modified and distorted decahedral particles, giving insight into the temperature threshold of the solid state transformation and the microstructural processes occurring.

  15. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  16. Structure and morphology of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/CeO2/Al2O3 combustion catalysts in Pd–PdO transformation hysteresis

    Colussi, Sara; Trovarelli, Alessandro; Vesselli, Erik; Baraldi, Alessandro; Comelli, Giovanni; Groppi, Gianpiero; Llorca Piqué, Jordi

    2010-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of methane has been studied for many years due to its applications in power generation and emissions clean-up. Among different catalysts, Pd-based materials are the most active for the catalytic combustion of methane. In this work we have investigated the Pd–PdO transformation process on Pd–alumina and Pd–ceria–alumina combustion catalysts by combining different analytical techniques. Both decomposition of PdO and reoxidation of Pd take place via the formation...

  17. Transformation mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles

    Khan Umar Saeed; Amanullah,; Manan Abdul; Khan Nasrullah; Mahmood Amir; Rahim Abdur

    2015-01-01

    A simple oxidation synthesis route was developed for producing magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology. Investigation of oxidation process of the produced magnetite nanoparticles (NP) was performed after synthesis under different temperatures. The phase transformation of synthetic magnetite nanoparticles into maghemite and, henceforth, to hematite nanoparticles at different temperatures under dry oxidation has been studied. The natural magnetite particles were directly tra...

  18. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  19. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  20. Landskabets transformation

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  1. Solid phase transformations

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  2. mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform

    CHEN A-lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

  3. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

  4. Transformation Multiphysics

    Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

  5. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  6. Sustainable transformation

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... different theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  7. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    Fuchs, Ido [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha [Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Kityk, Iwan [Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University, Czestochowa 42-201 (Poland); Mastai, Yitzhak, E-mail: Yitzhak.Mastai@biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  8. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties

  9. Application of Numerical Taxonomy to Lip Morphology in the Genus Polystachya Hook (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria

    Abayomi Ezekiel FALORUNSO; Adeniyi Akanni JAYEOLA

    2009-01-01

    SCLA, a numerical taxonomic method was applied to lip morphology in the genus Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria. The basic data matrix was prepared by coding for the presence or absence of the attributes of characters involved. The data were standardized so that the values of a particular character were transformed into values ranging from zero to one. The SCLA showed that reproductive characters are much better than the vegetative characters earlier used in the distribution of Polys...

  10. High-pressure reactively sputtered HfO2: Composition, morphology, and optical properties

    Mrtil de la Plaza, Ignacio; Gonzlez Daz, Germn; Luca Mulas, Mara Luisa; San Andres Serrano, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited by high pressure reactive sputtering using different deposition pressures and times. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of the films, together with the sputtering process growth kinetics were investigated using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The films showed a monoclinic polycrystalli...

  11. Generalization of Conformal Transformations

    Garas'ko, G I

    2005-01-01

    Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conform...

  12. Stone Morphology: Implication for Pathogenesis

    Daudon, Michel; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2008-09-01

    Urinary stones of similar crystalline composition as identified by X-ray diffraction or Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) may exhibit distinct structures, which are reflected in distinctive stone morphology. Among factors involved in stone morphology—some reflecting lithogenic activity, others depending on the crystal shape, or on the propensity of crystalline phases to form large aggregates, finally the environment where the stone is growing—all of these factors influence the inner structure of the stone and its superficial characteristics. We present here examples of the clinical interest of refined morphologic examination of stones, in addition to X-ray diffraction or FT-IR identification of its components. Such combination of methods allows the identification of specific etiologies among calcium oxalate stones, especially a morphological type pathognomonic of primary hyperoxaluria and other types related to distinct conditions of stone formation. Among phosphatic stones—in addition to stone composition, which must be considered not only on the basis of the main component, but also taking into account the minor crystalline phases, which often are clinically relevant—morphological types also contribute to diagnosis of the underlying etiology, especially for stones related to distal tubular acidosis. Finally, common purine stones also exhibit different morphologies related to stone composition and etiology: two main structures for uric acid and two for ammonium urate help to distinguish risk factors and lithogenic conditions involved in the formation of these calculi. Morphologic examination is a simple, rapid and cheap method that points to specific diseases or lithogenic factors. Better awareness of its clinical relevance should lead to wider utilization.

  13. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  14. ADE Transform

    Donagi, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  15. El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de Mxico Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hgado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfolgica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence

    Adolfo, Soto-Domnguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubn, Garca-Garza; Pablo, Ruz-Flores; Javier, Morn-Martnez; Martha P, Nava-Hernndez; Edith F, Martnez-Prez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterrneo Oriental y del rea Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado ms de 120 compuestos qumicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observ que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens caus necrosis y alteraciones morfolgicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hgado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la induccin de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de Mxico, mediante mtodos inmunohistoqumicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondi al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trat con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/da. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/da respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/da combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/da. Las administraciones se realizaron va intraperitoneal por tres das. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocacin cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hgado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histolgicos que se tieron con el mtodo tricrmico de Masson. Tambin se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoqumicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; adems de un estudio morfomtrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptsico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de Mxico, sobre el hgado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplsico en estudios in vitro con lneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

  16. Synthesis of Morphology―controlled Niobium Oxide Nanorods Array

    CHAI Qing-Li, LIU Lei, PAN Hao, CHEN Jie, YU Ang, XU Mei-Gui, TU Luo, ZHOU Xing-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphology―controlled niobium oxide nanorods array were successfully prepared in a mixed NH4F and H2O2 solution by using niobium powder as the starting materials via hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of niobium oxide film were characterized by X―ray diffraction patterns(XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The reaction time and hydrothermal temperature and concentration of NH4F, which affect the final composition and morphology of niobium oxide films, were also investigated in details. The results show that niobium oxide crystal have a strong anisotropy growth in the presence of NH4F and H2O2, which guides the oriented growth of hexagonal nanorods array on the niobium powder surface. The concentration of NH4F play great roles in the formation of the final products, the morphological of niobium oxide film is transformed from polyhedron granule to circular nanorods array and aggregated nanoparticles with the increase of NH4F concentration. Niobium oxide nanorods arrays can be obtained at Nb substrate after hythermal reaction at 150¡䟦or 10h with adding 0.5g NH4F. A formation mechanism is also proposed.

  17. Spark plasma sintering of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives and its morphology transformation

    Ceja-Cardenas, L., E-mail: leocc4@yahoo.com.m [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Lemus-Ruiz, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Torre, S.D. de la [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIITEC. Cerrada Cecati s/n Col. Sta. Catarina, C.P. 02250 Azc., D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-09

    The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} commercial powder, having Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 {sup o}C in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 {sup o}C and heating rate of 300 {sup o}C/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the {beta}-phase nucleated from the {alpha}-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites combine both {alpha}- and {beta}-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv{sub (20kgf)}) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

  18. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  19. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  20. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  1. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Lasure, Linda L. [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  2. Discrete transforms

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  3. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  4. XML Transformations

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  5. RF transformer

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  6. Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers

    Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

  7. A Bijective String Sorting Transform

    Gil, Joseph Yossi

    2012-01-01

    Given a string of characters, the Burrows-Wheeler Transform rearranges the characters in it so as to produce another string of the same length which is more amenable to compression techniques such as move to front, run-length encoding, and entropy encoders. We present a variant of the transform which gives rise to similar or better compression value, but, unlike the original, the transform we present is bijective, in that the inverse transformation exists for all strings. Our experiments indicate that using our variant of the transform gives rise to better compression ratio than the original Burrows-Wheeler transform. We also show that both the transform and its inverse can be computed in linear time and consuming linear storage.

  8. Improved Seismic Denoising CURVELET Transform

    Renu Awasthi,

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. For quality we compare visual effect of data. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  9. Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified

    Rothenstein, B; Popescu, Stefan; Rothenstein, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

  10. Transformative learning.

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2012-12-01

    The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

  11. Transformation mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles

    Khan Umar Saeed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A simple oxidation synthesis route was developed for producing magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology. Investigation of oxidation process of the produced magnetite nanoparticles (NP was performed after synthesis under different temperatures. The phase transformation of synthetic magnetite nanoparticles into maghemite and, henceforth, to hematite nanoparticles at different temperatures under dry oxidation has been studied. The natural magnetite particles were directly transformed to hematite particles at comparatively lower temperature, thus, maghemite phase was bypassed. The phase structures, morphologies and particle sizes of the produced magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX and BET surface area analysis.

  12. Computation of Hilbert Transform via Discrete Cosine Transform

    Hannu Olkkonen; Peitsa Pesola; Juuso T. Olkkonen

    2010-01-01

    Hilbert transform (HT) is an important tool in constructing analytic signals for various purposes, such as envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, amplitude modulation, shift invariant wavelet analysis and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. In this work we introduce a method for computation of HT based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). We show that the Hilbert transformed signal can be obtained by replacing the cosine kernel in inverse DCT by the sine kernel. We describe a FFT-based me...

  13. Transformation of primary human hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Montalbano, Mauro; Rastellini, Cristiana; Wang, Xiaofu; Corsello, Tiziana; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Vento, Renza; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Currently, there is limited knowledge of neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes in HCC. In clinical practice, the high rate of HCC local recurrence suggests the presence of different hepatocyte populations within the liver and particularly in the tumor proximity. The present study investigated primary human hepatocyte cultures obtained from liver specimens of patients affected by cirrhosis and HCC, their proliferation and transformation. Liver samples were obtained from seven HCC cirrhotic patients and from three patients with normal liver (NL). Immediately after surgery, cell outgrowth and primary cultures were obtained from the HCC lesion, the cirrhotic tissue proximal (CP, 1-3cm) and distal (CD, >5cm) to the margin of the neoplastic lesion, or from NL. Cells were kept in culture for 16 weeks. Morphologic analyses were performed and proliferation rate of the different cell populations compared over time. Glypican-3, Heppar1, Arginase1 and CD-44 positivity were tested. The degree of invasiveness of cells acquiring neoplastic characteristics was studied with a transwell migration assay. We observed that HCC cells maintained their morphology and unmodified neoplastic characteristics when cultured. Cells isolated from CP, showed a progressive morphologic transformation in HCC-like cells accompanied by modification of markers expression with signs of invasiveness. Absence of HCC contamination in the CP isolates was confirmed. In CD samples some of these characteristics were present and at significantly lower levels. With the present study, we are the first to have identified and describe the existence of human hepatocytes near the cancerous lesion that can transform in HCC invitro. PMID:26717856

  14. Transformational Leadership Meets Follower Motives

    Amann, Dorena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis combines transformational leadership theory with implicit motive theory. It demonstrates conceptual connections of distinct transformational leadership styles and the needs for affiliation, power, and achievement. Furthermore, it shows that a fit between transformational leadership styles and followers’ implicit motive dispositions increases work-related outcomes. Thus, the thesis provides insight into the mechanisms of effective leadership and has practical implications for the r...

  15. Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation

    The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs

  16. Gauge Transformations as Spacetime Symmetries

    Weinberg has shown that massless fields of helicity 1(vector fields) do not transform homogeneously under Unitary Lorentz Transformations (LT). We calculate explicitly the inhomogeneous term. We show that imposing strict invariance of the Lagrangian under LT for an iteracting Dirac field requires the fermion field to transform with a space-time (and photon creation and annihilation operators) dependent phase and dictates the interaction terms as those arising from the conventional gauge principle.

  17. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  18. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  19. Rotary Transformer

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  20. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile failure planes ("terraces") in the outer, near-surface region of the crater. We suggest that these differences are due to a reduction in tensile strength in pore-space saturated sandstone. Linking morphological characteristics to impact conditions might provide a tool to help reconstruct impact conditions in small, more strength- than gravity-dominated impact craters in nature. Findings in small-scale experiments can aid the identification of particular structures in the field, such as spallation induced uplift of strata outside of the crater margins.

  1. Renormalization and Mellin transforms

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study renormalization in a kinetic scheme using the Hopf algebraic framework, first summarizing and recovering known results in this setting. Then we give a direct combinatorial description of renormalized amplitudes in terms of Mellin transform coefficients, featuring the universal property of rooted trees H_R. In particular, a special class of automorphisms of H_R emerges from the action of changing Mellin transforms on the Hochschild cohomology of perturbation series. Furthermore, we show how the Hopf algebra of polynomials carries a refined renormalization group property, implying its coarser form on the level of correlation functions. Application to scalar quantum field theory reveals the scaling behaviour of individual Feynman graphs.

  2. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M [Birck Nanotechnology Center School of ECE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2011-01-31

    We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

  3. Localized transformation optics devices

    Xiang Jiang, Wei; Ge, Shuo; Luo, Chenyang; Jun Cui, Tie

    2013-11-01

    We propose a strategy to design localized transformation optics devices, and take the localized invisibility cloaks as examples to illustrate their special properties. Different from the global cloaks that make the enclosed objects completely invisible, the localized cloaks will conceal the scattering signals of certain parts of the enclosed objects and keep the signals of remaining parts being unchanged. We design, fabricate, and measure a localized dc invisibility cloak in the steady currents by using the localized transformation electrostatics. Simulation and experimental results show that the potential distribution outside the localized dc invisibility cloak is exactly the same as that of a part of the cloaked object.

  4. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  5. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    Navacchi Oriano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

  6. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  7. Controlled synthesis of BiVO4 with multiple morphologies via an ethylenediamine-assisted hydrothermal method

    Graphical abstract: BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized via a simple ethylenediamine (EN) assisted hydrothermal route. One of the mixed crystal phase with spherical and porous morphology showed excellent photocatalytic activity and about 90% Rhodamine B was degraded after 140 min visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Ethylenediamine mainly acts as alkaline source to adjust pH values of precursor. • BiVO4 with spherical morphology has excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, BiVO4 particles with different crystal structures and morphologies including hexahedral, spherical porous and hyperbranched ones were fabricated in the presence of ethylenediamine by hydrothermal process. The as-fabricated samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the morphology and crystal structure of BiVO4 particles could be well controlled by only changing the ethylenediamine content in the deionized water solution. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. It was shown that BiVO4 sample with spherical porous morphology and mixed crystal phase exhibited the best photocatalytic performance after optimizing the ethylenediamine content. The best degradation ratio of Rhodamine B could reach about 87% after 140 min visible-light irradiation

  8. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along β directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating β and ω phases below the omega transformation temperature

  9. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  10. Seidel elements and mirror transformations

    Gonzalez, Eduardo; Iritani, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this article is to give a precise relation between the mirror symmetry transformation of Givental and the Seidel elements for a smooth projective toric variety $X$ with $-K_X$ nef. We show that the Seidel elements entirely determine the mirror transformation and mirror coordinates.

  11. Transformation optics in orthogonal coordinates

    Chen, HuanYang

    2008-01-01

    The author proposes the methodology of transformation optics in orthogonal coordinates to obtain the material parameters of the transformation media from the mapping in orthogonal coordinates. Several examples are given to show the applications of such a methodology by using the full-wave simulations.

  12. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  13. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement wi...

  14. Identity transformation

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: (i) Bordieu’s theory of practice is used to analyze student understandings of themselves and others......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an...... ethnographic data from over 400 reflection logs from around 100 students based on 120 hours of classes (same course repeated 4 times). Reflection logs were completed for each module of four hours. The main data sources are participant observation by a researcher and student reflection logs. The content of the...

  15. Forestry transformation

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  16. Morphology of the Knipovich Ridge Area

    Zarayskaya, Y.; Abramova, A.; Dobrolyubova, K.; Mazarovich, A.; Moroz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Knipovich Ridge is the northernmost part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system. It is located between Mohns and Molloy spreading centers in the Greenland Sea. The scientific team of the R/V "Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov" (Geological Institute RAS, Russia) surveyed this area in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010 using the deep-water multibeam echosounder RESON Seabat 7150 with working frequency 12 kHz. The total surveyed area is up to 82000 km² including 65000 km² covering rift valley and flanges of the ridge. Knipovich ridge is classified as an ultra-slow oblique spreading center with spreading rate around 1,4 cm/y. Its large-scale morphological features are reduced in number comparing to other mid-ocean ridges. Eastern flange is buried under the continental slope sediments and only the rare highest peaks rise above this cover. Western flange is fully developed and consists of several ridges prolonged parallel to the rift valley. Ridges are supplemented with individual highs. Rift valley is 20-40 km wide and 500 km long. Its depth is 3300-3700 m. Valley slopes have terraces and ledges of different amplitudes. The bottom of the valley is echeloned by 5 volcanic axial highs rising 400 - 1000 m above it. Spreading obliquity is imprinted in the ridge morphology. The global models predict a plate motion vector of 307º. The main ridge axis has general orientation of 350º. Rift valley follows this direction from the South, and on the half way to the North turns to azimuth of 2º. The detailed bathymetry shows that small-scale features orientation differs. Rift axial highs and individual flange highs are prolonged NW-SE under azimuth of 30º. This orientation is sub-perpendicular to the plate motion vector (83º) and oblique to the ridge axes (40º). The multibeam bathymetry shows no sing of transform faults or non-transform discontinuities along the Knipovich ridge rift valley. There is one strong lineation in the northern part of the ridge. It includes flange and axial highs and continues from the eastern flange through the second northern axial high to the western flange under the azimuth of 320º. It is an indication of long-term magmatic activity in this segment. Detailed bathymetry reveals small-scale features that are important for our understanding of the ridge nature.

  17. Surface morphology and fracture in handpiece adjusting of a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic with coarse diamond burs

    Highlights: ► Morphology and fracture on the removed leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. ► Morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile scratches, smear areas. ► Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for the ceramic removal. ► Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs. ► Temperature-induced phase transformations were detected in leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, which might cause crack initiation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to understand surface morphology and fracture occurring on leucite-reinforced glass ceramic surfaces adjusted with coarse diamond burs. The surface roughness was quantitatively assessed using stylus profilometry and was analyzed statistically. The surface morphology was viewed using scanning electron microscopy. Surface phase transformations were preliminarily studied using Raman spectrometry. The results show that the surface roughness did not significantly depend on either depth of cut (p > 0.05) or feed rate (p > 0.05). However, when decreasing the depth of cut and the feed rate, a tendency for brittle-to-ductile transition existed. The surface morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile removal scratches, smear areas and debris. Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for material removal. Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs were the major cause of surface fracture in the leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The maximum adjusting temperatures on the adjusted surfaces were estimated based on heat transfer analysis. The Raman spectra of the adjusted and unadjusted surfaces show a strong temperature-dependence of Raman shifts near 525–529 cm−1. This indicates the occurrence of temperature-induced cubic-tetragonal phase transformations in the adjusted leucite glass ceramic surfaces. These phase transformations are considered to contribute crack initiation and propagation on the adjusted surfaces.

  18. The formation of graben morphology in the Dead Sea Fault, and its implications

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Katsman, Regina

    2015-09-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF) is a 1000 km long continental transform. It forms a narrow and elongated valley with uplifted shoulders showing an east-west asymmetry, which is not common in other continental transforms. This topography may have strongly affected the course of human history. Several papers addressed the geomorphology of the DSF, but there is still no consensus with respect to the dominant mechanism of its formation. Our thermomechanical modeling demonstrates that existence of a transform prior to the rifting predefined high strain softening on the faults in the strong upper crust and created a precursor weak zone localizing deformations in the subsequent transtensional period. Together with a slow rate of extension over the Arabian plate, they controlled a narrow asymmetric morphology of the fault. This rift pattern was enhanced by a fast deposition of evaporites from the Sedom Lagoon, which occupied the rift depression for a short time period.

  19. Quantum optics of spatial transformation media

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

  20. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed

  1. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

  2. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  3. Photocatalytic transformation of acesulfame: Transformation products identification and embryotoxicity study.

    Li, Adela Jing; Schmitz, Oliver J; Stephan, Susanne; Lenzen, Claudia; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Li, Kaibin; Li, Huashou; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been recognized as emerging contaminants due to their wide application, environmental persistence and ubiquitous occurrence. Among them, acesulfame has attracted much attention. After being discharged into the environment, acesulfame undergoes photolysis naturally. However, acesulfame photodegradation behavior and identity of its transformation products, critical to understanding acesulfame's environmental impact, have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by a laboratory simulation study in examining acesulfame transformation products and pathways under UV-C photolysis in the presence of TiO2. Photodegradation products of acesulfame were isolated and analyzed using the LC-IM-QTOF-MS coupled with LC Ion Trap MS in the MS(n) mode. Our results show six new transformation products that have not been previously identified. The molecular structures and transformation pathways were proposed. Further embryotoxicity tests showed that acesulfame transformation products at the low g L(-1) level produced significant adverse effects in tail detachment, heart rate, hatching rate and survival rate during fish embryo development. The identification of additional transformation products with proposed transformation pathways of acesulfame, the increased toxicity of acesulfame after photolysis, and the fact that the accumulation of acesulfame transformation products is increasingly likely make acesulfame contamination even more important. Water resource control agencies need to consider legislation regarding acesulfame and other artificial sweeteners, while further studies are carried out, in order to protect the safety of this most vital resource. PMID:26630044

  4. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    Nihat Ay

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agents behaviour, or how an embodied agent can maximise the exploitation of its morphology within its environment. In this work we derive two concepts of measuring morphological computation, and we discuss their relation to the Information Bottleneck Method. The first concepts asks how much the world contributes to the overall behaviour and the second concept asks how much the agents action contributes to a behaviour. Various measures are derived from the concepts and validated in two experiments that highlight their strengths and weaknesses.

  5. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  6. Morphology of galaxies

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  7. Long term morphological modelling

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...... the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a...

  8. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Mary, I. Reeta; Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  9. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Let B (black) and W (white) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume...

  10. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact

  11. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  12. Bound state transformation walls

    Andriyash, Evgeny; Denef, Frederik; Daniel L. Jafferis; Moore, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We...

  13. Transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia as progression of myeloid neoplasm with platelet-derived growth factor ß rearrangement

    Xue Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid neoplasms associated with platelet-derived growth factor b (PDGFRB rearrangement usually keep only one morphologic type unless blast crisis. We describe a unique case of hematological features transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and imatinib showed no clinical therapeutic effects. The phenomenon indicates that different types of myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRB rearrangement can transform into one another with the progression of the disease, and to some extent, this transformation suggests the aggravation of disease.

  14. Investigation of Presence Different Surfactant on Morphologies of PbTe Nanostructures

    Salavati-Niasari M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PbTe nanostructures were prepared by a hydrothermal method on presence of different surfactant. Results show that in constant condition by changing the capping agent the morphology of as-obtained PbTe were revolutionize PbTe nanostructures show a strong photoluminescence peak at 402 nm at room temperature, also optical absorption spectrum of PbTe nanostructures exhibit an extreme blue-shift, which is attributed to the quantum confinement of charge carriers in the nanostructures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced PbTe nanostructures.

  15. On Stochastic Transformation Models.

    Li, Han-Ping

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the non-parametrical transformation model is introduced and studied in comparison with the parametrical transformation model and semi-parametrical transformation model. The semi-parametrical transformation model and non-parametrical transformation model are characterized in term of stochastic transformations, with the independence in the first model, without the independence in the second one. The semi-parametrical transformation model is also characterized as the weak cloture ...

  16. Comparison of malignant transformation of cells vitro induced by high LET and low LET radiations

    Objectives: To compare the characteristics of malignant transformation of the adult Wistar rat lung fibroblast cell line (WAL-F1) in vitro induced by high LET (238Pu alpha particles, 5.25 MeV) and low LET (X-rays 180 kV) radiations. Methods: A model of cell transformation in vitro was used; the changes of morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cell induced by two types of radiations were observed; the carcinogenesis of transformed cells in vivo was studied. Results: The results showed that the morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cells were basically similar. However, there were some differences between biological effects of cell transformation induced by these radiation types: (1) The model of cell surviving curve for alpha particles was a single hit and single target model with a D0 value of 0.172 Gy, while that for X-rays was a single hit and multi-target model with a D0 value of 1.66 Gy; (2) the iso-effect dose of proliferative ability, chromosome aberration rate, and colony-forming rate for X-rays were 10 times higher than these for alpha particles; (3) the latent period of cell transformation for alpha particles was delayed about 4-5 passages as compared with that for X-rays; and (4) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for alpha particles versus X-rays was approximately 6.0 at an alpha dose of 0.5 Gy. Conclusion: The results suggest that the high LET radiation showed higher carcinogenic effect in vitro on cells than low LET radiation did

  17. Measuring performance at trade shows

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence of......Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built that...... the scale's reliability, factor structure, and validity on the basis of analyzing data from independent samples of exhibitors at the international trade shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne); and it concludes with a discussion of potential managerial applications and implications for future research...

  18. Comparative Analysis of Rice Transformation Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhyzobium leguminosarum

    Syamsidah Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to study the effectiveness of Rhizobium transformation system compared to the most widely used Agrobacterium mediated transformation system on three rice cultivars, Ciherang (Indica, Nipponbare (Japonica, and Rojolele (Javanica. Six day old calli induced from immature embryos were inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii ANU845 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA288 that harbored with vector pCAMBIA 5106. This plasmid contained a minimum set of transfer machinery genes and had a gusplus and an hptII gene driven by 35S CaMV promoter in the T-DNA. The results showed that the transformation frequencies (number of PCR positive plants per number of calli inoculated ranging from 0 to 12.05 % depend on the genotype and transfer agent used. The highest transformation frequency (12.05% was obtained in Ciherang transformed with R. leguminosarum. Most of the transgenic rice obtainedby Rhizobium transformation were normal in morphology and fertile similar to those obtained by Agrobacterium transformation. Integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis in T0 and T1 generations.Key words : Rhizobium leguminosarum, immature embryos, Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  19. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs actualization in the "free management space". PMID:3933232

  20. Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

  1. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible......Current model transformation languages are supported by dedicated editors, often closely coupled to a single execution engine. We introduce Transparent Model Transformation, a paradigm enabling modelers to specify transformations using a familiar tool: their model editor. We also present VMTL, the...... model transformation tool sharing the model editor’s benefits, transparently....

  2. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  3. Large symmetric π transformations for Hadamard transforms

    Many multiplexing instruments utilize the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) to demultiplex the signal. In the past, the HFT includes the π1 and π2 transformations to reorder vectors before and after a Sylvester-type Hadamard transform. Although the computational effort involved in the π1 and the Sylvester-type Hadamard transform scales as n log2n, calculating the π2 transformation (which only has to be done once) scales as n2. Recently Gunson (1980) has suggested a method by which the π transformations are symmetric, that is π2 = π1. We have calculated a complete set of symmetric π transformations for FHT of sizes 23 to 230. Special emphasis has been placed on the phase of the π transformation so as to have the correct phase in the demultiplexed signal

  4. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kamran, N [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Milson, R, E-mail: david.gomez-ullate@fis.ucm.e, E-mail: nkamran@math.mcgill.c, E-mail: rmilson@dal.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-10-29

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described X{sub m} Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  5. The Houdini Transformation: True, but Illusory

    Bentler, Peter M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Molenaar (2003, 2011) showed that a common factor model could be transformed into an equivalent model without factors, involving only observed variables and residual errors. He called this invertible transformation the Houdini transformation. His derivation involved concepts from time series and state space theory. This article verifies the…

  6. A Completely Covariant Approach to Transformation Optics

    Thompson, Robert T.; Cummer, Steven A.; Frauendiener, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics.

  7. Application of Hadamard transform in IMS

    Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)

  8. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  9. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound ({sup 3}H)bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations.

  10. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.; Rutström, E. Elisabet

    , and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  11. Morphological Assessment of Reconstructed Lowland Streams in the Netherlands

    Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.

    2014-12-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  12. Detection of inrush current in distribution transformer using wavelet transform

    Sedighi, A.-R.; Haghifam, M.-R. [Tarbiat Modarres Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tehran (Iran)

    2005-07-01

    Inrush currents in transformers are non-sinusoidal, high magnitude currents generated due to flux saturation in the core during energization. For protection purpose, in this paper an efficient method for detection of inrush current in distribution transformer based on wavelet transform is presented. Using this method inrush current can be discriminated from the other switching transients such as: load switching, capacitor switching and single phase to ground fault. Inrush current and other events for feature extraction and discrimination are simulated using Electro Magnetic Transient Program (EMTP). Results in all cases show the effectiveness of proposed procedure in identifying inrush current from other transients. (Author)

  13. The influence of tectonic and volcanic processes on the morphology of the Iberian continental margins

    The Iberian continental margins are mainly passive margins. Nevertheless, the northern sector of the margin was active during some stages of its geological evolution. The southern sector is considered as a transformed margin, which defines the boundary between the Iberian and African plates. This margin was also an active margin in the past. The different types, origins and intensities of the endogenic processes that have affected he Iberian continental margins have led to the development of various tectonic and volcanic morphologies. The North Atlantic rifting allowed the development of large marginal platforms in the Cantabrian and Galician margins the North-Atlantic Ocean spreading. The reactivation of Variscan faults during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic controlled the strike of some of the largest canyons in the Iberian margins. The Gulf of Cadiz margin is characterized by the development of morphologies related to salt tectonic, fluid seepage, thrust fronts and strike-slip fault lineaments hundreds of kilometres long. The Alboran basin and the Betic margin show morphologies connected with the Miocene rift phase, which generated volcanic edifices and various structural reliefs, and with the subsequent compressive phase, when folds and strike-slip, reverse faults, diapirs and mud volcanoes were developed. Finally, the Catalan-Valencian margin and the Balearic promontory are characterized by the presence of horst and graben structures related to the development of the Valencia trough during the Paleogene. The morphological features of endogenic origin have largely controlled the location and extent of the sedimentary processes and morphological products along the Iberian margins. (Author)

  14. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  15. Transforming Public Space

    Navarro, Dora

    public space into a critical and deliberative public in urban sites. I focus on one local Catholic radio station in Huaycan, a shantytown in the outskirts of Lima, Peru. I describe the radios' journalistic work, showing examples of how they mobilise local leaders and monitor democratic processes, such as...... municipal elections and the district's participatory budget. In addition, I show how the public uses the radio to channel their claims. I also identify the factors that prevent the radio from fully empowering the public and transforming public space into a more critical and democratic one....

  16. Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and surface morphology

    Nitin Sankar; Mamilla Nagarjun Reddy; R Krishna Prasad

    2016-02-01

    The various properties and surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix were studied to determine their usefulness in various applications. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical breakdown strength of CNT/polymer composites were 0.35MPa, 1.2MPa and 8.1 kV, respectively. The thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for the material having 4.28 wt% CNT were 0.225 W m−1 K−1 and 2.329, respectively. The CNT/polymer composites are promising functional composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties. The scanning electron microscope analysis of surface morphology of PDMS/CNT composite showed that the rough surface texture on nanocomposite has large surface area with circular pores. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups present in polymer nanocomposite.

  17. Surface-diffusion-driven decay of high-aspect-ratio gratings: Existence of morphologically related classes

    Madrid, Marcos A.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Castez, Marcos F.

    2013-06-01

    We present numerical and theoretical results concerning the technologically important process of evolution of high-aspect-ratio profiles due to surface diffusion under thermal treatment. We show how a broad class of initial gratings adopt, after a short transient stage, a typical shape that can be accurately described as a curve whose curvature has only two single Fourier modes as a function of the arc-length parameter. Moreover, we introduce a set of evolution equations for the relevant parameters that accounts very accurately for both morphological and kinetic aspects of the transformation processes for these curves in a wide region in parameter space. Regarding the decay of rectangular gratings, our numerical results show the existence of geometrically related classes that asymptotically approach to the same trajectory in parameter space. Gratings belonging to the same class pass through the same sequence of morphologies before reaching the final equilibrium state.

  18. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    Sun, Jun-Jie; Lian, Fu-Liang; Liu, Hong-Ji; Jiang, Tao; Guo, Sheng-Wu [School of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Du, Lin-Xiu [State Key Laboratory of Rolling Technology and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Liu, Yong-Ning, E-mail: ynliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science, State Key Laboratory of Mechanical Behavior of Materials, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-09-15

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 μm, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) μm, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET.

  19. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 μm, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) μm, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET

  20. Morphology development during polymer blending

    We present results on the morphologies of incompatible polymer blends analysed by several techniques (SEM and particle counter after separation). These result show, in the concentration zone just below the inversion phase, the simultaneous presence in the blend of nodular and fibrillar structures. A global interpretation of the phenomena allows us to propose a new relation using the Tomokita notion of fiber stability to predict the phase inversion region. (orig.)

  1. Liquid Metal Transformers

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  2. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  3. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...

  4. Dynamic Upsilon Transformations

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of stochastic integral representations of ...

  5. Finite field dependent mixed BRST transformation

    Joglekar and Mandal have generalized the usual Bechhi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) transformation by allowing infinitesimal BRST parameter finite and field dependent. Such a generalized BRST transformation (so-called FFBRST transformation) is also the symmetry of the effective action but not of the generating functional of the theory. We generalize the mixed BRST (sum of totally anti-commuting BRST and anti-BRST) symmetry transformation in same manner. We show that such a generalized mixed BRST transformation is the symmetry of the effective action as well as of the generating functional. We show our result by considering several explicit examples. (author)

  6. Generalized Staeckel transform and reciprocal transformations for finite-dimensional integrable systems

    Sergyeyev, Artur [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na RybnIcku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Blaszak, Maciej [Institute of Physics, A Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: Artur.Sergyeyev@math.slu.cz, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl

    2008-03-14

    We present a multiparameter generalization of the Staeckel transform (the latter is also known as the coupling-constant metamorphosis) and show that under certain conditions this generalized Staeckel transform preserves Liouville integrability, noncommutative integrability and superintegrability. The corresponding transformation for the equations of motion proves to be nothing but a reciprocal transformation of a special form, and we investigate the properties of this reciprocal transformation. Finally, we show that the Hamiltonians of the systems possessing separation curves of apparently very different form can be related through a suitably chosen generalized Staeckel transform.

  7. Curvelet transform with adaptive tiling

    Al-Marzouqi, Hasan; AlRegib, Ghassan

    2012-03-01

    The curvelet transform is a recently introduced non-adaptive multi-scale transform that have gained popularity in the image processing field. In this paper, we study the effect of customized tiling of frequency content in the curvelet transform. Specifically, we investigate the effect of the size of the coarsest level and its relationship to denoising performance. Based on the observed behavior, we introduce an algorithm to automatically choose the optimal number of decompositions. Its performance shows a clear advantage, in denoising applications, when compared to default curvelet decomposition. We also examine how denoising is affected by varying the number of divisions per scale.

  8. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  9. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  10. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up. Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    Song, Haiyan; Sjstad, Anja O.; Fjellvg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, rnulv B.; Arstad, Bjrnar; Norby, Poul

    2011-12-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO 2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb V and an equivalent amount of Ti IV is transformed to Ti III as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti IV and Nb V cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O 2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb 2O 5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

  12. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  13. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R D

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION IN BREAST CANCER

    L.F. Zhandarova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 80 case histories of patients with breast cancer were analyzed. During the preoperative examination with objective and instrumental examination methods used the malignant process was suspected but no morphological verification was received. Physical examination revealed 75% cases of cancer. Roentgenologic evidence of malignant tumor was found in 43.5% women. Ultrasound examination of mammary glands showed that 57.7% of patients had cancer symptoms. Despite the repeated puncture aspiration biopsy, preoperative morphological examination proved to be negative. The reasons of morphological verification failure are connected with technical difficulties and morphological features of tumor structure. Negative malignant process verification necessitated the diagnostic partial mastectomy. To achieve ablasticity ofexcisional biopsyit is necessary to keep 2 cm from the tumor. Staged morphological diagnosis verifies the diagnosis in all patients, allowing to choose the adequate extentof surgical procedures.

  15. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  16. Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally

  17. Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any sup...

  18. Transformational leadership and job satisfaction.

    Medley, F; Larochelle, D R

    1995-09-01

    The relationship of head nurse leadership style to staff nurse job satisfaction was investigated using the leadership paradigm of transformational and transactional leadership. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Index of Work Satisfaction were completed by 122 staff nurses employed throughout acute care community hospitals in many patient care areas. Correlations showed a significant positive relationship between those head nurses exhibiting a transformational leadership style and the job satisfaction of their staff nurses. PMID:7659370

  19. Long term morphological modelling

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented......A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...... the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a...

  20. Morphological neural networks

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  1. COMPARISON OF REAL AND COMPLEX-VALUED VERSIONS OF WAVELET TRANSFORM, CURVELET TRANSFORM AND RIDGELET TRANSFORM FOR MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING

    Huseyin YASAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; medical images were denoising with multiresolution analyses using real-valued wavelet transform (RVWT, complex-valued wavelet transform (CVWT, ridgelet transform (RT, real-valued first-generation curvelet transform (RVFG CT, real-valued second-generation curvelet transform (RVSG CT, complex-valued second-generation curvelet transform (CVSG CT and results are compared. First and second-generation curvelet transformations are used for realvalued curvelet transform as two techniques. For the evaluation of the proposed system, we used 32 lung CT images. These images include 10 images with benign nodules and 22 images with malign nodules. Different types of noise like the Random noise, Gaussian noise and Salt & Pepper noise were added to these images and they are removed separately. The performances of used transforms are compared using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. Obtained results showed that complex-valued wavelet transform are suited for removal of random noise and Gaussian noise. In case of Gaussian noise in images, PSNRs of first generation curvelet transform and complex-valued wavelet transform are around 33 dB. The ridgelet transform provides high PSNR value (30.4dB for denoising of salt & pepper noise in images.

  2. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intri...

  3. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng; Qiu, Weimin; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha; Bunger, Cody

    -term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase...... was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells....

  4. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Weng, Lv Qian [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Shao Jun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Central South University, State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Dong, Wen Yi [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Urban and Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China)

    2011-07-15

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO{sub 2} with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450 C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N{sub 2} show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater. (orig.)

  5. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Liu, Shao Jun; Weng, Lv Qian; Dong, Wen Yi

    2011-07-01

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO2 with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450°C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N2 show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO2 films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater.

  6. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  7. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  8. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  9. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres

    LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

  10. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 C.

  11. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases

    Gabhane Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

  12. Welfare State Transformation

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is reflected in many wel-fare state areas. We differ from earlier prognoses of a race to the bottom by...

  13. Canonical transformations in crystals

    The space representations of linear canonical transformations were studied by Moshinsky and Quesne in 1972. For a few decades, the bilinear hamiltonian remained as the only exactly solvable representative for such problems. In this work we show that the Mello-Moshinsky equations can be solved exactly for a class of problems with discrete symmetry, leading to exact propagators for Wannier-Stark ladders in one and two dimensional crystals. We give a detailed study for a particle in a triangular lattice under the influence of a time-dependent electric field. A more general set of Mello-Moshinsky equations for arbitrary lattices is presented.

  14. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars; Winther, Ole

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.......9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down...

  15. On Hurwitz transformations

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R4 → R3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R8 → R5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  16. Semigroups of Upsilon transformations

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of random integral representations of...... Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed....

  17. Deviationless geodetic transformations

    Stti Juraj

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In a geodetic transformation of two networks (old, new, coordinate deviations come into being at the identical points and the transformated coordinates have to be corrected. A new deviationless method of Helmert and affine transformation is presented in which the definitive coordinates of the transformated points are determined directly using a Gauss-Markoff model.

  18. Directional solidification and {delta}/{gamma} solid state transformation in Fe-3% Ni alloy

    Vandyoussefi, M.; Kerr, H.W.; Kurz, W. [Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-10-01

    Directional growth experiments were carried out to study the solidification behavior of {delta}-Fe and the {delta}-{gamma} solid state transformation in Fe-Ni alloys containing about 3 at.% Ni. Depending on the growth conditions, the solid-liquid interface morphology ranged from planar to cellular. In the solid state transformation, {gamma} grew from {delta} phase as plate like cells with small tip radii at low growth rates but as wider cells with flat interface at a velocity of 30 {micro}m/s. Volume diffusion-controlled plane front and dendritic growth models were applied to both transformations. This was possible as the diffusion coefficient of Ni in the parent {delta} phase is much larger than that of forming {gamma} phase. Good agreement was obtained between theory and experimental observations. The flat-tipped cells in the solid state transformations at a velocity of 30 {micro}m/s showed little overall change in composition, similar to a massive transformation. This composition-invariant transformation is consistent with a plane front growing with solute partitioning at the limit of absolute stability.

  19. The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion

    Dr. Ali Al-Zuky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

  20. The Funk transform as a Penrose transform

    Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

    1999-01-01

    The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

  1. Hybrid Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Tetraploid Mice Show Apparently Normal Morphological, Physiological, and Neurological Characteristics

    Schwenk, Frieder; Zevnik, Branko; Brüning, Jens; Röhl, Mathias; Willuweit, Antje; Rode, Anja; Hennek, Thomas; Kauselmann, Gunther; JAENISCH, RUDOLF; Kühn, Ralf

    2003-01-01

    ES cell-tetraploid (ES) mice are completely derived from embryonic stem cells and can be obtained at high efficiency upon injection of hybrid ES cells into tetraploid blastocysts. This method allows the immediate generation of targeted mouse mutants from genetically modified ES cell clones, in contrast to the standard protocol, which involves the production of chimeras and several breeding steps. To provide a baseline for the analysis of ES mouse mutants, we performed a phenotypic characteriz...

  2. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Pović, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of δz/z ALHAMBRA survey (Pović et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  3. Linear transformations of quantum states

    This paper considers the most general linear transformation of a quantum state. We enumerate the conditions necessary to retain a physical interpretation of the transformed state: hermiticity, normalization and complete positivity. We show that these can be formulated in terms of an associated transformation introduced by Choi in 1975. We extend his treatment and display the mathematical argumentation in a manner closer to that used in traditional quantum physics. We contend that our approach displays the implications of the physical requirements in a simple and intuitive way. In addition, defining an arbitrary vector, we may derive a probability distribution over the spectrum of the associated transformation. This fixes the average of the eigenvalue independently of the vector chosen. The formal results are illustrated by a couple of examples

  4. On discrete cosine transform

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally...

  5. BAINITE : OVERALL TRANSFORMATION KINETICS

    Bhadeshia, H.

    1982-01-01

    New experimental results on the overall transformation kinetics of the bainite reaction (in three different steels) are interpreted in terms of recent work on the transformation mechanism of bainite. The analysis is shown to be consistent with (a) a linear dependence of the activation energy for isothermal nucleation, on the transformation free energy change, (b) the sub-unit mechanism of bainitic transformation, (c) the variation of nucleation rate with the degree of transformation, (d) hard...

  6. Application of transformation optics to electromagnetic cavities

    Ginis, V; Danckaert, J; Soukoulis, C M; Veretennicoff, I

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of transformation optics for the design of novel electromagnetic cavities. First, we determine the dispersion relation of bounded modes in a device performing an arbitrary radial coordinate transformation and we discuss a number of such cavity structures. Subsequently, we generalize our study to media that implement azimuthal transformations and we show that such transformations can manipulate the azimuthal mode number. Finally, we discuss how the combination of radial and azimuthal coordinate transformations allows for perfect confinement of subwavelength modes inside a cavity consisting of right-handed materials only.

  7. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-structure element model

    Lei, Tao; Fan, Yang-Yu; Huang, Lian-Bing

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experiments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  8. Morphological spectrum of leukemic mantle cell lymphoma

    Khaliqur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukemic involvement in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL is common, and can be secondary to nodal or extranodal disease or can be de-novo. There is paucity of literature that describes the morphological spectrum. Aim: This study was aimed at studying the morphological spectrum of leukemic MCL and to correlate the morphology with other features. Materials and Methods: Twenty six such cases diagnosed over a period of four years were studied. Peripheral blood and bone marrow aspiration smears stained with Wrights stain were examined by three hematopathologists. Immunophenotyping was done using multicolor flow cytometry. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH done in 12 cases showed t(11;14(q13:q32. Results: Six cases had de-novo leukemic involvement; while 20 cases had secondary involvement. Morphologically, the cells were small (less than twice the size of red blood cell or large. Small cell morphology in turn showed irregular nuclear border (n=13 or round nuclear contour (n=6. Large cells had blastic morphology (n=5 or had central prominent nucleoli resembling prolymhphocytes (n=2. Twenty cases showed characteristic immunophenotype of CD5+/CD19+/CD20+/FMC7+/CD10-/CD23- and light chain restrictions. Three cases expressed CD23 and two cases were negative for FMC7. Five out of 12 cases, where FISH was done, showed cytogenetic abnormalities in addition to t(11;14(q13;q32. Conclusion: Morphological spectrum of leukemic MCL ranges from small cells resembling chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL or follicular lymphoma (FL to large cell mimicking prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL or acute leukemia. Large cell morphology was associated with more frequent additional cytogenetic abnormality as well as a poorer outcome.

  9. A morphological lexicon for the Persian language

    Sagot, Benot; Walther, Graldine

    2010-01-01

    We introduce PerLex, a large-coverage and freely-available morphological lexicon for the Persian language. We describe the main features of the Persian morphology, and the way we have represented it within the Alexina formalism, on which PerLex is based. We focus on the methodology we used for constructing lexical entries from various sources, as well as the problems related to typographic normalisation. The resulting lexicon shows a satisfying coverage on a reference corpus and should theref...

  10. Morphological filters for OCR: a performance comparison

    Mennillo, Laurent; Cousty, Jean; Najman, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In this article is compared the ability of several morphological operators to improve OCR performance when used as preprocessing filters. An experiment on binary and greyscale images using the Tesseract OCR engine and morphological filters acting in complex, graph and vertex spaces has thus been performed and results in a good overall performance of complex and area filters. MSE measures have also been performed to evaluate the denoising ability of these filters, which again shows the good pe...

  11. The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in alloy steels

    The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in two Mn-containing interstitial free steels and a maraging steel were examined in detail by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope and optical microscopy. Indirect determination of the orientation relationship between the lath martensite and the austenite was made by analysis of misorientation distributions, and a similar orientation relationship was found for the three alloys in accordance with previous observations in low-carbon steels. Furthermore, the formation of six variants in a given packet and the preferential arrangement into blocks of low-misorientation variant pairs demonstrate a universality of morphology and crystallography of lath martensite. The presence of six variants in a packet can be accounted for by the minimization of the total shape strain introduced during the transformation. The lath boundaries developed within the volume of a certain variant show alternating misorientations and a mixed tilt and twist character characterizing these structures as low-energy dislocation structures

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation regulates the adhesions of ras-transformed breast epithelia

    1995-01-01

    Transformed epithelial cells often are characterized by a fibroblastic or mesenchymal morphology. These cells exhibit altered cell-cell and cell-substrate interactions. Here we have identified changes in the adhesions and cytoskeletal interactions of transformed epithelial cells that contribute to their altered morphology. Using MCF-10A human breast epithelial cells as a model system, we have found that transformation by an activated form of ras is characterized by less developed adherens- ty...

  13. Tschirnhausen transformation of a cubic generic polynomial and a $2$-dimensional involutive Cremona transformation

    HOSHI, Akinari; Miyake, Katsuya

    2007-01-01

    We study the field isomorphism problem for a cubic generic polynomial $X^3+sX+s$ via Tschirnhausen transformation. Through this process, there naturally appears a $2$-dimensional involutive Cremona transformation. We show that the fixed field under the action of the transformation is purely transcendental over an arbitrary base field.

  14. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals. PMID:18683170

  15. [Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].

    Ma, Donghua; Zheng, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhen

    2013-08-01

    This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals. PMID:24059041

  16. Self-assembly in an evaporating nanofluid droplet: rapid transformation of nanorods into 3D fibre network structures.

    Wu, H; Chen, L X; Zeng, X Q; Ren, T H; Briscoe, Wuge H

    2014-08-01

    Upon evaporation, ZnO nanorods in a nanofluid droplet undergo rapid and spontaneous chemical and morphological transformation into centimetre-long Zn(OH)2 fibres, via a mechanism very different from that for coffee rings. We show that the detailed nanostructure and micromorphology in the residual thin film depend intricately on the ambient moisture, nanofluid solvent composition and substrate surface chemistry. Upon thermal annealing, these Zn(OH)2 fibres readily undergo further chemical and morphological transformation, forming nanoporous fibres with the pore size tuneable by temperature. Our results point to a simple route for generating a self-assembled 3D structure with ultralong and nanoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 fibres/belts, and may also be of interest to the fields of evaporation controlled dynamic self-assembly, non-equilibrium crystallisation, and flow and fingering instabilities in nanofluids. PMID:24946161

  17. Morphological Evolution of Galaxies

    Martel, H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Center for Relativity, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We simulate the growth of large-scale structure for three different cosmological models, an Einstein{endash}de Sitter model (density parameter {Omega}{sub 0} = 1), an open model ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2), and a flat model with nonzero cosmological constant ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2, cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 0.8), using a cosmological {ital N}-body code (particle-particle/particle-mesh) with 64{sup 3} dark matter particles in a comoving cubic volume of present comoving size 128 Mpc. The calculations start at {ital z} = 24 and end at {ital z} = 0. We use the results of these simulations to generate distributions of galaxies at the present ({ital z} = 0), as follows: Using a Monte Carlo method based on the present distribution of dark matter, we located {approximately}40,000 galaxies in the computational volume. We then ascribe to each galaxy a morphological type based on the local number density of galaxies in order to reproduce the observed morphology-density relation. The resulting galaxy distributions are similar to the observed ones, with most ellipticals concentrated in the densest regions, and most spirals concentrated in low-density regions. By {open_quotes}tying{close_quotes} each galaxy to its nearest dark matter particle, we can trace the trajectory of that galaxy back in time by simply looking at the location of that dark matter particle at earlier time slices provided by the {ital N}-body code. This enables us to reconstruct the distribution of galaxies at high redshift and the trajectory of each galaxy from its formation epoch to the present. We use these galaxy distributions to investigate the problem of morphological evolution. Our goal is to determine whether the morphological type of galaxies is determined primarily by the initial conditions in which these galaxies form or by evolutionary processes (such as mergers or tidal stripping) occurring after the galaxies have formed and eventually altering their morphology, or a combination of both effects. Our main technique consists of comparing the environments in which galaxies are at the epoch of galaxy formation (taken to be at redshift {ital z} = 3) with the environment in which the same galaxies are at the present. Making the null hypothesis that the morphological types of galaxies do not evolve, we compare the galaxies that form in low-density environments but end up later in high-density environments to the ones that also form in low-density environments but remain in low-density environments. The first group contains a larger proportion of elliptical and S0 galaxies than the second group. We assume that the initial galaxy formation process cannot distinguish a low-density environment that will always remain low density from one that will eventually become high density. Therefore, these results are absurd and force us to discard the null hypothesis that morphological evolution does not occur. Our study suggests that {approximately}75{percent} of the elliptical and S0 galaxies observed at present formed as such, while the remaining {approximately}25{percent} of these galaxies formed as spiral galaxies and underwent morphological evolution for all three cosmological models considered (the percentages might be smaller for elliptical than for S0 galaxies). These numbers assume a morphological evolution process that converts one spiral galaxy into either a S0 or an elliptical galaxy. If the morphological evolution process involves mergers of spiral galaxies, these numbers be would closer to 85{percent} and 15{percent}, respectively. We conclude that most galaxies did not undergo morphological evolution, but a nonnegligible fraction did. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1998.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  18. On discrete cosine transform

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  19. Fuzzy logic and mathematical morphology

    Deng, T.-Q.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we investigate the general theory of grey-scale morphology within the framework of complete lattices and fuzzy logic. This includes grey-scale granulometries, hit-or-miss operators for grey-scale images, rank operators, and connected operators. We also show that the Matheron's representation theory does not hold for general grey-scale images and we present some results related to the representation theory. Besides these, in this report, we put forward a new approach to fuzzy m...

  20. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    making the transition from the laboratory into the commercial market. One of the biggest challenges in this process is upscaling the production. The object of this thesis is to investigate the morphology of OPV devices produced from pilot scale roll to roll (R2R) coaters. OPV devices still struggle with...... the viability of ptychography as a characterization technique for OPVs evaluated. The ink studies showed that the nanoparticles in the active layer were disrupted. Dense parts of the nanoparticles could be observed surrounded by a bulk of less dense material. The same pattern was seen in preparations...

  1. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  2. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  3. Identification of Transform Coding Chains.

    Tagliasacchi, Marco; Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Tubaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Transform coding is routinely used for lossy compression of discrete sources with memory. The input signal is divided into N -dimensional vectors, which are transformed by means of a linear mapping. Then, transform coefficients are quantized and entropy coded. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying the transform matrix as well as the quantization step sizes. First, we study the case in which the only available information is a set of P transform decoded vectors. We formulate the problem in terms of finding the lattice with the largest determinant that contains all observed vectors. We propose an algorithm that is able to find the optimal solution and we formally study its convergence properties. Three potential realms of application are considered as example scenarios for the proposed theory: 1) parameter retrieval in the presence of a chain of two transform coders; 2) image tampering identification; and 3) parameter estimation for predictive coders. We show that, despite their differences, all three scenarios can be tackled by applying the same fundamental methodology. Experiments on both the synthetic data and the real images validate the proposed approach. PMID:26685239

  4. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  5. Tuning the particle size and morphology of high energetic material nanocrystals

    Raj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology controlled synthesis of nanoparticles of powerful high energetic compounds (HECs such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX were achieved by a simple solvent–antisolvent interaction (SAI method at 70 °C. The effects of different solvents on particle size and morphology of the prepared nano-HECs were studied systematically. Particle size and morphology of the nano-HECs was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM imaging. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies revealed that RDX and HMX were precipitated in their most stable polymorphic forms, i.e. α and β, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC studies showed that the thermal response of the nanoparticles was similar to the respective raw-HECs. HEC nanoparticles with spherical and rod shaped morphology were observed under different solvent conditions. The mean particle size also varied considerably with the use of different solvents.

  6. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  7. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  8. Morphology of diesel soot residuals from supercooled water droplets and ice crystals: implications for optical properties

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnato, Barbara V.; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processes often transform their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earths radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at ?20 and ?40 C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness ?0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ?0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness ?0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ?63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  9. Changes of epidermal cell morphology and keratin expression induced by inhibitors of protein kinase C.

    Hegemann, L; Wevers, A; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1992-03-01

    Several lines of evidence show protein kinase C as being involved in various regulatory processes in keratinocyte biology, e.g. proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three different inhibitors of protein kinase C, staurosporine, CP 46'665-1, and tiflucarbine, on cell morphology and keratin expression in a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Staurosporine, being the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C activity in vitro, and CP 46'665-1 induced morphological transformation to a fibroblast-like cell shape. In contrast, no changes in cell morphology were observed after exposure to tiflucarbine. The investigation of keratin expression in HaCaT cells grown in the presence of the different compounds revealed the following changes: After 72 h of cultivation, keratins 8 and 18 were still expressed in treated cells, whereas expression of keratin 13 was decreased as compared to control cells. Immunoblotting to detect vimentin demonstrated its absence in treated and control cells. Since tiflucarbine is known as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin inhibitor whereas staurosporine and CP 46'665-1 do not antagonize calmodulin function, it might be possible that not only protein kinase C but also calmodulin is involved in the process leading to the morphological changes. PMID:1376142

  10. MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY BASED CHARACTERIZATION OF BINARY IMAGE

    Raghvendra Sharma

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a theoretical study on morphological characterization of foreground (X and background (Xc of a discrete binary image. Erosion asymmetry and dilation asymmetry, defined to elaborate smoothing of an image respectively by contraction and expansion, are generalized for multiscale smoothing, and their relationships with morphological skeleton and ridge (background skeleton transformations are discussed. Then we develop algorithms identifying image topology in terms of critical scales corresponding to close-hulls and open-skulls, along with a few other salient characteristics, as respective smoothing by expansion and contraction proceeds. For empirical demonstration of these algorithms, essentially to unravel the hidden characteristics of topological and geometrical relevance, we considered deterministic and random binary Koch quadric fractals. A shape-size based zonal quantization technique for image and its background is introduced as analytical outcome of these algorithms. The ideas presented and demonstrated on binary fractals could be easily extended to the grayscale images and fractals.

  11. BLOOD VESSELS EXTRACTION USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal vasculature is composed of the arteries and veins with their tributaries which are visible within the retinal image. The segmentation and measurement of the retinal vasculature is of primary interest in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of systemic and ophthalmologic conditions. The accurate segmentation of the retinal blood vessels is often an essential prerequisite step in the identification of retinal anatomy and pathology. In this study, we present an automated approach for blood vessels extraction using mathematical morphology. Two main steps are involved: enhancement operation is applied to the original retinal image in order to remove the noise and increase contrast of retinal blood vessels and morphology operations are employed to extract retinal blood vessels. This operation of segmentation is applied to binary image of top-hat transformation. The result was compared with other algorithms and give better results.

  12. Morphology of uranium compounds

    Uranium metal is being used as nuclear fuel for Indian Research Reactors. During production of U metal various intermediate compounds of uranium are being processed. Physical, chemical properties of these compounds are important in overall processing rate and conversion determination. As no systematic data on morphology of these compounds were available, study was conducted to record the morphology of various U-compounds which are important in production of ceramic and metallic U-fuel for reactors. Most important intermediates were found to be ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxide (UO3/UO2). Morphology of these powders controls their flowability required for further material movement through different equipment, surface area required for chemical reactivity of powder, carryover losses occurred during gas solid counter current reaction and tap density required for effective capacity determination. ADU particle basically consists of primary platelets of 250-500 nm width and of 500-1000 nm length. These primary platelets form primary agglomerates. These agglomerates look like woollen balls or balls or cauliflower and primary agglomerates are also connected with each other to form secondary agglomerates. The basic morphology of ADU is maintained in UO3 even after calcination at high temperature. Pores are generated at the surface of platelet of UO3 due to release of gaseous reaction products during calcination. As temperature increases more pores are generated and sintering also starts. Specific surface area of UO3, produced by the calcination of ammonium di-urinate is generally a function of two competing processes: generation of surface area due to generation of pores because of the evolution of gaseous products (NH3, H2O vapour) and the loss of surfaces due to sintering. As a results surface area increases with calcination temperature due to generation of pores and then reduces. It has also been observed that morphology of the compounds are very much processing path dependent. In the process, parametric effects on morphology also has been studied. Present paper describes these observations with an idea to have larger participations in this multidisciplinary research and to be able to become morphology designer. (author)

  13. Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform

    RENU AWASTHI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  14. The Bianchi-Darboux transform of L-isothermic surfaces

    Musso, E.; Nicolodi, L.

    2000-01-01

    We study an analogue of the classical Bianchi-Darboux transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in Laguerre geometry, the Bianchi-Darboux transformation. We show how to construct the Bianchi-Darboux transforms of an L-isothermic surface by solving an integrable linear differential system. We then establish a permutability theorem for iterated Bianchi-Darboux transforms.

  15. From Fock's Transformation to de Sitter Space

    Foughali, T

    2016-01-01

    As in Deformed Special Relativity, we showed recently that the Fock coordinate transformation can be derived from a new deformed Poisson brackets. This approach allowed us to establish the corresponding momentum transformation which keeps invariant the four dimensional contraction $p_{\\mu} x^{\\mu} $. From the resulting deformed algebra, we construct in this paper the corresponding first Casimir. After first quantization, we show by using the Klein-Gordon equation that the spacetime of the Fock transformation is the de Sitter one. As we will see, the invariant length representing the universe radius in the spacetime of Fock's transformation is exactly the radius of the embedded hypersurface representing the de Sitter spacetime.

  16. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  17. Effect of Palm Oil Bio-Based Plasticizer on the Morphological, Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Poly(Vinyl Chloride)

    Kar Min Lim; Yern Chee Ching; Seng Neon Gan

    2015-01-01

    Flexible poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) was fabricated using a palm oil-based alkyd as a co-plasticizer to di-octyl phthalate (DOP) and di-isononyl phthalate (DiNP). The effects of the incorporation of the palm oil-based alkyd on morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of PVC compounds were studied. Results showed the incorporation of the alkyd enhanced the mechanical and thermal properties of the PVC compounds. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results showed that the polar...

  18. Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades

    Shafiq, M Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

  19. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water (Presentation)

    Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies Understand how phosphates impact morphology and solubility transformations with time

  20. Transforms and Applications Handbook

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

  1. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  2. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  3. Amplified Quantum Transforms

    Cornwell, David

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabiliti...

  4. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    Hoyer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for n...

  5. Transforms, algorithms and applications

    Soares, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the sum of a trigonometric series. The main purpose of these notes is to give a brief overview of some Fourier-related transforms, namely: continuous Fourier transform, Fourier series, discrete Fouri...

  6. Fractional Darboux Transformations

    Humi, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial diffe...

  7. Transformational silicon electronics

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  8. Solid-solid phase transformation kinetics

    Bauer, Rico

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 of this thesis presents the investigation of the microstructural evolution of Co precipitates formed upon isochronal annealing of an initially supersaturated Au 10.12 at. % Co solid solution. It was proven, that initially plate like bcc Co precipitates have formed, which deviates from the expected stable fcc Co crystal structure. Upon prolonged annealing, i. e. with ongoing precipitation reaction, the bcc Co was transformed into fcc Co accompanied with a morphological change of th...

  9. The Dead Sea transform fault system

    Girdler, R. W.

    1990-08-01

    A new map showing the major features of the Dead Sea transform fault system based on seismicity, satellite imagery, geological maps and bathymetric charts is presented. Special attention is given to the possible northward continuation of the transform system beneath the Mediterranean Sea near Ed Damur, south of Beirut. The map shows the Dead Sea transform system to be a series of offset, overlapping, left-lateral transform faults with a rhombochasm between each pair. The system has similarities with the equatorial fracture zones in the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout, the Dead Sea transform system is considered in its regional setting, i.e. as extending from the Red Sea spreading centre in the south to the Eurasian collision zone in the north. It is suggested that it may intersect the latter somewhere east of Cyprus making that area the northernmost termination of the Dead Sea transform system.

  10. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Jess M. Almendros-Jimnez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  11. On some hypergeometric transformations

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1999-01-01

    A method that may generate new transformations is mentioned. It is shown that the approach applies to some of the cubic transformations of 3F2, and, moreover, to a quartic and a sextic transformation of 2F1. Regions of validity are established. Many of the results are established by the aid of...

  12. On SYZ mirror transformations

    Chan, Kwokwai; Leung, Naichung Conan

    2008-01-01

    In this expository paper, we discuss how Fourier-Mukai-type transformations, which we call SYZ mirror transformations, can be applied to provide a geometric understanding of the mirror symmetry phenomena for semi-flat Calabi-Yau manifolds and toric Fano manifolds. We also speculate the possible applications of these transformations to other more general settings.

  13. Laplace transformation updated

    Terhardt, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    The traditional theory of Laplace transformation in its currently prevalent form is unsatisfactory. Its deficiencies can be traced back to a mismatch of the definition intervals of the original function and of the inverse L-transform. A new approach is outlined by which Laplace transformation becomes liberated from its inconsistencies.

  14. Soil structure transformations from ferralic to nitic horizons on a toposequence in southeastern Brazil Transformações da estrutura entre horizontes blatossólico e B nítico em uma topossequência no sudeste do Brasil

    Miguel Cooper; Pablo Vidal-Torrado; Michel Grimaldi

    2010-01-01

    The soil structure transformation from ferralic to nitic horizons was studied in a toposequence on quaternary red clayey sediments and diabase in Piracicaba (SP), Brazil. Morphological and micromorphological studies, image analysis, soil water characteristic curves and monitoring of (total) soil water potential head were used. The presence of polyconcave vughs, clayskins and planar voids shows that the vertical and lateral transition and structural transformation from ferralic to nitic horizo...

  15. Learning doubly sparse transforms for images.

    Ravishankar, Saiprasad; Bresler, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The sparsity of images in a transform domain or dictionary has been exploited in many applications in image processing. For example, analytical sparsifying transforms, such as wavelets and discrete cosine transform (DCT), have been extensively used in compression standards. Recently, synthesis sparsifying dictionaries that are directly adapted to the data have become popular especially in applications such as image denoising. Following up on our recent research, where we introduced the idea of learning square sparsifying transforms, we propose here novel problem formulations for learning doubly sparse transforms for signals or image patches. These transforms are a product of a fixed, fast analytic transform such as the DCT, and an adaptive matrix constrained to be sparse. Such transforms can be learnt, stored, and implemented efficiently. We show the superior promise of our learnt transforms as compared with analytical sparsifying transforms such as the DCT for image representation. We also show promising performance in image denoising that compares favorably with approaches involving learnt synthesis dictionaries such as the K-SVD algorithm. The proposed approach is also much faster than K-SVD denoising. PMID:23893720

  16. Diabetic retinopathy grading by digital curvelet transform.

    Hajeb Mohammad Alipour, Shirin; Rabbani, Hossein; Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1) no diabetic retinopathy, (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3) severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading. PMID:23056148

  17. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or...... material simplification. The corresponding invisibility performances of the approximate or simplified cylindrical cloaks are presented in detail....

  18. Discrete Topological Transformations for Image Processing

    Couprie, Michel; Bertrand, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Topology-based image processing operators usually aim at transforming an image while preserving its topological characteristics. This chapter reviews some approaches which lead to efficient and exact algorithms for topological transformations in 2D, 3D and grayscale images. Some transformations which modify topology in a controlled manner are also described. Finally, based on the framework of critical kernels, we show how to design a topologically sound parallel thinning algorithm guided by a...

  19. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    Gomez-Ullate, David; Milson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described $X_m$ Laguerre polynomials in terms of a state-adding Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape-invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  20. Education as Transformation – Education for transformation

    Manzoor Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Manzoor Ahmed argues that it is necessary to consider education as transformation and education for transformation and the nature of interaction between the two. He looks at inequalities in education and society through a lens of pragmatic reconciliation among competing theories. He embraces a middle ground of state-led partnership to mitigate forces of social reproduction and to ensure human resource development characterized by quality, relevance and equity in the education system. He sees ...

  1. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  2. Cluster Morphology Analysis

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2009-01-01

    Most disease clustering methods assume specific shapes and do not evaluate statistical power using the applicable geography, at-risk population, and covariates. Cluster Morphology Analysis (CMA) conducts power analyses of alternative techniques assuming clusters of different relative risks and shapes. Results are ranked by statistical power and false positives, under the rationale that surveillance should (1) find true clusters while (2) avoiding false clusters. CMA then synthesizes results o...

  3. Morphological Detection of Malware

    Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

  4. Effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via a hydrothermal route

    Well-dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with different morphologies were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in oleic acid, ethanol and water reaction system, and the surfactant assisted modifications effect was also comparatively studied. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of HA nanorods were discussed in detail. The results showed that the controlled experimental conditions in the systems, such as the content ratio of oleic acid/ethanol, pH value and the content ratio of Ca/P source had an significant effect on the morphology evolution of as-prepared HA nanorods. Further, the selected surfactant additives, such as cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12) also play an important role in the formation of the uniform morphology of HA nanorods. Some possible formation mechanisms of the HA nanorods in the present reaction systems is proposed.

  5. Mandibular torus morphology.

    Sellevold, B J

    1980-11-01

    The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

  6. Stochastic morphological evolution equations

    Kloeden, Peter E.; Lorenz, Thomas

    The inadequacy of locally defined set-valued differential equations to describe the evolution of shapes and morphological forms in biology, which are usually neither convex or nondecreasing, was recognised by J.-P. Aubin, who introduced morphological evolution equations, which are essentially nonlocally defined set-valued differential equations with the inclusion vector field also depending on the entire reachable set. This concept is extended here to the stochastic setting of set-valued It evolution equations in Hilbert spaces. Due to the nonanticipative nature of It calculus, the evolving reachable sets are nonanticipative nonempty closed random sets. The existence of solutions and their dependence on initial data are established. The latter requires the introduction of a time-oriented semi-metric in time-space variables. As a consequence the stochastic morphological evolution equations generate a deterministic nonautonomous dynamical system formulated as a two-parameter semigroup with the complication that the random subsets take values in different spaces at different time instances due to the nonanticipativity requirement. It is also shown how nucleation processes can be handled in this conceptual framework.

  7. Mammographic image enhancement using wavelet transform and homomorphic filter

    F Majidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the most effective method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer diseases. As mammographic images contain low signal to noise ratio and low contrast, it becomes too difficult for radiologists to analyze mammogram. To deal with the above stated problems, it is very important to enhance the mammographic images using image processing methods. This paper introduces a new image enhancement approach for mammographic images which uses the modified mathematical morphology, wavelet transform and homomorphic filter to suppress the noise of images. For performance evaluation of the proposed method, contrast improvement index (CII and edge preservation index (EPI are adopted. Experimental results on mammographic images from Pejvak Digital Imaging Center (PDIC show that the proposed algorithm improves the two indexes, thereby achieving the goal of enhancing mammographic images.

  8. A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

    Claas Hüter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

  9. Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps

    Chiribella, G; Perinotti, P

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of {\\em quantum supermap}, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any supermap can be physically implemented as a simple quantum circuit. Applications to quantum programming, cloning, discrimination, estimation, information-disturbance trade-off, and tomography of channels are outlined.

  10. Transforming quantum operations: Quantum supermaps

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.

    2008-08-01

    We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any supermap can be physically implemented as a simple quantum circuit. Applications to quantum programming, cloning, discrimination, estimation, information-disturbance trade-off, and tomography of channels are outlined.

  11. Finite BRST transformations for the BaggerLambertGustavsson theory

    In this Letter we analyse the BaggerLambertGustavsson (BLG) theory in N=1 superspace. Furthermore, we will construct the BRST transformations for this theory. These BRST transformations will be integrated out to obtain the finite field dependent version of BRST (FFBRST) transformations. We will also analyse the effect of the FFBRST transformations on the effective action. We will thus show that the FFBRST transformations can be used to relate generating functionals of the BLG theory in two different gauges

  12. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    David Blakeway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  13. Disformal transformations on the CMB

    Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

  14. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ?MAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  15. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  16. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Ltke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/?L). PMID:25325766

  17. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    I.A. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentration is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl ° /Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl ± complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110 plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111 plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane. The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag + ion and (AgCl ± concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl ° 2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  18. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    I.A., Lpez; M., Ceballos; G., Hernndez; L., Acosta; I., Gmez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentr [...] ation is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl-/Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl) complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110) plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111) plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane). The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag+ ion and (AgCl) concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl-2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  19. The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation

    Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 − a2)/√2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/√2). Physically, (a1 − a2)/√2 and (a1 + a2)/√2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form

  20. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  1. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  2. Transformational leadership and the nurse executive.

    Dunham, J; Klafehn, K A

    1990-04-01

    Effective nurse executive leadership is paramount in today's health care environment. Such leadership includes the qualities of a transformational leader and, to a lesser extent, a transactional leader. A study conducted among excellent nurse executives and members of their immediate staff showed that all executives were predominantly transformational leaders but also possessed transactional leadership skills. PMID:2324835

  3. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  4. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  5. The study of retained austenite morphology in low-carbon silico manganese steels

    The experimental results of a retained austenite morphology in low-carbon steels of a chemical composition of 0.2% C, 1.5% Mn, and 1.5% Si are presented. The microstructure of retained austenite after martensitic transformation in samples quenched from austenite region, dual phase region and suggested isothermal bainitic transformation were analysed. (author)

  6. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10-4 Pa to 102 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  7. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    which allows to estimate the achievable total electrical length and in-band reflection coefficient for transformers consisting of up to twelve transmission line sections in the range of transformation ratios r = 1:5 to 10 and bandwidth ratios = 2 to 20. This data is obtained using wave transmission......Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...

  8. Reusable model transformations

    Sen, Sagar; Moha, Naouel; Mah, Vincent; Barais, Olivier; Baudry, Benoit; Jzquel, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Model transformations written for an input metamodel may often apply to other metamodels that share similar concepts. For example, a transformation written to refactor Java models can be applicable to refactoring UML class diagrams as both languages share concepts such as classes, methods, attributes, and inheritance. Deriving motivation from this example, we present an approach to make model transformations reusable such that they function correctly across several similar metamodels. Our app...

  9. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  10. Transformation survival models

    Yulia Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is one of the most popular methods for analyzing survival or failure-time data. The key assumption underlying the Cox model is that of proportional hazards. This assumption may often be violated in practice. Transformation survival models extend the Cox regression methodology to allow for nonproportional hazards. They represent the class of semiparametric linear transformation models, which relates an unknown transformation of the survival time linearly to c...

  11. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  12. Quantum Optical Version of Classical Optical Transformations and Beyond

    Fan, Hong-yi

    2010-01-01

    By the newly developed technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We can not only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs i...

  13. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Ovri Henry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  14. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus surface capsid. Virus surface morphologies of different resolutions are attained by adjusting the propagation time. Therefore, the present PDE transform provides a multiresolution analysis in the surface visualization. Extensive numerical experiment and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the present PDE transform is a robust, stable, and efficient approach for biomolecular surface generation in Cartesian meshes. PMID:22582140

  15. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  16. A DC Transformer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  17. The convolution transform

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  18. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  19. Phase transformation and diffusion

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  20. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  1. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  2. Morphological Abnormalities of Thalamic Subnuclei in Migraine

    Magon, Stefano; May, Arne; Stankewitz, Anne; Goadsby, Peter J; Tso, Amy R; Ashina, Messoud; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Seifert, Christian L; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Müller, Jannis; Sprenger, Till

    2015-01-01

    migraine. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This multicenter imaging study shows morphological thalamic abnormalities in a large cohort of patients with episodic migraine compared with healthy subjects using state-of-the-art MRI and advanced, fully automated multiatlas segmentation techniques. The results stress...

  3. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas Le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  4. Controlling the morphology of membranes by excess surface charge in cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures.

    Shen, Yuwen; Ou-Yang, Zhong-can; Zhang, Yufeng; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhaohui

    2014-03-18

    The segregation and phase sequence of semifluorinated cat-anionic surfactant membranes at different excess surface charges was investigated by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscope (FF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal behavior of the membranes was evaluated by conductivity, rheology, and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR). The experimental results show that the cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures can form faceted vesicles and punctured lamellar phase when there is excess surface charge. The cationic and anionic fluorinated surfactants are stiff in the membranes, like phospholipids in the frozen "crystalline" or "gel" phase. For the system with excess cationic surface charge, the gel-like faceted vesicles and punctured lamellae can transform into smooth-shaped vesicles at 65 C. However, for the system with no excess charge or with excess anionic surface charge, no phase transformation occurs even at 90 C. A model was established to demonstrate the mechanism of the formation and transition of the aggregates with different morphologies. The segregation-crystallization mechanism works well with other cosmotropic counterions from the Hofmeister series. The observations provide a better understanding of how to control the membrane morphology of the aqueous solutions of cat-anionic surfactant mixtures. PMID:24559199

  5. Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax

    Bayes Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72 of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72 are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values, and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18 lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  6. An efficient method to modulate the structure, morphology and properties of WO3 through niobium doping

    Highlights: Nb-doped WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Nb doping in WO3 structure results in phase transformation and morphology evolution. Band gap increases from 2.72 to 2.78 eV after 05 at% Nb doping in WO3 structure. A balance between defect oxygen and absorbed oxygen results in steady-state photocurrent at 2 at% niobium doping. - Abstract: Doped tungsten oxide has been reported to provide enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectronic properties in catalyst and smart window applications. Here Nb-doped WO3 was synthesized to investigate the effect of doping on composition, structure and optical properties. It is shown that niobium ion implantation in WO3 structure results in the morphological evolution from nanosheet into nanoparticle. 5 at% niobium ion doping induces the phase transformation from monoclinic ?-WO3 to monoclinic ?-WO3. UVvis spectrum shows that niobium implantation results in the increase of the band gap and the shift of absorption edge. Photoelectric measurement indicates that photocurrent increases firstly and then decreases under UV irradiation. The results reported in this study will be useful in formulating optimum doping process to enhance desired photoelectric properties

  7. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

  8. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    Lopez, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the enviromental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semi-solid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological ...

  9. Morphological heterogeneity in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Al-Rubei, K; Rose, P E; Hill, F G

    1984-01-01

    Considerable heterogeneity of lymphoblast morphology in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been observed. One case showed unusual monocytic features and emphasised the need for marker studies in the accurate definition of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia phenotypes. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is rare but may have been previously underestimated by morphological misinterpretation. Further information is required to determine if the different morphological features of this...

  10. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

  11. Memory of Power Transformed

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  12. Iterative morphological algorithms for automated detection of land mines

    Batman, Sinan; Goutsias, John I.

    2000-08-01

    A new hybrid algorithm, based on combining the decorrelating and packing qualitites of Principal Component (PC) analysis and the shape extracting and filtering properties of Mathematical Morphology, is investigated in the frame-work of land mien detection. The new method is similar in spirit to the MM-MNF algorithm, which is based on a linear pre- filter, followed by a morphological multispectral detection component (MM). The new filter (PC-MM), has a similar concatenated structure, and addresses some of the weaknesses inherent in the linear component of the MM-MNF algorithm; namely, the susceptibility of the MNF transform to clutter inhomogeneity, as well as to variation sin clutter covariance estimation. The PC-MM algorithm addresses the stationarity problem by solely operating on image peaks extracted by a morphological top-hat transform. Therefore, the algorithm is much less susceptible to the present of different textural regions. Subsequently, the peaks in the extracted multispectral top-het image are projected into uncorrelated bands using the principal component (PC) transform. Due to the packing property of the PC transform, the target markers are typically found in the first and second bands in the PC transformed image. The targets are then detected using a variant of the morphological detection scheme. The new method provides a fast and satisfactory first-pass detection result, for images of different clutter homogeneities and target types. The extracted targets, from the first pass, are then issued to improve the detection result in a subsequent iteration, by updating covariance estimates of relevant filter variables.

  13. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

  14. Photochemical transformation of silver nanoparticles by combining blue and green irradiation

    Cardoso-Avila, P. E.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L., E-mail: jpichardo@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico); Krishna, C. Murali [Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Center (TMC) (India); Castro-Beltran, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) were transformed by means of photochemical synthesis using superluminescent LEDs. Flat rounded (21 nm) and decahedral nanoparticles (78 nm) were, respectively, obtained when the colloid was exposed to green and blue radiation. Furthermore, by changing from blue to green radiation at different exposure times, various morphologies and sizes were obtained. Exposure times shorter than 30 min of blue radiation followed by green radiation resulted on different morphologies such as twine rounded (42 nm), flat elongated (peanuts, 17 nm), and flat rounded nanoparticles (11 and 24 nm). Times longer than 45 min produced decahedral nanoparticles with corners ranging from rounded to sharp (size 71–78 nm). Additionally, these results showed that by controlling morphologies and sizes through the combination of blue and green light at different exposure times, it was possible to tune the plasmon band from 511 to 594 nm. Moreover, controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of prime importance in order to exploit their properties as part of novel emerging technologies.

  15. Photochemical transformation of silver nanoparticles by combining blue and green irradiation

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) were transformed by means of photochemical synthesis using superluminescent LEDs. Flat rounded (21 nm) and decahedral nanoparticles (78 nm) were, respectively, obtained when the colloid was exposed to green and blue radiation. Furthermore, by changing from blue to green radiation at different exposure times, various morphologies and sizes were obtained. Exposure times shorter than 30 min of blue radiation followed by green radiation resulted on different morphologies such as twine rounded (42 nm), flat elongated (peanuts, 17 nm), and flat rounded nanoparticles (11 and 24 nm). Times longer than 45 min produced decahedral nanoparticles with corners ranging from rounded to sharp (size 71–78 nm). Additionally, these results showed that by controlling morphologies and sizes through the combination of blue and green light at different exposure times, it was possible to tune the plasmon band from 511 to 594 nm. Moreover, controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of prime importance in order to exploit their properties as part of novel emerging technologies

  16. Phase transformations in Nb-Al-Ti alloys

    Phase relationships as well as morphological and crystallographic features in Nb-rich Nb-Al and Nb-Al-Ti alloys have been investigated. The phase boundaries involving the bcc and Nb3Al (A15 structure) were experimentally determined and several isothermal sections of the Nb-rich corner of the Nb-Al-Ti phase diagram established. The present findings show that (a) the solubility of Al in Nb is considerably less than that reported previously, (b) the high-temperature bcc phase undergoes an ordering transformation to the B2 structure, and (c) the ω phase also forms in these alloys. The sequence of decomposition of the high-temperature bcc phase during isothermal decomposition in the bcc + Nb3Al phase field has been systematically studied in these alloys. A wide variety of morphological features were found to be associated with the Nb3Al precipitates that formed in the bcc/B2 matrix during isothermal heat treatments. The lengthening kinetics of the plate-shaped Nb3Al precipitates were also studied

  17. Bosonic superconformal Toda model and dressing transformation

    The authors show the dressing transformations of the basic field and the classical chiral operators in the Bosonic Superconformal Toda model. After quantization, The related quantum algebra is obtained

  18. Refinement of printer transformations using weighted regression

    Balasubramanian, Raja; Maltz, Martin S.

    1996-03-01

    Printer characterization and color correction are often complex transformations, and are derived with numerous measurements or printer models. There are many sources of errors in these transforms, including inaccuracies in lookup table approximation, errors in the printer model, noise in the data, and spatial and temporal non-uniformities in the printer. A method is proposed to increase the accuracy of an existing printer transform with a relatively small number of refinement measurements. A weighted linear least-squares regression technique is used to improve the fit of the printer response to the refinement data. The hypothesis is that a locally linear transform can adequately capture the difference between the true printer transform and its approximation. In contrast to existing approaches that only refine the individual C, M, Y, K responses, the proposed method attempts to account for cross-colorant interactions by using mixed colors in the refinement set. Furthermore, the refinement data is not restricted to lying on a regular grid, and can be freely chosen based on any a priori knowledge about the printer. The approach is tested for two related transforms: the characterization transform which maps CMYK to L*a*b*; and its inverse, the color correction transform that maps L*a*b* to CMYK. Results show an improvement in transform accuracy with a relatively small number of measurements.

  19. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  20. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from AlZaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  1. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  2. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

  3. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  4. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas

  5. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Xiaodong Zheng; Xiaojie Wang

    2010-01-01

    Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondl...

  6. Transformation optics and metamaterials.

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak. PMID:20414221

  7. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  8. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  9. Direct current transformer

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  10. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  11. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  12. Power transformer testing

    Zagrobelna, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the method of oil-filled transformer monitoring by means of a fiber optic sensor. Our method can be extremely useful in case of prevent overheating and the winding failure. A special semiconductor technology plays an important role in such measurement. The tests were carried out by means of the developed test stand imitating a real power transformer.

  13. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  14. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

  15. Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial Peoples Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial Peoples Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial Peoples Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelialmesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelialmesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  16. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-20

    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity and/or recyclability of the nanostructured catalysts via control of the structure, composition of the catalytically active NPs, and/or nature of the support. These principles will aid researchers in the rational design and engineering of new types of multifunctional nanocatalysts for the achievement of green and sustainable chemical processes. Although the past decade has brought many advances, there are still challenges in the area of nanocatalysis that need to be addressed. These include loss of catalytic activity during operation due to sintering, leaching of soluble species from the nanocatalysts under harsh reaction conditions, loss of control over well-defined morphologies during the scale-up synthesis of the nanocomposites, and limited examples of enantioselective nanocatalytic systems. The future of nanocatalyst research lies in the judicious design and development of nanocomposite catalysts that are stable and resistant to sintering and leaching, and yet are highly active and enantioselective for the desired catalytic organic transformations, even after multiple runs. The successful generation of such multifunctional nanocatalysts especially in tandem, domino, or cascade reactions would provide a powerful tool for the establishment of green and sustainable technologies. PMID:23350747

  17. Grain Nucleation and Growth During Phase Transformations

    Offerman, S. E.; van Dijk, N. H.; Sietsma, J.; Grigull, S.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Margulies, L.; Poulsen, H. F.; Rekveldt, M. Th.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials are largely determined by the kinetics of the phase transformations during the production process. Progress in x-ray diffraction instrumentation at synchrotron sources has created an opportunity to study the transformation kinetics at the level of individual grains. Our measurements show that the activation energy for grain nucleation is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by thermodynamic models. The observed growth curves of the newly formed grains confirm the parabolic growth model but also show three fundamentally different types of growth. Insight into the grain nucleation and growth mechanisms during phase transformations contributes to the development of materials with optimal mechanical properties.

  18. Noether symmetries and duality transformations in cosmology

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the relation between local transformations generated by Noether (point) symmetries and discrete transformations for a class of minisuperspace cosmological models. Moreover as far as concerns the scale-factor duality of the dilaton field, we show that it is related to the existence of a Noether symmetry for the field equations. In particular, the same point symmetry exists for the Brans-Dicke- scalar field with linear potential for $\\omega_{BD}=1$ . Furthermore, in the context of the O'Hanlon theory for $f\\left( R\\right) $-gravity, it is possible to show how a duality transformation in the minisuperspace can be used to relate different gravitational models.

  19. An identity for triplets of double Hilbert transforms, with applications to the attenuated Radon transform

    We consider an elementary identity for double singular integrals in the plane and show that one can apply this to deduce inversion and product formulae for the Hilbert transform and inversion formulae for the affine and weighted Radon transforms. We will be able to allow many of the previously known weights for which there is an inversion formula for the weighted Radon transform and also pose some new conditions on which weights that can be used. (paper)

  20. Conformal Gauge Transformations in Thermodynamics

    Alessandro Bravetti; Cesar S Lopez-Monsalvo; Francisco Nettel(Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A.P. 50-542, México D.F. 04510, México)

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider conformal gauge transformations of the geometric structure of thermodynamic fluctuation theory. In particular, we show that the Thermodynamic Phase Space is naturally endowed with a non-integrable connection, defined by all those processes that annihilate the Gibbs 1-form, i.e. reversible processes. Therefore the geometry of reversible processes is invariant under re-scalings, that is, it has a conformal gauge freedom. Interestingly, as a consequence of the non-integr...

  1. Sarcomatous transformation in diaphyseal aclasis

    Multiple hereditary exostosis (or diaphyseal aclasis) is a condition characterized by the development of multiple osteochondromas. The tendency for malignant transformation into chondrosarcoma is well known. Malignancy typically arises from the cartilaginous cap of the osteochondroma. Radiographs supplemented by computed tomography have an important role in the diagnosis of this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging shows the features of sarcomatous change and aids in differentiating malignancy from pseudotumours

  2. Clifford (Geometric) Algebra Wavelet Transform

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    While the Clifford (geometric) algebra Fourier Transform (CFT) is global, we introduce here the local Clifford (geometric) algebra (GA) wavelet concept. We show how for $n=2,3 (\\mod 4)$ continuous $Cl_n$-valued admissible wavelets can be constructed using the similitude group $SIM(n)$. We strictly aim for real geometric interpretation, and replace the imaginary unit $i \\in \\C$ therefore with a GA blade squaring to $-1$. Consequences due to non-commutativity arise. We express the admissibility...

  3. Evidential Confirmation as Transformed Probability

    Grosof, Benjamin N.

    2013-01-01

    A considerable body of work in AI has been concerned with aggregating measures of confirmatory and disconfirmatory evidence for a common set of propositions. Claiming classical probability to be inadequate or inappropriate, several researchers have gone so far as to invent new formalisms and methods. We show how to represent two major such alternative approaches to evidential confirmation not only in terms of transformed (Bayesian) probability, but also in terms of each other. This unifies tw...

  4. The quantum fractional Fourier transform

    Nguyen, Nga; Somma, Rolando

    2014-03-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) is ubiquitous in signal processing, as it can be used to filter noise. The digital version, often named the discrete Fourier transform, when formulated on a basis of quantum states, is the quantum Fourier transform (QFT). The efficiency in the implementation of the QFT is the main reason for several quantum speedups, including the one for factoring and the one in phase estimation at the Heisenberg limit. The fractional FT (frFT) is a generalization of the FT. The frFT has recently gained attention in signal analysis as it can filter noise in scenarios where the FT is not useful. Quantum frFTs (QfrFTs), however, have never been proposed, constructed, or applied. In this work we propose a QfrFT and show that a good approximation of this transformation can be implemented on a quantum computer with exponentially less resources than those required for its conventional implementation. We then analyze some problems in signal analysis for which our defined QfrFT is useful.

  5. Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale

    Wang, Bei; Sain, Mohini; Oksman, Kristiina

    2007-03-01

    The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and 100 nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. The chemical analysis showed that selective chemical treatments increased the ?-cellulose content of hemp nanofibers from 75 to 94%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments. It was also observed that the hemp nanofibers had an increased crystallinity of 71 from 57% of untreated hemp fibers.

  6. Dynamic strain-induced transformation: An atomic scale investigation

    Phase transformations provide the most versatile access to the design of complex nanostructured alloys in terms of grain size, morphology, local chemical constitution etc. Here we study a special case of deformation induced phase transformation. More specifically, we investigate the atomistic mechanisms associated with dynamic strain-induced transformation (DSIT) in a dual-phased multicomponent iron-based alloy at high temperatures. DSIT phenomena and the associated secondary phase nucleation were observed at atomic scale using atom probe tomography. The obtained local chemical composition was used for simulating the nucleation process which revealed that DSIT, occurring during load exertion, proceeds by a diffusion-controlled nucleation process

  7. Morphological deformation during evaporation induced assembly of mixed colloidal suspension

    Sen, D.; Melo, J. S.; Bahadur, J.; Mazumder, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; D'Souza, S. F.

    2010-12-01

    Sphere to deformed doughnut type transformation of colloidal droplets during evaporation induced assembly of colloidal silica and E. coli was observed. Distortion modulations get amplified with increase in volume fraction of anisotropic soft colloidal component. Reduction in elastic constants of formed shell, at the boundary of a drying droplet, and the anisotropic nature of bacterial component facilitate the deformation process. The charge modification of E. coli surface by Poly cationic Polytheleneimine ceases the morphological transformation and results spherical assembled grains. Hierarchical structures of these assembled colloidal grains have been probed using electron microscopy and small- angle neutron scattering techniques.

  8. Correlation of bacterial mutagenicity and hamster cell transformation with tumorigenicity induced by 2,4-toluenediamine.

    Pienta, R J; Shah, M J; Lebherz, W B; Andrews, A W

    1977-07-01

    In the presence of rat liver microsome enzymes, 2,4-toluenediamine (TDA) was mutagenic for several tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. TDA induced morphological transformation in an in vitro carcinogenesis system using secondary culture target cells prepared from cryopreserved primary Syrian hamster embryo cells. These results now correlate bacterial mutagenicity and in vitro morphological transformation with the reported tumorigenicity of this compound. PMID:196749

  9. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

  10. Flexoelectricity via coordinate transformations

    Stengel, Massimiliano

    2014-03-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the electric polarization that is linearly induced by a strain gradient, and is being intensely investigated as a tantalizing new route to converting mechanical stimulation into electrical signals and vice versa. While several breakthough experiments have been reported in the past few years, progress on the theoretical front has been comparatively slow, especially in the context of first-principles electronic-structure theory. The main difficulty with calculating the flexoelectric response of a material is the inherent breakdown of translational periodicity that a strain gradient entails, which at first sight questions the very applicability of traditional plane-wave pseudopotential methods. In this talk I will show how these obstacles can be overcome by combining density-functional perturbation theory with generalized coordinate transformations, gaining access to the full microscopic response (in terms of electronic charge density, polarization and atomic displacements) of a crystal or nanostructure to an arbitrary deformation field. As a practical demonstration, I will present results on the full flexoelectric response of a SrTiO3 film, including atomic relaxations and surface effects.

  11. Comparative study on ? energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise ? energy spectrum of 60Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for ? energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to ? energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  12. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to achieve three distinct material responses with a singe metamaterial unit cell. We show the power of our design by experimentally demonstrating a cloak of ten wavelengths in diameter at microwave frequencies. In addition to these specific examples, we seek a general method to simulate transformation optics devices containing metamaterial inclusions. In Chapter 5, we examine the discrete-approximation, and we apply it to the design of an electromagnetic cloak. We show that the point-dipole description of metamaterial elements allows us to correct for some aberrations that appear when the limits of homogenization are violated. Finally, we examine so-called ``complementary metamaterials'' and their utility in transformation optics devices. Complementary metamaterials exchange the void and metallized regions of conventional metamaterial elements, and thereby offer a dual response to the electromagnetic field. This duality is attractive because it provides a straightforward method of creating broadband, highly-anisotropic magnetics. We analyze these elements and show that they may be incorporated into our discrete-dipole model. However, we show that the unique characteristics of complementary elements limit their functionality when used as effective materials.

  13. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Andrea Mess

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  14. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  15. Transformation elastodynamics and cloaking for flexural waves

    Colquitt, D J; Gei, M; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Jones, I S

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses an important issue of cloaking transformations for fourth-order partial differential equations representing flexural waves in thin elastic plates. It is shown that, in contrast with the Helmholtz equation, the general form of the partial differential equation is not invariant with respect to the cloaking transformation. The significant result of this paper is the analysis of the transformed equation and its interpretation in the framework of the linear theory of pre-stressed plates. The paper provides a formal framework for transformation elastodynamics as applied to elastic plates. Furthermore, an algorithm is proposed for designing a square cloak for flexural waves, which employs a regularised push-out transformation. Illustrative numerical examples show high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed cloaking algorithm. In particular, a physical configuration involving a perturbation of an interference pattern generated by two coherent sources is presented. It is demonstrated that the pert...

  16. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large microhardness distribution can usually be detected in specimens with tiny ferrites because some ferrite grains are in a fresh state, without carbides, due to high austenite/ferrite interface movement velocities. Furthermore, one important technological limit that should be kept in mind is the difficulty of developing only one type of precipitation morphology (i.e., interface precipitation or random precipitation) within every ferrite grain

  17. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel; Wurtz, Gregory; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices.

  18. Analysis of Texture Classification By Wavelet Transform And Curvelet Transform

    M.Santhanalakshmi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the task of texture image classification is analyzed by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete CurveletTransform (DCT. The wavelet and curvelet coefficients are used to describe the textures in the given image. These coefficients are obtained by the decomposition process. First, the texture image is decomposed by using DWT and DCT at multiscale. As the sub-bands in the decomposed image carries diverse information about the texture, predefined number of coefficients is selected in each sub-band image. Before selecting the coefficients, sub-band coefficients are sorted in order to account high energy coefficients. The results show that the classification accuracy of DWT based features outperforms the DCT energies. The classification accuracy of DWT is 5% higher than DCT features at 2-level decomposition with 50% of coefficients used.

  19. The HCP To BCC Phase Transformation in Ti Characterized by Nanosecond Electron Microscopy

    Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; King, W; Colvin, J; Ziegler, A; Browning, N; Kleinschmidt, H; Bostanjoglo, O

    2005-06-21

    The general class of martensitic phase transformations occurs by a rapid lattice-distortive mechanism, where kinetics and morphology of the transformation are dominated by the strain energy. Since transformation is diffusionless, phase fronts propagate through a crystal with great speed that can approach the speed of sound. We have observed a particular example of this class of phase transformation, the hexagonal close packed (HCP) to body centered cubic (BCC) transformation in titanium that is driven by a rapid increase in temperature. We have used a novel nanosecond electron microscope (the dynamic transmission electron microscope, DTEM) to acquire diffraction and imaging information on the transformation, which is driven in-situ by nanosecond laser irradiation. Using nanosecond exposure times that are possible in the DTEM, data can be collected about the transient events in these fast transformations. We have identified the phase transformation with diffraction patterns and correlated the time of the phase transformation with calculated conditions in the sample.

  20. A Selective CPS Transformation

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  1. Transformers and motors

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  2. Transformer generated magnetic fields

    Magnetic fields produced by both small and large apparatus are being investigated for their possible relation to human health effects. A number of studies have been done in characterizing the magnetic field generated by transmission lines, household wiring and appliances. Two other major sources of magnetic fields are motors and transformers. The magnetic field generated by power transformers has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally quantify the magnetic field of a power transformer and compare it with calculated results obtained using one of the numerical techniques

  3. Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services

    Chang, William Y; Sanford, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services" addresses the fundamental ideology of Cloud Services and how enterprises in commercial, federal, and defense industries can transform their current information technology and management models to adopt this new method. It goes beyond the mere description of service frameworks in relation to cloud technologies and operations and provides practical path-forward solutions for identified challenges. For instance, as organizations transform their data and service models to compete in a new environment where data and services coexist with others in

  4. Towards Approximate Model Transformations

    Troya, Javier; Wimmer, Manuel; Vallecillo, Antonio; Burgueño, Loli

    2014-01-01

    As the size and complexity of models grow, there is a need to count on novel mechanisms and tools for transforming them. This is required, e.g., when model transformations need to provide target models without having access to the complete source models or in really short time—as it happens, e.g., with streaming models—or with very large models for which the transformation algorithms become too slow to be of practical use if the complete population of a model is investigated. In this pa...

  5. Solid phase transformations II

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  6. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  7. Laplace transforms essentials

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  8. Morphology of Treponema pallidum.

    Ovcinnikov, N M; Delektorskij, V V

    1966-01-01

    In recent years many investigations have been carried out on the morphology of Treponema pallidum by means of the electron microscope, and the use of ultra-thin sections has shown up a number of structural details. However, there is still need for much more evidence before the internal structure of treponemes can be elucidated fully and the functions of the structures interpreted. To provide such evidence, the authors have examined under the electron microscope negative-stained treponemes and ultra-thin sections, using both cultivated strains and treponemes obtained direct from syphilids in people suffering from fresh secondary syphilis. It has been shown that treponemes have a complex structure. T. pallidum has a two-layered outer wall, a cytoplasmic membrane proper, cytoplasm and a bunch of fibrils following a different path in different places on the treponeme. The sites of insertion of the fibrils (the basal granules) were investigated; structures similar to mesosomes and nucleoids were found. Cysts and granular forms are described. PMID:5332527

  9. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  10. Quantified H I morphology - VII. Star formation and tidal influence on local dwarf H I morphology

    Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Blyth, S.-L.

    2013-10-01

    Scale-invariant morphology parameters applied to atomic hydrogen maps (H I) of galaxies can be used to quantify the effects of tidal interaction or star formation on the interstellar matter (ISM). Here we apply these parameters, concentration, asymmetry, smoothness, Gini, M20, and the GM parameter, to two public surveys of nearby dwarf galaxies, the Very Large Array-ANGST and Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes-The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, to explore whether tidal interaction or the ongoing or past star formation is a dominant force shaping the H I disc of these dwarfs. Previously, H I morphological criteria were identified for ongoing spiral-spiral interactions. When we apply these to the irregular dwarf population, they either select almost all or none of the population. We find that only the asymmetry-based criteria can be used to identify very isolated dwarfs (i.e. these have a low tidal indication). Otherwise, there is little or no relation between the level of tidal interaction and the H I morphology. We compare the H I morphology to three star formation rates based on either H?, far-ultraviolet or the resolved stellar population, probing different star formation time-scales. The H I morphology parameters that trace the inequality of the distribution, the Gini, GM, and M20 parameters, correlate weakly with all these star formation rates. This is in line with the picture that local physics dominates the ISM appearance and not tidal effects. Finally, we compare the Sloan Digital Sky Survey measures of star formation and stellar mass to the H I morphological parameters for all four H I surveys. In the two lower resolution H I surveys (12 arcsec), there is no relation between star formation measures and H I morphology. The morphology of the two high-resolution H I surveys (6 arcsec), the asymmetry, smoothness, Gini, M20, and GM do show a link to the total star formation, but a weak one.

  11. A transformation system for the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia mytilus

    Wünning, Ingrid U.; Lipps, Hans J.

    1983-01-01

    We describe a transformation system for the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus. The neomycin resistance gene from Escherichia coli transposon Tn5, which codes for the enzyme phosphotransferase and confers resistance to the antibiotic G 418, was ligated into macronuclear `gene-size' DNA molecules. Using this recombinant DNA for transformation experiments we show that the gene is replicated and expressed in transformed cells.

  12. Morphology control of brushite prepared by aqueous solution synthesis

    T. Toshima

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD, CaHPO4·2H2O, also known as brushite, is one of the important bioceramics due to not only diseases factors such as kidney stone and plaque formation but also purpose as fluoride insolubilization material. It is used medicinally to supply calcium, and is of interest for its unique properties in biological and pathological mineralization. It is important to control the crystal morphology of brushite since its chemical reactivity depends strongly on its surface properties; thus, its morphology is a key issue for its applications as a functional material or precursor for other bioceramics. Here, we report the effects of the initial pH and the Ca and phosphate ion concentrations on the morphology of DCPD particles during aqueous solution synthesis. Crystal morphologies were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The morphology phase diagram of DCPD crystallization revealed that increasing the initial pH and/or ion concentration transformed DCPD morphology from petal-like into plate-like structures.

  13. Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation

    We show that two ways of manipulating quantum entanglement - namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)]--are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation

  14. Nanoclay-Directed Structure and Morphology in PVDF Electrospun Membranes

    Kyunghwan Yoon; Antonios Kelarakis

    2014-01-01

    The incorporation of organically modified Lucentite nanoclay dramatically modifies the structure and morphology of the PVDF electrospun fibers. In a molecular level, the nanoclay preferentially stabilizes the all-trans conformation of the polymer chain, promoting an ? to ? transformation of the crystalline phase. The piezoelectric properties of the ?-phase carry great promise for energy harvest applications. At a larger scale, the nanoclay facilitates the formation of highly uniform, bead-fre...

  15. On validation of ATL transformation rules by transformation models

    Buettner, Fabian; Cabot, Jordi; Gogolla, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Model-to-model transformations constitute an important ingredient in model-driven engineering. As real world transformations are complex, systematic approaches are required to ensure their correctness. The ATLAS Transformation Language (ATL) is a mature transformation language which has been successfully applied in several areas. However, the executable nature of ATL is a barrier for the validation of transformations. In contrast, transformation models provide an integrated structural descrip...

  16. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  17. Transformation characteristics of shape memory alloy composites

    Shape memory alloy (SMA) composites are being used in an ever-expanding set of applications. For new applications, SMA composites are being developed incorporating a wide variety of matrices. The effect of these new compositions on the transformation behavior of the SMA inhomogeneities and on the effective composite behavior is explored here. An analytic methodology combining micromechanical methods with an SMA constitutive model is developed to determine the overall transformation properties of the composite. Specifically, the effective phase diagram, the effective transformation strains and the composite stress state before and after transformation are determined. The results obtained from the analyses of an SMA–ceramic composite show that after transformation the stress distribution between the two phases is modified such that the stress in the direction of applied loading in the SMA phase is reduced while the stress in the same direction in the ceramic phase increases. This stress redistribution decreases the local transformation strain in the direction of loading and results in an increase of the applied stress necessary to initiate and complete the forward and reverse transformation at a specific temperature. The effects of the elastic modulus of the matrix and volume fraction of the SMA inhomogeneities on the transformation behavior are explored through a parametric study to understand their influence on SMA composite design

  18. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    Highlights: ► The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ► The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ► The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ► A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ► Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  19. Transformation from Al{sub 3}BC phase to doped TiB{sub 2} or TiC particles in AlTi melts

    Tian, Wenjie; Li, Pengting; Gao, Tong; Nie, Jinfeng [Key Laboratory of LiquidSolid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of LiquidSolid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al{sub 3}BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB{sub 2} and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al5Ti0.8B0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al8B2C master alloy was added into AlTi melts to study the reaction of Al{sub 3}BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al5Ti0.8B0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB{sub 2} and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al{sub 3}BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al5Ti0.8B0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated.

  20. Finite BMS transformations

    Barnich, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The action of finite BMS and Weyl transformations on the gravitational data at null infinity is worked out in three and four dimensions in the case of an arbitrary conformal factor for the boundary metric induced on Scri.