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Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Morphological Transformation from Galaxy Harassment

    Moore, B; Katz, N; Moore, Ben; Lake, George; Katz, Neal

    1997-01-01

    The morphological content of galaxy clusters has undergone a remarkable transition over the past several billion years. Distant clusters at z \\sim 0.4 are filled with small spiral galaxies, many of which are disturbed and show evidence of multiple bursts of star-formation. This population is absent from nearby clusters where spheroidals comprise the faint end of the luminosity function. We present numerical simulations that follow the evolution of disk galaxies in a rich cluster owing to encounters with brighter galaxies and the cluster's tidal field-galaxy harassment. After a bursting transient phase, they undergo a complete morphological transformation from ``disks" to``spheroidals". We examine the remnants and find support for our theory in detailed comparisons of the photometry and kinematics of the spheroidal galaxies in clusters. Our model naturally accounts for the intermediate age stellar population seen in these spheroidals as well as the trend in dwarf to giant ratio with cluster richness. The final...

  2. Enhancement of Images using Morphological Transformation

    Sreedhar, K; 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4103

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber's law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber's law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are pres...

  3. Lattice calculus of the morphological slope transform

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.; Maragos, P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the morphological slope transform in the complete lattice framework. It discusses in detail the interrelationships between the slope transform at one hand and the (Young-Fenchel) conjugate and Legendre transform, two well-known concepts from convex analysis, at the oth

  4. Transformation of Galaxy Morphology and Luminosity Classes

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2007-01-01

    We present a unified picture on the evolution of galaxy luminosity and morphology. Galaxy morphology is found to depend critically on the local environment set up by the nearest neighbor galaxy in addition to luminosity and the large scale density. When a galaxy is located farther than the virial radius from its closest neighbor, the probability for the galaxy to have an early morphological type is an increasing function only of luminosity and the local density due to the nearest neighbor ($\\rho_1$). The tide produced by the nearest neighbor is thought to be responsible for the morphology transformation toward the early type at these separations. When the separation is less than the virial radius, i.e. when $\\rho_1 > \\rho_{\\rm virial}$, its morphology depends also on the neighbor's morphology and the large-scale background density over a few Mpc scales ($\\rho_{20}$) in addition to luminosity and $\\rho_1$. The early type probability keeps increasing as $\\rho_1$ increases if its neighbor is an early type. But t...

  5. Morphological transformations of silver nanoparticles in seedless photochemical synthesis

    Lu, Ya; Zhang, Congyun; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Dongjie; Fu, Yizheng; Moeendarbari, Sina; Pickering, Christopher S.; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Yaqing

    2016-05-01

    Photochemical synthesis is an easily controlled and reliable method for the fabrication of silver (Ag) nanoparticles with various morphologies. In this work, we have systematically investigated the seedless photochemical synthesis of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles with and without PVP as surface capping agent. The time evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles during the synthesis process are studied using UV–visible spectra, optical images and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the light irradiation precisely controls the start and termination of the reaction, and the presence or absence of PVP greatly affects the morphology evolution of anisotropic Ag nanoparticles. With PVP as the surface capping agent, Ag nanoparticles grow into decahedra or prism by the deposition of Ag atoms on {111} or {110} facets through epitaxial growth. However, a different morphology evolution could happen when Ag nanoparticle is synthesized without PVP as surface capping agent. In this case, Ag nanoparticles can fuse into the decahedrons through an edge-selective particle fusion mechanism, which involves attachment, rotation and realignment of Ag nanoparticles. This process was evidenced with HRTEM images at the different stages of the transformation from Ag colloid to decahedra nanoparticles. Oriented attachment and Ostwald ripening also play important role in the transformation process.

  6. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  7. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  8. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Amon, Miha; Jager, Franc

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT

  9. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations.

    Miha Amon

    Full Text Available Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping, thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB. As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3 classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The

  10. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Chan Kap; Sun Yan; Krishnan Shankar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG). Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD) transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by subs...

  11. Morphologic and Process Transformation at a Barrier Island of Taiwan

    Lin, T.

    2006-12-01

    Waisanding Barrier, the largest barrier island off the southwestern coast of Taiwan, has undergone morphologic and process transformation in recent decades. Based on the analysis of historical maps and aerial photographs, the island has migrated both southward and eastward (or landward). The shoreline at the northwest tip of the island has a retreat rate at 65 m/year, and the shoreline at the southern end migrates at a speed of 88 m/year southeastward. The overall land area has shrunken. Topographic profile surveys also show the great reduction of dune fields and the dune heights. This is mainly due to the starvation of sand sources. Three main processes have been proposed to explain the island migration: (1) the southward- dominant longshore drift; (2) the overwash process; and (3) the prevailing southward aeolian sand transport. Choushui river, the largest river in Taiwan, is the major sediment source for the Waisanding Barrier. Improvement constructions and illegal sand/gravel mining of the river may reduce large amounts of sediments that reach the shore. An artificial industrial park project located at the south of Choushui river mouth may also play an important role in blocking and preventing some of the southward longshore sand transport from reaching Waisanding Barrier. A permanent loss of sand to a submarine channel at the southern end had probably worsened the sediment storage of the barrier island. The strong wind transport during winter and the overwash process during spring high tides or stormy conditions may reduce the foredune and overall elevation of the island. This landform modification may result in the increase of overwash frequencies that move more sand landward and lower the elevation. As the results, the original back shore and dune field area are developed into a wide sandy tidal flat with many shallow tidal creeks formed during rising high tide stages. Because of all the landform changes in recent decades, the barrier island may undergo the

  12. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  13. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  14. Fractal analysis of polyethylene catalysts surface morphologies based on wavelet transform modulus maxima method

    2007-01-01

    Surface morphologies of supported polyethylene (PE) catalysts are investigated by an approach combining fractal with wavelet. The multiscale edge (detail) pictures of catalyst surface are extracted by wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method. And, the distribution of edge points on the edge image at every scale is studied with fractal and multifractal method. Furthermore, the singularity intensity distribution of edge points in the PE catalyst is analyzed by multifractal spectrum based on WTMM. The results reveal that the fractal dimension values and multifractal spectrums of edge images at small scales have a good relation with the activity and surface morphology of PE catalyst. Meanwhile the catalyst exhibiting the higher activity shows the wider singular strength span of multifractal spectrum based on WTMM, as well as the more edge points with the higher singular intensity. The research on catalyst surface morphology with hybrid fractal and wavelet method exerts the superiorities of wavelet and fractal theories and offers a thought for studying solid surfaces morphologies.

  15. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  16. A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation

    A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.)

  17. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  18. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Joëlle V. F. Coumans; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J.; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ) revealed a to...

  19. Morphological hat-transform scale spaces and their use in texture classification

    Jalba, A.C.; Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Wilkinson, M.H.F.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a multi-scale morphological method for use in texture classification. A connected operator similar to the morphological hat-transform is defined, and two scale-space representations are built. The most important features are extracted from the scale spaces by unsupervised cl

  20. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    Julieta E. Lischinsky

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10 to 12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism within pregnancy (HYPO and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses suggesting mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects

  1. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    Miha Amon; Franc Jager

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morph...

  2. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  3. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shells during maturation process

    Konevtsova, O V; Rochal, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a minimal phenomenological model for a morphological transformation in viral capsid shells. The transformation takes place during virus maturation process which renders virus infectious. The theory is illustrated on the example of the HK97 bacteriophage and viruses with similar morphological changes in the protective protein shell. The transformation is shown to be a structural phase transition driven by two order parameters. The first order parameter describes the isotropic expansion of the protein shell while the second one is responsible for the shape symmetry breaking and the resulting shell faceting. The group theory analysis and the resulting thermodynamic model make it possible to choose the parameter which discriminates between the icosahedral shell faceting often observed in viral capsids and the dodecahedral one observed in viruses of the Parvovirus family. Calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus morpholog...

  4. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  5. On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.;

    2011-01-01

    NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 × 10. In...

  6. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Xingsheng Hou

    Full Text Available FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7 and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcAΔ revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (≥10% emPAI in each spot. The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase, nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase, stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein. The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome.

  7. Secular Evolution and the Morphological Transformation of Cluster and Field Galaxies

    Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiaolei; Buta, Ronald J.

    2006-01-01

    Deep surveys conducted during the past decades have shown that galaxies in the distant universe are generally of more irregular shapes, and are disky in appearance and in their star formation rate, compared to galaxies in similar environments in the nearby universe. Given that the merger rate between z=2 and the local universe is far from adequate to account for this observed morphological transformation rate, an internal mechanism for the morphological transformation of galaxies is to be sought, whose operation can be further aided by environmental factors. The secular evolution mechanism, especially with the discovery of a collisionless dissipation mechanism for stars within the secular evolution paradigm, has provided just such a framework for understanding the morphological evolution of galaxies across the Hubble time. In this paper we will summarize the past theoretical results on the dynamical mechanisms for secular evolution, and highlight new results in the analysis of the observational data, which co...

  8. Major mergers are not significant drivers of star formation or morphological transformation around the epoch of peak cosmic star formation

    Lofthouse, E K; Conselice, C J; Mortlock, A; Hartley, W

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the contribution of major mergers (mass ratios $>1:5$) to stellar mass growth and morphological transformations around the epoch of peak cosmic star formation ($z\\sim2$). We visually classify a complete sample of massive (M $>$ 10$^{10}$M$_{\\odot}$) galaxies at this epoch, drawn from the CANDELS survey, into late-type galaxies, major mergers, spheroids and disturbed spheroids which show morphological disturbances. Given recent simulation work, which indicates that recent ($<$0.3-0.4 Gyr) major-merger remnants exhibit clear tidal features in such images, we use the fraction of disturbed spheroids to probe the role of major mergers in driving morphological transformations. The percentage of blue spheroids (i.e. with ongoing star formation) that show morphological disturbances is only 21 $\\pm$ 4%, indicating that major mergers are not the dominant mechanism for spheroid creation at $z\\sim2$ - other processes, such as minor mergers or cold accretion are likely to be the main drivers of this proc...

  9. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe4N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe4N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe4N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe4N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe4N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior

  10. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    Jiao, Dongling, E-mail: dljiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine α-Fe and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N plus retained austenite γ, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (α-Fe + γ′-Fe{sub 4}N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the γ (austenite) and γ′-Fe{sub 4}N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the γ (austenite) and the bainitic α-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized α-Fe + γ′ + γ (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The α-Fe and γ/γ′-Fe{sub 4}N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior.

  11. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  12. Morphological transformation of an established Syrian hamster dermal cell with the anti-tussive agent noscapine.

    Porter, R; Parry, E M; Parry, J M

    1992-05-01

    Following exposure to the alkaloid noscapine hydrochloride over a concentration range of 10-120 micrograms/ml immortal cultures of Syrian hamster dermal fibroblasts were shown to undergo morphological transformation. The resultant transformed foci produced cultures which were anchorage independent as confirmed by soft agar tests. Karyotype analysis of a noscapine transformed colony demonstrated an increase in chromosome number compared to the immortal culture and the non-random duplication of a translocated chromosome 9 previously identified in the immortal culture. These data indicate that noscapine, which has previously been shown to be a spindle inhibitor and inducer of polyploidy in cultured cells, is capable of inducing in vitro cell transformation. Such data indicate a carcinogenic potential for this widely used cough suppressant. PMID:1602976

  13. Does the morphology of the ear of the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis) show "Subterranean" characteristics?

    Pleštilová, Lucie; Hrouzková, Ema; Burda, Hynek; Šumbera, Radim

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the growing interest in rodents with subterranean activity in general and the spalacids (Spalacidae) in particular, little is known about the biology of most members of this clade, such as the Chinese bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis). Here, we analyzed the ear morphology of R. sinensis with respect to hearing specialization for subterranean or aboveground modes of communication. It is well-known that ecology and style of life of a particular species can be reflected in morphology of its ear, its hearing and vocalization, so we expect that such information could provide us insight into its style of life and its sensory environment. The ratio between the eardrum and stapedial footplate areas, which influences the efficiency of middle ear sound transmission, suggests low hearing sensitivity, as is typical for subterranean species. The cochlea had 3.25 coils and resembled species with good low frequency hearing typical for subterranean mammals. The length of the basilar membrane was 18.9 ± 0.8 mm and its width slowly increased towards the cochlear apex from 60 to 85 μm. The mean density of outer hair cells was 344 ± 22 and of inner hair cells 114 ± 7.3 per 1 mm length of the organ of Corti, and increased apically. These values (except for relatively low hair cell density) usually characterize ears specialized for low frequency hearing. There was no evidence for an acoustic fovea. Apart of low hair cell density which is common in aboveground animals, this species has also relatively large auricles, suggesting the importance of sound localization during surface activity. The ear of the Chinese bamboo rat thus contains features typical for both aboveground and subterranean mammals and suggests that this spalacid has fossorial habits combined with regular aboveground activity. PMID:26880690

  14. Text Detection in Video Using Haar Wavelet Transformation and Morphological Operator

    Dinesh AnnajiKene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simple and efficient method for text detection, extraction and localization from video or static images using Haar wavelet and Morphological operator. Haar wavelet transform have its coefficients either 1 or -1 , so that the operation speed of Haar wavelet transformation is fastest among all wavelets. The sub bands contain both text edges and non-text edges however the intensity of text edges is different that of the non-text edges. Instead of using Canny operator we used Sobal operator for edge detection because Sobal operator detect more edges than Canny operator when there is text information. Morphological operators are applied to edit or smoothing out the text region. Then detected text regions are further decomposed into character level. Then using some refinement the final text region are obtained.

  15. Postnatal lung function and morphology in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha.

    Hardie, W. D.; Bruno, M D; Huelsman, K. M.; Iwamoto, H S; Carrigan, P. E.; Leikauf, G D; Whitsett, J A; Korfhagen, T R

    1997-01-01

    Developmental changes in lung morphology and physiology during postnatal alveolarization were assessed in transgenic mice expressing transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) in pulmonary type II cells under control of the surfactant protein C gene promoter. TGF-alpha transcripts were identified in respiratory epithelial cells at 1 day of age to adulthood. Enlargement of alveolar airspaces and fibrosis were detected as early as 1 week of age, and the increased airspace progressed with adva...

  16. An Algorithm for Ship Wake Detection from the SAR Images Using the Radon Transform and Morphological Image Processing

    2001-01-01

    Using the Rador transform and morphological image processing, an algorithm for ship's wake detection in the SAR (synthetic aperture radar) image is developed. Being manipulated in the Radon space to invert the gray-level and binary images, the linesr texture of ship wake in oceanic clutter can be well detected. It has been applied to the automatic detection of a moving ship from the SEASAT SAR image. The results show that this algorithm is well robust in a strong noisy background and is not very sensitive to the threshold parameter and the working window size.

  17. Transforming growth factor-β2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Jing; Wang; Ting-Jun; Fan; Xiu-Xia; Yang; Shi-Min; Chang

    2014-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-β2(TGF-β2) on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells(HCECs)in vitro.METHODS:After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-β2 at different concentrations, the morphology,cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy,immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-β2 at the concentration of 3-15 μg/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 μg/L was the peak concentration. TGF-β2(9 μg/L) altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36 h, increased the mean optical density(P <0.01) and the length of F-actin,reduced the mean optical density(P <0.01) of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix(ECM) and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72 h.·CONCLUTION: TGF-β2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  18. Physiological outperformance at the morphologically-transformed edge of the cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida when confronting opponent corals.

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge's growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%, the δ13C value (ca. 4%, free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%, and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115% compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm, which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319 and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle.

  19. Atomic force microscopy studies on phase transitions and surface morphology transformation of CMTC crystals

    Jiang, X.N.; Xu, D.; Yuan, D.R.; Sun, D.L.; Lu, M.K.; Jiang, M.H. [State Key Laboratory of Crystal Materials, Institute of Crystal Materials, Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2002-11-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the phase transitions and surface morphology transformation of cadmium mercury thiocyanate (CMTC) crystals, which are highly efficient nonlinear optical (NLO) materials for generating blue-violet light by laser frequency doubling. Amorphous aggregates at the crystalline steps become greatly contracted and much more crystalloid after the crystal was kept for one day. Elimination of dangling bonds, which lower the surface free energy at the crystal surface, and structural adjustment inside the crystal are assumed to cause this phase transition. Surface morphology transformations were also observed in CMTC crystals during and after multiple scanning by AFM tips. We have visualized the continuous translation process from two-dimensional nuclei to trigonal microcrystals with almost equal sizes during multiple scanning. In other cases, however, the surface morphology did not change at all during scanning, but became greatly altered hours after scanning. These experimental results suggest that reconstruction is a characteristic growth phenomenon on CMTC crystal surfaces. Reconstruction probably results from the formation of intervening metastable phases that have the potential to arrive at more stable stages; however, multiple scanning of AFM tips greatly affects this translation process. (orig.)

  20. The effect of cooling rate and austenite grain size on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in microalloyed steels

    The effect of different austenite grain size and different cooling rates on the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature and different ferrite morphologies in one Nb-microalloyed high strength low alloy steel has been investigated. Three different austenite grain sizes were selected and cooled at two different cooling rates for obtaining austenite to ferrite transformation temperature. Moreover, samples with specific austenite grain size have been quenched, partially, for investigation on the microstructural evolution. In order to assess the influence of austenite grain size on the ferrite transformation temperature, a temperature differences method is established and found to be a good way for detection of austenite to ferrite, pearlite and sometimes other ferrite morphologies transformation temperatures. The results obtained in this way show that increasing of austenite grain size and cooling rate has a significant influence on decreasing of the ferrite transformation temperature. Micrographs of different ferrite morphologies show that at high temperatures, where diffusion rates are higher, grain boundary ferrite nucleates. As the temperature is lowered and the driving force for ferrite formation increases, intragranular sites inside the austenite grains become operative as nucleation sites and suppress the grain boundary ferrite growth. The results indicate that increasing the austenite grain size increases the rate and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite in two different cooling rates. Moreover, by increasing of cooling rate, the austenite to ferrite transformation temperature decreases and volume fraction of intragranular ferrite increases.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the morphology transformations in unzipped carbon nanotubes

    Xu, Jiafang; Zhang, Yingnan; Wang, Tao; Zheng, Xin; Li, Wen; Dong, Zihan; Wang, Wensen

    2016-08-01

    Tuning the assembly of carbon nanomaterials to obtain a kaleidoscope of carbon nanostructures is very important and challenging for the development of nanotechnology. Using molecular dynamics simulations method, we studied the morphology transformations of unzipped CNTs with different unzipping patterns. By modulating the unzipping patterns, the CNTs could self-assemble forming graphene nanoribbons and carbon nanoscrolls. From the energy analyzation, we find that the van der Waals interactions are responsible for the assembly of the unzipped CNTs. This unusual self-assembling method for CNTs could provide clues for further studies on the design of novel nanostructures.

  2. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  3. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ∼9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe3−δO4) generated from F (δ∼0.04) and L (δ∼0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (δ∼0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ► Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ► Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ► Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ► Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ► Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  4. Mechanically alloyed and hot pressed Ni-49.7Ti alloy showing martensitic transformation

    The Ni-49.7Ti (at.%) alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and different steps of milling were investigated. An almost fully amorphous alloy was obtained after 32 h of milling. After consolidation by uniaxial hot die pressing and annealing at 1000 deg. C for 28 h, a complicated multiphase structure composed of Ni3Ti, NiTi2 and NiTi phases was formed. The β-NiTi phase undergoes reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation (MT) with Ms temperature as high as 172 deg. C. This phenomenon was explained by Fe and Cr solute content introducing during milling and formation of the 4H martensite structure. The structure observations performed using scanning electron microscopy allowed to conclude that the average chemical composition of individual grains was Ti--49.7, Ni--47.76, Fe--2.54 (all in at.%). The second phase between the rounded β-NiTi grains was identified as the Ni3Ti phase and additionally, in some other places of the sample the Ni3Ti phase was also found. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sintered samples confirmed the presence of 4H martensite within fine grains of the β-NiTi phase

  5. Morphological Transformation of Plant Cells in vitro and Its Effect on Plant Growth

    GUO Zhigang; ZENG Zhaolin; LIU Ruizhi; DENG Ying

    2005-01-01

    Enhancement of cell growth in suspension cultures is urgently needed in plant cell culture engineering. This study investigates the relationship between morphological transformation and cell growth in callus and suspension cultures of saffron cells belonging to the cell line C96 induced from Crocus sativus L. In the suspension culture, an unbalanced osmotic pressure between the intracell and extracell regions induced a large morphological transformation which affected normal division of the saffron cells. An increase in osmotic pressure caused by the addition of sucrose inhibits the vacuolation and shrinkage of cytoplasm in the cells. As the sucrose concentration increases, the total amount of accumulated biomass also increases. Besides the sucrose concentration, increased ionic strength and inoculation ratio also help restrain to a large extent the vacuolation and shrinkage of the cytoplasm in the suspended cells, which results in increased biomass. The conditions for optimal biomass are: Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium with 40 g/L sucrose and 60% (v/v) inoculation ratio.

  6. Mass assembly and morphological transformations since $z\\sim3$ from CANDELS

    Huertas-Company, M; Pérez-González, P G; Ashby, M L N; Barro, G; Conselice, C; Daddi, E; Dekel, A; Dimauro, P; Faber, S M; Grogin, N A; Kartaltepe, J S; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Mei, S; Shankar, F

    2016-01-01

    [abridged] We quantify the evolution of the stellar mass functions of star-forming and quiescent galaxies as a function of morphology from $z\\sim 3$ to the present. Our sample consists of ~50,000 galaxies in the CANDELS fields ($\\sim880$ $arcmin^2$), which we divide into four main morphological types, i.e. pure bulge dominated systems, pure spiral disk dominated, intermediate 2-component bulge+disk systems and irregular disturbed galaxies. Our main results are: Star-formation: At $z\\sim 2$, 80\\% of the stellar mass density of star-forming galaxies is in irregular systems. However, by $z\\sim 0.5$, irregular objects only dominate at stellar masses below $10^9M\\odot$. A majority of the star-forming irregulars present at $z\\sim 2$ undergo a gradual transformation from disturbed to normal spiral disk morphologies by $z\\sim 1$ without significant interruption to their star-formation. Rejuvenation after a quenching event does not seem to be common except perhaps for the most massive objects. Quenching: We confirm th...

  7. In vitro comet and micronucleus assays do not predict morphological transforming effects of silica particles in Syrian Hamster Embryo cells.

    Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Terzetti, Francine; Fontana, Caroline; Binet, Stéphane; Gaté, Laurent; Guichard, Yves

    2016-01-15

    Crystalline silica particles and asbestos have both been classified as carcinogenic by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, because of the limited data available, amorphous silica was not classifiable. In vitro, the carcinogenic potential of natural crystalline and amorphous silica particles has been revealed by the Syrian Hamster Embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. On the other hand, the genotoxic potential of those substances has not been investigated in SHE cells. And yet, genotoxicity assays are commonly used for hazard evaluation and they are often used as in vitro assays of reference to predict a possible carcinogenic potential. The main objective of this study was to compare the genotoxic potential and the carcinogenic potential of different crystalline and amorphous silica particles in SHE cells. Three silica samples of different crystallinity were used: natural amorphous silica, partially crystallized silica and quartz silica particles. Their genotoxicity were tested through the in vitro micronucleus assay and the comet assay in SHE, and their carcinogenic potential through the SHE transformation assay. In addition, silica samples were also tested with the same genotoxicity assays in V79 hamster-lung cells, a common in vitro model for particle exposure. Results obtained in the micronucleus and the comet assays show that none of the silica was capable of inducing genotoxic effects in SHE cells and only the amorphous silica induced genotoxic effects in V79 cells. However in the SHE cell transformation assays, the partially crystallized and quartz silica were able to induce morphological cell transformation. Together, these data suggest that, in vitro, the short-term genotoxic assays alone are not sufficient to predict the hazard and the carcinogenic potential of this type of particles; SHE transformation assay appears a more reliable tool for this purpose and should be included in the "in vitro battery assays" for hazard

  8. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  9. Shear-induced enhancements of crystallization kinetics and morphological transformation for long chain branched polylactides with different branching degrees

    Wang, Junyang; Bai, Jing; Zhang, Yaqiong; Fang, Huagao; Wang, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    The effects of long chain branching (LCB) degree on the shear-induced isothermal crystallization kinetics of a series of LCB polylactides (LCB PLAs) have been investigated by using rotational rheometer, polarized optical microscopy (POM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Dynamic viscoelastic properties obtained by small-amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) tests indicate that LCB PLAs show more broadened relaxation time spectra with increasing LCB degree. Upon a pre-shear at the shear rate of 1 s‑1 LCB PLAs show much faster crystallization kinetics than linear PLA and the crystallization kinetics is enhanced with increasing LCB degree. By modeling the system as a suspension the quantitative evaluation of nucleation density can be derived from rheological experiments. The nucleation density is greatly enhanced with increasing LCB degree and a saturation in shear time is observed. Crystalline morphologies for LCB PLAs observed by POM and SEM demonstrate the enhancement of nucleation density with increasing LCB degree and a transformation from spherulitic to orientated crystalline morphologies. The observation can be ascribed to longer relaxation time of the longest macromolecular chains and broadened, complex relaxation behaviors due to the introduction of LCB into PLA, which is essential in stabilizing the orientated crystal nuclei after pre-shear.

  10. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  11. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shell during the maturation process in the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses

    Konevtsova, O. V.; Lorman, V. L.; Rochal, S. B.

    2016-05-01

    We consider the symmetry and physical origin of collective displacement modes playing a crucial role in the morphological transformation during the maturation of the HK97 bacteriophage and similar viruses. It is shown that the experimentally observed hexamer deformation and pentamer twist in the HK97 procapsid correspond to the simplest irreducible shear strain mode of a spherical shell. We also show that the icosahedral faceting of the bacteriophage capsid shell is driven by the simplest irreducible radial displacement field. The shear field has the rotational icosahedral symmetry group I while the radial field has the full icosahedral symmetry Ih. This difference makes their actions independent. The radial field sign discriminates between the icosahedral and the dodecahedral shapes of the faceted capsid shell, thus making the approach relevant not only for the HK97-like viruses but also for the parvovirus family. In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a simple phenomenological model valid for the first reversible step of the HK97 maturation process. The calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus shape transformation. The characteristics of the virus shell faceting and expansion obtained in the in vitro and in vivo experiments are related to the decrease in the capsid shell thickness and to the increase of the internal capsid pressure.

  12. Morphology transformation of Cu2O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu2O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu2O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H2O2. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu2O samples and the addition of H2O2 also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu2O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn2+ doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn4+ doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu2O)

  13. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Justin G Boyer

    Full Text Available Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66% beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95% and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%, all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development.

  14. Morphology of phase transformations on thermomagnetic treatment of iron-chromium-cobalt alloys

    The calculation techniques for magnetocrystalline, magnetostatic, elastic and interphase energies are shown along with their influence on structure, morphology of iron-chromium-cobalt (26-28 % Cr; 15-20 % Co) alloys treated for a high coercivity state. Formulas for specific surface energy determining are presented. This energy is revealed to increase from 0 to 1.5x10-3 J/m2 during supersaturated solid solution precipitation. The calculation shows that magnetic field should be applied immediately before thermomagnetic treatment. A nomogram is given to determine limiting values of a l/d ratio characterizing the anisotropy of α-phase precipitations

  15. AFLP analysis shows high incongruence between genetic differentiation and morphology-based taxonomy in a widely distributed tortoise

    Mikulíček, Peter; Jandzik, D.; Fritz, U.; Schneider, C.; Široký, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 108, č. 1 (2013), s. 151-160. ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism * morphological plasticity * reptiles * stabilizing selection * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  16. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  17. NIH 3T3 cells malignantly transformed by mot—2 show inactivation and cytoplasmic sequestration of the p53 protein

    WADHWA; SYUICHITAKANO; 等

    1999-01-01

    In previous studies we have reported that a high level of expression of mot-2 protein results in malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as analyzed by anchorage independent growth and nude mice assays [Kaul et al.,Oncogene,17,907-11,1998].Mot-2 was found to interact with tumor suppressor protein p53.The transient overexpression of mot-2 was inhibitory to transcriptional activation function of p53 [Wadhwa et al.,J.Biol.Chem.,273,2958691,1998].We demonstrate here that mot-2 transfected stable clone of NIH 3T3 that showed malignant properties indeed show inactivation of p53 function as assayed by exogenous p53 dependent reporter.The expression level of p53 in response to UV-irradiation was lower in NIH 3T3/mot-2 as compared to NIH 3T3 cells and also exhibited delay in reachingpeak.Furthermore,upon serum starvation p53 was seen to translocate to the nucleus in NIH 3T3,but not in its mot-3 derivative.The data suggests that mot-2 mediated cytoplasmic sequestration and inactivation of p53 may operate,at least in part,for malignant phenotype of NIH 3T3/mot-2 cells.

  18. Karyotypic changes with neoplastic conversion in morphologically transformed golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays

    Chromosomes from nine morphologically transformed (MT) cell lines (designated MT14 to MT22) of Golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays and from tumor-derived cell lines (MT14T to MT22T), obtained after injection of MT cells, were analyzed by the Giemsa banding method. MT cell lines showed a variety of numerical abnormalities. All of the MT cell lines involved trisomy of chromosomes 11 (80 to 100% of cells in each cell line) and 3 (8% of MT22 cells and 100% in other cell lines). Although the latent period for tumor growth differed greatly, eight of nine MT cell lines (MT14 to MT21) produced tumors at the site of injection. All tumor-derived cell lines involved trisomy of chromosome 3 at a 100% rate of incidence. Seven of nine tumor-derived cell lines (MT15T to MT18T, MT20T to MT22T) lost one chromosome 11 from the trisomic condition, resulting in disomy of chromosome 11. These results suggest that trisomies of chromosomes 11 and 3 may play a role in X-ray-induced neoplastic progression

  19. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    Kramkowski, M. A.; Błaszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing

  20. Effects of surface stability on the morphological transformation of metals and metal oxides as investigated by first-principles calculations

    Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Fernandes Gouveia, Amanda; Meneghetti Ferrer, Mateus; Longo, Elson

    2015-10-01

    Morphology is a key property of materials. Owing to their precise structure and morphology, crystals and nanocrystals provide excellent model systems for joint experimental and theoretical investigations into surface-related properties. Faceted polyhedral crystals and nanocrystals expose well-defined crystallographic planes depending on the synthesis method, which allow for thoughtful investigations into structure-reactivity relationships under practical conditions. This feature article introduces recent work, based on the combined use of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, to provide deeper knowledge of the electronic, structural, and energetic properties controlling the morphology and the transformation mechanisms of different metals and metal oxides: Ag, anatase TiO2, BaZrO3, and α-Ag2WO4. According to the Wulff theorem, the equilibrium shapes of these systems are obtained from the values of their respective surface energies. These investigations are useful to gain further understanding of how to achieve morphological control of complex three-dimensional crystals by tuning the ratio of the surface energy values of the different facets. This strategy allows the prediction of possible morphologies for a crystal and/or nanocrystal by controlling the relative values of surface energies.

  1. Evidence for Morphology and Luminosity Transformation of Galaxies at High Redshifts

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

    2009-01-01

    We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the redshift range of $0.4\\leq z\\leq1.0$ we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor ga...

  2. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  3. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  4. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae: Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    A'wani Aziz Nurdalila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  5. Efficient 2-D Grayscale Morphological Transformations With Arbitrary Flat Structuring Elements

    Urbach, Erik R.; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm is presented for the computation of grayscale morphological operations with arbitrary 2-D flat structuring elements (S.E.). The required computing time is independent of the image content and of the number of gray levels used. It always outperforms the only existing comparable

  6. Sunlight induced unique morphological transformation in graphene based nanohybrids: appearance of a new tetra-nanohybrid and tuning of functional property of these nanohybrids.

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-06-01

    In this study, sunlight was used for in situ preparation of gel-based various nanohybrid systems. A naturally occurring amino acid, l-phenylalanine derivative formed a hydrogel with graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at physiological pH. This hydrogel was then used in the presence of silver ions and diffuse sunlight to form initially a tri-nanohybrid system consisting of six atom silver nanoclusters, nanosheets, and nanofibers. Interestingly, a time-dependent morphological transformation occurs in this nanohybrid system to form one tri-nanohybrid to another tri-nanohybrid with the appearance of a novel, nanoscopic intermediate tetra-nanohybrid system consisting of four distinctly different nanomaterials (nanofibers, nanosheets, nanospheres, and nanoparticles). UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, transmission electron microscopic, X-ray photo electron spectroscopic and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analyses with time were applied to characterise these morphological transformations in gel based nanohybrids. Time-dependent X-ray photo electron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis was used to uncover the mechanism for the transformation of silver nanoclusters to silver nanoparticles in the hydrogel matrix. Sunlight was used to trigger time-dependent structural transformation in the nanohybrid systems. Interestingly, one of these tri-nanohybrid systems (silver nanoparticles containing rGO based hydrogel) shows a catalytic property of reducing nitroarenes to aminoarenes and the catalytic efficiency can be modulated by changing the size of the silver nanoparticles with time in diffuse sunlight. The mechanism for different catalytic activities for different hybrids with varying size of silver nanoparticles has also been deciphered. PMID:25892272

  7. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    Usman, Muhammad; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Hanna, Khalil; Grégoire, Brian; Faure, Pierre; Ruby, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH- in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of  9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F > L > G with almost 30 % of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe3-δO4...

  8. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

  9. Shap e-controlled Synthesis of Porous SnO2 Nanostructures via Morphologically Conserved Transformation from SnC2O4 Precursor Approach

    Qihua Wang; Dewei Wang; Tingmei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Porous SnO2 nanostructures with controlled shapes were synthesized by a facile morphologi-cally conserved transformation from SnC2O4 precursor approach. Well-defined SnC2O4 nanostructures can be obtained through a solution-based precipitation process at ambient conditions without any surfactant. The formation mechanism of such microstructures was tentatively proposed on the basis of intrinsic crystal struc-ture and the reaction conditions. We found that the morphologies of precursor were well maintained while numerous pores were formed during the annealing process. The combined techniques of X-ray diffraction, ni-trogen absorption–desorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and (high-resolution) transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the as-prepared SnO2 products. Moreover, cyclic voltammetry (CV) study shows that the shape of CV presents a current response like roughly rectangular mirror images with respect to the zero-current line without obvious redox peaks, which indicating an ideal capacitive behavior of the SnO2 electrodes. The photoluminescence (PL) spectrum study suggests that the as-obtained porous SnO2 nanostructures might have a large number of defects, vacancies of oxygen, and local lattice disorder at the interface, interior and exterior surfaces.

  10. Surface Morphology Transformation Under High-Temperature Annealing of Ge Layers Deposited on Si(100).

    Shklyaev, A A; Latyshev, A V

    2016-12-01

    We study the surface morphology and chemical composition of SiGe layers after their formation under high-temperature annealing at 800-1100 °C of 30-150 nm Ge layers deposited on Si(100) at 400-500 °C. It is found that the annealing leads to the appearance of the SiGe layers of two types, i.e., porous and continuous. The continuous layers have a smoothened surface morphology and a high concentration of threading dislocations. The porous and continuous layers can coexist. Their formation conditions and the ratio between their areas on the surface depend on the thickness of deposited Ge layers, as well as on the temperature and the annealing time. The data obtained suggest that the porous SiGe layers are formed due to melting of the strained Ge layers and their solidification in the conditions of SiGe dewetting on Si. The porous and dislocation-rich SiGe layers may have properties interesting for applications. PMID:27541814

  11. Transformation

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  12. TRANSFORMATION

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  13. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation

  14. Electron irradiation induced buckling, morphological transformation, and inverse Ostwald ripening in nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube

    Singh, Anshika; Kumari, Reetu; Kumar, Vinay; Krishnia, Lucky; Naqvi, Zainab; Panwar, Amrish K.; Bhatta, Umananda M.; Ghosh, Arnab; Satyam, P. V.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to deduce the in-situ response of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube (CNT) under electron irradiation. Electron irradiation on Fe3C filled-CNT at both high and room temperature (RT) has been performed inside transmission electron microscope. At high temperature (HT), it has been found that γ-Fe atoms in lattice of Fe3C nanorod accumulate first and then form the cluster. These clusters follow the inverse Ostwald ripening whereas if e-irradiation is performed at RT then only the morphological changes in both carbon nanotube as well as nanorod are observed. Compression generated either by electron beam heating or by shrinkage of CNT walls is observed to be a decisive factor.

  15. TRANSFORMER

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  16. Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    KamilaOglecka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

  17. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  18. The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics

    Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

    2009-01-01

    Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

  19. Morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Deng, Xiaolong, E-mail: sps_dengxl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wsqrq@126.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhou, E., E-mail: 1297524677@qq.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ji, Changjian, E-mail: 171600621@qq.com [Qilu Normal University, Jinan, 250200, Shandong Province (China); Huang, Jinzhao, E-mail: ss_huangjinzhao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Shao, Minghui, E-mail: ss_shaomh@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ding, Meng, E-mail: sps_dingm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: sps_xuxj@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-11-15

    Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O samples and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn{sup 2+} doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn{sup 4+} doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu{sub 2}O)

  20. Inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce dsRNA against infectious salmon anemia virus hemagglutinin show antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

    Katherine eGarcía

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV has caused great losses to the Chilean salmon industry, and the success of prevention and treatment strategies is uncertain. The use of RNA interference (RNAi is a promising approach because during the replication cycle, the ISAV genome must be transcribed to mRNA in the cytoplasm. We explored the capacity of E. coli transformed with plasmids that produce double-stranded RNA (dsRNA to induce antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells. We transformed the non-pathogenic Escherichia coli HT115 (DE3 with plasmids that expressed highly conserved regions of the ISAV genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP, fusion (F, hemagglutinin (HE and matrix (M proteins as dsRNA, which is the precursor of the RNAi mechanism. The inactivated transformed bacteria carrying dsRNA were tested for their capacity to silence the target ISAV genes, and the dsRNA that were able to inhibit gene expression were subsequently tested for their ability to attenuate the cytopathic effect (CPE and reduce the viral load. Of the four target genes tested, inactivated E. coli transformed with plasmids producing dsRNA targeting HE showed antiviral activity when added to infected ASK cells.

  1. Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift

    Cameron, E

    2012-01-01

    "Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

  2. Chia Seed Shows Good Protein Quality, Hypoglycemic Effect and Improves the Lipid Profile and Liver and Intestinal Morphology of Wistar Rats.

    da Silva, Bárbara Pereira; Dias, Desirrê Morais; de Castro Moreira, Maria Eliza; Toledo, Renata Celi Lopes; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; Lucia, Ceres Mattos Della; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2016-09-01

    Chia has been consumed by the world population due to its high fiber, lipids and proteins content. The objective was to evaluate the protein quality of chia untreated (seed and flour) and heat treated (90 °C/20 min), their influence on glucose and lipid homeostasis and integrity of liver and intestinal morphology of Wistar rats. 36 male rats, weanling, divided into six groups which received control diet (casein), free protein diet (aproteic) and four diet tests (chia seed; chia seed with heat treatment; chia flour and chia flour with heat treatment) for 14 days were used. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein ratio (NPR) and true digestibility (TD) were evaluated. The biochemical variables and liver and intestinal morphologies of animals were determined. The values of PER, NPR and TD did not differ among the animals that were fed with chia and were lower than the control group. The animals that were fed with chia showed lower concentrations of glucose; triacylglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol than the control group. The liver weight of animals that were fed with chia was lower than the control group. Crypt depth and thickness of intestinal muscle layers were higher in groups that were fed with chia. The consumption of chia has shown good digestibility, hypoglycemic effect, improved lipid and glycemic profiles and reduced fat deposition in liver of animals, and also promoted changes in intestinal tissue that enhanced its functionality. PMID:27193017

  3. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  4. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    Abraham, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant ...

  5. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  6. Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-03-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  7. Controlled synthesis of crystalline calcium carbonate aggregates with unusual morphologies involving the phase transformation from amorphous calcium carbonate

    Peanut-shaped CaCO3 aggregates, featured of two dandelion-like heads built up from rod-like subunits, have been synthesized via a facile precipitation reaction between Na2CO3 and CaCl2 at ambient temperature in the presence of magnesium ions and ethanol solvent. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that a high magnesium concentration and ethanol solvent are necessary for the formation of the unusual peanut-like aggregates. In addition, a multistep phase transformation process from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) to a mixture of ACC and calcite and ultimately to calcite and aragonite was observed in the formation process of the unusual structures. A possible mechanism for the formation of the unusual peanut-shape aggregates has been proposed and discussed

  8. Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania

    Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the

  9. Ti doping-induced magnetic and morphological transformations in Sr- and Ca-substituted BiFeO3

    Khomchenko, V. A.; Paixão, J. A.

    2016-04-01

    The investigation focuses on the crystal structure, microstructure, local ferroelectric and magnetic properties of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ (x  =  0.05, 0.1, 0.15; δ  =  (0.1  -  x)/2) multiferroics prepared by a solid-state reaction method. All the samples have been found to be isostructural with the pure BiFeO3 (the material crystallizes in a polar rhombohedral structure belonging to the space group R3c). It has been shown that the pattern of changes in the lattice parameters of the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ samples can be interpreted as consistent with the doping-driven elimination of anion vacancies at x  ⩽  0.1 and the formation of cation vacancies at x  >  0.1. The readjustment of the defect structure associated with the mechanism of charge compensation in the aliovalent-substituted BiFeO3 is accompanied by correlated changes in the morphology, ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain structure and magnetic properties of the materials. In particular, it has been found that the deviation from the ideal (δ  =  0) cation-anion stoichiometry in the Bi0.9Sr0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ system leads to a significant decrease in the average size of crystal grain and ferroelectric domains and gives rise to an antiferromagnetic-weak ferromagnetic transformation. Results of this study have been compared with those obtained for equally substituted samples of the Bi0.9Ca0.1Fe1-x Ti x O3-δ series (Khomchenko and Paixão 2015 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 27 436002) to demonstrate how the variation in the chemical pressure introduced by the partial replacement of Bi3+ with bigger (Sr2+) and smaller (Ca2+) ions can affect the multiferroic behavior of Ti-doped bismuth ferrites.

  10. Sleep spindle and K-complex detection using tunable Q-factor wavelet transform and morphological component analysis

    Tarek Lajnef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel framework for joint detection of sleep spindles and K-complex events, two hallmarks of sleep stage S2, is proposed. Sleep electroencephalography (EEG signals are split into oscillatory (spindles and transient (K-complex components. This decomposition is conveniently achieved by applying morphological component analysis (MCA to a sparse representation of EEG segments obtained by the recently introduced discrete tunable Q-factor wavelet transform (TQWT. Tuning the Q-factor provides a convenient and elegant tool to naturally decompose the signal into an oscillatory and a transient component. The actual detection step relies on thresholding (i the transient component to reveal K-complexes and (ii the time-frequency representation of the oscillatory component to identify sleep spindles. Optimal thresholds are derived from ROC-like curves (sensitivity versus FDR on training sets and the performance of the method is assessed on test data sets. We assessed the performance of our method using full-night sleep EEG data we collected from 14 participants. In comparison to visual scoring (Expert 1, the proposed method detected spindles with a sensitivity of 83.18% and false discovery rate (FDR of 39%, while K-complexes were detected with a sensitivity of 81.57% and an FDR of 29.54%. Similar performances were obtained when using a second expert as benchmark. In addition, when the TQWT and MCA steps were excluded from the pipeline the detection sensitivities dropped down to 70% for spindles and to 76.97% for K-complexes, while the FDR rose up to 43.62% and 49.09% respectively. Finally, we also evaluated the performance of the proposed method on a set of publicly available sleep EEG recordings. Overall, the results we obtained suggest that the TQWT-MCA method may be a valuable alternative to existing spindle and K-complex detection methods. Paths for improvements and further validations with large-scale standard open-access benchmarking data sets are

  11. Group morphology

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  12. E6D25E, HPV16 Asian variant shows specific proteomic pattern correlating in cells transformation and suppressive innate immune response.

    Chopjitt, Peechanika; Pientong, Chamsai; Sunthamala, Nuchsupha; Kongyingyoes, Bunkerd; Haonon, Ornuma; Boonmars, Thidarut; Kikawa, Satomi; Nakahara, Tomomi; Kiyono, Tohru; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya

    2016-09-01

    HPV16 Asian variant (HPV16As) containing E6D25E oncogene, is commonly associated with cervical cancers of Asian populations. To explore a mechanism of E6D25E oncoprotein in carcinogenesis, we compared protein profiles in human keratinocytes expressing E6D25E with E6 of HPV16 prototype (E6Pro). A human cervical keratinocyte cell line, HCK1T, was transduced with retroviruses containing E6D25E or E6Pro genes. Biological properties of E6D25E or E6Pro transduced HCK1T cells were characterized. Protein profiles of the transduced HCK1T cells were analyzed using 2D-PAGE and characterized by mass spectrometry and western blotting. Reactomes of modulated proteins were analyzed by using the Reactome Knowledgebase. The E6D25E and E6Pro oncoproteins were comparable for their abilities to degrade p53 and suppress the induction of p21, and induce cell proliferation. Interestingly, the protein profiles of the HCK1T cells transduced with E6D25E showed specific proteomic patterns different from those with E6Pro. Among altered proteins, more than 1.5-fold up- or down- regulation was observed in E6D25E-expressing cells for gp96 and keratin7 which involved in activation of TLR signaling and transformation of squamocolumnar junction cells, respectively. This report describes new cellular proteins specifically targeted by E6D25E oncoprotein that may contribute to impair immune response against viral infection and cell transformation associated with oncogenic property of HPV16As variant. PMID:27392712

  13. Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease

    Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

    2010-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

  14. Chemical morphology of Areca nut characterized directly by Fourier transform near-infrared and mid-infrared microspectroscopic imaging in reflection modes.

    Chen, Jian-Bo; Sun, Su-Qin; Zhou, Qun

    2016-12-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (MIR) imaging techniques are essential tools to characterize the chemical morphology of plant. The transmission imaging mode is mostly used to obtain easy-to-interpret spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, the native chemical compositions and physical structures of plant samples may be altered when they are microtomed for the transmission tests. For the direct characterization of thick plant samples, the combination of the reflection NIR imaging and the attenuated total reflection (ATR) MIR imaging is proposed in this research. First, the reflection NIR imaging method can explore the whole sample quickly to find out typical regions in small sizes. Next, each small typical region can be measured by the ATR-MIR imaging method to reveal the molecular structures and spatial distributions of compounds of interest. As an example, the chemical morphology of Areca nut section is characterized directly by the above approach. PMID:27374557

  15. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  16. Myelofibrotic transformations of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are morphologically, biologically and prognostically indistinguishable from primary myelofibrosis

    Sangle, Nikhil; Cook, Josh; Perkins, Sherrie; Teman, Carolyn J; Bahler, David; Hickman, Kimberly; Wilson, Andrew; Prchal, Josef; Salama, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    A fraction of polycythemia vera (PV) & essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases will, in time, undergo myelofibrotic transformation. In such cases, fibrosis may mask the diagnostic histological features of the original underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). Thus confidently differentiating postfibrotic PV/ET from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) histologically may not be possible.

  17. Study on morphological transformation of the arsenic migration process in tungsten mine tailings%钨矿尾矿砂中砷迁移过程中的形态转化研究

    赵永红; 曹鑫康; 周丹; 张静

    2013-01-01

    In order to master the arsenic contamination status and migration or transformation rules in the mining areas, experiments including the total quantity analysis and morphological analysis for arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil were carried out for tungsten mining area in Gannan District. Research shows that the content of arsenic in tailings and surrounding soil are significantly higher than that in the background soil. In tailings, the arsenic mainly exists in formation of organic compound and the residual; however, it mainly exists as the compound linked to oxides of Fe-Mn in the soil. The morphology of the arsenic is transformable in the migration process.%  对赣南某钨矿区堆积的尾砂以及其周围土壤中的As进行了全量和形态分析,以期掌握矿区砷污染现状及其迁移转化规律。研究表明,尾矿砂和土壤中的As明显高于当地的土壤背景值;尾矿砂中As主要以有机结合态和残渣态的形式存在,土壤中As主要以铁-锰氧化物结合态的形式存在;As在迁移过程中各形态间可能发生转化。

  18. Shock wave induced martensitic transformations and morphology changes in Fe-Pd ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films

    Bischoff, A. J.; Arabi-Hashemi, A.; Ehrhardt, M.; Lorenz, P.; Zimmer, K.; Mayr, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Combining experimental methods and classical molecular dynamics (MD) computer simulations, we explore the martensitic transformation in Fe70Pd30 ferromagnetic shape memory alloy thin films induced by laser shock peening. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope measurements at shock wave pressures of up to 2.5 GPa reveal formation of martensitic variants with preferred orientation of the shorter c-axis of the tetragonal unit cell perpendicular to the surface plane. Moreover, consequential merging of growth islands on the film surface is observed. MD simulations unveil the underlying physics that are characterized by an austenite-martensite transformation with a preferential alignment of the c-axis along the propagation direction of the shock wave, resulting in flattening and in-plane expansion of surface features.

  19. In Vitro Cercariae Transformation: Comparison of Mechanical and Nonmechanical Methods and Observation of Morphological Changes of Detached Cercariae Tails

    Coultas, Kristen A.; Zhang, Si-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Schistosomula, the larval stage of schistosomes in vertebrate hosts, are highly vulnerable and considered an ideal target for vaccine and drug development. Although the schistosomule stage is essential for biological studies, collecting sufficient numbers of schistosomula from their definitive hosts in vivo is difficult to accomplish. However, in vitro collection via cercariae transformation can effectively yield high numbers of schistosomula. We compared a current and widely used double-ende...

  20. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

  1. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic η'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal η-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) γ-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from η'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

  2. 结合形态学的Hough变换虹膜定位改进算法%Improved algorithm of iris localization based on Hough transform and mathematical morphology

    田絮资; 张园; 黄力宇

    2012-01-01

    虹膜定位是在虹膜图像中确定虹膜的内外边界,是虹膜识别过程的首要环节.Hough变换是虹膜定位的经典算法,但对原始图像质量要求高,算法运算时间长.依据人眼图像的灰度特性,结合形态学处理提出一种改进的Hough变换定位新算法.对图像进行灰度二值化运算后进行形态学处理分离出瞳孔,结合Sobel算子边缘检测出瞳孔边界点,通过最小二乘法拟合定位出虹膜内边界;在先验知识和形态学处理的基础上对图像进行Hough变换,定位出虹膜的外边界.实验表明所提出的算法性能比传统Hough变换有较大提高,可用于实际虹膜识别的预处理过程中.%Iris location, an important preprocessing procedure in iris recognition, is to detect inner and outer boundaries of iris in an iris image. The traditional iris location algorithm is based on simple Hough transform, but this method owns time consuming operation and low location accuracy. According to the grayscale features of eye images, a novel iris location algorithm, which combines mathematical morphology with Hough transform, is presented. The eye image is preprocessed by using morphological filter. The binary image is extracted and processed by morphology for pupil separation. By means of Sobel operator and least square method, the inner-boundary-points of iris are determined and the inner boundary is fitted. The outer boundary is also determined by Hough transform with morphology and the apriori knowledge about iris image. The test results show that the proposed algorithm has better performance in location accuracy and operation speed, and can be suitably used as practical preprocessing algorithm in iris recognition.

  3. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  4. Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable β titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects

    As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable β Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (β → ω and β → α″) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}〈1 1 3〉 and {1 1 2}〈1 1 1〉) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned β zones. The {3 3 2}〈1 1 3〉 twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (∼2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (∼1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

  5. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  7. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

  8. Two bisthienylethene-Ir(III) complexes showing acid/base-induced structural transformation and on-off luminescence switching in solution.

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Hu, Jiong-Sheng; Li, Min-Qiang; Gong, Dan-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Ward, Michael D

    2015-12-28

    Complexes [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdtiH)](PF6)·2CHCl3 (1-H) and [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdti)] (1) were synthesized by the reaction of bisthienylethene pbdtiH and an [Ir(dfppy)2Cl]2 dimer under neutral and basic conditions, respectively. Thus, the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit is coordinated by pbdtiH in 1-H, and by pbdti(-) in 1, which are confirmed by their crystal structures. The structures of 1-H and 1 could be interconverted in solution, upon alternately adding NEt3 and TFA, thus resulting in reversible luminescence switching between the on-state of 1-H and the off-state of 1 at room temperature. In addition, both 1-H and 1 show solid-state luminescence, with a broad emission at 534 nm and 525 nm, respectively. The free pbdtiH ligand shows photochromic behavior in CH2Cl2 solution. However, no photochromism has been observed in 1-H and 1, indicating that the coordination of the pbdtiH/pbdti(-) ligand to the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit could suppress their photochromic behaviors. PMID:26586364

  9. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results

  10. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  11. Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms

    Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

  12. New Image Fusion Algorithm Based on Combination of Wavelet Transformation and Morphology%小波变换和形态学相结合的图像融合新算法

    罗婷; 杨卫英; 丁友东

    2013-01-01

    针对边缘模糊导致图像融合质量下降,结合小波变换方法和数学形态学方法各自的优势,提出了一种将小波变换和数学形态学理论相结合的图像融合算法.针对高频系数融合,选用绝对值取大法,并适当地增强边缘;针对低频系数融合,对低频子图像运用形态学方法获得边缘灰度图像,若边缘灰度图像中该点像素值在153~255之间,标记该点为边缘点,选用区域空间频率取大法融合边缘点处对应的低频系数;若该点像素值在O~152之间,标记该点为非边缘点,选用平均法融合非边缘点处对应的低频系数.实验结果证明,该算法的融合质量得到了进一步改善和提升.%According to guzzy leads to image fusion quality decline, combining respective advantages of wavelet transformation method and mathematical morphology method, an image fusion algorithm based on combination of wavelet transformation and mathematical morphology theory is proposed. Maximal absolute value method is adopted for the fusion of high-frequency coefficients and edges are enhanced properly. For low-frequency sub-images, mathematical morphology method is used to get edge gray images. If the pixel value of points from edge gray images ranges between 153 and 255, the points are called as the edge points and the maximal region spatial frequency method is adopted for the fusion of low-frequency coefficients in the edge point positions. If the pixel value of points from edge gray images ranges between 0 and 152, the points are called as the non-edge points and the average method is adopted for the fusion of low-frequency coefficients in the non-edge point positions. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm improves image fusion quality further.

  13. Snobbish Show

    YIN PUMIN

    2010-01-01

    @@ The State Administration of Radio,Film and Television (SARFT),China's media watchdog,issued a new set of mles on June 9 that strictly regulate TV match-making shows,which have been sweeping the country's primetime programming. "Improper social and love values such as money worship should not be presented in these shows.Humiliation,verbal attacks and sex-implied vulgar content are not allowed" the new roles said.

  14. Mathematical morphology for shape description

    Schmitt, M.

    2002-03-01

    We first examine the measurements one can perform on the space of compact and convex sets. A famous theorem, due to Hadwiger (1957), shows that any measurement with nice properties, namely additivity, is a linear combination of Minkowski functionals. Then, some useful formulae, linking measurements in different dimensions of space are derived.In the second step, we make use of the morphological operations transforming sets into sets. These sets are then measured using the previous measurements. The most famous attempt yields the concept of granulomerties and their extensions.In the last part, we examine a way to build morphological random sets which are compatible with morphological operators like erosions or openings and apply it to the most famous example in morphology, the Boolean model, describing objects located at random.

  15. Effect of lattice defects and temperature transition rates on the deuteride (hydride) particle morphology and phase transformation thermal hysteresis in niobium

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed to investigate deuteride particle morphology and the phase transformation temperature hysteresis in low-concentration Nb-D alloys. Deformation either by cold rolling and or by previous deuteride cycling induced a coarse deuteride particle distribution. This observation is attributed to a more heterogeneous precipitation process facilitated by the dislocation defects and/or dislocation substructure. Deuteride precipitation in the deformed samples was observed immediately upon crossing the incoherent solvus during temperature reduction, again consistent with dislocation-aided nucleation. Deuteride dissolution was observed at the very onset of heating for the cold-rolled material, an observation unique among the samples characterized here. This is attributed to the availability of elastic accommodation energy for deuteride particles embedded in the severely work-hardened host matrix. In other words, the elastic energy assists dissolution, consistent with a theoretical model developed by Puls (1984 Acta Metall. 32 1259-69). The effect of temperature reduction transition rates was also investigated. Rapid, direct cooling (at 2-3 K min-1) resulted in a much finer deuteride particle distribution - a factor of 200 increase in the particle number density and a factor of ten reduction in characteristic particle size compared to well annealed single crystal Nb. The thermal hysteresis was also affected by the temperature transition rates, with a significant reduction of the hysteresis for the slowest cooling rates. This implies that at least part of the recorded hysteresis in the well annealed material is dependent on the temperature transition rate. (author)

  16. Galaxy Morphology

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in Área de Conservación Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species

    Bertrand, Claudia; Janzen, Daniel H; Hallwachs, Winnie; Burns, John M.; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the thre...

  18. Morphology and kinetics of polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals

    Nasirov, V. I.; Bairamov, R. B., E-mail: bayramov.razim@mail.ru; Nasirov, E. V. [Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

    2015-12-15

    Polymorphic transformations in K{sub 0.965}Rb{sub 0.035}NO{sub 3} single crystals have been investigated by optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The equilibrium temperature between modifications II and III of the crystal studied is determined to be T = 452 ± 0.5 K. It is found that polymorphic transformations are of the single crystal ↔ single crystal type and occur with the formation and growth of nuclei of new crystals in matrix ones at II ↔ III transformations. An empirical dependence of the growth rate of modification III on temperature is established in the form ϑ = ϑ = (–0.478ΔT + 0.712ΔT{sup 2}–0.00041ΔT{sup 3}) × 10{sup –2} cm/s (ΔT = T{sub tr}–T{sub 0}, where T{sub tr} is the transformation temperature and T{sub 0} is the equilibrium temperature)

  19. An ECG Denoising Algorithm Based on Morphology and Wavelet Transform%基于形态学和小波变换的心电信号去噪算法

    陈刚; 唐明浩; 程晖; 戈曼

    2012-01-01

    In processing the ECG signal denoised by baseline drift, frequency interference and EMG interference, the wavelet transform had been widely used. Since the algorithm had some shorting in dealing with ECG signal, it proposed a mixed algorithm consisting of ECG wavelet threshold and morphology. This kind of algorithm got rid of baseline drift by nonlinear morphology, then the ECG signal containing high-frequency interference would be processed by wavelet threshold transform, in the end, it got the ECG signal with little noise. The MIT/BIH arrhythmia database was used to prove the algorithm, and the three main noises were removed effectively, the effect of the algorithm was good, and it lays the foundation of recognizing the ECG signal subsequently.%在处理心电信号采集过程中混入的基线漂移、工频干扰及肌电干扰等噪声的过程中,小波变换取得了广泛的应用.针对小波算法的缺陷及不足,提出了一种基于数学形态学和小波阈值的混合算法.该算法利用非线性形态学滤波器滤除基线漂移,将获得的含高频噪声心电信号通过小波阈值算法进行处理,最后获得无噪声的ECG(心电)信号.采用MIT/BIH Arrhythmia Database中的数据对算法进行了验证,实现了三种主要干扰的滤除,本算法效果良好,为后续特征点的识别奠定了基础.

  20. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  1. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation.

    Thraves, P; Salehi, Z; Dritschilo, A; Rhim, J S

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when...

  2. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNBİLGİN, Güven; KOCAMAN, Çağrı

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  3. Scaling and shear transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's finches.

    Campàs, O; Mallarino, R; Herrel, A; Abzhanov, A; Brenner, M P

    2010-02-23

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in a remarkable diversity of organism morphologies that has long fascinated scientists and served to establish the first relations among species. Despite the essential role of morphology as a phenotype of species, there is not yet a formal, mathematical scheme to quantify morphological phenotype and relate it to both the genotype and the underlying developmental genetics. Herein we demonstrate that the morphological diversity in the beaks of Darwin's Finches is quantitatively accounted for by the mathematical group of affine transformations. Specifically, we show that all beak shapes of Ground Finches (genus Geospiza) are related by scaling transformations (a subgroup of the affine group), and the same relationship holds true for all the beak shapes of Tree, Cocos, and Warbler Finches (three distinct genera). This analysis shows that the beak shapes within each of these groups differ only by their scales, such as length and depth, which are genetically controlled by Bmp4 and Calmodulin. By measuring Bmp4 expression in the beak primordia of the species in the genus Geospiza, we provide a quantitative map between beak morphology and the expression levels of Bmp4. The complete morphological variation within the beaks of Darwin's finches can be explained by extending the scaling transformations to the entire affine group, by including shear transformations. Altogether our results suggest that the mathematical theory of groups can help decode morphological variation, and points to a potentially hierarchical structure of morphological diversity and the underlying developmental processes. PMID:20160106

  4. Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.

    Rhim, J S; Trimmer, R; Arnstein, P; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation...

  5. Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblast cells by chemical carcinogens

    Kakunaga, Takeo

    1978-01-01

    Cultured fibroblast cells derived from a skin biopsy sample taken from normal human adult were exposed to a potent carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide. Alterations of cell growth pattern such as higher density and piling up of cells were noticed in some fractions of cultures that were successively subcultured after nitroquinoline oxide treatment. Morphologically altered cells retained this growth pattern and became established lines of transformed cells without showing the limited life-span characteristic of normal cells in culture. The transformed cells showed a higher saturation density and the ability to grow in soft agar, properties that are usually correlated with neoplastic transformation of cells in culture. Selection of preexisting transformed human cells as a mechanism of this observed transformation seemed unlikely because clones of these normal cells could also be used to assess the transforming effect of nitroquinoline oxide. Preliminary results suggest that numerous cell divisions were required for the development of the transformation after nitroquinoline oxide treatment of these human cells. When the transformed cell lines were injected subcutaneously into nude (athymic) mice, solid tumors were produced at the site of inoculation. Treatment with N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine also induced cell transformation, in a manner similar to treatment with nitroquinoline oxide. However, transformation was not induced with (i) 4-aminoquinoline 1-oxide (a noncarcinogenic derivative of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide), (ii) 3-methylcholanthrene (a carcinogen that cannot be metabolically activated by the target cells employed), or (iii) the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide. Images PMID:418410

  6. Mathematical morphology

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  7. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  8. From Complex Fractional Fourier Transform to Complex Fractional Radon Transform

    FAN Hong-Yi; JIANG Nian-Quan

    2004-01-01

    We show that for n-dimensional complex fractional Fourier transform the corresponding complex fractional Radon transform can also be derived, however, it is different from the direct product of two n-dimensional real fractional Radon transforms. The complex fractional Radon transform of two-mode Wigner operator is calculated.

  9. Learning mechanisms of phase transformations through microstructure

    Zirconium alloy which exhibit practically all possible solid state phase transformations offer some unique opportunities for studying the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Some of the important issues related to phase transformations research are identified and the manner in which studies in zirconium alloys have contributed to the understanding of these issues, is discussed in this paper. Both the types of displacive transformations - sheer dominated and shuffle dominated, are encountered in zirconium alloys. The crystallography and the mechanism of such transformations are discussed, giving special reference to the morphological and sub-structural changes in zirconium martensites and to the fine particle and plate shaped morphologies of the ω-phase. Morphological and crystallographical features of displacive and diffusional transformations have been compared. Several examples of mixed mode transformations, viz., the formation of γ-hydride phase, the active eutectoid decomposition and the formation of ordered μ-phases are cited and their respective mechanisms described. (author)

  10. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  11. Noun Morphology

    Santazilia, Ekaitz

    2013-01-01

    This is a study of the Basque noun morphology, which sets out the noun paradigm of historical Basque and the structure of its NP, and then goes on to list the explanations proposed so far for every aspect concerning the formation of that paradigm: first the number/definiteness axis, and then the individual cases, classifying these into primary cases (grammatical and local), secondary cases (those built upon the allative and the genitive), and pseudo-flectional morphemes or non-cases.

  12. Transformational leadership.

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  13. Research of Gear Fault Detection in Morphological Wavelet Domain

    Hong, Shi; Fang-jian, Shan; Bo, Cong; Wei, Qiu

    2016-02-01

    For extracting mutation information from gear fault signal and achieving a valid fault diagnosis, a gear fault diagnosis method based on morphological mean wavelet transform was designed. Morphological mean wavelet transform is a linear wavelet in the framework of morphological wavelet. Decomposing gear fault signal by this morphological mean wavelet transform could produce signal synthesis operators and detailed synthesis operators. For signal synthesis operators, it was just close to orginal signal, and for detailed synthesis operators, it contained fault impact signal or interference signal and could be catched. The simulation experiment result indicates that, compared with Fourier transform, the morphological mean wavelet transform method can do time-frequency analysis for original signal, effectively catch impact signal appears position; and compared with traditional linear wavelet transform, it has simple structure, easy realization, signal local extremum sensitivity and high denoising ability, so it is more adapted to gear fault real-time detection.

  14. Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity

    Callisen, Thomas Hønger; Talmon, Y.

    1998-01-01

    -burst phenomenon reflects a cascade process. The PLA(2)-induced changes in lipid composition transform the morphology which in turn results in an acceleration of the rate of hydrolysis because of a strong coupling between the PLA(2) activity and the morphology of the lipid suspension....... hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become...... perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag...

  15. Learning transformed product distributions

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Diakonikolas, Ilias; Servedio, Rocco A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning an unknown product distribution $X$ over $\\{0,1\\}^n$ using samples $f(X)$ where $f$ is a \\emph{known} transformation function. Each choice of a transformation function $f$ specifies a learning problem in this framework. Information-theoretic arguments show that for every transformation function $f$ the corresponding learning problem can be solved to accuracy $\\eps$, using $\\tilde{O}(n/\\eps^2)$ examples, by a generic algorithm whose running time may be expon...

  16. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Dr. H. B. Kekre; ARCHANA ATHAWALE,; DIPALI SADAVARTI

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW) transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data ...

  17. A Holographic Road Show.

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  18. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of α-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  19. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  20. Cell transformation and mutagenesis

    This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

  1. Show-Bix &

    2014-01-01

    made from digital scans of the original dias slides located in the collection of the Museum of Contemporary Art in Roskilde. In front of the audience entering the space and placed on it’s own stand, is an original 60s style telephone with turning dial. Action begins when the audience lift the phone and......The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...... dial a number. Any number will make the Dias change. All numbers are also assigned to specific sound documents: clips form rare interviews and the complete sound-re-enactment of the Show-Bix piece ‘Omringning’ (‘Surrounding’) in five channels (a quintophonie). This was originally produced in...

  2. Violence and TV Shows

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Şinasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  3. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  4. Shanghai Shows Its Heart

    2007-01-01

    The city known as China’s economic powerhouse showed a more caring face as host of the Special Olympic Games Between October 2 and 11,the Special Olympics Summer Games were hosted in Shanghai,the first time the 40-year-old athletic com- petition for people with intellectual disabilities came to a developing country. This Special Olympics was also larger than all previous games in temps of the number of athletes.

  5. Obesity in show dogs.

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  6. Not a "reality" show.

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  7. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  8. Catalytic coherence transformations

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  9. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  10. The Great Cometary Show

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  11. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  12. Transformation mechanism of magnetite nanoparticles

    Khan Umar Saeed; Amanullah; Manan Abdul; Khan Nasrullah; Mahmood Amir; Rahim Abdur

    2015-01-01

    A simple oxidation synthesis route was developed for producing magnetite nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology. Investigation of oxidation process of the produced magnetite nanoparticles (NP) was performed after synthesis under different temperatures. The phase transformation of synthetic magnetite nanoparticles into maghemite and, henceforth, to hematite nanoparticles at different temperatures under dry oxidation has been studied. The natural magnetite particles were directly tra...

  13. Morphological transitions in molecular and polymeric materials: patterning, fabrication, devices

    Calò, Annalisa

    2010-01-01

    This thesis individuates and characterizes irreversible transformations occurring in specific organic and oligomeric/polymeric thin films. These transformations are dewetting in discotic liquid crystals thin films and dewetting and smoothing in oligomeric and polyemeric films. Irreversible transformations are extensively characterized by means of optical and atomic force microscopy. In the case of discotic liquid crystals films the morphological characterization is performed sinchronically wi...

  14. Visualizing Transformation

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of...... transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project...

  15. Landskabets transformation

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  16. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  17. SHOW

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的街头巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV.

  18. SHOW

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的等着巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV.

  19. SHOW

    2013-01-01

    鞋如其人,由一个人对鞋的选择,便可知道他的兴趣与品位所在。无论是球星、艺人还是任何一位你可以叫得出名字的人,无论是在球场上、秀场上还是随处可以偶遇的街头巷尾,你都可以见到NIKE、adidas抑或是奢侈的LV。

  20. Solid phase transformations

    Čermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  1. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype=Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado.

    Ilda Mariclei de Castro da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate no. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneticamente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção.

  2. Sustainable transformation

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... different theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  3. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  4. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties

  5. Photoinduced electro-optics measurements of biosilica transformation to cristobalite

    Fuchs, Ido [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel); Aluma, Yaniv; Ilan, Micha [Department of Zoology, George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Kityk, Iwan [Institute of Electronic Systems, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czestochowa University, Czestochowa 42-201 (Poland); Mastai, Yitzhak, E-mail: Yitzhak.Mastai@biu.ac.il [Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Nanotechnology, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper we studied the photoinduced electro optics effects in the thermal transformation process of biosilica to cristobalite, at a relatively low temperature and ambient pressure. This process was characterized by a variety of standards techniques with emphasis on linear electro optic effect measurements. Overall we demonstrated that photoinduced electro optics measurements are very sensitive to the transformation from amorphous structure of silica in the natural sponge samples to laminar string morphology of cristobalite. With this technique we could probe the change in the samples chirality from achiral bio silica to chiral cristobalite structure. Furthermore it is shown that natural biosilica have photoinduced linear electro optics respond indicating the chiral natural of biosilica. - Graphical abstract: The phase transformation of biosilica from marine sponges to Cristobalite under thermal treatment was investigated using photoinduced electro optics measurements. The figure shows the changes of the electro-optic coefficient of cristobalite and biosilica. - Highlights: • We examine phase transformation of biosilica. • We report transition from amorphous biosilica to crystalline Cristobalite. • Biosilica transformation to Cristobalite at temperature of 850 °C. • Biosilica transformation is studied with photoinduced measurements. • We examine changes in the photoinduced linear electro optics properties.

  6. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  7. Transforming Schools.

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  8. Identity transformation

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understand......This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an......, as well as the resources they have when they come to the classroom. It also incorporates perspectives from (ii) transformational learning and explores the concept of (iii) nudging from a pedagogical viewpoint, proposing it as an important tool in entrepreneurship education. The study incorporates......) assists students in straddling the divide between identities, the emotions and tensions this elicits, and (iv) transform student understanding. We extend nudging theory into a new territory. Pedagogical nudging techniques may be able to unlock doors and bring our students beyond the unacknowledged and...

  9. Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms

    M.Mani Roja

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

  10. Birational transformations of weighted graphs

    Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; ZAIDENBERG, MIKHAIL

    2005-01-01

    We introduce the notion of a standard weighted graph and show that every weighted graph has an essentially unique standard model. Moreover we classify birational transformations between such models. Our central result shows that these are composed of elementary transformations. The latter ones are defined similarly to the well known elementary transformations of ruled surfaces. In a forthcoming paper, we apply these results in the geometric setup to obtain standard equivariant completions of ...

  11. High-pressure reactively sputtered HfO2: Composition, morphology, and optical properties

    Mártil de la Plaza, Ignacio; González Díaz, Germán; Lucía Mulas, María Luisa; San Andres Serrano, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited by high pressure reactive sputtering using different deposition pressures and times. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of the films, together with the sputtering process growth kinetics were investigated using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The films showed a monoclinic polycrystalli...

  12. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    G. K. Chimal-Ramírez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets.

  13. MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness

    Chimal-Ramírez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sánchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benítez-Bribiesca, L.; Velázquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-García, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Domínguez-López, M. L.; Piña-Sánchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Pananá, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets. PMID:23762835

  14. Spark plasma sintering of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives and its morphology transformation

    Ceja-Cardenas, L., E-mail: leocc4@yahoo.com.m [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Lemus-Ruiz, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Torre, S.D. de la [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIITEC. Cerrada Cecati s/n Col. Sta. Catarina, C.P. 02250 Azc., D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-07-09

    The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} commercial powder, having Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 {sup o}C in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 {sup o}C and heating rate of 300 {sup o}C/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the {beta}-phase nucleated from the {alpha}-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites combine both {alpha}- and {beta}-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv{sub (20kgf)}) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

  15. Discrete transforms

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  16. Transformative Agency

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  17. RF transformer

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  18. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  19. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii.

    Sook-Young Park

    Full Text Available Transformation-mediated mutagenesis in both targeted and random manners has been widely applied to decipher gene function in diverse fungi. However, a transformation system has not yet been established for lichen fungi, severely limiting our ability to study their biology and mechanism underpinning symbiosis via gene manipulation. Here, we report the first successful transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii, via the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We generated a total of 918 transformants employing a binary vector that carries the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene as a selection marker and the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene for labeling transformants. Randomly selected transformants appeared mitotically stable, based on their maintenance of hygromycin B resistance after five generations of growth without selection. Genomic Southern blot showed that 88% of 784 transformants contained a single T-DNA insert in their genome. A number of putative mutants affected in colony color, size, and/or morphology were found among these transformants, supporting the utility of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT for random insertional mutagenesis of U. muehlenbergii. This ATMT approach potentially offers a systematic gene functional study with genome sequences of U. muehlenbergii that is currently underway.

  20. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ► Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  1. Transformative learning.

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2012-12-01

    The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

  2. Subspaces of FMmlet transform

    邹红星; 戴琼海; 赵克; 陈桂明; 李衍达

    2002-01-01

    The subspaces of FMmlet transform are investigated.It is shown that some of the existing transforms like the Fourier transform,short-time Fourier transform,Gabor transform,wavelet transform,chirplet transform,the mean of signal,and the FM-1let transform,and the butterfly subspace are all special cases of FMmlet transform.Therefore the FMmlet transform is more flexible for delineating both the linear and nonlinear time-varying structures of a signal.

  3. Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers

    Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

  4. Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified

    Rothenstein, B; Popescu, Stefan; Rothenstein, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

  5. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Lasure, Linda L. [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  6. Relations of FMmlet Transform to Some Integral Transforms

    ZOUHongxing; DAIQionghai; WANGDianjun; LIYanda

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the relationships between FMmlet transform and some of the existing integral transforms, namely, the chirplet transform, dispersion transform, wavelet transform, chirp-Fourier transform, Short-time fourier transform (STFT), Gabor transform, Fourier transform, cosine transform, sine transform,Hartley transform, Laplace transform, z-transform, Mellintransform, Hilbert transform, autocorrelation function,cross-correlation function, energy, and the mean value.It is shown that all of these transforms are subspaces of FMmlet transform with specific parameters.

  7. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  8. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  9. Rotary Transformer

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  10. Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation

    The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs

  11. Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform

    Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the αth fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

  12. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  13. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  14. Polythiophene: Synthesis in aqueous medium and controllable morphology

    LIU RuoChen; LIU ZhengPing

    2009-01-01

    Various morphologies of polythiophene have been designed and successfully prepared by chemical oxidative polymerization in the presence of phase transfer catalyst (PTC) cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in aqueous medium. The morphologies of polythiophene could be controlled in ribbons, fibers and spherical particles by changing the concentrations of reductant, oxidant and phase transfer catalyst. The structure, thermal stability and the conductivity have been characterized, and a mechanism for the transformation of the morphology of polythiophene has been proposed.

  15. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  16. Transgenic barley overexpressing a cytokinin dehydrogenase gene shows greater tolerance to drought stress.

    Pospíšilová, Hana; Jiskrová, Eva; Vojta, Petr; Mrízová, Katarína; Kokáš, Filip; Čudejková, Mária Majeská; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Plíhal, Ondřej; Klimešová, Jana; Novák, Ondřej; Dzurová, Lenka; Frébort, Ivo; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Together with auxins, cytokinins are the main plant hormones involved in many different physiological processes. Given this knowledge, cytokinin levels can be manipulated by genetic modification in order to improve agronomic parameters of cereals in relation to, for example, morphology, yield, and tolerance to various stresses. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar Golden Promise was transformed using the cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCKX1) under the control of mild root-specific β-glucosidase promoter from maize. Increased cytokinin degradation activity was observed positively to affect the number and length of lateral roots. The impact on morphology depended upon the recombinant protein's subcellular compartmentation. While assumed cytosolic and vacuolar targeting of AtCKX1 had negligible effect on shoot growth, secretion of AtCKX1 protein to the apoplast had a negative effect on development of the aerial part and yield. Upon the application of severe drought stress, all transgenic genotypes maintained higher water content and showed better growth and yield parameters during revitalization. Higher tolerance to drought stress was most caused by altered root morphology resulting in better dehydration avoidance. PMID:26773738

  17. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  18. Long term morphological modelling

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  19. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  20. Influence of austenitizing temperature on apparent morphologies of as-quenched microstructures of steels

    LIU Yue-jun; LI Yi-min; HUANG Bai-yun

    2006-01-01

    The effects of austenitizing temperature on the morphologies and substructures of as-quenched microstructure were investigated by using 13 medium and high carbon steels. The formation reasons of various morphologies of martensite quenched at different austenitizing temperatures were also studied. The results show that the packet martensite in medium and high carbon steels quenched at higher austenitizing temperature is entirely different from that in as-quenched low carbon steels, which is still plate martensite, and not lath martensite. All the change laws of as-quenched microstructures in medium and high carbon steels are identical with an increase in austenitizing temperature, and the austenitizing temperature can merely change the combined morphology of martensitic platelets,but cannot alter the type of product of martensitic transformation in commercial steels.

  1. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along β directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating β and ω phases below the omega transformation temperature

  2. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  3. Silica gel-assisted solvothermal production of CdS,CuxS(x=1,2) and ZnS with different morphologies

    Titipun THONGTEM; Chalermchai PILAPONG; Somchai THONGTEM

    2009-01-01

    CdS, CuxS (x=1, 2) and ZnS with different morphologies were produced by the solvothermal reactions of M(CH3COO)2'2H2O (M=Cd, Cu and Zn) and NH2CSNH2 in hexane with and without silica gel as a hard template at 200 ℃ for 24 h. The product phases were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Different morphologies were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The existence of silica gel in modeling morphologies of the sulfides was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Raman spectra of different products show the vibrations at the same wavenumbers, although they are composed of different morphologies. Photoluminescence (PL) emissions of the corresponding phases with different morphologies are at the same values, but their intensities are increased by template adding.

  4. Controlled synthesis of BiVO4 with multiple morphologies via an ethylenediamine-assisted hydrothermal method

    Graphical abstract: BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized via a simple ethylenediamine (EN) assisted hydrothermal route. One of the mixed crystal phase with spherical and porous morphology showed excellent photocatalytic activity and about 90% Rhodamine B was degraded after 140 min visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Ethylenediamine mainly acts as alkaline source to adjust pH values of precursor. • BiVO4 with spherical morphology has excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, BiVO4 particles with different crystal structures and morphologies including hexahedral, spherical porous and hyperbranched ones were fabricated in the presence of ethylenediamine by hydrothermal process. The as-fabricated samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the morphology and crystal structure of BiVO4 particles could be well controlled by only changing the ethylenediamine content in the deionized water solution. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. It was shown that BiVO4 sample with spherical porous morphology and mixed crystal phase exhibited the best photocatalytic performance after optimizing the ethylenediamine content. The best degradation ratio of Rhodamine B could reach about 87% after 140 min visible-light irradiation

  5. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  6. MR morphology of triangular fibrocartilage complex: correlation with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties

    Bae, Won C.; Chang, Eric Y.; Chung, Christine B. [VA San Diego Healthcare System, Radiology Service, San Diego, CA (United States); University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Ruangchaijatuporn, Thumanoon [Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Rachathewi, Bangkok (Thailand); Biswas, Reni; Du, Jiang; Statum, Sheronda [University of California-San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-04-15

    To evaluate pathology of the triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) using high-resolution morphologic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and compare with quantitative MR and biomechanical properties. Five cadaveric wrists (22-70 years) were imaged at 3 T using morphologic (proton density weighted spin echo, PD FS, and 3D spoiled gradient echo, 3D SPGR) and quantitative MR sequences to determine T2 and T1rho properties. In eight geographic regions, morphology of TFC disc and laminae were evaluated for pathology and quantitative MR values. Samples were disarticulated and biomechanical indentation testing was performed on the distal surface of the TFC disc. On morphologic PD SE images, TFC disc pathology included degeneration and tears, while that of the laminae included degeneration, degeneration with superimposed tear, mucinous transformation, and globular calcification. Punctate calcifications were highly visible on 3D SPGR images and found only in pathologic regions. Disc pathology occurred more frequently in proximal regions of the disc than distal regions. Quantitative MR values were lowest in normal samples, and generally higher in pathologic regions. Biomechanical testing demonstrated an inverse relationship, with indentation modulus being high in normal regions with low MR values. The laminae studied were mostly pathologic, and additional normal samples are needed to discern quantitative changes. These results show technical feasibility of morphologic MR, quantitative MR, and biomechanical techniques to characterize pathology of the TFCC. Quantitative MRI may be a suitable surrogate marker of soft tissue mechanical properties, and a useful adjunct to conventional morphologic MR techniques. (orig.)

  7. Control of Crystal Morphology for Mold Flux During High-Aluminum AHSS Continuous Casting Process

    GUO, Jing; SEO, Myung-Duk; SHI, Cheng-Bin; CHO, Jung-Wook; KIM, Seon-Hyo

    2016-05-01

    In the present manuscript, the efforts to control the crystal morphology are carried out aiming at improving the lubrication of lime-alumina-based mold flux for casting advanced high-strength steel with high aluminum. Jackson α factors for crystals of melt crystallization in multi-component mold fluxes are established and reasonably evaluated by applying thermodynamic databases to understand the crystal morphology control both in lime-alumina-based and lime-silica-based mold fluxes. The results show that Jackson α factor and supercooling are the most critical factors to determine the crystal morphology in a mold flux. Crystals precipitating in mold fluxes appear with different morphologies due to their different Jackson α factors and are likely to be more faceted with higher Jackson α factor. In addition, there is a critical supercooling degree for crystal morphology dendritic transition. When the supercooling over the critical value, the crystals transform from faceted shape to dendritic ones in morphology as the kinetic roughening occurs. Typically, the critical supercooling degrees for cuspidine dendritic transition in the lime-silica-based mold fluxes are evaluated to be between 0.05 and 0.06. Finally, addition of a small amount of Li2O in the mold flux can increase the Jackson α factor and decrease the supercooling for cuspidine precipitation; thus, it is favorable to enhance a faceted cuspidine crystal.

  8. 基于小波变换的多模态医学图像的融合及性能评价%Multi-morphological Fusion of Medical Image and Performance Evaluation based on Wavelet Transform

    高清河; 刚晶; 王和禹; 刘海英

    2014-01-01

    We choosed multi-focus images and standard MRI/CT gray images for source images and applied the following strate-gies to decomposition and fusion.On the one hand,decomposition of low frequency and high frequency wavelet coefficients was adopted with single scale and multi-scale way.On the other hand,image fusion region was selected by independent pixel and neighborhood operation.Through above different operation of decomposition and fusion,the fusion image of different fusion rule was obtained.Based on the fusion image of different fusion rule,the influences of various fusion rules on the fusion results were compared and analyzed, which was the purpose of this paper.By means of analyzing the experimental results and evaluation results of multi-focus fusion ima-ges and clinical MRI/CT fusion images.It show that neighborhood filtering operation can greatly improve the result of image fusion and make the detail of the image information more rich;multi-scale decompose can increase the brightness of the fusion image with respect to single scale decompose.%为了研究小波变换分解的尺度和融合策略对图像融合效果的影响。我们选择已配准后的多聚焦医学图像以及MRI/C T灰度图像,在提取图像的低频和高频小波系数时,分别进行单尺度和多尺度分解,融合时采取了基于独立像素点和基于邻域窗口的多种融合策略,深入对比分析各种融合规则对医学图像融合性能的影响。实验结果和性能评价表明:使用局部滤波的操作可以明显改善图像融合的效果,使图像的细节信息更加丰富,而多尺度融合能明显提高融合图像的亮度。

  9. Transformation and precipitation in vanadium treated steels

    Vassiliou, Andreas Demetriou

    1987-01-01

    A series of carbon manganese steels containing varying amounts of carbon, vanadium and nitrogen was investigated in relation to the solubility of VC and VN in austenite, the grain coarsening characteristics of austenite, the tempering of martensite and other structures, the transformation during continuous cooling, the effect of vanadium addition and increasing nitrogen content on the thermo-mechanical processing of austenite, and the transformation of various morphologies of austenite to fer...

  10. Blob Objects Analysis Using Watershed Transformation

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for overlapping or touching blob object ( particles ) segmentation. It is based on the watershed transformation, one of the most powerful image analysis tools provided by mathematical morphology. In this method, we first build the distance function of the blob image, and then extract the regional minima as markers, and finally the watershed transformation is performed. The applications of this algorithm illustrated using the examples of red blood cell segmentation and broken medicine pill detection.

  11. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew; Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement wi...

  12. Quantum optics of spatial transformation media

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

  13. A Multi-Scale Gradient Algorithm Based on Morphological Operators

    2000-01-01

    Watershed transformation is a powerful morphological tool for image segmentation. However, the performance of the image segmentation methods based on watershed transformation depends largely on the algorithm for computing the gradient of the image to be segmented. In this paper, we present a multi-scale gradient algorithm based on morphological operators for watershed-based image segmentation, with effective handling of both step and blurred edges. We also present an algorithm to eliminate the local minima produced by noise and quantization errors. Experimental results indicate that watershed transformation with the algorithms proposed in this paper produces meaningful segmentations, even without a region-merging step.

  14. Surface morphology and fracture in handpiece adjusting of a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic with coarse diamond burs

    Highlights: ► Morphology and fracture on the removed leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. ► Morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile scratches, smear areas. ► Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for the ceramic removal. ► Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs. ► Temperature-induced phase transformations were detected in leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, which might cause crack initiation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to understand surface morphology and fracture occurring on leucite-reinforced glass ceramic surfaces adjusted with coarse diamond burs. The surface roughness was quantitatively assessed using stylus profilometry and was analyzed statistically. The surface morphology was viewed using scanning electron microscopy. Surface phase transformations were preliminarily studied using Raman spectrometry. The results show that the surface roughness did not significantly depend on either depth of cut (p > 0.05) or feed rate (p > 0.05). However, when decreasing the depth of cut and the feed rate, a tendency for brittle-to-ductile transition existed. The surface morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile removal scratches, smear areas and debris. Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for material removal. Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs were the major cause of surface fracture in the leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The maximum adjusting temperatures on the adjusted surfaces were estimated based on heat transfer analysis. The Raman spectra of the adjusted and unadjusted surfaces show a strong temperature-dependence of Raman shifts near 525–529 cm−1. This indicates the occurrence of temperature-induced cubic-tetragonal phase transformations in the adjusted leucite glass ceramic surfaces. These phase transformations are considered to contribute crack initiation and propagation on the adjusted surfaces.

  15. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  16. Multi-scale Image Segmentation Based on Morphology

    WANGXiaopeng; HAOChongyang; FANYangyu; XIYinglai

    2005-01-01

    The combination of scale-space and watershed is a common way to implement multi-scale segmentation; however, classical scale-space often surfers from the essential contours lost, low localization precision and noise caused spurious contours. Though watershed transform can produce closed contours, it tends to over-segmentation. A method for multi-scale image segmentation using morphological scale-space and modified gradient watershed is proposed to improve the above performance. First, morphological reconstructive opening and closing scale-space is used to simplify the original image, and then on the basis of the simplified images, modified gradient watershed transformis employed to detect region contours. During the imagesimplifying process, noise and small details are removed while essential contours preserved owing to the strong filtering and contour preserving properties of the morphological reconstructive opening and closing scale-space. Modified gradient avoids too many irrelevant minima to be detected,and over-segmentatlon is eliminated. Simulations show that this method can eifficiently not only segment image without over-segmentatlon, but also satisfy the scale monotonicity of scale-space.

  17. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  18. Spatially variant morphological restoration and skeleton representation.

    Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Charif-Chefchaouni, Mohammed; Schonfeld, Dan

    2006-11-01

    The theory of spatially variant (SV) mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we propose the SV alternating sequential filters and SV median filters. We establish the relation of SV median filters to the basic SV morphological operators (i.e., SV erosions and SV dilations). For skeleton representation, we present a general framework for the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. We study the properties of the SV morphological skeleton representation and derive conditions for its invertibility. We also develop an algorithm for the implementation of the SV morphological skeleton representation of binary images. The latter algorithm is based on the optimal construction of the SV structuring element mapping designed to minimize the cardinality of the SV morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the dramatic improvement in the performance of the SV morphological restoration and SV morphological skeleton representation algorithms in comparison to their translation-invariant counterparts. PMID:17076415

  19. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero....

  20. Time is a sausage (A Show of Shows),

    Kivland, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    A group exhibition over three months at Domo Baal, London, with a series of solo shows therein. 8 autonomous exhibitions that each contribute, be it through gesture or residue, to the exhibition in Gallery 1. 'Time is a Sausage' will not remain static but will evolve in tandem with 'A Show of Shows'. 26/11 – 05/12 Sharon Kivland exhibited photographs from her book Freud and the Gift of Flowers (with Forbes Morlock) and a series of photographs entitled Charaden, from a game of riddles...

  1. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Mary, I. Reeta; Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  2. Morphology of galaxies

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  3. Transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia as progression of myeloid neoplasm with platelet-derived growth factor ß rearrangement

    Xue Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myeloid neoplasms associated with platelet-derived growth factor b (PDGFRB rearrangement usually keep only one morphologic type unless blast crisis. We describe a unique case of hematological features transformation from atypical chronic myeloid leukemia to chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, and imatinib showed no clinical therapeutic effects. The phenomenon indicates that different types of myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFRB rearrangement can transform into one another with the progression of the disease, and to some extent, this transformation suggests the aggravation of disease.

  4. Comparative Analysis of Rice Transformation Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhyzobium leguminosarum

    Syamsidah Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to study the effectiveness of Rhizobium transformation system compared to the most widely used Agrobacterium mediated transformation system on three rice cultivars, Ciherang (Indica, Nipponbare (Japonica, and Rojolele (Javanica. Six day old calli induced from immature embryos were inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii ANU845 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA288 that harbored with vector pCAMBIA 5106. This plasmid contained a minimum set of transfer machinery genes and had a gusplus and an hptII gene driven by 35S CaMV promoter in the T-DNA. The results showed that the transformation frequencies (number of PCR positive plants per number of calli inoculated ranging from 0 to 12.05 % depend on the genotype and transfer agent used. The highest transformation frequency (12.05% was obtained in Ciherang transformed with R. leguminosarum. Most of the transgenic rice obtainedby Rhizobium transformation were normal in morphology and fertile similar to those obtained by Agrobacterium transformation. Integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis in T0 and T1 generations.Key words : Rhizobium leguminosarum, immature embryos, Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  5. Power System Transients Analysis by Wavelet Transforms

    陈维荣; 宋永华; 赵蔚

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to Fourier transform, wavelet transform is especially suitable for transient analysis because of its time-frequency characteristics with automatically-adjusted window lengths. Research shows that wavelet transform is one of the most powerful tools for power system transient analysis. The basic ideas of wavelet transform are presented in the paper together with several power system applications. It is clear that wavelet transform has some clear advantages over other transforms in detecting, analyzing, and identifying various types of power system transients.

  6. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.;

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games...

  7. Unitary Transformation in Quantum Teleportation

    WANG Zheng-Chuan

    2006-01-01

    In the well-known treatment of quantum teleportation, the receiver should convert the state of his EPR particle into the replica of the unknown quantum state by one of four possible unitary transformations. However, the importance of these unitary transformations must be emphasized. We will show in this paper that the receiver cannot transform the state of his particle into an exact replica of the unknown state which the sender wants to transfer if he has not a proper implementation of these unitary transformations. In the procedure of converting state, the inevitable coupling between EPR particle and environment which is needed by the implementation of unitary transformations will reduce the accuracy of the replica.

  8. Large symmetric π transformations for Hadamard transforms

    Many multiplexing instruments utilize the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) to demultiplex the signal. In the past, the HFT includes the π1 and π2 transformations to reorder vectors before and after a Sylvester-type Hadamard transform. Although the computational effort involved in the π1 and the Sylvester-type Hadamard transform scales as n log2n, calculating the π2 transformation (which only has to be done once) scales as n2. Recently Gunson (1980) has suggested a method by which the π transformations are symmetric, that is π2 = π1. We have calculated a complete set of symmetric π transformations for FHT of sizes 23 to 230. Special emphasis has been placed on the phase of the π transformation so as to have the correct phase in the demultiplexed signal

  9. Measuring performance at trade shows

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built that...... captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence of...

  10. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs

  11. Transforming Public Space

    Navarro, Dora

    2009-01-01

    the public space into a critical and deliberative public in urban sites. I focus on one local Catholic radio station in Huaycan, a shantytown in the outskirts of Lima, Peru. I describe the radios' journalistic work, showing examples of how they mobilise local leaders and monitor democratic processes......, such as municipal elections and the district's participatory budget. In addition, I show how the public uses the radio to channel their claims. I also identify the factors that prevent the radio from fully empowering the public and transforming public space into a more critical and democratic one....

  12. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  13. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  14. Dynamic Upsilon Transformations

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of stochastic integral representations of ...

  15. THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT

    Rechea Alberola, Manuel; Basset Salom, Luisa

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to carry out the computations are shown and some new results are presented Rechea Alberola, M.; Basset Salom, L. (1996). THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT. III Congreso de Métodos ...

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  17. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...... follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure....

  18. Morphological Assessment of Reconstructed Lowland Streams in the Netherlands

    Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.

    2014-12-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  19. The influence of tectonic and volcanic processes on the morphology of the Iberian continental margins

    The Iberian continental margins are mainly passive margins. Nevertheless, the northern sector of the margin was active during some stages of its geological evolution. The southern sector is considered as a transformed margin, which defines the boundary between the Iberian and African plates. This margin was also an active margin in the past. The different types, origins and intensities of the endogenic processes that have affected he Iberian continental margins have led to the development of various tectonic and volcanic morphologies. The North Atlantic rifting allowed the development of large marginal platforms in the Cantabrian and Galician margins the North-Atlantic Ocean spreading. The reactivation of Variscan faults during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic controlled the strike of some of the largest canyons in the Iberian margins. The Gulf of Cadiz margin is characterized by the development of morphologies related to salt tectonic, fluid seepage, thrust fronts and strike-slip fault lineaments hundreds of kilometres long. The Alboran basin and the Betic margin show morphologies connected with the Miocene rift phase, which generated volcanic edifices and various structural reliefs, and with the subsequent compressive phase, when folds and strike-slip, reverse faults, diapirs and mud volcanoes were developed. Finally, the Catalan-Valencian margin and the Balearic promontory are characterized by the presence of horst and graben structures related to the development of the Valencia trough during the Paleogene. The morphological features of endogenic origin have largely controlled the location and extent of the sedimentary processes and morphological products along the Iberian margins. (Author)

  20. Generalized Staeckel transform and reciprocal transformations for finite-dimensional integrable systems

    Sergyeyev, Artur [Mathematical Institute, Silesian University in Opava, Na RybnIcku 1, 746 01 Opava (Czech Republic); Blaszak, Maciej [Institute of Physics, A Mickiewicz University, Umultowska 85, 61-614 Poznan (Poland)], E-mail: Artur.Sergyeyev@math.slu.cz, E-mail: blaszakm@amu.edu.pl

    2008-03-14

    We present a multiparameter generalization of the Staeckel transform (the latter is also known as the coupling-constant metamorphosis) and show that under certain conditions this generalized Staeckel transform preserves Liouville integrability, noncommutative integrability and superintegrability. The corresponding transformation for the equations of motion proves to be nothing but a reciprocal transformation of a special form, and we investigate the properties of this reciprocal transformation. Finally, we show that the Hamiltonians of the systems possessing separation curves of apparently very different form can be related through a suitably chosen generalized Staeckel transform.

  1. Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and surface morphology

    Nitin Sankar; Mamilla Nagarjun Reddy; R Krishna Prasad

    2016-02-01

    The various properties and surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix were studied to determine their usefulness in various applications. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical breakdown strength of CNT/polymer composites were 0.35MPa, 1.2MPa and 8.1 kV, respectively. The thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for the material having 4.28 wt% CNT were 0.225 W m−1 K−1 and 2.329, respectively. The CNT/polymer composites are promising functional composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties. The scanning electron microscope analysis of surface morphology of PDMS/CNT composite showed that the rough surface texture on nanocomposite has large surface area with circular pores. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups present in polymer nanocomposite.

  2. Effect of silk sericin on morphology and structure of calcium carbonate crystal

    Zhao, Rui-Bo; Han, Hua-Feng; Ding, Shao; Li, Ze-Hao; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, silk sericin was employed to regulate the mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 composite particles were prepared by the precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride solution in the presence of silk sericin. The as-prepared samples were collected at different reaction time to study the crystallization process of CaCO3 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that silk sericin significantly affected the morphology and crystallographic polymorph of CaCO3. With increasing the reaction time, the crystal phase of CaCO3 transferred from calcite dominated to vaterite dominated mixtures, while the morphology of CaCO3 changed from disk-like calcite crystal to spherical vaterite crystal. These studies showed the potential of silk sericin used as a template molecule to control the growth of inorganic crystal.

  3. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  4. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  5. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  6. The Watershed Transform : Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the liter

  7. Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps

    Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce the concept of quantum supermap, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any sup...

  8. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  9. Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation

    Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

  10. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng;

    -term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase...... was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells....

  11. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  12. Picasso on Show in Shanghai

    2011-01-01

    A staff member of the National Picasso Museum of France checks one of the great Spanish artist Pablo Picasso’s works at the China Pavilion inside the site of the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai on October 12.Sixty-two priceless paintings and statues selected from the works of the renowned artist have been brought to the pavilion for an upcoming exhibition to premiere on October 18.Besides these representative masterpieces,50 valuable photographs showing the artist’s whole life will also be presented.The exhibition’s estimated value is 678 million euros ($934 million).It will be held until January 10,2012.

  13. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  14. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  15. PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION IN BREAST CANCER

    L.F. Zhandarova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 80 case histories of patients with breast cancer were analyzed. During the preoperative examination with objective and instrumental examination methods used the malignant process was suspected but no morphological verification was received. Physical examination revealed 75% cases of cancer. Roentgenologic evidence of malignant tumor was found in 43.5% women. Ultrasound examination of mammary glands showed that 57.7% of patients had cancer symptoms. Despite the repeated puncture aspiration biopsy, preoperative morphological examination proved to be negative. The reasons of morphological verification failure are connected with technical difficulties and morphological features of tumor structure. Negative malignant process verification necessitated the diagnostic partial mastectomy. To achieve ablasticity ofexcisional biopsyit is necessary to keep 2 cm from the tumor. Staged morphological diagnosis verifies the diagnosis in all patients, allowing to choose the adequate extentof surgical procedures.

  16. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference. PMID:27585543

  17. Long term morphological modelling

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented......A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...... the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a...

  18. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intri...

  19. On Hurwitz transformations

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R4 → R3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R8 → R5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  20. Semigroups of Upsilon transformations

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of random integral representations of...... Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed....

  1. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Liu, Shao Jun; Weng, Lv Qian; Dong, Wen Yi

    2011-07-01

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO2 thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO2 films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO2 with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450°C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N2 show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO2 films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater.

  2. Automatic Target Detection by Optimal Morphological Filters

    YU Nong(余农); WU Hao(吴昊); WU ChangYong(吴常泳); LI YuShu(李予蜀)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of morphological filters, which are optimal in some sense, is a difficult task. In this paper a novel method for optimal learning of morphological filtering parameters (Genetic training algorithm for morphological filters, GTAMF) is presented.GTAMF adopts new crossover and mutation operators called the curved cylinder crossover and master-slave mutation to achieve optimal filtering parameters in a global searching. Experimental results show that this method is practical, easy to extend, and markedly improves the performances of morphological filters. The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems including morphological operation and structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined so that the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. By means of adaptive optimization training, structuring elements possess the shape and structural characteristics of image targets, and give specific information to SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background.

  3. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity

    Mohan, Vijee; Gupta, Soni; Thomas, Sherinmol; Mickey, Hanjabam; Charakana, Chaitanya; Chauhan, Vineeta Singh; Sharma, Kapil; Kumar, Rakesh; Tyagi, Kamal; Sarma, Supriya; Gupta, Suresh Kumar; Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Nongmaithem, Sapana; Kumari, Alka; Gupta, Prateek; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju; Sharma, Rameshwar

    2016-01-01

    Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS), carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1) involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima’D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future. PMID:27077652

  4. Morphology of polycrystalline cassiterite films

    Tomaev, V. V.; Glazov, A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline cassiterite films have been grown by the hydropyrolytic method from a 10(H2O) + 5(SnCl2 · 2H2O) solution (in weight fractions) on corundum substrates. The crystallization regularities are considered and a comparative analysis of the properties of natural and artificial cassiterite crystals is performed. The surface morphology is investigated and the size of crystalline grains is determined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that all films contain tin and oxygen atoms in a ratio corresponding (within the experimental error) to the chemical formula of tin dioxide. It is established that the surface morphology of cassiterite films is characterized by both single crystallites and aggregates of two or more crystals typical of twins. It is suggest that doping can efficiently be used to control the concentration of twins and the stability of their formation.

  5. The spider effect: morphological and orienting classification of microglia in response to stimuli in vivo.

    Rahul A Jonas

    Full Text Available The different morphological stages of microglial activation have not yet been described in detail. We transected the olfactory bulb of rats and examined the activation of the microglial system histologically. Six stages of bidirectional microglial activation (A and deactivation (R were observed: from stage 1A to 6A, the cell body size increased, the cell process number decreased, and the cell processes retracted and thickened, orienting toward the direction of the injury site; until stage 6A, when all processes disappeared. In contrast, in deactivation stages 6R to 1R, the microglia returned to the original site exhibiting a stepwise retransformation to the original morphology. Thin highly branched processes re-formed in stage 1R, similar to those in stage 1A. This reverse transformation mirrored the forward transformation except in stages 6R to 1R: cells showed multiple nuclei which were slowly absorbed. Our findings support a morphologically defined stepwise activation and deactivation of microglia cells.

  6. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases

    Gabhane Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

  7. Multi scale Harris corner detector based on Differential Morphological Decomposition

    GUEGUEN LIONEL; Pesaresi, Martino

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel method for multi scale corner analysis and detection is presented. First, stateof-the-art Harris–Laplace corner detector is reminded, which benefits from linear scale-space analysis. Secondly, a non-linear scale-space transform, namely Differential Morphological Decomposition, is described. This multi-scale transform is used jointly with the Harris corner indicator to build a new multi scale corner detector. Both corner detectors are visually assessed on synthet...

  8. Carotid and femoral atherosclerotic plaques show different morphology. : Patterns of Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Herisson, Fanny; Heymann, Marie-Françoise; Chétiveaux, Maud; Charrier, Céline; Battaglia, Séverine; Pilet, Paul; Rouillon, Thierry; Krempf, Michel; Lemarchand, Patricia; Heymann, Dominique; Gouëffic, Yann

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Results of endovascular repair vary according to the arterial bed. We hypothesized that these differences may be related to the plaque features. To explore this hypothesis, we designed a prospective study that compared carotid and femoral atheroma. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients that underwent femoral or carotid endarterectomy were included in our study. Demographic data and blood sampling were obtained prior to surgery. Plaques were evaluated for AHA grading, calcification and lipi...

  9. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible...

  10. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald; Strüber, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    , the first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible...

  11. Alkali Induced Morphology and Property Improvements of TiO2 by Hydrothermal Treatment

    HE Qiong; WEN Xianming; MA Peihua; DENG Xiaochuan

    2008-01-01

    Alkali induced morphology and property improvements of TiO2 by hydrothermal reaction were investigated.The products were characterized by SEM,TEM,XRD,TG,EDX,FT-IR and DRS.The results indicate that,with the phase transformation from anatase to rutile,the morphologies changed from high aggregated particles to nanofibers with the diameter of about 100 nm and the length up to several tens of micrometers,meanwhile the process is controllable by manipulating the nature of the alkali,alkalinity and hydrothermal temperature.DRS analysis shows the property improvement of the nanofibers in the UV-Vis light absorption compared with the raw materials,implying the products have potential application in photocatalysis.

  12. Fast lane recognition based on morphological multi-structure element model

    Lei, Tao; Fan, Yang-Yu; Huang, Lian-Bing

    2009-07-01

    This paper proposes a lane detection algorithm based on multi-structure element model of morphological. The innovative point of the algorithm lies in the facts that the flexible structure has the multi-structure elements that lane model features have, and that the algorithm adopts the morphological filtering principle to extract the pixels in the image, which is similar to the lane model. In the algorithm, the interested area is extracted by a model of trapezium from original image, which is detected by the operator of Canny, and the lanes are extracted by the structure elements, which have similar characteristics to that of lane model. Several lines are detected by Hough transformation, then the traffic lanes are reconstructed. Experiments show that this algorithm is simple and robust, and can efficiently detect the lane mask accurately and quickly.

  13. Solvent-tunable morphology and emission of pyrene-dipeptide organogels.

    Bartocci, S; Morbioli, I; Maggini, M; Mba, M

    2015-12-01

    Two pyrene based organogelators in which the pyrene moiety has been linked to the diphenylalanine dipeptide have been synthesized. We show how the solvent can tune both the morphology and the optical properties of the organogels: spherical aggregates with quenched emission were obtained in acetonitrile, whereas an entangled fibrillar network with enhanced emission was formed in o-dichlorobenzene. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments suggest that both π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding contribute to the formation of the supramolecular networks. Ultraviolet-visible and steady state emission studies demonstrated the formation of I-aggregates in acetonitrile. In contrast, in o-dichlorobenzene, the formation of J-type aggregates leads to assemblies with enhanced emission. These results give some insight into the important role of the gelling solvent in the morphology of the supramolecular gels and may help in the design of new soft-materials. PMID:26767742

  14. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a) the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b) The errors are caused by some factors such as the incon...

  15. Morphological filters for OCR: a performance comparison

    Mennillo, Laurent; Cousty, Jean; Najman, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    In this article is compared the ability of several morphological operators to improve OCR performance when used as preprocessing filters. An experiment on binary and greyscale images using the Tesseract OCR engine and morphological filters acting in complex, graph and vertex spaces has thus been performed and results in a good overall performance of complex and area filters. MSE measures have also been performed to evaluate the denoising ability of these filters, which again shows the good pe...

  16. STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY CHANGES OF HYDROBIOTITES MODIFIED BY CATIONIC SURFACTANTS

    2008-01-01

    In this study, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) together with Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the complexes, where the hydrobiotites (Xinjiang) were modified by single-chain surfactants octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTMA) and octadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (ODTMA). XRD patterns showed that the structure of complexes was significantly influenced by the surfactant concentration and the alkyl chain length, because obvious changes took place in the basal spacing. Furthermore, according to the XRD results, several arrangements of surfactant molecules within the hydrobiotite interlayer space were deduced. The FTIR spectrum indicated that the surfactant contents in complexes dramatically increased with the alkyl chain length. The SPM micrographs demonstrated that the surfaces of complexes prepared at lower surfactant concentration were relatively flat compared with that prepared at higher concentration, while those with higher surfactant concentration had much steeper surface due to the alkyl chain length. It was concluded that structure and morphology of surfactant/hydrobiotite complexes depend not only on the surfactant concentration, but also strongly on the surfactant species.

  17. Tuned Morphological Electrospun Hydroxyapatite Nanofibers via pH

    Xiaofeng Song; Fengguang Ling; Haotian Li; Zhantuan Gao; Xuesi Chen

    2012-01-01

    The concept of biocompatible,osteoconductive and noninflammatory material mimicking the structure of natural bone has generated a considerable interest in recent decades.Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an important bionic material that is used for bone grafting in osseous defects and drug carriers.HA with various morphologies and surface properties have been widely investigated.In this paper,HA nanofibers are produced through a combination of electrospinning and sol-gel technique.The morphologies,composition and structure are investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM),Thermogravimetic Analysis (TGA),Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR),X-ray Diffraction (XRD) patterns,Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).The results show that HA nanofibers are even and well-crystallized,and pH is crucial for producing HA nanofibers.With the change ofpH from 4 to 9,nanofibers grow densely along (210) plane and become compact while surface area,pore volume and pore size decrease correspondingly.The synthesized HA nanofibers are nontoxic and safe.Zn can be also incorporated into HA nanofibers,which will endow them with more perfect function.

  18. Morphological Investigation and Fractal Properties of Realgar Nanoparticles

    Amir Lashgari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Some arsenic compounds can show extraordinary polymorphism. Realgar (As4S4 is among several minerals with various crystal forms and is one of the most important sources of arsenic for pharmaceutical use. Currently, realgar is used as an arsenic source in many industries, such as weaponry, publishing, textiles, cosmetics, and health products. In this paper, we used and reported new methods for the purification, nanonization, and structural morphological investigations of As4S4 by using planetary ball mills process for nanonization of the compound. The product was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry spectra, and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM imaging. We investigated the morphological properties of FESEM-imaged realgar nanoparticles by an image-processing technique that calculates fractal dimensions using values on a computer with MATLAB software. We applied the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for statistics data extracted from the FESEM image and obtained the statistics results of the fractal dimension and histogram plot for the FESEM image.

  19. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  20. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  1. Morphological Evolution of Galaxies

    Martel, H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Center for Relativity, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Premadi, P.; Matzner, R. [Department of Physics, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1998-04-01

    We simulate the growth of large-scale structure for three different cosmological models, an Einstein{endash}de Sitter model (density parameter {Omega}{sub 0} = 1), an open model ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2), and a flat model with nonzero cosmological constant ({Omega}{sub 0} = 0.2, cosmological constant {lambda}{sub 0} = 0.8), using a cosmological {ital N}-body code (particle-particle/particle-mesh) with 64{sup 3} dark matter particles in a comoving cubic volume of present comoving size 128 Mpc. The calculations start at {ital z} = 24 and end at {ital z} = 0. We use the results of these simulations to generate distributions of galaxies at the present ({ital z} = 0), as follows: Using a Monte Carlo method based on the present distribution of dark matter, we located {approximately}40,000 galaxies in the computational volume. We then ascribe to each galaxy a morphological type based on the local number density of galaxies in order to reproduce the observed morphology-density relation. The resulting galaxy distributions are similar to the observed ones, with most ellipticals concentrated in the densest regions, and most spirals concentrated in low-density regions. By {open_quotes}tying{close_quotes} each galaxy to its nearest dark matter particle, we can trace the trajectory of that galaxy back in time by simply looking at the location of that dark matter particle at earlier time slices provided by the {ital N}-body code. This enables us to reconstruct the distribution of galaxies at high redshift and the trajectory of each galaxy from its formation epoch to the present. We use these galaxy distributions to investigate the problem of morphological evolution. Our goal is to determine whether the morphological type of galaxies is determined primarily by the initial conditions in which these galaxies form or by evolutionary processes (such as mergers or tidal stripping) occurring after the galaxies have formed and eventually altering their morphology, or a combination of both

  2. From Fock's Transformation to de Sitter Space

    Foughali, T

    2016-01-01

    As in Deformed Special Relativity, we showed recently that the Fock coordinate transformation can be derived from a new deformed Poisson brackets. This approach allowed us to establish the corresponding momentum transformation which keeps invariant the four dimensional contraction $p_{\\mu} x^{\\mu} $. From the resulting deformed algebra, we construct in this paper the corresponding first Casimir. After first quantization, we show by using the Klein-Gordon equation that the spacetime of the Fock transformation is the de Sitter one. As we will see, the invariant length representing the universe radius in the spacetime of Fock's transformation is exactly the radius of the embedded hypersurface representing the de Sitter spacetime.

  3. Improvement of the BALB/c-3T3 cell transformation assay: a tool for investigating cancer mechanisms and therapies

    Poburski, Doerte; Thierbach, René

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer preventive or therapeutic substances as well as carcinogenic risk assessment of chemicals is nowadays mostly dependent on animal studies. In vitro cell transformation assays mimic different stages of the in vivo neoplastic process and represent an excellent alternative to study carcinogenesis and therapeutic options. In the BALB/c-3T3 two-stage transformation assay cells are chemically transformed by treatment with MCA and TPA, along with the final Giemsa staining of morphological aberrant foci. In addition to the standard method we can show, that it is possible to apply other chemicals in parallel to identify potential preventive or therapeutic substances during the transformation process. Furthermore, we successfully combined the BALB/c cell transformation assay with several endpoint applications for protein analysis (immunoblot, subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence) or energy parameter measurements (glucose and oxygen consumption) to elucidate cancer mechanisms in more detail. In our opinion the BALB/c cell transformation assay proves to be an excellent model to investigate alterations in key proteins or energy parameters during the different stages of transformation as well as therapeutic substances and their mode of action. PMID:27611302

  4. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  5. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  6. Changes of epidermal cell morphology and keratin expression induced by inhibitors of protein kinase C.

    Hegemann, L; Wevers, A; Bonnekoh, B; Mahrle, G

    1992-03-01

    Several lines of evidence show protein kinase C as being involved in various regulatory processes in keratinocyte biology, e.g. proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we investigated the effects of three different inhibitors of protein kinase C, staurosporine, CP 46'665-1, and tiflucarbine, on cell morphology and keratin expression in a non-tumorigenic human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT cells). Staurosporine, being the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C activity in vitro, and CP 46'665-1 induced morphological transformation to a fibroblast-like cell shape. In contrast, no changes in cell morphology were observed after exposure to tiflucarbine. The investigation of keratin expression in HaCaT cells grown in the presence of the different compounds revealed the following changes: After 72 h of cultivation, keratins 8 and 18 were still expressed in treated cells, whereas expression of keratin 13 was decreased as compared to control cells. Immunoblotting to detect vimentin demonstrated its absence in treated and control cells. Since tiflucarbine is known as a dual protein kinase C/calmodulin inhibitor whereas staurosporine and CP 46'665-1 do not antagonize calmodulin function, it might be possible that not only protein kinase C but also calmodulin is involved in the process leading to the morphological changes. PMID:1376142

  7. Head morphology in perinatal dolphins: a window into phylogeny and ontogeny.

    Rauschmann, Michael A; Huggenberger, Stefan; Kossatz, Lars S; Oelschläger, Helmut H A

    2006-11-01

    In this paper on the ontogenesis and evolutionary biology of odontocete cetaceans (toothed whales), we investigate the head morphology of three perinatal pantropical spotted dolphins (Stenella attenuata) with the following methods: computer-assisted tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, conventional X-ray imaging, cryo-sectioning as well as gross dissection. Comparison of these anatomical methods reveals that for a complete structural analysis, a combination of modern imaging techniques and conventional morphological methods is needed. In addition to the perinatal dolphins, we include series of microslides of fetal odontocetes (S. attenuata, common dolphin Delphinus delphis, narwhal Monodon monoceros). In contrast to other mammals, newborn cetaceans represent an extremely precocial state of development correlated to the fact that they have to swim and surface immediately after birth. Accordingly, the morphology of the perinatal dolphin head is very similar to that of the adult. Comparison with early fetal stages of dolphins shows that the ontogenetic change from the general mammalian bauplan to cetacean organization was characterized by profound morphological transformations of the relevant organ systems and roughly seems to parallel the phylogenetic transition from terrestrial ancestors to modern odontocetes. PMID:17051542

  8. Tuning the particle size and morphology of high energetic material nanocrystals

    Raj Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Morphology controlled synthesis of nanoparticles of powerful high energetic compounds (HECs such as 1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazinane (RDX and 1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocane (HMX were achieved by a simple solvent–antisolvent interaction (SAI method at 70 °C. The effects of different solvents on particle size and morphology of the prepared nano-HECs were studied systematically. Particle size and morphology of the nano-HECs was characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM imaging. X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy studies revealed that RDX and HMX were precipitated in their most stable polymorphic forms, i.e. α and β, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis coupled with differential scanning calorimetry (TGA-DSC studies showed that the thermal response of the nanoparticles was similar to the respective raw-HECs. HEC nanoparticles with spherical and rod shaped morphology were observed under different solvent conditions. The mean particle size also varied considerably with the use of different solvents.

  9. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar R.; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  10. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  11. Vocabulary— Teaching Through Morphology

    2001-01-01

    A large vocabulary is crucial to learners of English, but how to teach vocabulary effectively is equally important to a teacher of English. This article tries to emphasize the importance of part of speech in vocabulary teaching by analyzing the characteristics of English words from the aspect of morphology.

  12. Fractional Darboux Transformations

    Humi, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial diffe...

  13. Entropy of Baker's Transformation

    栾长福

    2003-01-01

    Four theorems about four different kinds of entropies for Baker's transformation are presented. The Kolmogorov entropy of Baker's transformation is sensitive to the initial flips by the time. The topological entropy of Baker's transformation is found to be log k. The conditions for the state of Baker's transformation to be forbidden are also derived. The relations among the Shanonn, Kolmogorov, topological and Boltzmann entropies are discussed in details.

  14. Amplified Quantum Transforms

    Cornwell, David

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabiliti...

  15. BLOOD VESSELS EXTRACTION USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal vasculature is composed of the arteries and veins with their tributaries which are visible within the retinal image. The segmentation and measurement of the retinal vasculature is of primary interest in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of systemic and ophthalmologic conditions. The accurate segmentation of the retinal blood vessels is often an essential prerequisite step in the identification of retinal anatomy and pathology. In this study, we present an automated approach for blood vessels extraction using mathematical morphology. Two main steps are involved: enhancement operation is applied to the original retinal image in order to remove the noise and increase contrast of retinal blood vessels and morphology operations are employed to extract retinal blood vessels. This operation of segmentation is applied to binary image of top-hat transformation. The result was compared with other algorithms and give better results.

  16. Entanglement Continuous Unitary Transformations

    Sahin, S; Orus, R

    2016-01-01

    Continuous unitary transformations are a powerful tool to extract valuable information out of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, in which the so-called flow equation transforms the Hamiltonian to a diagonal or block-diagonal form in second quantization. Yet, one of their main challenges is how to approximate the infinitely-many coupled differential equations that are produced throughout this flow. Here we show that tensor networks offer a natural and non-perturbative truncation scheme in terms of entanglement. The corresponding scheme is called "entanglement-CUT" or eCUT. It can be used to extract the low-energy physics of quantum many-body Hamiltonians, including quasiparticle energy gaps. We provide the general idea behind eCUT and explain its implementation for finite 1d systems using the formalism of matrix product operators, and we present proof-of-principle results for the spin-1/2 1d quantum Ising model in a transverse field. Entanglement-CUTs can also be generalized to higher dimensions and to the thermo...

  17. Transformational silicon electronics

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Morphology of uranium compounds

    Uranium metal is being used as nuclear fuel for Indian Research Reactors. During production of U metal various intermediate compounds of uranium are being processed. Physical, chemical properties of these compounds are important in overall processing rate and conversion determination. As no systematic data on morphology of these compounds were available, study was conducted to record the morphology of various U-compounds which are important in production of ceramic and metallic U-fuel for reactors. Most important intermediates were found to be ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxide (UO3/UO2). Morphology of these powders controls their flowability required for further material movement through different equipment, surface area required for chemical reactivity of powder, carryover losses occurred during gas solid counter current reaction and tap density required for effective capacity determination. ADU particle basically consists of primary platelets of 250-500 nm width and of 500-1000 nm length. These primary platelets form primary agglomerates. These agglomerates look like woollen balls or balls or cauliflower and primary agglomerates are also connected with each other to form secondary agglomerates. The basic morphology of ADU is maintained in UO3 even after calcination at high temperature. Pores are generated at the surface of platelet of UO3 due to release of gaseous reaction products during calcination. As temperature increases more pores are generated and sintering also starts. Specific surface area of UO3, produced by the calcination of ammonium di-urinate is generally a function of two competing processes: generation of surface area due to generation of pores because of the evolution of gaseous products (NH3, H2O vapour) and the loss of surfaces due to sintering. As a results surface area increases with calcination temperature due to generation of pores and then reduces. It has also been observed that morphology of the compounds are very much processing

  19. On some hypergeometric transformations

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1999-01-01

    A method that may generate new transformations is mentioned. It is shown that the approach applies to some of the cubic transformations of 3F2, and, moreover, to a quartic and a sextic transformation of 2F1. Regions of validity are established. Many of the results are established by the aid of...

  20. SELECTION OF POWER TRANSFORMERS

    A. A. Gonchar

    2016-01-01

    The paper reveals that while loading transformers from idle running till nominal value it is preferable to apply transformers with less power losses in steel because total losses of active power in the indicated range are less than in transformers with larger losses in steel.

  1. Solid-solid phase transformation kinetics

    Bauer, Rico

    2010-01-01

    Chapter 2 of this thesis presents the investigation of the microstructural evolution of Co precipitates formed upon isochronal annealing of an initially supersaturated Au 10.12 at. % Co solid solution. It was proven, that initially plate like bcc Co precipitates have formed, which deviates from the expected stable fcc Co crystal structure. Upon prolonged annealing, i. e. with ongoing precipitation reaction, the bcc Co was transformed into fcc Co accompanied with a morphological change of th...

  2. Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

  3. Generalized Tree-Based Wavelet Transform

    Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new wavelet transform applicable to functions defined on graphs, high dimensional data and networks. The proposed method generalizes the Haar-like transform proposed in \\cite{gavish2010mwot}, and it is similarly defined via a hierarchical tree, which is assumed to capture the geometry and structure of the input data. It is applied to the data using a multiscale filtering and decimation scheme, which can employ different wavelet filters. We propose a tree construction method which results in efficient representation of the input function in the transform domain. We show that the proposed transform is more efficient than both the 1D and 2D separable wavelet transforms in representing images. We also explore the application of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that combined with a subimage averaging scheme, it achieves denoising results which are similar to the ones obtained with the K-SVD algorithm.

  4. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  5. EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND ASSESMENT OF DNA CONTENT USING FLOWCYTOMETRY ANALYSIS IN REGENERANTS DWARF NAPIERGRASS FROM EMBRYOGENIC CALLI

    Nafiatul Umami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Callus is an excellent source for in vitro plant regeneration, but plants regenerated from callus sometimes show phenotypic and genotypic variation from the initial plants. In this study, there was no variations between regenerated plants and dwarf napiergrass as control. Research result on six morphological characters did not show differences between regenerated plants and control plants. There were not either significant differences of DNA content between control and regenerated plants. The method established by this research was a stable and efficient method that can be applied for supplying transformation materials using callus.

  6. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  7. Morphological, ontogenetic and molecular characterization of Scutellospora reticulata (Glomeromycota)

    De Souza, F.A.; Declerck, S.; Smit, E.; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora reticulata (CNPAB11) was characterized using morphological, ontogenetic and molecular approaches. Spore ontogenesis was studied using Ri T-DNA transformed carrot roots and observations were compared with those published for eight other, pot-cultur

  8. Diabetic Retinopathy Grading by Digital Curvelet Transform

    Shirin Hajeb Mohammad Alipour

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1 no diabetic retinopathy, (2 mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3 severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading.

  9. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or...

  10. "Sleeping Giants" Transform a School.

    Duff, R. Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Describes the transformation of St. John Neumann School, in South Carolina, from a financially unstable parish school to a thriving and fully accredited institution through parent participation and the efforts of a new principal. Argues that the school's experience shows what can be achieved when families, communities, and schools commit…

  11. Education as Transformation – Education for transformation

    Manzoor Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    Manzoor Ahmed argues that it is necessary to consider education as transformation and education for transformation and the nature of interaction between the two. He looks at inequalities in education and society through a lens of pragmatic reconciliation among competing theories. He embraces a middle ground of state-led partnership to mitigate forces of social reproduction and to ensure human resource development characterized by quality, relevance and equity in the education system. He sees ...

  12. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    F. A. Romanuk; Korolev, S. P.; M. S. Loman

    2011-01-01

    The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  13. Microprocessor Protection of Power Reducing Transformers

    F. A. Romanuk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains analysis of advantages and disadvantages of existing differential protection terminals of power reducing transformers. The paper shows that there are good reasons to develop microprocessor protection of power reducing transformer which contains required functions and settings and which is based on Belarusian principles of relay protection system construction. The paper presents functional structure of microprocessor terminal of power reducing transformer which is developed. 

  14. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P.; Garecki, Janusz; Blaschke, David B.

    2008-01-01

    Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and the Einstein relativity. In this paper we discuss the rules of these transformations for geometric quantities as well as for the matter energy-momentum tensor. We show the subtlety of the matter energy-momentum conservation law which refers to the fact that the conformal transformation "creates" an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservat...

  15. Transformer - type pulse high voltage generator

    寺尾, 薫; 高野, 三郎; 入澤, 壽逸

    1995-01-01

    Atriple-resonance pulse transformer cuircuit is compared experimentally to the well-known double-resonance one. The primary circuit of each are fixed and a turn ratio of the transformer is varied from 1:10 to 1:50 by every 10 turns. The triple-resonance mode shows high voltage multiplication and high efficiency of energy transfer compared to the double resonance mode, particularly at high turn ratio of the transformer.

  16. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    Sønderby, Søren Kaae; Sønderby, Casper Kaae; Maaløe, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.......9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input...

  17. A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

    Claas Hüter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

  18. Disformal transformations on the CMB

    Burrage, Clare; Davis, Anne-Christine

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the role of disformal transformation on cosmological backgrounds and its relation to the speed of sound for tensor modes. A speed different from one for tensor modes can arise in several contexts, such as Galileons theories or massive gravity, nevertheless the speed is very constrained to be one by observations of gravitational wave emission. It has been shown that in inflation a disformal trans- formation allows to set the speed for tensor modes to one without making changes to the curvature power spectrum. Here we show that this invariance does not hold when considering the CMB anisotropy power spectrum. It turns out that the after doing the transformation there is an imprint on the acoustic peaks and the diffusion damping. This has interesting consequences; here we explore quartic galileon theories which allow a modified speed for tensor modes. For these theories the transformation can be used to constraint the parameter space in different regimes.

  19. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ηMAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  20. Matrix transformation of digital image and its periodicity

    2001-01-01

    The periodicity of a general matrix modular transformation is discussed, and a simple proof of a sufficient and necessary condition that a matrix transformation has periodicity is given. Using a block matrix method, the higher dimensional transformation and its inverse are studied, and a simple algorithm for calculating their periods is put forward. The security of n-dimensional Amold transformation and its inverse is also discussed. The results show that the two transformations are applicable in scrambling and recovering images.

  1. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

    1982-01-01

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

  2. Morphological mutants of garlic

    Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order. (author)

  3. Effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via a hydrothermal route

    Well-dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with different morphologies were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in oleic acid, ethanol and water reaction system, and the surfactant assisted modifications effect was also comparatively studied. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of HA nanorods were discussed in detail. The results showed that the controlled experimental conditions in the systems, such as the content ratio of oleic acid/ethanol, pH value and the content ratio of Ca/P source had an significant effect on the morphology evolution of as-prepared HA nanorods. Further, the selected surfactant additives, such as cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12) also play an important role in the formation of the uniform morphology of HA nanorods. Some possible formation mechanisms of the HA nanorods in the present reaction systems is proposed.

  4. Wavelets associated with Hankel transform and their Weyl transforms

    PENG; Lizhong; MA; Ruiqin

    2004-01-01

    The Hankel transform is an important transform. In this paper, westudy the wavelets associated with the Hankel transform, thendefine the Weyl transform of the wavelets. We give criteria of itsboundedness and compactness on the Lp-spaces.

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis of SrF2:Yb3+/Er3+micro-/nanocrystals with multiform morphologies and upconversion properties

    SUN Jiayue; XIAN Jianbo; ZHANG Xiangyan; DU Haiyan

    2011-01-01

    Micro-and nanocrystals cubic-phase SrF2:Yb3+/Er3+ upconversion luminescence phosphors were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal route in the presence of different surfactants. The samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and upconversion emission spectra.As-prepared products showed a variety of morphologies, such as cubic-shaped microcrystal, hierarchical structure microspheres,spherical-shaped nanocrystals and nanosheets.The intrinsic structural feature of cubic-phase SrF2 and two important external factors, namely,the mechanisms for products with various architectures were presented. A systematic study on the photoluminescence of Yb3+/Er3+-doped SrF2 samples with cubic shape, microspheres, spherical and nanosheets shapes showed that the optical properties of these products were strongly dependent on their morphologies and size.

  6. Solution-phase synthesis of inorganic nanostructures by chemical transformation from reactive templates

    2010-01-01

    The solution-phase synthesis by chemical transformation from reactive templates has proved to be very effective in morphology-controlled synthesis of inorganic nanostructures. This review paper summarizes the recent progress in solution-phase synthesis of one-dimensional and hollow inorganic nanostructures via reactive templates, focusing on the approaches developed in our lab. The formation mechanisms based on reactive templates are discussed in depth to show the general concepts for the preparation processes. An outlook on the future development in this area is also presented.

  7. Effects of 5-azacytidine on the progressive nature of cell transformation.

    Hsiao, W L; Gattoni-Celli, S; Weinstein, I B

    1985-01-01

    C3H 10T1/2 mouse embryo fibroblasts were exposed to 3 microM 5-azacytidine for 24 h and then serially passaged in the absence of 5-azacytidine and examined for subsequent changes in growth properties. The treated cells showed changes in morphology, saturation density, growth rate, and serum dependence. By the 5th passage they acquired the ability to grow in 0.3% agarose, and by the 30th passage they gave rise to fully transformed foci that grew in agarose, in agar, and in liquid suspension. T...

  8. The Fresnel-Weyl complementary transformation

    Xie Chuan-Mei; Fan Hong-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation,we propose the so-called Fresnel-Weyl complementary transformation operator.The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 - a2)/√2)and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/√2).Physically,(a1 - a2)/√2 and (a1 + a2)/√2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2.We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form.

  9. The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation

    Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 − a2)/√2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/√2). Physically, (a1 − a2)/√2 and (a1 + a2)/√2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form

  10. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments

  11. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  12. Realization of Wavelet Transform Using SAW Devices

    2001-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of surface acoustic wave(SAW) devices, the theory for realizing wavelet transform (WT) by SAW is deduced. Simulated experiment shows that the method of implementing WT using SAW devices has virtues of high speed and utility and is compatible with digital technique. It is important to implement wavelet transform.

  13. Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership.

    Bass, Bernard M., Ed.; Avolio, Bruce J., Ed.

    This book shows how transformational leadership is expected to contribute to an organization's efforts to improve its operations and the best use of its human resources. The concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are introduced within the framework of a full-range model of leadership. This model is applied to research,…

  14. Cladogenesis and morphological diversification in passerine birds.

    Ricklefs, Robert E

    2004-07-15

    Morphological diversity tends to increase within evolving lineages over time, but the relative roles of gradual evolutionary change (anagenesis) and abrupt shifts associated with speciation events (cladogenesis, or 'punctuated equilibrium') have not been resolved for most groups of organisms. However, these two modes of evolution can be distinguished by the fact that morphological variance increases in proportion to time under anagenesis, and in proportion to the logarithm of the number of species under cladogenesis. Although species and time are themselves correlated, multiple regression analysis provides a statistical framework for partitioning their relative contributions. In this study, I use multiple regressions to evaluate the effects of time and species number on morphological diversity within clades of passerine birds. The results show clearly that number of species exerts a strong influence on morphological variance independent of time, but that time has no unique effect. Thus, morphological evolution in birds seems to be associated with cladogenesis. How lineage splitting promotes morphological diversification poses an important challenge to ecologists and evolutionary biologists. PMID:15254535

  15. Finite transformers for construction of fractal curves

    Lisovik, L.P.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we continue the study of infinite R{sup n}-transformers that can be used to define real functions and three-dimensional curves. An R{sup n}-transformer A generates an output n-tuple A(x) = (Y{sub 1},...,Y{sub n}), consisting of output binary representations. We have previously shown that finite R{sup n}-transformers with n = 1, 2 can be used to define a continuous, nowhere differentiable function and a Peano curve. Curves of this kind are objects of fractal geometry. Here we show that some other fractal curves, which are analogs of the Koch curve and the Sierpinski napkin, can be defined by finite R{sup 2}-transformers. R{sup n}-transformers (and also finite R{sup n}-transformers) thus provide a convenient tool for definition of fractal curves.

  16. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse

    2005-01-01

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  17. CPS Transformation of Beta-Redexes

    Danvy, Olivier; Nielsen, Lasse R.

    The extra compaction of the most compacting CPS transformation in existence, which is due to Sabry and Felleisen, is generally attributed to (1) making continuations occur first in CPS terms and (2) classifying more redexes as administrative. We show that this extra compaction is actually...... independent of the relative positions of values and continuations and furthermore that it is solely due to a context-sensitive transformation of beta-redexes. We stage the more compact CPS transformation into a first-order uncurrying phase and a context-insensitive CPS transformation. We also define a context......-insensitive CPS transformation that provides the extra compaction. This CPS transformation operates in one pass and is dependently typed....

  18. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer

    Jianyu Lan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

  19. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    David Blakeway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  20. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  1. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Psidium Species

    Anshu SHARMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate genetic relationship among 20 genotypes of Psidium guajava and two species viz., P friedrichsthalianum Ndz. and P. catleianum Sabine, by morphological characterization. Out of 16 morphological characters studied, only inflorescence type did not show any variation, while the remaining traits showed variability to considerable extent. Morphological data on different genotypes were used to calculate similarity matrix which ranged from 0.06 to 0.50.and based on this cluster analysis was done using UPGMA. The genetic variation among genotypes was high enough to divide them into two major clusters. Cluster I consisted of �Chakaiya Rehmannagar�, �Gutaniwala�, �Super Max Ruby�, and �Spear Acid�, whereas cluster II consisted of the rest of 18 genotypes.

  2. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    Wagener, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there...

  3. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  4. Digital Transformation og Forandringskommunikation

    Pedersen, Nina Helene Damgaard; Andersen, Emil Frost

    2016-01-01

    The need for digital transformation is greater than ever due to the speed at which new technologies are developed and applied in the population. This thesis examines the process of digital transformation in large companies. The study aims to theorize the topic of digital transformation as the existing material in this area mainly consists of consulting houses' own promotional materials. There are a myriad of models and methods to develop great ideas and products, but we have not been able to ...

  5. Predicting transformers oil parameters

    Shaban, K.; El-Hag, A.; Matveev, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper different configurations of artificial neural networks are applied to predict various transformers oil parameters. The prediction is performed through modeling the relationship between the transformer insulation resistance extracted from the Megger test and the breakdown strength, interfacial tension, acidity and the water content of the transformers oil. The process of predicting these oil parameters statuses is carried out using two different configurations of neural networks....

  6. Transformation survival models

    Yulia Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    The Cox proportional hazards model is one of the most popular methods for analyzing survival or failure-time data. The key assumption underlying the Cox model is that of proportional hazards. This assumption may often be violated in practice. Transformation survival models extend the Cox regression methodology to allow for nonproportional hazards. They represent the class of semiparametric linear transformation models, which relates an unknown transformation of the survival time linearly to c...

  7. On Krawtchouk Transforms

    Feinsilver, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Krawtchouk polynomials appear in a variety of contexts, most notably as orthogonal polynomials and in coding theory via the Krawtchouk transform. We present an operator calculus formulation of the Krawtchouk transform that is suitable for computer implementation. A positivity result for the Krawtchouk transform is shown. Then our approach is compared with the use of the Krawtchouk transform in coding theory where it appears in MacWilliams' and Delsarte's theorems on weight enumerators. We conclude with a construction of Krawtchouk polynomials in an arbitrary finite number of variables, orthogonal with respect to the multinomial distribution.

  8. A DC Transformer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  9. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  10. Phase transformation and diffusion

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  11. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  12. Twisted Legendre transformation

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    The general framework of Legendre transformation is extended to the case of symplectic groupoids, using an appropriate generalization of the notion of generating function (of a Lagrangian submanifold).

  13. The Watershed Transform: Definitions, Algorithms and Parallelization Strategies

    Roerdink, Jos B. T. M.; Meijster, Arnold

    2000-01-01

    The watershed transform is the method of choice for image segmentation in the field of mathematical morphology. We present a critical review of several definitions of the watershed transform and the associated sequential algorithms, and discuss various issues which often cause confusion in the literature. The need to distinguish between definition, algorithm specification and algorithm implementation is pointed out. Various examples are given which illustrate differences between watershed tra...

  14. The study of retained austenite morphology in low-carbon silico manganese steels

    The experimental results of a retained austenite morphology in low-carbon steels of a chemical composition of 0.2% C, 1.5% Mn, and 1.5% Si are presented. The microstructure of retained austenite after martensitic transformation in samples quenched from austenite region, dual phase region and suggested isothermal bainitic transformation were analysed. (author)

  15. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    virus surface capsid. Virus surface morphologies of different resolutions are attained by adjusting the propagation time. Therefore, the present PDE transform provides a multiresolution analysis in the surface visualization. Extensive numerical experiment and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the present PDE transform is a robust, stable, and efficient approach for biomolecular surface generation in Cartesian meshes. PMID:22582140

  16. The application of Hartley transform to ocean engineering

    Hequan Sun; Dahong Qiu; Yongxue Wang

    2003-01-01

    The Hartley transform is a real integral transform based on harmonic functions and hassome characteristics similar to the Fourier transform. Most applications in ocean engineering requiringthe Fourier transform can also be performed by the Hartley transform. The fast Hartley transform istwice faster and more convenient to handle than the corresponding fast Fourier transform, so it is a realvalued alternative to the complex Fourier transform in many applications. The use of the Hartley trans-form in ocean engineering is presented in detail in this paper, including wave spectral analysis, separationof waves, cross-correlation in PIV technique and expression of equation in the Hartley domain. The ex-amples in the paper show deeply the advantage and efficiency of the Hartley transform over the Fouriertransform.

  17. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  18. Morphology of atherosclerotic coronary arteries

    Holme, Margaret N.; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Hieber, Simone Elke; Weitkamp, Timm; Beckmann, Felix; Herzen, Julia; Lobrinus, Johannes A.; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Mach, François; Zumbuehl, Andreas; Saxer, Till; Müller, Bert

    2012-10-01

    Atherosclerosis, the narrowing of vessel diameter and build-up of plaques in coronary arteries, leads to an increase in the shear stresses present, which can be used as a physics-based trigger for targeted drug delivery. In order to develop appropriate nanometer-size containers, one has to know the morphology of the critical stenoses with isotropic micrometer resolution. Micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast mode provides the necessary spatial resolution and contrast. The present communication describes the pros and cons of the conventional and synchrotron radiation-based approaches in the visualization of diseased human and murine arteries. Using registered datasets, it also demonstrates that multi-modal imaging, including established histology, is even more powerful. The tomography data were evaluated with respect to cross-section, vessel radius and maximal constriction. The average cross-section of the diseased human artery (2.31 mm2) was almost an order of magnitude larger than the murine one (0.27 mm2), whereas the minimal radius differs only by a factor of two (0.51 mm versus 0.24 mm). The maximal constriction, however, was much larger for the human specimen (85% versus 49%). We could also show that a plastic model used for recent experiments in targeted drug delivery represents a very similar morphology, which is, for example, characterized by a maximal constriction of 82%. The tomography data build a sound basis for flow simulations, which allows for conclusions on shear stress distributions in stenosed blood vessels.

  19. Size- and morphology-controllable synthesis of MIL-96 (Al) by hydrolysis and coordination modulation of dual aluminium source and ligand systems.

    Liu, Dandan; Liu, Yunqi; Dai, Fangna; Zhao, Jinchong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an efficient method to fabricate Al-based metal organic framework (Al-MOF) MIL-96 crystals with controllable size and morphology, by mixing other forms of reactants to replace the coordination modulators or capping agents, is presented. The size and morphology of the MIL-96 crystals can be selectively varied by simply altering the ratio of dual reactants via their hydrolysis reaction. All the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen sorption. Then based on the BFDH theory, a mechanism for the impact of hydrolysis of reactants on the crystal size and morphology is presented and discussed. We also evaluated the performance of these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2, and they all show enhanced adsorption properties compared with the bulk material, displaying high adsorption capacities on CO2 at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. PMID:26309045

  20. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

  1. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Ovri Henry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  2. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  3. Memory of Power Transformed

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  4. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  5. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  6. An efficient method to modulate the structure, morphology and properties of WO3 through niobium doping

    Highlights: • Nb-doped WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • Nb doping in WO3 structure results in phase transformation and morphology evolution. • Band gap increases from 2.72 to 2.78 eV after 0–5 at% Nb doping in WO3 structure. • A balance between defect oxygen and absorbed oxygen results in steady-state photocurrent at 2 at% niobium doping. - Abstract: Doped tungsten oxide has been reported to provide enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectronic properties in catalyst and smart window applications. Here Nb-doped WO3 was synthesized to investigate the effect of doping on composition, structure and optical properties. It is shown that niobium ion implantation in WO3 structure results in the morphological evolution from nanosheet into nanoparticle. 5 at% niobium ion doping induces the phase transformation from monoclinic γ-WO3 to monoclinic ε-WO3. UV–vis spectrum shows that niobium implantation results in the increase of the band gap and the shift of absorption edge. Photoelectric measurement indicates that photocurrent increases firstly and then decreases under UV irradiation. The results reported in this study will be useful in formulating optimum doping process to enhance desired photoelectric properties

  7. Photochemical transformation of silver nanoparticles by combining blue and green irradiation

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) were transformed by means of photochemical synthesis using superluminescent LEDs. Flat rounded (21 nm) and decahedral nanoparticles (78 nm) were, respectively, obtained when the colloid was exposed to green and blue radiation. Furthermore, by changing from blue to green radiation at different exposure times, various morphologies and sizes were obtained. Exposure times shorter than 30 min of blue radiation followed by green radiation resulted on different morphologies such as twine rounded (42 nm), flat elongated (peanuts, 17 nm), and flat rounded nanoparticles (11 and 24 nm). Times longer than 45 min produced decahedral nanoparticles with corners ranging from rounded to sharp (size 71–78 nm). Additionally, these results showed that by controlling morphologies and sizes through the combination of blue and green light at different exposure times, it was possible to tune the plasmon band from 511 to 594 nm. Moreover, controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of prime importance in order to exploit their properties as part of novel emerging technologies

  8. Photochemical transformation of silver nanoparticles by combining blue and green irradiation

    Cardoso-Avila, P. E.; Pichardo-Molina, J. L., E-mail: jpichardo@cio.mx [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico); Krishna, C. Murali [Advanced Center for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Center (TMC) (India); Castro-Beltran, R. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C (Mexico)

    2015-03-15

    Spherical silver nanoparticles (diameter 3 nm) were transformed by means of photochemical synthesis using superluminescent LEDs. Flat rounded (21 nm) and decahedral nanoparticles (78 nm) were, respectively, obtained when the colloid was exposed to green and blue radiation. Furthermore, by changing from blue to green radiation at different exposure times, various morphologies and sizes were obtained. Exposure times shorter than 30 min of blue radiation followed by green radiation resulted on different morphologies such as twine rounded (42 nm), flat elongated (peanuts, 17 nm), and flat rounded nanoparticles (11 and 24 nm). Times longer than 45 min produced decahedral nanoparticles with corners ranging from rounded to sharp (size 71–78 nm). Additionally, these results showed that by controlling morphologies and sizes through the combination of blue and green light at different exposure times, it was possible to tune the plasmon band from 511 to 594 nm. Moreover, controlling the morphology of nanoparticles is of prime importance in order to exploit their properties as part of novel emerging technologies.

  9. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  10. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  11. Power transformer testing

    Zagrobelna, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the method of oil-filled transformer monitoring by means of a fiber optic sensor. Our method can be extremely useful in case of prevent overheating and the winding failure. A special semiconductor technology plays an important role in such measurement. The tests were carried out by means of the developed test stand imitating a real power transformer.

  12. Flames of Transformation

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr; Bille, Mikkel

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the transformative power of fire, its fundamental ability to change material worlds and affect our experience of its materiality. The paper examines material transformations related to death as a means of illustrating the powerful property of fire as a materially destructive yet...

  13. Direct current transformer

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  14. Fieldwork in Transforming Societies

    Clark, Ed; Michailova, Snejina

    The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China.......The contributors to this text discuss the personal and professional challenges of conducting fieldwork in the difficult, sometimes threatening contexts of the transforming societies of post-socialist Europe and China....

  15. On an integral transform

    D. Naylor

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

  16. Gauge transformations and quasitriangularity

    Zakrzewski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Natural conditions on a Poisson/quantum group G to implement Poisson/quantum gauge transformations on the lattice are investigated. In addition to our previous result that transformations on one lattice link require G to be coboundary, it is shown that for a sequence of links one needs a quasitriangular G.

  17. Refinement of printer transformations using weighted regression

    Balasubramanian, Raja; Maltz, Martin S.

    1996-03-01

    Printer characterization and color correction are often complex transformations, and are derived with numerous measurements or printer models. There are many sources of errors in these transforms, including inaccuracies in lookup table approximation, errors in the printer model, noise in the data, and spatial and temporal non-uniformities in the printer. A method is proposed to increase the accuracy of an existing printer transform with a relatively small number of refinement measurements. A weighted linear least-squares regression technique is used to improve the fit of the printer response to the refinement data. The hypothesis is that a locally linear transform can adequately capture the difference between the true printer transform and its approximation. In contrast to existing approaches that only refine the individual C, M, Y, K responses, the proposed method attempts to account for cross-colorant interactions by using mixed colors in the refinement set. Furthermore, the refinement data is not restricted to lying on a regular grid, and can be freely chosen based on any a priori knowledge about the printer. The approach is tested for two related transforms: the characterization transform which maps CMYK to L*a*b*; and its inverse, the color correction transform that maps L*a*b* to CMYK. Results show an improvement in transform accuracy with a relatively small number of measurements.

  18. Bosonic superconformal Toda model and dressing transformation

    The authors show the dressing transformations of the basic field and the classical chiral operators in the Bosonic Superconformal Toda model. After quantization, The related quantum algebra is obtained

  19. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framework depicts ecosystem transformation as distributed and emergent from micro-, meso-, and macro- level...... coopetition. The DETT framework consists an alternative to the existing explanations of digital ecosystem transformation as the rational management of one central actor balancing ecosystem tensions. We illustrate the use of the framework by a case study of transformation in the digital payment ecosystem......In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop the...

  20. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas

  1. The conformal transformation of the night sky

    Minguzzi, E

    2016-01-01

    We give a simple differential geometric proof of the conformal transformation of the night sky under change of observer. The proof does not rely on the four dimensionality of spacetime or on spinor methods. Furthermore, it really shows that the result does not depend on Lorentz transformations. This approach, by giving a transparent covariant expression to the conformal factor, shows that in most situations it is possible to define a thermal sky metric independent of the observer.

  2. Clifford (Geometric) Algebra Wavelet Transform

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    While the Clifford (geometric) algebra Fourier Transform (CFT) is global, we introduce here the local Clifford (geometric) algebra (GA) wavelet concept. We show how for $n=2,3 (\\mod 4)$ continuous $Cl_n$-valued admissible wavelets can be constructed using the similitude group $SIM(n)$. We strictly aim for real geometric interpretation, and replace the imaginary unit $i \\in \\C$ therefore with a GA blade squaring to $-1$. Consequences due to non-commutativity arise. We express the admissibility...

  3. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  4. Differential Protection of Three Phase Power Transformer Using Wavelet Packet Transform

    Jitendra Singh Chandra*; Amit Goswami

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the use of a new & innovatory wavelet packet transform (WPT) based method to sensitize the transients resulting from inrush current, CT saturation and fault currents in electric power transformers. This method will efficiently help in the development of differential protective relay to automatically detect and discriminate internal incipient faults from inrush currents, CT saturation condition in electric power transformers. This method can provide very accurate i...

  5. An identity for triplets of double Hilbert transforms, with applications to the attenuated Radon transform

    We consider an elementary identity for double singular integrals in the plane and show that one can apply this to deduce inversion and product formulae for the Hilbert transform and inversion formulae for the affine and weighted Radon transforms. We will be able to allow many of the previously known weights for which there is an inversion formula for the weighted Radon transform and also pose some new conditions on which weights that can be used. (paper)

  6. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between

  7. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  8. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  9. Fractional Radon Transform and Transform of Wigner Operator

    FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    Based on the Radon transform and fractional Fourier transform we introduce the fractional Radon trans-formation (FRT). We identify the transform kernel for FRT. The FRT of Wigner operator is derived, which naturallyreduces to the projector of eigenvector of the rotated quadrature in the usual Radon transform case.

  10. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-01-01

    Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  11. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  12. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  13. Stabilization and transformation of amorphous calcium carbonate: structural and kinetic studies

    Schmidt, Millicent Promise

    Amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) is a common transient precursor in the formation of more stable crystalline calcium carbonate minerals, most notably calcite, vaterite, and aragonite. Formation of ACC from calcium carbonate rich aqueous solution rather than direct crystallization of crystalline polymorphs by organisms provides several advantages: control of morphology, grain size, orientation, hardness, and other bulk properties as well as reduction of energy costs during growth cycles. Despite decades of study, stabilization and transformation mechanisms of synthetic and biogenic ACC remain unclear. In particular, the roles of H2O and inorganic phosphate in ACC structure and transformation, and the variables affecting transformation kinetics and polymorph selection are understudied. In this research, we addressed structure and kinetic behavior of ACC through four complementary investigations: two studies focus on synthetic ACC stabilization and two focus on synthetic and biogenic ACC transformation behavior in solution at ambient temperatures. We explored ACC stabilization via compositional and thermal analyses, X-ray scattering, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Transformation experiments used a novel method of in situ structural analysis that provided quantitative kinetic and structural data and allowed us to visualize the ACC transformation pathway. Results revealed the complexity of H2O structure in ACC samples synthesized from three methods, indicating that the distinct hydrous populations produced define ACC behavior. Transformation kinetics and polymorph selection were strongly affected by the hydration state and type of synthetic ACC reacted. In situ transformation experiments also showed differences in kinetic behavior due to reaction medium. The structural role of hydrous components was again evident in in situ transformation experiments for ACC from a biogenic lobster gastrolith (LG) reacted with water. LG

  14. Calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy by biomimetic method :Investigation of morphology ,composition and formation process

    2008-01-01

    Magnesium alloy has similar mechanical properties with natural bone and can degrade via corrosion in the electrolytic environment of the human body.Calcium phosphate has been proven to possess bioactivity and bone inductivity.In order to integrate both advantages,calcium phosphate coating was fabricated on magnesium alloy by a biomimetic method.Supersaturated calcification solutions (SCSs) with different Ca/P ratio and C1- concentration were used as mimetic solutions.The morphology,composition and formation process of the coating were studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM),energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS),Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The results show that a uniform calcium phosphate coating was observed on magnesium alloy,the properties of which could be adjusted by the SCSs with different Ca/P ratio.The formation process of the coating was explored by immersing magnesium alloy in SCSs with different Cl- concentration which could adjust the hydrogen production.According to SEM results,the hydrogen bubbles were associated with the formation of grass-like and flower-like coating morphologies.In conclusion,the biomimetic method was effective to form calcium phosphate coating on magnesium alloy and the morphology and composition of the coating could be accommodated by the Ca/P ratio and Cl- concentration in SCSs.

  15. Laplace transforms essentials

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  16. Solid phase transformations II

    Čermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  17. Towards Approximate Model Transformations

    Troya, Javier; Wimmer, Manuel; Vallecillo, Antonio; Burgueño, Loli

    2014-01-01

    As the size and complexity of models grow, there is a need to count on novel mechanisms and tools for transforming them. This is required, e.g., when model transformations need to provide target models without having access to the complete source models or in really short time—as it happens, e.g., with streaming models—or with very large models for which the transformation algorithms become too slow to be of practical use if the complete population of a model is investigated. In this pa...

  18. A Selective CPS Transformation

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  19. Transformers and motors

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  20. Transformer generated magnetic fields

    Magnetic fields produced by both small and large apparatus are being investigated for their possible relation to human health effects. A number of studies have been done in characterizing the magnetic field generated by transmission lines, household wiring and appliances. Two other major sources of magnetic fields are motors and transformers. The magnetic field generated by power transformers has not been studied extensively. The purpose of this paper is to experimentally quantify the magnetic field of a power transformer and compare it with calculated results obtained using one of the numerical techniques

  1. Multisensor image fusion algorithm using nonseparable wavelet frame transform

    Li Zhenhua; Jing Zhongliang; Wang Hong; Sun Shaoyuan

    2005-01-01

    A multisensor image fusion algorithm is described using 2-dimensional nonseparable wavelet frame (NWF) transform. The source multisensor images are first decomposed by the NWF transform. Then, the NWF transform coefficients of the source images are combined into the composite NWF transform coefficients. Inverse NWF transform is performed on the composite NWF transform coefficients in order to obtain the intermediate fused image. Finally, intensity adjustment is applied to the intermediate fused image in order to maintain the dynamic intensity range. Experiment results using real data show that the proposed algorithm works well in multisensor image fusion.

  2. DWARF-GREEN COCONUT FIBERS: A VERSATILE NATURAL RENEWABLE RAW BIORESOURCE. TREATMENT, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Milena A. Esmeraldo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dwarf-green coconut fibers were modified by alkali treatment and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, as well as thermogravimetric (TGA, mechanical, and dielectric analyses. Changes in composition, structure, and morphology of the coconut fibers were observed after sodium hydroxide treatments due to the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and other impurities. The XRD data were in agreement with the morphological analysis, where the crystallinity fraction increased with the concentration of alkali solution and fell off above 10%. The infrared spectrometry showed the partial dissolution of hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, which was clearly identified by the band at 1736 cm-1. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a double degradation process for the untreated dwarf-green coconut fibers, while a single one was observed after the pretreatment. The tensile properties showed an increased elongation at break, modulus, and strength, and the dielectric results showed a decrease of all parameters (permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity, reflecting the reduced dipole and ion mobility associated with the loss of amorphous components.

  3. Ultrasonography of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in the spleen

    2010-01-01

    We report three rare cases of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation(SANT) in the spleen.We compared the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance.The conventional sonographic examinations exhibited solitary lesions without common respects,while contrast-enhanced ultrasonography(CEUS) revealed nodular appearance mimicking its pathologic characteristics.It suggests that CEUS can provide morphologic information for diagnosing SANT.

  4. Efficient selection of banks of transformers

    This paper show a procedure to select the most profitable transformer banks in an specific service or in new investments with emphasis in the reduction of the operational losses, the cost in useful life, and the increase of the system efficiency using techniques of artificial intelligence. The method constitutes a tool that can be used in field conditions without invasive test and with data of easy acquisition according to the state of the art. The program was developed to analyze any type of transformers or transformer bank connection? single phase, three phase transformers or two or three transformers in symmetric or asymmetric configuration for three phase and single phase services. The economic analysis is made by the Cost of Cycle Life (CCV) of the analyzed configuration. As a case the results obtained in the gas station La Calzada of the Cienfuegos municipality is presented.

  5. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel; Wurtz, Gregory; Zayats, Anatoly V.

    2016-04-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices.

  6. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices. (paper)

  7. Transformation quantum optics: designing spontaneous emission using coordinate transformations

    Zhang, Jingjing; Wubs, Martijn; Ginzburg, Pavel;

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous decay is a fundamental quantum property of emitters that can be controlled in a material environment via modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). Here we use transformation optics methods in order to design required density of states and thus spontaneous emission (SE......) rate. Specifically, we show that the SE rate can be either enhanced or suppressed using invisibility cloaks or gradient index lenses. Furthermore, the anisotropic material profile of the cloak enables the directional control of SE. We also discuss how the practical issues, such as dispersion and losses......, affect the LDOS in complex materials. Tailoring SE properties using transformation optics approach provides an innovative way for designing emission properties in a complex material environment needed for the development of active nanophotonic devices....

  8. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Andrea Mess

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  9. Pearlitic and martensitic transformations under tensile stress in steels

    This research thesis deals with the study of stress interactions on phase transformations: many studies showed that alloy transformation kinetics is affected (accelerated or slowed down) by a stress or a strain, and that the material displays a much higher plasticity during phase transformation under mechanical loading (the so-called transformation plasticity). Based on a bibliographical study, the author first reports the effect of plastic strains and stresses on the three types of phase transformation met in steels: ferritic or pearlitic, bainitic, and martensitic. She reports the study of kinetic parameters of transformation and transformation plasticity by either obtaining these parameters directly, or by means of directly proportional measurement which is not influenced by the applied stress or strain. The pearlitic transformation is more particularly studied on eutectoid steel. The martensitic transformation is studied on two synthetic Fe-Ni-C alloys, and on 60 NCD steel

  10. Low Complexity Integer Transform and Adaptive Quantization Optimization

    Si-Wei Ma; Wen Gao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, a new low complexity integer transform is proposed, which has been adopted by AVS1-PT. The proposed transform can enable AVS1-P7 to share the same quantization/dequantization table with AVS1-P2. As the bases of the proposed transform coefficients are very close, the transform normalization can be implemented only on the encoder side and the dequantization table size can be reduced compared with the transform used in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC. Along with the feature of the proposed transform, adaptive dead-zone quantization optimization for the proposed transform is studied.Experimental results show that the proposed integer transform has similar coding performance compared with the transform used in H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and would gain near 0.1dB with the adaptive dead-zone quantization optimization.

  11. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics

  12. Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation

    We show that two ways of manipulating quantum entanglement - namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)]--are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation

  13. Transforming Homeland Security [video

    McIntyre, David; Center for Homeland Defense and Security Naval Postgraduate School

    2011-01-01

    A pioneer in homeland security, and homeland security education, David McIntyre discusses the complexities in transforming homeland security from a national program in its inception, to also include state and local agencies and other public and private parties.

  14. Quaternions and Lorentz transformations

    In the last years, it was argued by some authors that number systems with non-commutative multiplication laws can provide a deeper physical insight into many open theoretical problems. The generalization of the Lorentz group to transformations with faster-than-light speed parameters (the so-called 'extended theory of relativity') has shown itself - apart from the real existence of tachyons - to be a useful tool in order to deal, within a purely classical (i.e. relativistic but not quantum-mechanical) frame work, with antiparticles, discrete symmetries, CPT-covariance, and so on. Therefore, it seems worthwhile looking for possible connections between non-commutative number systems and 'superluminal' Lorentz transformations. In this paper, the author reviews how Lorentz transformations (both subluminal and superluminal) have been translated in quaterion language. Besides, some considerations are made on possible, further developments of the theory, according to the suggestions by the group properties of quaternionic (generalized) Lorentz transformations (QGLT). (Auth.)

  15. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  16. Transformer design tradeoffs

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  17. Matrices and transformations

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2012-01-01

    Elementary, concrete approach: fundamentals of matrix algebra, linear transformation of the plane, application of properties of eigenvalues and eigenvectors to study of conics. Includes proofs of most theorems. Answers to odd-numbered exercises.

  18. Four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography for recording of cosine transform coefficients

    Chujun Zheng; Peng Han; Hongsen Chang

    2006-01-01

    @@ A new one-step four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital holography is presented for recording of cosine transform coefficients, because cosine transform is a real-even symmetric Fourier transform. This approach implements four quadrant spatial phase shifting at a time using a special phase mask, which is located in the reference arm, and the phase distributions of its four-quadrants are 0, π/2, π,and 3π/2 respectively. The theoretical analysis and computer simulation results show that cosine transform coefficients of real-valued image can be calculated by capturing single four-quadrant spatial phase-shifting Fourier transform digital hologram.

  19. Transformation and Rural Finance

    Gertrud Schrieder; Franz Heidhues

    1998-01-01

    In the process of transformation from a centrally-planned to a market-orientated economy, the domestic financial sector plays two important roles. First, the financial sector itself has to be fundamentally restructured, and second, its efficient functioning is a crucial precondition for the necessary economic transformation. During the central-planning era, the financial sector typically carried out fiscal functions, namely it distributed subsidies and supported production plans. In a market-...

  20. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    KOOCHAKI, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  1. Functional Mellin Transforms

    LaChapelle, J.

    2013-01-01

    Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and...

  2. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  3. Fast parametrized biorthogonal transforms

    Puchala, Dariusz; Yatsymirsyy, Mykhaylo

    2011-01-01

    W pracy zaproponowano schemat syntezy szybkich parametryzowanych przekształceń biortogonalnych oparty o diagramy przepływowe dla szybkich przekształceń ortonormalnych i dwupunktowe biortogonalne operatory motylkowe. In this paper the authors propose the technique ot synthesis of fast parametrised biorthogonal transforms that takes advantage of data-flow graphs for calculation of fast orthonormal transforms and two-point biorthogonal butterfly operators.

  4. Business process transformation

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  5. Power transformers quality assurance

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  6. Nontensorial Transformation Optics

    García-Meca, C.; Barceló, C.

    2016-06-01

    We present an alternative version of transformation optics that allows us to mold the flow of light without rotating or scaling the electromagnetic fields. The resulting media experience unusual force densities, are nonreciprocal, and exhibit loss or gain. Because of these singular features, a variety of effects and devices unreachable by standard transformation optics can be achieved, including reflectionless light compression, optical modes with arbitrary in-plane polarization, and special isolators.

  7. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    Chih-Yuan, Chen, E-mail: chen6563@gmail.com [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Chien-Chon, Chen [Department of Energy Engineering, National United University, Miaoli 36003, Taiwan (China); Jer-Ren, Yang, E-mail: jryang@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-25

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  8. Dualism of precipitation morphology in high strength low alloy steel

    While the role of microalloying elements on precipitation strengthening in ferrite matrix during austenite/ferrite transformation is quite clear, some uncertainty still exists concerning the variability of the microhardness distribution of ferrite grains in the isothermal holding condition. The objective of the present study was to clarify the intrinsic characteristics of carbide precipitation morphology in the ferrite matrix under different processing temperatures and times and to correlate it with austenite decomposition kinetics to elucidate why a large microhardness distribution occurs at low isothermal holding temperature. Better understanding of carbide precipitation behavior can help researchers to determine the root cause of variation in microhardness distribution, which would allow metallurgists to produce high quality steels. Measurement with a Vickers hardness indenter revealed that, in specimens isothermally held at 625 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 240–420 after 5 min of isothermal holding, and 270–340 after 60 min. For specimens isothermally held at 725 °C, the range of Vickers hardness distribution was 200–330 for 5 min of isothermal holding, and 200–250 for 60 min. Therefore, the average microhardness decreased with the isothermal holding temperature and time, and a larger range of distribution occurred with short isothermal holding times. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that interface precipitation and random precipitation can occur within the same ferrite grain. The reason is that the austenite decomposition rate varies with transformation temperature and time. An excessively fast austenite/ferrite interface movement velocity, which usually happens in small ferrite grains, would cause these ferrite grains with microalloying elements to exceed their solubility. Furthermore, these microalloying elements will be precipitated randomly after isothermal holding at longer times. Consequently, a large

  9. Error Free Iterative Morphological Decomposition Algorithm for Shape Representation

    V. V. Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A generalized skeleton transform allows a shape to be represented as a collection of modestly overlapped octagonal shape parts. One problem with several generalized Morphological skeleton transforms is that they generate noise after decomposition. The noise rate may not be effective for ordinary images; however this effect will be more when applied on printed or handwritten characters. Approach: The present study tackled this issue by applying a noise removal algorithm after morphological decomposition. Results: The algorithm was applied on various types of decomposition images. The Present method was compared with generalized skeleton algorithm and octagon-generating decomposition algorithm. Conclusion: The error rates with original image were evaluated using various error functions. The experimental results indicated that the present decomposition algorithm produces images with good clarity when compared with other algorithms.

  10. Kinetics of phase transformations

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  11. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  12. Dark channel prior based blurred image restoration method using total variation and morphology

    Yibing Li; Qiang Fu; Fang Ye; Hayaru Shouno

    2015-01-01

    The blurred image restoration method can dramatical y highlight the image details and enhance the global contrast, which is of benefit to improvement of the visual effect during practical ap-plications. This paper is based on the dark channel prior principle and aims at the prior information absent blurred image degradation situation. A lot of improvements have been made to estimate the transmission map of blurred images. Since the dark channel prior principle can effectively restore the blurred image at the cost of a large amount of computation, the total variation (TV) and image morphology transform (specifical y top-hat transform and bottom-hat transform) have been introduced into the improved method. Compared with original transmission map estimation methods, the proposed method features both simplicity and accuracy. The es-timated transmission map together with the element can restore the image. Simulation results show that this method could inhibit the il-posed problem during image restoration, meanwhile it can greatly improve the image quality and definition.

  13. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    Highlights: ► The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ► The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ► The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ► A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ► Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  14. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  15. Morphology of Treponema pallidum.

    Ovcinnikov, N M; Delektorskij, V V

    1966-01-01

    In recent years many investigations have been carried out on the morphology of Treponema pallidum by means of the electron microscope, and the use of ultra-thin sections has shown up a number of structural details. However, there is still need for much more evidence before the internal structure of treponemes can be elucidated fully and the functions of the structures interpreted. To provide such evidence, the authors have examined under the electron microscope negative-stained treponemes and ultra-thin sections, using both cultivated strains and treponemes obtained direct from syphilids in people suffering from fresh secondary syphilis. It has been shown that treponemes have a complex structure. T. pallidum has a two-layered outer wall, a cytoplasmic membrane proper, cytoplasm and a bunch of fibrils following a different path in different places on the treponeme. The sites of insertion of the fibrils (the basal granules) were investigated; structures similar to mesosomes and nucleoids were found. Cysts and granular forms are described. PMID:5332527

  16. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  17. Characteristics of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro

    Little, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented to support the hypothesis that the initial step in the morphologic transformation of irradiated rodent (BALB/3T3) cells is a frequent cellular event involving a large fraction of the irradiated population. This process appears to involve DNA damage, but not to represent a targeted mutation in specific structural gene(s). Morphologic transformation and immortalization appear to be distinct steps in the overall process of transformation. In contradistinction to rodent cells, immortalization is a very rare event in human diploid cells which is induced at extremely low frequencies. The hypothesis is presented that immortality develops among clones of cells bearing stable chromosomal rearrangements which emerge during the proliferation of a population of radiation damaged cells.

  18. The Efficient Transformation of Wheat in Planta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    HE Dao-yi; LI Zhong-cun; WANG Hong-gang

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of wheat was performed by pipetting spikelets with Agrobacterium tumefaciens which contained expression vectors using Npt Ⅱ as reporter gene. Transformants were identified through kanamycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot. The results showed that transformation efficiency was within 2.0 to 3. 2 % in all tested varieties of wheat. Then the simple and efficient protocol of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in planta was primarily established.

  19. Effects of phosphate and silicate on the transformation of hydroxycarbonate green rust to ferric oxyhydroxides

    Feng, Xionghan; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhu, Mengqiang; Koopal, Luuk K.; Xu, Huanhuan; Wang, Yan; Liu, Fan

    2015-12-01

    Hydroxycarbonate green rust (GR1(CO32-)) was prepared by oxidation of aerated aqueous suspensions of Fe(II) hydroxide, and the presence of light promoted the transformation of GR1(CO32-) by dissolved O2 at pH 7.8 and 25 °C. Further transformation of GR1(CO32-) in the light was conducted in the presence of orthophosphate (P) or silicate (Si) anions, followed by solution analysis and solid product characterization using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Results show that both P and Si anions significantly affect the transformation of GR1(CO32-) through adsorption on the intermediate products. The time required for complete GR1(CO32-) transformation and the phases, crystallinity and morphology of the transformation products all depend on the Fe/anion molar ratio. When compared to the control, the transformation can be promoted by low Si concentrations but retarded by P. With decreasing Fe/P ratio, the products change from acicular goethite (absence of P) to tabular lepidocrocite (Fe/P: 120-48) and to mixed phases of platelets of ferric GR1(CO32-) (EX-GR1) and minor ferrihydrite (Fe/P: 24-3). In terms of Si, the products are goethites when the Fe/Si ratio of 48-12, and with increasing ratio, the goethite crystallinity and particle size decrease and the morphology changes from acicular (absence of Si) to plate-like or isodimensional particles. The goethite morphology at low Fe/Si ratios is comparable to natural goethite samples commonly found in soils. At Fe/Si = 3, the products are EX-GR1 platelets with minor ferrihydrite coexisting. The likely pathway of the oxidative GR1(CO32-) transformation in the control system and in the presence of low concentrations of Si (Fe/Si ⩾ 12) is GR1(CO32-) → amorphous γ-FeOOH-like phase → α-FeOOH via a dissolution-oxidation-precipitation mechanism. In addition, Fe(II) released during dissolution of GR1(CO32-) is adsorbed on the products and the

  20. Cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul; Pérez-Claros, Juan A.; Dong, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In this study, landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for investigating the main aspects of cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Specifically, we explore if the highly derived cranial adaptations for bamboo feeding of the living panda were developed early in the panda's lineage. Results obtained show that the overall cranial morphologies of the oldest known panda, the "pygmy" Ailuropoda microta, and the late Pleistocene Ailuropoda baconi are both very similar to that of their closest living relative, A. melanoleuca, which agrees with a previous proposal based on qualitative criteria. However, we also describe several differences between the crania of A. microta, A. baconi, and A. melanoleuca, including the development of the postorbital process, the orientation of the occipital region, and the expansion of the braincase. As a result, the cranial morphology of A. microta shows a less specialized morphology toward a fibrous and durophagous diet compared to the giant panda. These results are confirmed by a comparative analysis of the dimensions of the upper teeth in bears, which has revealed differences in relative tooth size between A. microta and A. melanoleuca, most probably as a result of mosaic evolution. Therefore, we conclude that cranial shape did not remain essentially uniform in the Ailuropoda lineage, as previously thought, but underwent a number of changes during more than 2 Myr.

  1. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...

  2. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  3. Canonical transformations and Hamiltonian evolutionary systems

    In many Lagrangian field theories, one has a Poisson bracket defined on the space of local functionals. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a transformation on the space of local functionals to be canonical in three different cases. These three cases depend on the specific dimensions of the vector bundle of the theory and the associated Hamiltonian differential operator. We also show how a canonical transformation transforms a Hamiltonian evolutionary system and its conservation laws. Finally, we illustrate these ideas with three examples.

  4. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CNx thin films as humidity sensor

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CNx thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH4) gas diluted with nitrogen (N2) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C≡N triple bond. C=N and C≡N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CNx thin film changed from 23.765 kΩ to 5.845 kΩ in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CNx films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device

  5. A novel method for detecting apoptosis shows that hepatocytes undergo a time dependent increase in DNA cleavage and chromatin condensation which is augmented after TGF-beta 1 treatment.

    Cain, K; Inayat-Hussain, S H; Couet, C; Qin, H M; Oberhammer, F A

    1996-04-01

    This study describes a new method for quantitating apoptosis in hepatocyte monolayers in which nuclei were isolated from the cells and DNA strand breaks detected by in situ end-labeling and flow cytometry. Most (97%) nuclei from untreated hepatocytes had low end-labelling and were derived from non-apoptotic cells. Approximately 2-3% of the nuclei had high end-labelling and originated from apoptotic hepatocytes. The numbers of these nuclei increased linearly from 3 to 85% between 0 and 48 h after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). However, a morphological assessment of apoptosis with Hoechst H33258 showed that the proportion of apoptotic nuclei plateaued at 18-19% between 24 and 48 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment. Thus, the in situ end-labeling technique also detected DNA cleavage in nuclei which did not have an obvious apoptotic morphology. Confocal microscopy of low and high end-labelled nuclei which had been separated by fluorescent cell sorting showed that nuclei with high levels of end-labeling exhibited a wide diversity of morphologies. These included nuclei with little or no chromatin condensation and nuclei with characteristic apoptotic morphology. In addition, nuclei from untreated hepatocytes contained low levels of DNA cleavage, which were localized in areas of condensed chromatin and increased according to the time in culture. Thus, hepatocytes undergo a progressive and cumulative process of DNA cleavage/chromatin condensation which is markedly enhanced by TGF-beta 1. PMID:8900474

  6. Controlling Fiber Morphology in Simultaneous Centrifugal Spinning and Photopolymerization

    Fang, Yichen; Dulaney, Austin; Ellison, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Current synthetic fiber manufacturing technologies use either solvent or heat to transform a solid preformed polymer into a liquid before applying a force to draw the liquid into fiber. While the use of solvent poses concerns regarding process safety and environmental impact, the use of heat may also lead to polymer degradation and excessive energy consumption. To address these critical challenges, here we present an alternative fiber manufacturing method that encompasses extruding a monomer solution through an orifice, drawing it using centrifugal Forcespinning and polymerizing the monomer jet into solid fiber in flight using UV initiated thiol-ene chemistry. This method not only negates the use of both heat and solvent, but also produces fibers that are highly crosslinked, mechanically robust, and thermally stable. In this process, the balance between curing kinetics, fiber flight time, and solution viscoelasticity is essential. Studies were conducted to quantitatively investigate the effect of these factors on fiber formation and morphology. An operating diagram was developed to show how the intricate interplay of these factors led to the formation of smooth fibers and other undesirable fiber defects, such as beads-on-string, fused fibers, and droplets.

  7. A Research on the Transformation of Urban Form And Dynamics of Xiguan Area, Guangzhou

    Tai, Y.; Liu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper mainly uses the method of Urban Morphology to study the transformation process of urban form of Xiguan historical district in Guangzhou, P.R.China. The paper tries to analyze the transformation process through studying the background of politics, economy, society, culture and natural cond

  8. Morphology controlling method for amorphous silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires and their luminescence properties

    Liu, Haitao; Huang, Zhaohui; Huang, Juntong; Xu, Song; Fang, Minghao; Liu, Yan-Gai; Wu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Shaowei

    2016-03-01

    Uniform silica nanoparticles and jellyfish-like nanowires were synthesized by a chemical vapour deposition method on Si substrates treated without and with Ni(NO3)2, using silicon powder as the source material. Composition and structural characterization using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the as-prepared products were silica nanoparticles and nanowires which have amorphous structures. The form of nanoparticles should be related to gas-phase nucleation procedure. The growth of the nanowires was in accordance with vapour-liquid-solid mechanism, followed by Ostwald ripening to form the jellyfish-like morphology. Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence measurements showed that the silica products excited by different light sources show different luminescence properties. The emission spectra of both silica nanoparticles and nanowires are due to the neutral oxygen vacancies (≡Si-Si≡). The as-synthesized silica with controlled morphology can find potential applications in future nanodevices with tailorable photoelectric properties.

  9. [Morphology of the gastroesophageal reflux disease].

    Daum, Ondřej; Kokošková, Bohuslava; Švajdler, Marian

    2016-01-01

    The present definition of gastroesophageal reflux disease is based on clinical criteria that are difficult to reproduce accurately. Pathologists are supposed to confirm the presence of morphological changes induced by gastroesophageal reflux. Traditional evaluation of injury, inflammatory and reactive changes of esophageal squamous epithelium lacks both sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and thus the modern diagnostic focuses on chronic metaplastic changes of esophageal mucosa defined as any mucosal type proximal to the upper border of oxyntic mucosa (also called fundic mucosa of the stomach). In the setting of gastroesophageal reflux the esophageal mucosa, under normal conditions lined with squamous epithelium, undergoes columnar metaplasia. According to morphology and immunophenotype of columnar cells, the columnar metaplasia may be further subdivided to oxyntocardiac mucosa, cardiac mucosa, intestinal metaplasia, and an intermediate type of cardiac mucosa expressing intestinal transcription factor CDX2, but devoid of goblet cells. The latter two mucosal types are currently thought to represent the most probable candidates for neoplastic transformation, whereas oxyntocardiac mucosa is believed to represent a stable compensatory change with no risk of further progression. An evaluation of dysplastic changes (intraepithelial neoplasia) in the setting of columnar lined esophagus necessitates correlation with the second opinion of a GI expert to prevent potentially harmful under- or over-treatment of the patient. Regarding invasive adenocarcinoma, the pathologist should avoid overdiagnosis of the infiltration of the space between the two layers of columnar lined esophagus - associated split muscularis mucosae as invasion of submucosa, as it is associated with different prognosis. Critical evaluation of the real impact of acid suppression on neoplastic transformation in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux disease may represent the greatest challenge for future

  10. Correlation of the Radiographic and Morphological Features of the Dental Follicle of Third Molars with Incomplete Root Formation

    David Moraes de OLIVEIRA, Emanuel Sávio de Souza ANDRADE, Márcia Maria Fonseca da SILVEIRA, Igor Batista CAMARGO

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the correlation of the radiographic and morphological features of the dental follicle of unerupted third molars with incomplete root formation. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 56 patients (105 teeth aged 13 to 24 years. Panoramic radiography was used to determine the stage of root formation to locate and measure pericoronal radiolucency. The width of the dental follicle ranged from 0.0 to 4.0 mm, the distal face being the one most frequently involved, and stage 7 of root formation showing the highest incidence. An inactive enamel reduced epithelium and inactive epithelium remnant also showed a high incidence. Dense connective tissue showed a high incidence, chronic inflammation was infrequent and calcification was a common finding. There was a significant association between the progression of the rhizogenesis and the transformation of the enamel reduced epithelium into a stratified squamous epithelium. No significant association was found between rhizogenesis and the other morphological findings or between the latter and the width of the pericoronal space. It was concluded that there was no clinically significant correlation between the radiographic and morphological features. Every asymptomatic unerupted third molar should be followed up and the follicular tissue analyzed.

  11. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  12. NOVEL ADAPTIVE MULTIUSER DETECTIONALGORITHM BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM

    ZHANGXiao-fei; XUDa-zhuan; YANGBei

    2004-01-01

    The wavelet transform-based adaptive multiuser detection algorithm is presented. The novel adaptive multiuser detection algorithm uses the wavelet transform for the preprocessing, and wavelet-transformed signal uses LMS algorithm to implement the adaptive multiuser detection. The algorithm makes use of wavelet transform to divide the wavelet space, which shows that the wavelet transform has a better decorrelation ability and leads to better convergence. White noise can be wiped off under the wavelet transform according to different characteristics of signal and white noise under the wavelet transform. Theoretical analyses and simulations demonstrate that the algorithm converges faster than the conventional adaptive multiuser detection algorithm, and has the better performance. Simulation results reveal that the algorithm convergence relates to the wavelet base, and show that the algorithm convergence gets better with the increasing of regularity for the same series of the wavelet base. Finally the algorithm shows that it can be easily implemented.

  13. On Estimation of Partially Linear Transformation Models

    Lu, Wenbin; Zhang, Hao Helen

    2010-01-01

    We study a general class of partially linear transformation models, which extend linear transformation models by incorporating nonlinear covariate effects in survival data analysis. A new martingale-based estimating equation approach, consisting of both global and kernel-weighted local estimation equations, is developed for estimating the parametric and nonparametric covariate effects in a unified manner. We show that with a proper choice of the kernel bandwidth parameter, one can obtain the ...

  14. Path transformations of first passage bridges

    Bertoin, Jean

    2003-01-01

    We define the first passage bridge from 0 to $\\lambda$ as the Brownian motion on the time interval $[0,1]$ conditioned to first hit $\\lambda$ at time 1. We show that this process may be related to the Brownian bridge, the Bessel bridge or the Brownian excursion via some path transformations, the main one being an extension of Vervaat's transformation. We also propose an extension of these results to certain bridges with cyclically exchangeable increments.

  15. Transformer Short Circuit Current Calculation and Solutions

    Song, Ling

    2013-01-01

    There are three goals for the thesis. The first one is to introduce types of short-circuits. The second one is to introduce the transformer short-circuit current calculations. And the last one is to find suitable reinforcement methods for the transformers which are running now. Using a comparative approach to analytic research, the advantages and disadvantages of different reinforcement methods can be analyzed. The result shows that the neutral reactor is the best choice to reinforce the S/C ...

  16. Atypical burkitt's lymphoma transforming from follicular lymphoma

    Chung Lap P; Loong Florence; Hwang Yu Y; Chim Chor S

    2011-01-01

    Amongst follicular lymphoma that transforms into a high-grade lymphoma, majority are diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Here we reported a rare atypical Burkitt's lymphoma transformation from an asymptomatic follicular lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy showed a composite lymphoma with infiltration of the inter-follicular areas by high grade small non-cleaved lymphoma cells amongst neoplastic follicles. Moreover, FISH and molecular genetic study confirmed concomitant MYC translocations and t(14;18) in t...

  17. Mutual Transformation of Information and Knowledge

    Verhodubs, Olegs

    2016-01-01

    Information and knowledge are transformable into each other. Information transformation into knowledge by the example of rule generation from OWL (Web Ontology Language) ontology has been shown during the development of the SWES (Semantic Web Expert System). The SWES is expected as an expert system for searching OWL ontologies from the Web, generating rules from the found ontologies and supplementing the SWES knowledge base with these rules. The purpose of this paper is to show knowledge tran...

  18. Human Resource Management and Transformation Strategy

    Luděk Rychetník

    1998-01-01

    The quality of management has turned out to be the critical factor in the transformation of the Czech Republic to an open liberal market society. At the level of firms, privatised enterprise must be transformed into "high performance organisations". Initiatives as "lean production systems", "process reengineering", "human resource management", which have emerged in the West during the last 20 years, show the way. At the macro level, they can be interpreted as a search for a new post-fordist p...

  19. Two-dimensional quaternion wavelet transform

    Bahri, Mawardi; Ashino, Ryuichi; Vaillancourt, R??mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT). We express the admissibility condition in terms of the (right-sided) quaternion Fourier transform. We show that its fundamental properties, such as inner product, norm relation, and inversion formula, can be established whenever the quaternion wavelets satisfy a particular admissibility condition. We present several examples of the CQWT. As an application we derive a Heisenberg type uncertainty princ...

  20. Controllable Phase Transformation and Mid-infrared Emission from Er3+-Doped Hexagonal-/Cubic-NaYF4 Nanocrystals

    Yang, Dandan; Chen, Dongdan; He, Huilin; Pan, Qiwen; Xiao, Quanlan; Qiu, Jianrong; Dong, Guoping

    2016-07-01

    The morphology of hexagonal phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanorods synthesized by hydrothermal method changed greatly after a continuing calcination, along with a phase transformation to cubic phase. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicated that mid-infrared (MIR) emission was obtained in both hexagonal and cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals for the first time. And the MIR emission of NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals enhanced remarkably at higher calcination temperature. To prevent uncontrollable morphology from phase transformation, the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with an average size of ~100 nm were prepared via a co-precipitation method directly. In contrast, the results showed better morphology and size of cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals have realized when calcined at different temperatures. And PL spectra demonstrated a more intense MIR emission in the cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanocrystals with an increasing temperature. Besides, the MIR emission peak of Er3+ ions had an obvious splitting in cubic phase NaYF4. Therefore, cubic phase NaYF4:Er3+ nanospheres with more excellent MIR luminescent properties seems to provide a new material for nanocrystal-glass composites, which is expected to open a broad new field for the realization of MIR lasers gain medium.

  1. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

  2. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    Young, I.T.; Gledhill, B.L.; Lake, S.; Wyrobek, A.J.

    1982-09-01

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure.

  3. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology.

    Young, I T; Gledhill, B L; Lake, S; Wyrobek, A J

    1982-09-01

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure. PMID:6184000

  4. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  5. Reducing transformer inrush

    Zoufalý, Marek

    2016-01-01

    V této diplomové práci je popsána funkce a návrh transformátoru navrženého na feromagnetickém jádře, složeného z transformátorových plechů. Je vysvětlen přechodový děj a zapínací proud transformátoru. V práci jsou vložené průběhy napětí a proudu při zapínání a řešený plošný spoj, sloužící k snížení zapínacího proudu. In this thesis is described the function and design of the transformer designed on ferromagnetic core, composed of transformer sheets. It is explained a transient inrush curre...

  6. Design of Warped Stretch Transform

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-11-01

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal’s envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals.

  7. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ▪. Highlights: ► We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ► The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ► Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ► The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH3COO)2·4H2O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  8. Proteomic analysis of Schistosoma mansoni proteins released during in vitro miracidium-to-sporocyst transformation

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Sabat, Greg; Brown, James F.; Zhang, Mengzi; Taft, Andrew; Peterson, Nathan; Harms, Amy; YOSHINO, TIMOTHY P.

    2008-01-01

    Free-living miracidia of Schistosoma mansoni, upon penetration of the their snail intermediate host, undergo dramatic morphological and physiological changes as they transform to the parasitic sporocyst stage. During this transformation process, developing larvae release a diverse array of proteins, herein referred to as larval transformation proteins (LTPs), some of which are postulated to serve a parasite protective function. In the present study, nanoLC-tandem MS analysis was performed on ...

  9. Generation of transforming viruses in cultures of chicken fibroblasts infected with an avian leukosis virus.

    Stavnezer, E; Gerhard, D S; Binari, R C; Balazs, I.

    1981-01-01

    During serial passages of an avian leukosis virus (the transformation-defective, src deletion mutant of Bratislava 77 avian sarcoma virus, designated tdB77) in chicken embryo fibroblasts, viruses which transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts in vitro emerged. Chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with these viruses (SK770 and Sk780) had a distinctive morphology, formed foci in monolayer cultures, and grew independent of anchorage in semisolid agar. Bone marrow cells were not transformed by these...

  10. Micro-mold design controls the 3D morphological evolution of self-assembling multicellular microtissues.

    Svoronos, Alexander A; Tejavibulya, Nalin; Schell, Jacquelyn Y; Shenoy, Vivek B; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    When seeded into nonadhesive micro-molds, cells self-assemble three-dimensional (3D) multicellular microtissues via the action of cytoskeletal-mediated contraction and cell-cell adhesion. The size and shape of the tissue is a function of the cell type and the size, shape, and obstacles of the micro-mold. In this article, we used human fibroblasts to investigate some of the elements of mold design and how they can be used to guide the morphological changes that occur as a 3D tissue self-organizes. In a loop-ended dogbone mold with two nonadhesive posts, fibroblasts formed a self-constrained tissue whose tension induced morphological changes that ultimately caused the tissue to thin and rupture. Increasing the width of the dogbone's connecting rod increased the stability, whereas increasing its length decreased the stability. Mapping the rupture points showed that the balance of cell volume between the toroid and connecting rod regions of the dogbone tissue controlled the point of rupture. When cells were treated with transforming growth factor-β1, dogbones ruptured sooner due to increased cell contraction. In mold designs to form tissues with more complex shapes such as three interconnected toroids or a honeycomb, obstacle design controlled tension and tissue morphology. When the vertical posts were changed to cones, they became tension modulators that dictated when and where tension was released in a large self-organizing tissue. By understanding how elements of mold design control morphology, we can produce better models to study organogenesis, examine 3D cell mechanics, and fabricate building parts for tissue engineering. PMID:24147855

  11. Study of wavelet transform type high-current transformer

    卢文科; 朱长纯; 刘君华; 张建军

    2002-01-01

    The wavelet transformation is applied to the high-current transformer.The high-current transformer elaborated in the paper is mainly applied to the measurement of AC/DC high-current.The principle of the transformer is the Hall direct-measurement principle.The transformer has the following three characteristics:firstly, the effect of the remnant field of the iron core on the measurement is decreased;secondly,because the temperature compensation is adopted,the transformer has good temperature charactreristic;thirdly,be-cause the wavelet transfomation technology is adopted,the transformer has the capacity of good antijanming.

  12. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  13. Bullying - transformative potentiality?

    Charlotte Mathiassen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I argue that a person’s experience of having been bullied as a child can holdtransformative potentiality. This means that childhood exposure to bullying can both producenegative effects and provide fuel for transformative intention and actions. By exploring twoseparate narratives, I demonstrate how these individuals’ different ways of handling past incidentsare entangled with both present and future, as well as how they are closely connected to both thespecific situations and contexts in which the person lives and his/her movements across suchsituations and contexts. The concept of dynamic effectuality is introduced to describe thisphenomenon. Furthermore, I claim that, by analysing the dynamic effectuality of individuals’ pastexperiences with bullying and their present adult lives, certain processes can be found – includingrevenge, transformative intention and collective transformative actions.

  14. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model. The...... model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the original image these features are present. The TISC model is in general overcomplete and we therefore invoke...... sparse coding to estimate its parameters. We demonstrate how the model can correctly identify components of non-trivial artificial as well as real image data. Thus, the model is capable of reducing feature redundancies in terms of pre-specified transformations improving the component identification....

  15. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a fatality rate of >95%. This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. However, under unfavorable conditions, the trophozoite transforms into a dormant cyst stage. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. These determinants may provide important targets for the prevention and treatment of this devastating infection. Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. PMID:25709948

  16. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    C.H. Azhari; Wong, S F

    2001-01-01

    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  17. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    , the evolution of large technological systems and theories about organisational and technological transformationprocesses. The empirical work consist of three analysis at three different levels: socio-technical descriptions of each sector, an envestigation of one municipality and envestigations of one......The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  18. Studying Voltage Transformer Ferroresonance

    Hamid Radmanesh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study studies the effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance (CBSR, Metal Oxide Vaistor (MOV and Neutral earth Resistance (NR on the control of ferroresonance in the voltage transformer. It is expected that NR can controlled ferroresonance better than MOV and CBSR. Study has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100 VA, 275 kV. The simulation results reveal that considering the CBSR and MOV exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance overvoltages, but these resistances cannot control these phenomena for all range of parameters. By applying NR to the system structure, ferroresonance has been controlled and its amplitude has been damped for all parameters values.

  19. Transforming shape in design

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn;

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented....... Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop understanding of the mechanics of sketching in design. The paper concludes by discussing the important...

  20. Checking Model Transformation Refinement

    Büttner, Fabian; Egea, Marina; Guerra, Esther; Lara, Juan De

    2013-01-01

    The final publication is available at Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-38883-5_15 Proceedings of 6th International Conference, ICMT 2013, Budapest, Hungary, June 18-19, 2013 Refinement is a central notion in computer science, meaning that some artefact S can be safely replaced by a refinement R, which preserves S’s properties. Having available techniques and tools to check transformation refinement would enable (a) the reasoning on whether a transformation correctly impl...

  1. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of...

  2. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s. PMID:24580142

  3. SEGMENTATION USING MULTISCALE MORPHOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION

    NANMOZHI.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a crucial step in the field of image processing and pattern recognition. Segmentation allows the identification of structures in an image which can be utilized for further processing. This paper proposes a technique for object segmentation from its background. We utilized both region-based and object-based segmentation capabilities to handle the object segmentation for large-scale database images in a robust and principled manner. MultiScalE Graylevel mOrphological recoNstructions (SEGON is used for segmenting an image. SEGON roughly identifies the background and object regions in the image. To further refine the boundaries of the objects mean-shift segmentation technique is applied on the SEGON processed image. Accuracy of segmentation is evaluated by computing structural similarity index (SSIM, for the image segmented with and without using SEGON. Images collected from Corel, Caltech, PASCAL, UCID and CMU-PIE databases are utilized for this work. Experimental results showed that the proposed object segmentation method outperforms the state-of-the-art image segmentation techniques.

  4. Phase Transformation of Nanosized Zirconia

    2006-01-01

    The nanosized zirconia was synthesized via solid state reaction in the presence of surfactant. The results indicate that crystal phase of zirconia can be controlled by tuning the syn- thesis parameters such as OH-/Zr molar ratio, crystallizing temperature and time. It can be trans- formed among amorphous, tetragonal and monoclinic phases. The transformation is driven by particle size. The research shows the nanocrystalline zirconia possesses the higher thermal stability compared with amorphous framework. The "glow exotherm" can be observed for the amorphous samples. Otherwise, it is in the absence for nanocrystalline samples. Herein, the reason for retention of tetragonal zirconia is demonstrated.

  5. A new class of scrambling transformation and its application in the image information covering

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies two kinds of nonlinear transformations, namely the higher-dimensional Arnold transformation and the higher-dimensional Fibonacci Q-transformation and discusses the scrambling action of the two transformations focusing on the phase space of the digital images. A sufficient and necessary condition that a matrix transformation of digital image has periodicity is given. The results show that the two transformations have potential application in the storage and transportation of image information for the purpose of information security.

  6. A low-latency Glitch Classification Algorithm Based in Waveform Morphology

    Gabbard, Hunter; Mukherjee, Soma; Stone, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present a novel and efficient algorithm for classification of signals that arise in gravitational wave channels of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO). Using data from LIGO's sixth science run (S6), we developed a new glitch classification algorithm based mainly on the morphology of the waveform as well as several other parameters (signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), duration, bandwidth, etc.). This is done using two novel methods, Kohonen Self Organizing Feature Maps (SOMs), and discrete wavelet transform coefficients. This study shows the feasibility of utilizing unsupervised machine learning techniques (SOMs) in order to display a multidimensional trigger set in a low-latency two dimensional format. UTRGV NSF REU Program.

  7. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  8. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Dasan, Y. K., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my; Bhat, A. H., E-mail: aamir.bhat@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Faiz, A., E-mail: faizahmad@petronas.com.my [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2015-07-22

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  9. FTIR and morphology of liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA)/silica hybrid composites

    Synthesis of organic-inorganic hybrid composites was carried out by combination of liquid epoxidized natural rubber acrylate (LENRA) and silica. Silica was introduce to the matrix by sol gel technique. The sol-gel technique was employed to prepare silica using tetraethyorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor. HDDA and irga cure 184 were added to the formulations as reactive diluents and photosensitizer, respectively. The chemical modification was studied by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX). The morphological studies were conducted by the optical and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). It shows that silica was dispersed very well in the matrix for lower concentration of TEOS while agglomeration occurs at the higher concentration. The average particles size of silica were less than 100 nm. (Author)

  10. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC’s were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC’s are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration

  11. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance.

    Rutar, Melita; Rozman, Nejc; Pregelj, Matej; Bittencourt, Carla; Cerc Korošec, Romana; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mrzel, Aleš; Škapin, Srečo D; Umek, Polona

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i) through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400-650 °C, (ii) through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii) through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g)/Ar(g) flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti(4+) to Ti(3+). The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  12. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance

    Melita Rutar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400–650 °C, (ii through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g/Ar(g flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the

  13. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  14. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  15. Kinetics of the δ/γ interface in the massive-like transformation in Fe-0.3C-0.6Mn-0.3Si alloys

    Nishimura, T.; Morishita, K.; Nagira, T.; Yoshiya, M.; Yasuda, H.

    2015-06-01

    In Fe-C alloys, it has been considered that the peritectic reaction occurs during solidification. Recently, the massive-like transformation, in which δ phase undercooled below the peritectic temperature transforms into γ phase, has been observed by X-ray imaging. It is of interest to know how the δ phase transforms into the γ phase, because the transformation is related to deformation of solidifying shell. Time-resolved and in-situ X-ray imaging with frame rate up to 500 fps was performed to know the δ/γ interface motion in the massive-like transformation in Fe-0.3C-0.6Mn-0.3Si alloys (mass%). The moving velocity of the δ/γ interface locally fluctuated. The average velocity ranged from several mm/s to 200 mm/s. However, no relationship between the moving velocity and the undercooling from the peritectic temperature was observed. The interface was not planar and the morphology continuously changed. The results showed that the stress / strain induced though the transformation from the δ phase to the γ phase in the steel solidification was not simply explained by the conventional peritectic reaction.

  16. Comparison of heat and radiation sensitivity in normal C3H-10T1/2 cells and cells transformed by radiation or the H ras oncogene

    C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells were transformed from the normal to the malignant state using X-rays or by transfection with a plasmid containing the active H ras oncogene. Clones of cells with a transformed morphology were isolated and grown into large populations. These cells were tested and produced tumors in C/sub 3/H mice. Seven clones transformed by radiation showed a range of sensitivity to heat and X-rays that varied from greater to lesser than the heat and X-ray sensitivity in normal cells. Similar results were observed for the cells transformed by the H ras oncogene. Thus, the malignant transformation of C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells by X-rays or H ras oncogenes did not, in general result in increased thermal sensitivity, implying that the malignant phenotype is not intrinsically more heat sensitive than the normal cell. The thermal sensitivity in the various transformed cell lines was not correlated with membrane cholesterol or phospholipid content

  17. Automated counting of morphologically normal red blood cells by using digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu

    2015-09-01

    In this paper we overview a method to automatically count morphologically normal red blood cells (RBCs) by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy and statistical methods. Three kinds of RBC are used as training and testing data. All of the RBC phase images are obtained with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) that is robust to transparent or semitransparent biological cells. For the determination of morphologically normal RBCs, the RBC's phase images are first segmented with marker-controlled watershed transform algorithm. Multiple features are extracted from the segmented cells. Moreover, the statistical method of Hotelling's T-square test is conducted to show that the 3D features from 3D imaging method can improve the discrimination performance for counting of normal shapes of RBCs. Finally, the classifier is designed by using statistical Bayesian algorithm and the misclassification rates are measured with leave-one-out technique. Experimental results show the feasibility of the classification method for calculating the percentage of each typical normal RBC shape.

  18. The Relation Between Galaxy Morphology and Environment in the Local Universe: An RC3-SDSS Picture

    Wilman, David J

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the z ~ 0 morphology-environment relation for 911 bright (M_B 10^10.5 Msol galaxies are S0 regardless of halo mass, but satellite S0 galaxies are only found in massive (> 10^13 h^-1 Msol) halos, where they are 69+/-4% of the M_* > 10^10.5 Msol satellite population. This suggests two channels for S0 formation: one for central galaxies, and another which transforms lower mass (M_* <~ 10^11 Msol) accreted spirals into satellite S0 galaxies in massive halos. Analysis of finer morphological structure (bars and rings in disk galaxies) shows some trends with stellar mass, but none with halo mass; this is consistent with other recent studies which indicate that bars are not strongly influenced by galaxy environment. Radio sources in high-mass central galaxies are common, similarly so for elliptical and S0 galaxies, with a frequency that increases with halo mass. Emission-line AGN (mostly LINERs) are more common in S0s, but show no strong environmental trends (abridged).

  19. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  20. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    Nakkrasae La-Iad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7 is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network.