WorldWideScience

Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez; Cornelio Yañez; Oleksiy Pogrebnyak; Enrique Guzmán

    2008-01-01

    A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs) is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of mo...

  2. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  3. Morphological transformation of NGC 205?

    CERN Document Server

    Saviane, Ivo; Hallas, Tony

    2009-01-01

    NGC 205 is a dwarf elliptical galaxy which shows many features that are more typical of disk galaxies, and our recent study of the central stellar population has added another peculiarity. In the central regions, star formation has been on-going continuously for a few hundred Myr, until ca. 20 Myr ago, perhaps fed by gas funneled to the center in the course of morphological transformation. In this contribution we use a deep, wide-field image obtained at a scale of 2"/px to show that subtle structures can be detected in and near the body of the dwarf galaxy. The southern tidal tail can be mapped out to unprecedented distances from the center, and we suggest that the northern tail is partially hidden behind a very extended dust lane, or ring, belonging to M31. A spiral pattern emerges across the body of the galaxy, but it might be explained by another M31 dust filament.

  4. Enhancement of Images using Morphological Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreedhar, K; 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4103

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber's law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber's law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are pres...

  5. Morphological instabilities in solid state diffusive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present contribution, we focus our attention on morphological instabilities in solid state diffusion controlled phase transformations. Beside the classical coarsening kinetics applying to the mophologies resulting from continuous reactions, a number of phenomena can occur either due to the coupling between diffusion and mechanical loading, or because of the interface diffusion phenomena which become important when the bulk diffusion is limited. These phenomena will be illustrated on directional coarsening of super alloys, and on morphological instabilities of lamellar or fibrous structures resulting for discontinuous precipitation or from hyper extrusion. (orig.)

  6. Transformation of Galaxy Morphology and Luminosity Classes

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

    2007-01-01

    We present a unified picture on the evolution of galaxy luminosity and morphology. Galaxy morphology is found to depend critically on the local environment set up by the nearest neighbor galaxy in addition to luminosity and the large scale density. When a galaxy is located farther than the virial radius from its closest neighbor, the probability for the galaxy to have an early morphological type is an increasing function only of luminosity and the local density due to the nearest neighbor ($\\rho_1$). The tide produced by the nearest neighbor is thought to be responsible for the morphology transformation toward the early type at these separations. When the separation is less than the virial radius, i.e. when $\\rho_1 > \\rho_{\\rm virial}$, its morphology depends also on the neighbor's morphology and the large-scale background density over a few Mpc scales ($\\rho_{20}$) in addition to luminosity and $\\rho_1$. The early type probability keeps increasing as $\\rho_1$ increases if its neighbor is an early type. But t...

  7. The Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance: Morphology and Tectonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, William L.; Michaud, François; Mortera Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Dyment, Jérôme; Bourgois, Jacques; Royer, Jean-Yves; Calmus, Thierry; Sosson, Marc; Ortega-Ramirez, Jose

    2011-08-01

    To better define the morphotectonic elements and tectonic development of the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, multichannel seismic reflection and total field marine magnetic data were collected along the entire Rivera Transform west of 107°W during the BART and FAMEX campaigns of the N.O. L'Atalante conducted in 2002. These data show that, although the transform tectonized zone of the Rivera Transform west of 107°30'W is a single continuous morphologic basin, this basin consists of two distinct morphotectonic domains: an eastern domain which morphologically is a deep rhombochasm within which organized seafloor spreading has occurred, and a western `leaky transform' domain. These new data, in conjunction with the results of previous studies, support the idea that the Rivera-Pacific Euler pole is migrating southward towards the eastern half of the Rivera Transform, and further indicate a recent (Rivera Transform west of 108°W. We propose that the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance owes its origin to this eastward progressing, clockwise reorganization of the transform segments that is occurring in response to recent changes in Rivera-Pacific relative plate motion.

  8. Reversible transformations of gold nanoparticle morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeva, Savka I; Zaikovski, Vladimir; Prasad, B L V; Stoimenov, Peter K; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J

    2005-11-01

    Herein is reported a metamorphosis taking place in a gold nanosized system. The observed phenomenon of shape and size transformations was found to be completely reversible. Unlike most procedures in the literature where shape and size control occur in the synthetic step by adding growth- and shape-controlling agents such as surfactants or polymers, in this system postsynthetic changes in shape and size can be carried out simply by changing the ratio of reactive, competing reagents, more specifically, alkylthiols versus tetralkylammonium salts. Interestingly, the transfer of gold metal occurs (large prismatic particles to small particles and vice versa) under the influence of reagents that do not cause such interactions with bulk gold. All intermediate steps of the morphology change were observed using HRTEM and electron diffraction. The processes of breaking down and "welding back" solid metal nanoparticles occur under mild conditions and are remarkable examples of the unique chemical properties of nanomaterials. The described process is expected to be relevant to other nanoscale systems where similar structural circumstances could occur. PMID:16262276

  9. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  10. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  11. Morphological Transformation and Star Formation Across Cosmic Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklind, Tommy; Candels Team

    2015-01-01

    We derive the median morphological and star formation activity for five samples of galaxies across a look-back time of 12 Gyr. The galaxy samples are selected using the Mean Abundance Matching technique as a way of matching progenitors and descendant galaxies. The five samples represent z=0 stellar masses of log(M*/Msun)=10.0 - 11.2, corresponding to z=0 dark matter halos of log(Mh/Msun)=11.5 - 13.5. Using the CANDELS GOODS-S and UDS samples we are complete up to z=2.2, 2.6, 3.6 for the three lowest mass bins and up to z=4 for the two highest mass bins. The morphology of each galaxy is quantified through the single-component Sersic index. With the exception of the galaxies in least massive bin, the average Sersic index at high redshift indicates a disk-like morphology, while at lower redshift the average Sersic index indicates a spheroidal light distribution. The morphology for galaxies in the lowest mass bin remains disk-like from z~2.2 to the limit of completeness at z~0.5. The star formation rate is derived for each galaxy using the dust corrected restframe 1500A luminosity. The galaxies undergo a decrease in star formation activity by ~2-3 orders of magnitude with the most massive systems starting their transformation of star formation activity at earlier times than less massive systems. The transformation of morphology and star formation is decoupled in the sense that galaxies transforms from actively star forming disk-like systems to quiescent disks and only subsequently transform into spheroidal or bulge dominated systems.

  12. Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum transformation time appears to be more than a factor of 150. The transformation time is phenomenologically related to the overall activation energy and the cohesive energy difference of the fcc and bcc phases, which, beyond a certain combination of values, may even prevent the transformation process from occurring. Also, the morphology of the bcc product phase is remarkably sensitive to the type of boundary conditions and the choice of interatomic potential, while the influence by both the set of initial thermal velocities and the interfacial lattice incoherence only becomes apparent for specific atomic samples that transform relatively slowly. The presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries increases the spatial heterogeneity of transformation events, with the appearance of an increasing number of vacancies at the grain boundary giving rise to a larger overall transformation time. The 10 main results following from the present MD study are conveniently summarised at the end of this communication.

  13. Mechanical vibrations from tadpoles' flapping tails transform salamander's carnivorous morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Michimae, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kinya; Wakahara, Masami

    2005-01-01

    Some prey or predator organisms exhibit striking rapid morphological plastic changes with distinct morphology under the condition of predator or prey presence. Remote chemicals propagating from the inducing agents are the prevalent induction cues for most examples of induction of distinct morphs. Sonic and visual cues, as well as chemical cues, are known as triggers for induction of behavioural plasticity. Here we show that hydraulic vibration originating from flapping tails of anuran tadpole...

  14. Mechanical vibrations from tadpoles' flapping tails transform salamander's carnivorous morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michimae, Hirofumi; Nishimura, Kinya; Wakahara, Masami

    2005-03-22

    Some prey or predator organisms exhibit striking rapid morphological plastic changes with distinct morphology under the condition of predator or prey presence. Remote chemicals propagating from the inducing agents are the prevalent induction cues for most examples of induction of distinct morphs. Sonic and visual cues, as well as chemical cues, are known as triggers for induction of behavioural plasticity. Here we show that hydraulic vibration originating from flapping tails of anuran tadpoles is a key cue in relation to induction of a distinct carnivorous morphology, a broad-headed morph, in larval salamander Hynobius retardatus, which is able to efficiently capture and handle prey. This result was further supported by the fact that simple mechanical vibrations of tail-like vinyl fins were able to induce the morph without any biological cues. Induction of the morph triggered by hydraulic vibration provides a novel concept for understanding the proximate mechanisms of induction of morphological changes. PMID:17148132

  15. Morphologic and Process Transformation at a Barrier Island of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T.

    2006-12-01

    Waisanding Barrier, the largest barrier island off the southwestern coast of Taiwan, has undergone morphologic and process transformation in recent decades. Based on the analysis of historical maps and aerial photographs, the island has migrated both southward and eastward (or landward). The shoreline at the northwest tip of the island has a retreat rate at 65 m/year, and the shoreline at the southern end migrates at a speed of 88 m/year southeastward. The overall land area has shrunken. Topographic profile surveys also show the great reduction of dune fields and the dune heights. This is mainly due to the starvation of sand sources. Three main processes have been proposed to explain the island migration: (1) the southward- dominant longshore drift; (2) the overwash process; and (3) the prevailing southward aeolian sand transport. Choushui river, the largest river in Taiwan, is the major sediment source for the Waisanding Barrier. Improvement constructions and illegal sand/gravel mining of the river may reduce large amounts of sediments that reach the shore. An artificial industrial park project located at the south of Choushui river mouth may also play an important role in blocking and preventing some of the southward longshore sand transport from reaching Waisanding Barrier. A permanent loss of sand to a submarine channel at the southern end had probably worsened the sediment storage of the barrier island. The strong wind transport during winter and the overwash process during spring high tides or stormy conditions may reduce the foredune and overall elevation of the island. This landform modification may result in the increase of overwash frequencies that move more sand landward and lower the elevation. As the results, the original back shore and dune field area are developed into a wide sandy tidal flat with many shallow tidal creeks formed during rising high tide stages. Because of all the landform changes in recent decades, the barrier island may undergo the transformation from a mixed energy wave-dominant environment to a mixed energy tide-dominant environment. If it follows the evolution trends, the barrier island may finally disappear when it reach the truly tide-dominated coastal environments suggested by Davis and Hayes.

  16. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  17. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  18. Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO3) and ?-PbO2 and ?-PbO2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

  19. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-03-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces.

  20. On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

    2011-01-01

    We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmon resonances at very similar wave lengths, is much lower for the corrugated NR arrays. The activity of the NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 × 10. In contrast an over-estimated (because of their hydrophobic character) EF of 6 × 10 is obtained for the smooth NR arrays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xingsheng; Mcmillan, Mary; Coumans, Joe?lle V. F.; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J.; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a t...

  2. Photoinduced macroscopic morphological transformation of an amphiphilic diarylethene assembly: reversible dynamic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Kenji; Taira, Genki; Kitai, Jun-Ichiro; Hirose, Takashi; Matsuda, Kenji

    2015-02-25

    Self-assembled microstructures of an amphiphilic diarylethene featuring an alkyl chain and triethylene glycol groups showed a photoinduced reversible morphological change in water. Reversible photoisomerization of the core diarylethene gave rise to a reversible morphological transformation between colorless microspheres and colored fibers. When colorless microspheres were irradiated with UV light, colored fibers were formed, and when the colored fibers were irradiated with visible light, the spheres were restored to their original positions where the spheres originally existed. This system showed reversible morphological change through not only photoirradiation but also temperature change. These behaviors can be interpreted as a phase transition between the sphere and fiber states. The dynamic process of the phase transition was monitored by polarized optical microscopy (POM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was revealed that the formation of fibers upon UV irradiation occurred radially at the surface of the sphere and the formation of the spheres upon visible-light irradiation occurred at the middle of the fiber. The unique photoinduced mechanical motion provides useful information for the design of sophisticated photoactuators. PMID:25650962

  3. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  4. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter Cynthia L; Barshis Daniel J; Forsman Zac H; Toonen Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region) in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging a...

  5. Kinetics and Morphological Instabilities of Stressed Solid-Solid Phase Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Rudawski, N. G.; Jones, K. S.; Gwillliam, R.

    2008-01-01

    An atomistic model of the growth kinetics of stressed solid-solid phase transformations is presented. Solid phase epitaxial growth of (001) Si was used for comparison of new and prior models with experiments. The results indicate that the migration of crystal island ledges in the growth interface may involve coordinated atomic motion. The model accounts for morphological instabilities during stressed solid-solid phase transformations.

  6. The Wheat Plastochron Mutant, fushi-darake, Shows Transformation of Reproductive Spikelet Meristem into Vegetative Shoot Meristem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chikako Tahira

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In wheat plants at the vegetative growth stage, the shoot apical meristem (SAM produces leaf primordia. When reproductive growth is initiated, the SAM forms an inflorescence meristem (IM that differentiates a series of spikelet meristem (SM as the branch. The SM then produces a series of floret meristem (FM as the branch. To identify the mechanisms that regulate formation of the reproductive meristems in wheat, we have investigated a leaf initiation mutant, fushi-darake (fdk which was developed by ion beam mutagenesis. The morphological traits were compared in wild type (WT and fdk mutant plants grown in the experimental field. WT plants initiated leaves from SAM at regular intervals in spiral phyllotaxy, while fdk plants had 1/2 alternate phyllotaxy with rapid leaf emergence. The fdk plants have increased numbers of nodes and leaves compared with WT plants. The time interval between successive leaf initiation events (plastochron was measured in plants grown in a growth chamber. The fdk plants clearly show the rapid leaf emergence, indicating a shortened plastochron. Each tiller in fdk plants branches at the upper part of the culm. The fine structure of organ formation in meristems of fdk plants was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM analysis indicated that fdk plants show transformation of spikelet meristems into vegetative shoot meristems. In conclusion, the fdk mutant has a heterochronic nature, i.e., both reproductive and vegetative programs were simultaneously in operation during the reproductive phase, resulting in a shortened plastochron and transformation of reproductive spikelets into vegetative shoots.

  7. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  8. Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

    2014-01-01

    Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

  9. Chemical transformation and morphology change of nickel-silica hybrid nanostructures via nickel phyllosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Hyun Ju; Bang, Jung Up; Park, Kang Hyun; Song, Hyunjoon

    2009-12-21

    Ni@SiO(2) core-shell nanoparticles were transformed to Ni particles on silica spheres via a branched nickel phyllosilicate phase by hydrothermal and hydrogen reduction reactions; the final morphology was successfully employed as an active nanocatalyst for the hydrogen transfer reaction of acetophenone. PMID:20024223

  10. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V F; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (?10% emPAI in each spot). The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase), nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase), stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit) and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein). The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome. PMID:25502569

  11. Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

    2013-09-01

    Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research. PMID:23635867

  12. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  13. Templated self-assembly of block copolymers and morphology transformation driven by the rayleigh instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Sheng, Yuping; Liu, Hongxia; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

    2015-02-10

    In the current study, we investigate the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) confined in the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and the subsequent morphology transformation induced by the Rayleigh instability. PS-b-P4VP nanotubes and nanorods with various internal nanostructures are fabricated by wetting the AAO template with PS-b-P4VP/chloroform solution, and then followed by solvent evaporation. After the removal of AAO template by potassium hydroxide solution, several different solvents (chloroform, toluene, and N,N-dimethylformamide) with different qualities are used to swell and anneal those nanotubes and nanorods suspended in aqueous media. Morphology transformation from nanostructured PS-b-P4VP nanotubes or nanorods to ordered nanospheres is observed by annealing upon chloroform and toluene while the morphology remains unchanged upon N,N-dimethylformamide annealing, indicating that solvent quality is a key factor in tuning the morphology and internal structures. Kinetics study and theoretical analysis for the morphology transition from two-dimensional (2D) block copolymer (BCP) nanotubes and nanorods to three-dimensional (3D) BCP nanospheres are further performed. From the morphological evolution and the quantitative calculation, it is confirmed that this transition is induced by the Rayleigh instability. This study provides a simple but promising method, that is, solvent annealing method, for the fabrication of BCP nanospheres with ordered internal nanostructures, which may have great application in drug delivery and other nanotechnology. PMID:25578803

  14. Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  15. [A novel hyperspectra absorption enhancing method based on morphological top-hat transformation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lin, Qi-zhong; Wang, Qin-jun; Liu, Qing-jie; Chen, Yu

    2010-09-01

    Hyperspectral characteristics analysis of ground features is the basis for applications of high-resolution imaging technology to ground target identification and ground features classification. Based on morphological multi-scale Top-Hat transformation, a novel spectral absorption enhancing algorithms was put forward, which enhanced spectral absorption features while maintaining shape features of the absorption peak bands. Eleven reflectance spectra of different mineral groups were chosen from the mineral spectral library of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and we used a K-means clustering analysis on both the absorption-enhanced spectra and the original reflectance spectra. Results showed that, firstly, clustering groups of the absorption-enhanced spectra (AES) had better similarity within the same clustering group, and greater difference between different groups, furthermore, they were more consistent with the geological background of these minerals compared with clustering result of the original spectra (OS). Secondly, while all the original spectra were re-sampled to their ASTER spectra and the AES clustering result was displayed in the form of ASTER spectra of the minerals, we could easily describe both the representative spectral feature of each clustering group, and the typical spectral differences between every two groups. These fully demonstrate that the absorption-enhanced spectra have enhanced absorption features of the mineral spectra, and improved the separability of hyper-spectra. Accordingly, feature analysis based on absorption enhanced spectra can be used as reference for information extracting based on multi-spectral remote sensing image data, and it is a very useful method of hyperspectral analysis. PMID:21105412

  16. QRS Detection by Combination of Wavelet Transform and Multi-resolution Morphological Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available QRS complex detecting algorithm was core of ECG auto-diagnosis method, heart rate variability analysis and deeply influences cardiac cycle division for signal compression. However, ECG signals collected by noninvasive surface electrodes were confused by several kinds of noise and its waveform variation was the main reasons for the hard realization of 100% detection accruracy. QRS complex detecting algorithms based on mixed methods were studied. This study proposed a QRS complex detecting algorithm based on wavelet transform and multi-resolution mathematical morphological decomposition (WMR algorithm. This algorithm possessed superiorities in R peak detection of the two methods. Moreover, a pre-processing method based on lifting scheme constructing multi-resolution morphological decomposition was adopted to reduce noise affection. And an efficient R peak search-back algorithm was employed to reduce the False Positives (FP and False Negatives (FN. According to simulation results in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QRS detection accuracy was over 99.8%.

  17. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools predicated on assumptions of…

  18. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  19. Kinetics of strain-related morphology transformation in YBa2Cu3O7-?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of ordering with a reduction of a crystal lattice point symmetry and related transformation-induced elastic strain is considered for the first time. Ordering in YBa2Cu3O7-? is specifically discussed. A computer simulation predicts a temporal development of the microstructure through the tweed to the (110) microtwin structure driven by the elastic strain accommodation. The results obtained are quite general in the sense that predicted morphologies are typical for other systems with the point-symmetry reduction where the elastic strain accommodation plays an important role

  20. Automatic urban road extraction on DSM data based on fuzzy ART, region growing, morphological operations and radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, an automatic urban road extraction, as part of Intelligent Transportation research, has attracted the researchers due to the important role for the next modern transportation where urban area plays the main role within the transportation system. In this work, we propose a new combination of fuzzy ART clustering, Region growing, Morphological Operations and Radon transform (ARMOR) for automatic extraction of urban road networks from the digital surface model (DSM). The DSM data, which is based-on the elevation of surface, overcome a serious building's shadow problem as in the aerial photo image. Due to the different elevation between the road and the buildings, the thresholding technique yields a fast initial road extraction. The threshold values are obtained from Fuzzy ART clustering of the geometrical points in the histogram. The initial road is then expanded using region growing. Though most of the road regions are extracted, it contains a lot of non-road areas and the edge is still rough. A fast way to smoothing the region is by employing the morphology closing operation. Furthermore, we perform the road line filter by opening operation with a line shape structuring element, where the line orientation is obtained from the Radon Transform. Finally, the road network is constructed based-on B-Spline from the extracted road skeleton. The experimental result shows that the proposed method running faster and increases the quality and the accuracy about 10% higher than the highest result of the compared method.

  1. Morphological transformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic 'acidic' polypeptide sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces aa 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology

  2. Automatic detection of micro-aneurysms in retinal images based on curvelet transform and morphological operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Alipour, Shirin Hajeb; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes that changes the blood vessels of the retina and distorts patient vision that finally in high stages can lead to blindness. Micro-aneurysms (MAs) are one of the first pathologies associated with DR. The number and the location of MAs are very important in grading of DR. Early diagnosis of micro-aneurysms (MAs) can reduce the incidence of blindness. As MAs are tiny area of blood protruding from vessels in the retina and their size is about 25 to 100 microns, automatic detection of these tiny lesions is still challenging. MAs occurring in the macula can lead to visual loss. Also the position of a lesion such as MAs relative to the macula is a useful feature for analysis and classification of different stages of DR. Because MAs are more distinguishable in fundus fluorescin angiography (FFA) compared to color fundus images, we introduce a new method based on curvelet transform and morphological operations for MAs detection in FFA images. As vessels and MAs are the bright parts of FFA image, firstly extracted vessels by curvelet transform are removed from image. Then morphological operations are applied on resulted image for detecting MAs.

  3. Effect of alloy elements on the morphology transformation of TiB2 particles in Al matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yijie; Ma, Naiheng; Wang, Haowei

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the effect of alloy element on the morphology of in situ TiB2 particles, a series of TiB2 particles with various morphology were obtained via controlling synthesis process. Si and Cu can affect the morphology transformation of TiB2 particles significantly. Si preferentially adsorbed on (101¯1), (112¯0) and (12¯13¯) planes resulting in the polyhedron morphology of TiB2. Cu adsorbed on (101¯0) preferentially leading to the minimum aspect (the ratio of the diameter and thickness). PMID:25543878

  4. Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

  5. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence study of some dyes in polymer microspheres showing morphology dependent resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prem B.; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Hirayama, Satoshi

    1996-11-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra of N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10- Perylenebis(dicarboximide) (DBPI), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and cresyl violet (CV) in spherical polymer beads of less than 20 ?m diameter show sharp ripple structures. The observed peak positions and the intervals of the structures are consistent with the calculations of the morphology dependent resonances (MDR). Observed intensities of the MDR in the fluorescence emission spectra are found to show excitation energy dependence. The fluorescence spectra have also been measured as a function of the refractive indexes of the medium and the bead. These MDR in the beads up to 4 ?m diameter do not appear to affect the fluorescence decay of the dyes, since the fluorescence lifetime remains constant irrespective of the size of the bead and the refractive index of a surrounding medium. Simulations based on the Lorentz-Mie theory for the microspheres of different refractive indexes have been used to quantify the observed effect on the basis of the available data on the homogeneous widths of the dye molecules. A fluorescence study of microcrystals of DBPI is also presented here from the point of view of comparison with fluorescence decay of dye impregnated beads. The microcrystals exhibit a size effect in the fluorescence decay which has been attributed mainly to the self-absorption effect.

  6. Slow spontaneous transformation of the morphology of ultrathin gold films characterized by localized surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been recognized that ultrathin gold films deposited on unmodified glass substrates are unstable, but there is a lack of systematic studies of their morphology evolution at room temperature. This paper shows that ultrathin gold films sputtered on bare glass substrates could spontaneously transform into nanoporous, nanowire and nanoparticle structures, without any treatment such as heating and UV irradiation. These nanostructures lead to the well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band. Deposition of a dielectric thin film on the gold nanostructure could prevent structural change. Investigations indicate that the LSPR absorption spectrum of the nanostructured gold film is highly dependent on the polarization state of the light probe and is sensitive to both the refractive index of the surrounding liquid and thickness of the coating layer.

  7. Mycalamide A Shows Cytotoxic Properties and Prevents EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation through Inhibition of Nuclear Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedemann Honecker

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycalamide A, a marine natural compound previously isolated from sponges, is known as a protein synthesis inhibitor with potent antitumor activity. However, the ability of this compound to prevent malignant transformation of cells has never been examined before. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of mycalamide A from ascidian Polysincraton sp. as well as investigation of its cancer preventive properties. In murine JB6 Cl41 P+ cells, mycalamide A inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF-induced neoplastic transformation, and induced apoptosis at subnanomolar or nanomolar concentrations. The compound inhibited transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-?B, a potential mechanism of its cancer preventive properties. Induction of phosphorylation of the kinases MAPK p38, JNK, and ERK was also observed at high concentrations of mycalamide A. The drug shows promising potential for both cancer-prevention and cytotoxic therapy and should be further developed.

  8. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenenko, Natalia D.; Semina, Elena N. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskii, Vladimir I. [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 prosp. Ak. Lavrentieva, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Golub, Alexandre S., E-mail: golub@ineos.ac.ru [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS{sub 2} on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS{sub 2} layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS{sub 2} layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS{sub 2}–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS{sub 2} layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS{sub 2} monolayers.

  9. Morphological Assessment of Basic Multicellular Unit Resorption Parameters in Dogs Shows Additional Mechanisms of Bisphosphonate Effects on Bone

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Matthew R.; Erickson, Antonia M.; Wang, Xiang; Burr, David B.; Martin, R. Bruce; Hazelwood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) slow bone loss by reducing initiation of new basic multicellular units (BMUs). Whether or not BPs simply prevent osteoclasts from initiating new BMUs that resorb bone or also reduce the amount of bone they resorb at the BMU level is not clear. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of BPs on three morphological parameters of individual BMUs, resorption depth (Rs.De), area (Rs.Ar), and width (Rs.Wi). After 1 year of treatment with vehicle (VEH), alendronate (...

  10. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  11. Morphology transformation of patterned, uniform and faceted GaN microcrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the growth and characterization of patterned and uniformly distributed GaN microcrystals with well-defined facets and epitaxy. The microcrystals were grown on a mask patterned by lithography. The GaN microcrystals were formed by selective-area epitaxy using metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The GaN microcrystals have similar sizes and shapes. Each microcrystal consists of an upper and a lower part, which are rotated by 30 deg. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there is a rather clear interface between the two parts of the crystal, suggesting a sudden change in the growth direction. We performed ab initio calculations for the surface energies of hexagonal GaN, and the growth morphology is explained based on surface energy considerations

  12. Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO{sub 2}, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmanovich, Igor V., E-mail: elmanovich@polly.phys.msu.ru; Naumkin, Alexander V.; Gallyamov, Marat O., E-mail: glm@spm.phys.msu.ru; Khokhlov, Alexei R. [Russian Academy of Sciences, A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2012-03-15

    Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO{sub 2} is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe{sub 2}(COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 {+-} 0.6 nm.

  13. In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH)3 nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH)3 from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH)3 nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 ?m in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In2O3 with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH)3 precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In2O3 were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

  14. A Case Report of Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Showing Morphologic Transformation during Followup Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Yoshida; Yasuharu Tokuyama; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Shinji Osada; Yuichi Sanada

    2009-01-01

    A 64-year-old man underwent MRCP for further examination of gallbladder stones and IPMN of branch-type (IPMN-Br) was pointed out. Yearly MRCP had revealed the gradual increase of the cystic components, marked dilation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), and filling defects in the MPD. After follow-up for three years, he underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Histologically, the dilated MPD and connecting dilated branch ducts were filled with nodular growth of tumor cells consisting of gastric-typ...

  15. Phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody detects intraneuronal dot-like structures showing morphological characters of granulovacuolar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokura, Ai; Yamazaki, Tsuneo; Kakuda, Satoko; Makioka, Kouki; Lemere, Cynthia A; Fujita, Yukio; Takatama, Masamitsu; Okamoto, Koichi

    2009-09-29

    TAR-DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) was considered to be a disease-specific component of ubiquitin-positive and tau-negative inclusions in the brains of patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, this protein also accumulates abnormally in neurons in other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the role of TDP-43 deposition in these diseases is not clear, abnormal phosphorylation of the protein is suggested to be a critical step in disease pathogenesis. In this study, we generated a new phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibody and examined AD brain sections from temporal lobes, including the hippocampus and temporal neocortex, by immunohistochemistry. The antibody, called A2, specifically recognized phosphorylated TDP-43 in western blotting using ALS and AD specimens, detecting a strong 45kDa band and several shorter fragments at around 25kDa with smears. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated neuronal cytoplasmic inclusions in AD brain sections without staining nuclei that were normal physiological TDP-43 localization sites. These results were consistent with previous reports. However, intraneuronal dot-like structures were also intensely labeled by immunohistochemistry. These structures were observed in all the AD brain sections examined and also occurred in sections from the brains of aged subjects without AD pathologies. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of these granular structures were compatible with those of granulovacuolar degeneration (GVD). The A2 antibody clearly and intensely detected granular structures distributed over the hippocampus, subiculum, parahippocampus and temporal neocortex. Thus, immunohistochemistry using phosphorylation-dependent TDP-43 antibodies would be a new useful tool for identifying GVD. PMID:19539703

  16. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  17. Morphological evolution of precipitates during transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate into octacalcium phosphate in relation to role of intermediate phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Onuma, Kazuo; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

    2011-10-01

    Nucleation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and its phase transformation with a decrease in solution pH were investigated at a constant temperature of 32 °C. A solution containing a mixture of CaCl 2 and KH 2PO 4 was prepared (initial pH=7.7), and a drop was sampled at a constant interval to observe the morphological evolution of the precipitates that formed in the solution. A gel-like solution structure formed immediately after mixing and contained a small amount of sea-urchin-like ACP spherulites (3-20 ?m in size). These spherulites consisted of 1.5-10-?m-long flexible needles that formed simultaneously with numerous ACP spherical particles. They first transformed into ?-tri calcium phosphate-like material (called "pseudo ?-TCP") and then into single crystals of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) without dissolution. The flexible needles in the spherulites changed into blade springs, then into flexible plates, and finally into rigid plates during the transformation. The OCP structure appeared in the pseudo ?-TCP plates and gradually substituted for the ?-TCP structure over time. The macroscopic spherulite morphology of the initial ACP remained unchanged during the phase transformation, suggesting that OCP is a pseudomorph of ACP. This feature was observed only when the ACP spherulites formed in the initial solution. Fiber-like aggregates consisting of ?-TCP single crystals nucleated around the ACP spherical particles and grew over time. They survived until the final stage of the reaction, and OCP polycrystals formed in the mixture of ?-TCP and ACP spheres. The OCP polycrystals gradually substituted for the ACP spheres without phase transformation of ?-TCP into OCP.

  18. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  19. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  20. The gastric isthmus from D+ and D- broiler lines divergently selected for digestion efficiency shows histological and morphological differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideau, N; Godet, E; Combémorel, C; Chaudeau, M; Carré, B; Mignon-Grasteau, S

    2014-05-01

    Previous results suggested that the gastric function plays a paramount role in digestive efficiency differences between D+ and D- broiler lines divergently selected for AMEn (more feed efficient and less feed efficient, respectively). In this paper we show an histological analysis of the gastric isthmus located between the proventriculus and the gizzard in the D+ and D- lines. Cross-sections were performed using a cryostat (Leica CM30505) and stained with a routine procedure using Mayer's Hematoxylin and Eosin Stain. The surface and shape of the constitutive gastric isthmus tissues were quantified using the image analysis software Image J. The lumen occupied 11% of the whole D- isthmus cross-sectional area against 24% for D+ (P < 0.01). The mucosa relative area (cm(2)/total cross-sectional area) was higher in D- than in D+ [47% (D-) and 39% (D+), P < 0.01]. It was significantly more oval and more folded on the lumen side in D- than in D+ chickens; the muscle layer (muscularis mucosae) of the mucosa was relatively more developed in D- than in D+ (16 and 11% of the section, respectively; P < 0.01). A relationship between these observations and increased gastric motility reported in D- compared with D+ is discussed. PMID:24795318

  1. Variations in properties of virus released from morphologically different cell lines transformed in vitro by Friend leukemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuei, D.; Pogo, B. G.; Friend, C.

    1980-01-01

    The properties of the virus synthesized by each of three morphologically different cell lines originating from DBA/2J fetal liver cells transformed by the anemic strain of Friend leukemia virus in vitro were analyzed. The cells of line G-1 are malignant in syngeneic DBA/2 mice, grow in suspension, and are erythroid in origin. Cells of lines G-2 and G-3 are adherent, are epithelial in appearance, and produce no tumors in DBA/2J mice. Higher reverse transcriptase activity was detected in the cu...

  2. Effective Morphological Extraction of True Fingerprint Minutiae based on the Hit or Miss Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roli Bansal, Priti Sehgal & Punam Bedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints are the most widely used parameter for personal identification amongst allbiometrics based personal authentication systems. As most Automatic FingerprintRecognition Systems are based on local ridge features known as minutiae, markingminutiae accurately and rejecting false ones is critically important. In this paper we proposean algorithm for extracting minutiae from a fingerprint image using the binary Hit or Misstransform (HMT of mathematical morphology. We have developed and tested structuringelements for different types of minutiae present in a fingerprint image to be used by the HMTafter preprocessing the image with morphological operators. This results in efficient minutiaedetection, thereby saving a lot of effort in the post processing stage. The algorithm is testedon a large number of images. Experimental results depict the effectiveness of the proposedtechnique.

  3. Sphere to ring morphological transformation in drying nanofluid droplets in a contact-free environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the transients of buckling in drying colloidal suspensions is pivotal for producing new functional microstructures with tunable morphologies. Here, we report first observations and elucidate the buckling instability induced morphological transition (sphere to ring structure) in an acoustically levitated, heated nanosuspension droplet using dynamic energy balance. Droplet deformation featuring the formation of symmetric cavities is initiated by capillary pressure that is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the acoustic radiation pressure, thus indicating that the standing pressure field has no influence on the buckling front kinetics. With an increase in heat flux, the growth rate of surface cavities and their post-buckled volume increase while the buckling time period reduces, thereby altering the buckling pathway and resulting in distinct precipitate structures. However, irrespective of the heating rate, the volumetric droplet deformation exhibits a linear time dependence and the droplet vaporization is observed to deviate from the classical D(2)-law. PMID:25652122

  4. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    CERN Document Server

    Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

  5. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    OpenAIRE

    Heiderman, A. L.; Jogee, S.; Bacon, D. J.; Balogh, M. L.; Barden, M.; Barazza, F. D.; Bell, E. F.; Bo?hm, A.; Caldwell, J. A. R.; Gray, M. E.; Ler, B. Ha?uß; Heymans, C.; Jahnke, K.; Kampen, E.; Koposov, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution wi...

  6. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

  7. Micro-tidal coastal reed beds: Hydro-morphological insights and observations on wave transformation from the southern Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    I.; | J., Möller; | T., Mantilla-Contreras; | A., Spencer; Hayes

    2011-05-01

    This paper investigates the hydro-morphological controls on incident wind-generated waves at, and the transformation of such waves within, two Phragmites australis reed beds in the southern Baltic Sea. Meteorological conditions in combination with geomorphological controls result, over short (0.5 Hz) was preferentially reduced at the reed margin, confirming the theoretical wave frequency dependence of bottom friction. The possibility of physiological adaptation (differences in reed stem diameter) to water depth and wave exposure differences is discussed. The results have implications for the possible impact of environmental changes, both acute (e.g. storm surges) or chronic (e.g. sea level rise) in character, and for the appropriate management of reed bed sites and delivery of ecological goods and services.

  8. Boron nitride nanotubes as nanocrucibles for morphology and phase transformations in encapsulated nanowires of the Mg-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were filled with nanowires made of Mg-containing compounds: a metallic Mg-based material; a MgO-based phase; and a thermally and chemically unstable oxygen-rich MgO2-based phase. Crystallography of the tubes and their fillings was studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These compounds displayed markedly different behavior inside BN nanotube channels during in situ TEM electron-irradiation-induced and thermal heating. The interplay between phases, their morphology and phase transformations were observed under heating. Thus the applicability of chemically and thermally stable BN nanotubes as one-dimensional nanocrucibles for novel nanoscale metallurgy/chemistry in the practically important Mg-O system has been thoroughly documented. This opens up a pathway for BN nanotube-channel-confined reactions in other inorganic systems

  9. Chemical and morphological transformation through hydrothermal process for LiFePO4 preparation in organic-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? LiFePO4 (LFP) is synthesized hydrothermally in organics-free reaction system at 160 °C. ? Samples were collected from identical autoclave at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period. ? The mechanism for chemical and morphological transformation of crystalline LFP is understood. ? LFP synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. ? Reducing the particle size of the precursors will be an effective way to obtain fine LFP particles. -- Abstract: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis in an organic-free system. Samples were collected at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size analysis. Two precursors, Li3PO4 and Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O, form easily at ambient temperature. They dissolve into ions once temperature increases to 135 °C. LFP nuclei form rapidly at 135–140 °C and grow fast at 140–150 °C. The crystal morphology transforms from diamond to polygon plate at 150–160 °C. The B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size decrease as reaction time prolongs. The thickness of the platelets remains unchanged within the range of 60–100 nm for each LFP sample. The sample synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon (LFP/C-2) exhibits optimum electrochemical performances that the specific discharge capacities are 162.1, 150.8 and 136.9 mAh g?1 at 0.2 C, 1 C and 5 C, respectively. Reducing the precursors’ particle size would be an effective way to shorten the reaction time and obtain fine particles with high specific surface area and high purity

  10. Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Devi.K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

  11. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  12. Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures and morphology transformation during annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire- and belt-like single-crystalline titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized by using a simple thermal annealing method, which has often been avoided for the synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures from high melting point metals such as Ti. The synthesis method requires neither high reaction temperature nor complicated reaction processes, and can be used for producing dense nanomaterials with relatively short reaction time at temperatures much lower than the melting point of titanium and titanium dioxide. Key synthesis factors including the choice of eutectic catalyst, growth temperature, and annealing time were systematically investigated. The synthesis reaction was promoted by a copper eutectic catalyst, producing long nanostructures with short reaction times. For example, it was observed that only 30 min of annealing time at 850 deg. C was enough to produce densely grown ?10 ?m long nanowires with diameters of ?100 nm, and longer reaction time brought about morphology changes from wires to belts as well as producing longer nanostructures up to ?30 ?m. The nanostructures have the crystalline rutile structure along the growth direction. Finally, our simple and effective method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures could be utilized for growing other metal oxide nanowires from high melting temperature metals.

  13. Morphological diagnostics of pedogenesis on the anthropogenically transformed floodplains in Moscow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokof'eva, T. V.; Varava, O. A.; Sedov, S. N.; Kuznetsova, A. M.

    2010-04-01

    At present, many parts of river valleys, including floodplains, are being actively used for urban construction. This leads to the disturbance of normal functioning of the valleys; alluvial deposits and soils become buried under the thickness of various anthropogenic materials. Four profiles of typical urban soils (urbanozems) developed on the floodplain of the Moskva River and its small tributaries have been studied. The macro- and micromorphological characteristics (including data of submicroscopic studies) and the chemical and physicochemical properties of these soils are analyzed. It is shown that the influence of ground-water on the anthropogenically transformed soils of floodplains and low terraces is preserved even upon the cessation of regular flooding. The substitution of urban pedosedimentogenesis for alluvial pedosedimentogenesis has a gradual character with a transitional stage of simultaneous occurrence of both processes. Clayey and clayey-calcareous infillings in the middle-profile horizons and newly formed phosphates of iron and calcium in the lower horizons affected by the groundwater can be considered typical diagnostic features of the urban-alluvial pedogenesis.

  14. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  15. Molecular and Morphological Adaptations in Compressed Articular Cartilage by Polarized Light Microscopy and Fourier-Transform Infrared Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Xia, Y.; Alhadlaq, H.; Ramakrishnan, N.; Bidthanapally, A.; Badar, F.; Lu, M.

    2008-01-01

    Fifteen articular cartilage-bone specimens from one canine humeral joint were compressed in the strain range of 0% to 50%. The deformation of the extracellular matrices in cartilage was preserved and the same tissue sections were studied using polarized light microscopy (PLM) and Fourier-transform infrared imaging (FTIRI). The PLM results show that the most significant changes in the apparent zone thickness due to ‘re-organization’ of the collagen fibrils based on the birefringence occur ...

  16. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2014-08-19

    : Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an isolated skin lesion demonstrating sarcoidal granulomas-even when concurrently appearing with other lesions of granuloma annulare showing either an infiltrative or a palisading granuloma histologic pattern-may prompt the clinician to evaluate and exclude the possibility of systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:25140662

  17. Morphological transformations and fusion of PbSe nanocrystals studied using atomistic simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapotschnikow, Philipp; van Huis, Marijn A; Zandbergen, Henny W; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Vlugt, Thijs J H

    2010-10-13

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed on capped and uncapped PbSe nanocrystals, employing newly developed classical interaction potentials. Here, we show that two uncapped nanocrystals fuse efficiently via direct surface attachment, even if they are initially misaligned. In sharp contrast to the general belief, interparticle dipole interactions do not play a significant role in this "oriented attachment" process. Furthermore, it is shown that presumably polar, capped PbSe{111} facets are never fully Pb- or Se-terminated. PMID:20845975

  18. Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Annekathrin; Pallmann, Philip; Papenbrock, Jutta; Riemenschneider, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are interested in investigating the influence of the genetic background of canola (Brassica napus) cultivars in sulfur-limiting conditions on the resistance against Verticillium longisporum. Therefore, four commercially available B. napus cultivars were analyzed. These high-performing cultivars differ in some characteristics described in their cultivar pass, such as several agronomic traits, differences in the size of the root system, and resistance to certain pathogens, such as Phoma and Verticillium. The objectives of the study were to examine and explore the patterns of morphological, physiological and metabolic diversity in these B. napus cultivars at different sulfur concentrations and in the context of plant defense. Results indicate that the root systems are influenced differently by sulfur deficiency in the cultivars. Total root dry mass and length of root hairs differ not only among the cultivars but also vary in their reaction to sulfur limitation and pathogen attack. As a sensitive indicator of stress, several parameters of photosynthetic activity determined by PAM imaging showed a broad variability among the treatments. These results were supported by thermographic analysis. Levels of sulfur-containing metabolites also showed large variations. The data were interrelated to predict the specific behavior during sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack. Advice for farming are discussed. PMID:25699060

  19. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  20. Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transformers, is the ninth chapter in Volume II â??Alternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Mutual inductance and basic operation; Step-up and Step-down transformers; Electrical isolation; Phasing; Winding configurations; Voltage Regulation; and finally, Special transformers and applications.. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  1. Direct characterization of phase transformations and morphologies in moving reaction zones in Al/Ni nanolaminates using dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Fast phase transformations are examined in Al/Ni reactive nanolaminates. ? Results visible only by dynamic transmission electron microscopy at ns resolution. ? NiAl forms under 15 ns after reaction front in all three stoichiometries studied. ? DTEM imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in nonequiatomic films. - Abstract: Phase transformations and transient morphologies are examined as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate across Al/Ni nanolaminate films. The rapid evolution of these phases and sub-micrometer morphological features requires nanoscale temporal and spatial resolution that is not available with traditional in situ electron microscopy. This work uses dynamic transmission electron microscopy to identify intermetallic products and phase morphologies, as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate in nanolaminate films grown with 3:2, 2:3 and 1:1 Al/Ni atomic ratios. Single-shot diffraction patterns with 15 ns temporal resolution reveal that the NiAl intermetallic forms within ?15 ns of the reaction front's arrival in all three types of films and is the only intermetallic phase to form, as the reactions self-propagate and quench very rapidly. Time-resolved imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in the Al-rich and Ni-rich foils, but not in the equiatomic films. The cellular features in the Al-rich and Ni-rich films are attributed to a cooling trajectory through a two-phase field of liquid + NiAl.ld of liquid + NiAl.

  2. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nfujita@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  3. Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-03-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  4. Phase Transformation and Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition Process Through Alkali Treatment and Calcination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ting; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Szu-Hao; Shih, Wei-Jen; Li, Wong-Long

    2014-04-01

    The phase transformation and morphology of calcium phosphate prepared by the electrochemical deposition (ECD) process through alkali treatment and calcination have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the ECD process, when the excess OH- was produced, the reaction of 10Ca2++6PO{4/3-}+2OH-?Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 takes place on the Ti-6Al-4V and the HA is deposited. The XRD results reveal that the as-deposit was mostly composed of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (Ca2H4P2O9; DCPD) and the minor phase of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HA). After NaOH treatment, all DCPD were converted to HA. Moreover, the content of HA phase increases with ECD potential. After being calcined at 673 K and 873 K (400 °C and 600 °C) for 4 hours, the phase of HA maintained the major phase for an alkali-treated deposited sample. After being calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, some HA decomposed and caused the minor phases of ?-tricalcium phosphate ( ?-Ca3(PO4)2; ?-TCP), calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7; CPP), and calcium oxide (CaO) formation. The ?-TCP becomes the major phase with residual HA and CaO after being calcined at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 4 hours. The crack forms due to the release of absorbed water from the interior to top surface of sample. For the as-alkali treatment samples, the microstructures were affected by ECD potentials; when the deposited samples after alkali treatment and calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the microstructure presents the need-like "preforming HA" (pre-HA) from the matrix of plate-like postforming HA (post-HA).

  5. In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren Weian; Liu Ying; Mei Zongwei; Wen Xiaogang, E-mail: wenxg2001@163.com [Sichuan University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Suhua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

    2013-02-15

    In this work, In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH){sub 3} nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH){sub 3} from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH){sub 3} nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 {mu}m in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH){sub 3} precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

  6. Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-12-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  7. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Yuanmei [Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fang, Xiaoming, E-mail: cexmfang@scut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Xiong, Jian [Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Zhengguo, E-mail: cezhang@scut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Single-crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO{sub 2} nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  8. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  9. Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

  10. A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

    2014-11-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498-499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron-ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of iron aggregates in the striatum. Our data show that our 498-499InsTC mouse models recapitulate early pathological and clinical traits of the human neuroferritinopathy, thus providing a valuable model for the study of the disease. Finally, we propose a mechanistic model of lipofuscine formation that can account for the etiopathogenesis of human neuroferritinopathy. PMID:25447222

  11. Phase transformation and morphology tuning of ?-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal phase and morphology with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The phase changes to the mixture of ?-NaYF4 and ?-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, ?-NaYF4 disappears gradually and ?-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the morphology changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different phases and morphologies are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).

  12. Biological and morphological characteristics of phenotypic revertants appearing in interferon-treated mouse cells transformed by a human oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samid, D; Chang, E H; Friedman, R M; Schaff, Z; Greene, J J

    1985-01-01

    Phenotypic revertants appearing in interferon-treated mouse cells that had been transformed by an activated human c-Ha-ras1 oncogene (cell line RS485) were tested for several biological properties. The cloned revertants regained the growth characteristics of the untransformed parental NIH 3T3 cell line; unlike RS485 cells the revertants failed to form colonies in soft agar or to form rapidly growing tumors in nude mice. Animals inoculated with RS485 cells developed tumors within one week. In contrast, revertant clonal line 4C3 failed to form tumors four months after transplantation. Revertant 4C8 cells were tumorigenic; however, the developing tumors had increased latency, slower growth rate, and remained smaller than tumors of RS485 cells. Histopathological analysis revealed that revertant-associated fibrosarcomas were less anaplastic, less cellular and had relatively infrequent mitotic figures as compared to fibrosarcomas of RS485 cells. The result suggest the IFN-induced revertants exhibit a significantly less malignant phenotype than their parental transformed cells and that the biological differences are maintained after IFN treatment is discontinued. PMID:2431116

  13. Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. ? Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. ? Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. ? Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 oC temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 oC is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 oC the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 1010/cm2. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

  14. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  15. Interaction of O 2 with Pd single crystals in the range 1-150 Torr: Surface morphology transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinyi; Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Ribeiro, Fabio H.

    2006-07-01

    The interaction of O 2 with Pd single crystals including Pd(1 1 1), Pd(1 1 0) and Pd(1 0 0) in the pressure range 1-150 Torr was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The Pd single crystal surface morphologies were determined by the oxidation conditions: O 2 pressure, exposure time and treatment temperature. Oxygen dissolution into Pd metal followed by the formation of bulk oxide was observed. The dissolution of oxygen resulted in the increase of the inter-planar spacing between the first two layers, 9-14% increase after an exposure of Pd(1 1 1) to 10-25 Torr O 2 at 600 K for 10 min, and 10-20% increase after exposing Pd(1 1 0) and Pd(1 0 0) to 1 Torr O 2 at 600 K for 10 min. Elongated or semi-spherical oxide agglomerates along the steps nucleated and grew on both Pd(1 1 0) and Pd(1 0 0) surfaces after oxidation in 5-25 Torr O 2 at 600 K. When bulk PdO was formed, the single crystal surface was covered with semi-spherical agglomerates 2-4 nm in size, which tended to aggregate to form a "cauliflower-like" structure. The single crystal surface area also increased during oxidation.

  16. The Morphological Transformation of Red-Sequence Galaxies in the Distant Cluster XMMU J1229+0151

    CERN Document Server

    Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Delaye, L; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at $z=0.98$ drawn from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the WINGS cluster survey reveals that at $z\\sim1$ the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMUJ1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the lo...

  17. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  18. Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ?20 nm and height of ?7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metaics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere

  19. Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

  20. Banded-like morphology and martensitic transformation of dual-phase Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy with enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the current challenges facing producers of Ni–Mn–In alloys are the achievement of small hysteresis and good ductility. Here, we present a dual-phase (?-Ni51.8Mn31.4In16.8 and ?-Ni62.4Mn32.5In5.1) Ni52Mn32In16 alloy prepared by the zone melting liquid metal cooling directional solidification method, which simultaneously shows small hysteresis (?T < 10 K) and good ductility (6.6%). In addition, and more importantly, an inter-martensitic transition with a large magnetization jump occurs in this alloy. This is expected to further broaden the working temperature range of actuators and sensors that use this magnetic shape memory alloy. The sequence of the martensitic transformation can be shown by in situ X-ray diffraction to be austenite ? 10M ? 14M. Additionally, the second (?) phase dramatically enhances the entropy change of these structural transformations and shifts them to higher temperatures. During the directional solidification, a novel banded-like microstructure, consisting of two layers, one of the ? single phase and the other of the two phases coupled, forms at the low growth rate. A qualitative model is presented to explain the experimental observation, taking into account both the competitive nucleation and the growth of the phases. Experimental and theoretical analysis in the present work shows a linear relationship between the maximum spacing of the ? single phase layer and the growth rate

  1. Galaxy Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Buta, Ronald J

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

  2. Algorithm for brain extraction on Magnetic Resonance Images T1 using Morphological 3D Transformations / Algoritmo para la extracción de imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 usando transformaciones morfológicas en 3D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. D., Mendiola-Santibañez; I. M, Santillán Méndez; C., Paredes Orta; I. R, Terol Villalobos.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una composición de transformaciones morfológicas para la extracción del cerebro en imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 (MRI T1) en 3D. La propuesta hace uso de dos transformaciones morfológicas conexas, la nivelación inferior y una familia de filtros viscosos alternados [...] secuenciales (VASFs). Las propiedades de estos operadores- las cuales consisten en el control del proceso de reconstrucción de un marcador dentro de la imagen original-, se explotan para segmentar el cerebro de 20 volúmenes de MRI T1. Los cerebros segmentados se comparan respecto a: i) segmentaciones obtenidas a partir del algoritmo BET, el cual es popular en la comunidad científica para la segmentación del cerebro; y ii) segmentaciones manuales. Los índices calculados indican que la transformación propuesta produce buenos resultados en su desempeño. El tiempo empleado por el operador durante su ejecución es aceptable además de que la propuesta puede ser implementada en Matlab Abstract in english In this paper a 3D morphological composition of transformations for brain extraction on brain Magnetic Resonance Images T1 (MRI T1) is presented. The proposal makes use of two morphological connected transformations, the lower leveling and a family of the viscous alternating sequential filters (VASF [...] s). The properties of these operators -which consist in the control of the reconstruction process of a marker into the original image-, are exploited to segment the brain in 20 volumes of MRI T1. The segmented brains are compared with respect to: i) the segmentations obtained from BET which is popular among the scientific community for segmenting the brain; and ii) manual segmentations. The computed indices indicate that the proposed transformation produces good results during its performance. The consumed time for the algorithm during the execution is acceptable and it can be implemented in Matlab.

  3. Facile synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles inside a nanoporous carbon matrix (M/MO@C) through the morphology-preserved transformation of metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Woojeong; Kim, Hee Soo; Chun, Hyungphil; Yoo, Won Cheol

    2015-04-01

    A facile method to transform metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into metal/metal oxide@carbon (M/MO@C) composites with well-defined shapes is reported. The porosity of carbon and the particle sizes of M/MO are readily controlled by a simple two-step process that includes impregnation of the polymer precursors and a thermolysis reaction. PMID:25813137

  4. The morphological transformation and inhibition of growth of bovine luteal cells in tissue culture induced by luteinizing hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gospodarowicz, D; Gospodarowicz, F

    1975-02-01

    The luteal cells obtained from bovine corpus luteum by enzymatic treatment have been maintained in tissue culture. When the cells were maintained in the absence of luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP, they grew parallel to one another and were elongated, thus giving to the culture a fibroblastic appearance. No contact inhibition was observed and the progestin secretion rate was low (3 pg per cell per day). In contrast, when luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was present, the cells became polygonal, growing as a monolayer and taking the appearance of epithelial cells. In this case contact inhibition was observed. The rate of progestin secretion was 250 pg per cell per day. As soon as luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP was removed from the media, the cells reverted to a fibroblastic appearance. Agents such as colcemid, vinblastin or cytochalasin B inhibited the morphological effect of luteinizing hormone or dibutyryl cyclic AMP. Since those agents are known to inhibit the assembly of microtubules, the data suggest that LH and dibutyryl cyclic AMP act by promoting the organization of microtubules from protein monomers. This microtubular system (cytoskeleton) is responsible for the morphological appearance of the cells. Concomitant with the morphological changes induced by luteinizing hormone and dibutyryl cyclic AMP an inhibition in the growth rate of luteal cells was observed. It suggests that by raising the intracellular level of cyclic AMP the luteinizing hormone inhibits the division of luteal cells and is not, for that reason, a mitogenic agent. A similar effect was obtained with other agents known to stimulate cyclic AMP production such asthe prostaglandins. Steroids such as glucocorticoids and testosterone but not progesterone also inhibited the growth rate. It is concluded that luteinizing hormone by controlling the level of cyclic AMP within the luteal cells is responsible for the expression of the phenotype of the cells and the maintenance of differentiation. PMID:163187

  5. Morphology Map of Bainites in 2% Si Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, H.; Oka, M.

    1995-01-01

    A metallographic study of isothermal transformation products formed at the early stage of transformation was made in silicon alloyed high-carbon steels (C wt%=0.6, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4) in the temperature range between 700 and 200 °C. Observations are summarized as a "morphology map" showing the formation temperature-carbon content fields of isothermal transformation products. In all steels investigated, the proeutectoid ferrite, upper bainite and lower bainite are formed at temperatures below t...

  6. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype=Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Mariclei de Castro da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate no. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneticamente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção.

  7. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thraves, P.; Salehi, Z.; Dritschilo, A.; Rhim, J. S.

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when...

  8. - Establishment of normal and transformed root cultures of Artemisia annua L. for artemisinin production.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaziri, M.; Shimomura, K.; Yoshimatsu, K.; Fauconnier, Marie-laure; Marlier, M.; Homes, J.

    1995-01-01

    Transformed cultures of Artemisia annua L. (Asteraceae) were established by the co-culture method using leaf segments of A. annua and Agrobacterium rhizogenes NCIB 8196 or MAFF 03-01724. The hairy root clones thus obtained grew vigorously on hormone-free medium, showing the typical transformed morphology. The genetic transformation of the root was proved by the opine assay. Normal root and shoot cultures were also established. A highly specific and sensitive enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay...

  9. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions. : lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

    The notion of home is a relational concept, which reflects the embedded sense of belonging to a certain space. Home is material and imagined and the concept embeds relationships between imagined ideals and specific physical spaces. Home is somewhere in particular; a place invested with meaning through lived experience and culturally defined practices. The analysis of home making processes in Maputo documents how this sense of belonging is created and the research focus on the relationship between the material, symbolic and imagined home. A house turns into a home through inhabitation which involves feelings of security (physical and legal), concepts of family and social networks, relation to neighbourhood and how objects and spaces are invested with symbolic meanings. The study argues that the Maputo peri-urban inhabitants are acting as the de facto city makers with limited, if any, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves.

  10. The activation of MEK-ERK1/2 by glutamate receptor-stimulation is involved in the regulation of RPE proliferation and morphologic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco-Domínguez, Reyna Lizette; Palma-Nicolas, J Prisco; López, Edith; López-Colomé, Ana María

    2008-02-01

    Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the main cell type involved in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). As a result from retinal detachment or surgical procedures, RPE comes in contact with glutamate from serum, glial release and the injured retina. The purpose of this study was to explore a possible role for glutamate in the development of PVR, mediated by the receptor-stimulated activation of the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway, the alteration of cell proliferation and the transdifferentiation of RPE cells, using rat RPE cells in culture as a model system. We demonstrated the expression in these cells of Group I metabotropic-and ionotropic AMPA/KA and NMDA glutamate receptors (GluRs), predominantly of the NMDA subtype, which are targeted to the membrane, and exhibit pharmacological and biochemical characteristics equivalent to those previously established in brain tissue. Proliferation was measured by MTS-reduction colorimetric assay, and actin cytoskeleton dynamics was visualized by immunoflurescence using alpha-sma specific antibodies. Activation of metabotropic, AMPA and NMDA receptors by glutamate induced the time-and dose-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2, assessed by Western blot analysis, in parallel to a significant increase in cell proliferation and a decrease in alpha-sma expression and its recruitment into stress fibers. These effects were all prevented by the inhibition of MEK. Hence, results suggest that glutamate could be involved in the generation of PVR, through a GluR-mediated increase in proliferation and phenotypic transformation, cause-effect related to the activation of ERK1/2. PMID:18061165

  11. The Transformations of Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Francis Y.

    2000-01-01

    Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

  12. Oncocytoma-like renal tumor with transformation toward high-grade oncocytic carcinoma: a unique case with morphologic, immunohistochemical, and genomic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirintrapun, Sahussapont J; Geisinger, Kim R; Cimic, Adela; Snow, Anthony; Hagenkord, Jill; Monzon, Federico; Legendre, Benjamin L; Ghazalpour, Anatole; Bender, Ryan P; Gatalica, Zoran

    2014-10-01

    Renal oncocytoma is a benign tumor with characteristic histologic findings. We describe an oncocytoma-like renal tumor with progression to high-grade oncocytic carcinoma and metastasis. A 74-year-old man with no family history of cancer presented with hematuria. Computed tomography showed an 11?cm heterogeneous multilobulated mass in the right kidney lower pole, enlarged aortocaval lymph nodes, and multiple lung nodules. In the nephrectomy specimen, approximately one third of the renal tumor histologically showed regions classic for benign oncocytoma transitioning to regions of high-grade carcinoma without sharp demarcation. With extensive genomic investigation using single nucleotide polymorphism-based array virtual karyotyping, multiregion sequencing, and expression array analysis, we were able to show a common lineage between the benign oncocytoma and high-grade oncocytic carcinoma regions in the tumor. We were also able to show karyotypic differences underlying this progression. The benign oncocytoma showed no chromosomal aberrations, whereas the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma showed loss of the 17p region housing FLCN (folliculin [Birt-Hogg-Dubé protein]), loss of 8p, and gain of 8q. Gene expression patterns supported dysregulation and activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and mechanistic target of rapamycin (serine/threonine kinase) (mTOR) pathways in the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma regions. This was partly attributable to FLCN underexpression but further accentuated by overexpression of numerous genes on 8q. In the high-grade oncocytic carcinoma region, vascular endothelial growth factor A along with metalloproteinases matrix metallopeptidase 9 and matrix metallopeptidase 12 were overexpressed, facilitating angiogenesis and invasiveness. Genetic molecular testing provided evidence for the development of an aggressive oncocytic carcinoma from an oncocytoma, leading to aggressive targeted treatment but eventual death 39 months after the diagnosis. PMID:25275525

  13. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  14. Acoustic Emission and Shape Memory Effect in the Martensitic Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekala, S

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic emission signals are known to exhibit a high degree of reproducibility in time and show correlations with the growth and shrinkage of martensite domains when athermal martensites are subjected to repeated thermal cycling in a restricted temperature range. We show that a recently introduced two dimensional model for the martensitic transformation mimics these features. We also show that these features are related to the shape-memory effect where near full reversal of morphological features are seen under these thermal cycling conditions.

  15. Two pairs of 1 : 2 nickel(II) and copper(II) metal-complex dyes showing the same trans configuration and azo-hydrazone transformation but different thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Yin-Ge; Tao, Tao; Geng, Jiao; Huang, Wei; Qian, Hui-Fen

    2013-06-01

    Two pairs of 1: 2 neutral trans mononuclear transition-metal (M = Ni(II) and Cu(II)) complexes of pyridine-2,4-dione and quinoline-2,4-dione based heterocyclic dyes have been structurally and spectrally characterized and compared herein. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses of four complexes, namely trans-[Ni(La)2(DMF)2] (1), trans-[Cu(La)2(DMF)2] (2), trans-[Ni(Lb)2(DMF)2] (3) and trans-[Cu(Lb)2(DMF)2] (4), reveal that they have the same trans configuration between the bidentate chelating dianionic ligands and two axially coordinated DMF molecules. Furthermore, a transformation from the hydrazone to azo configuration has been observed for both bidentate chelating ligands La(-) and Lb(-) after metal-ion complexation. More importantly, the simultaneous DSC/TG-MS-FTIR method has been used to explore the thermal stability of four neutral metal-complex dyes 1-4, where the two axially coordinated DMF molecules in Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibit distinguishable decomposition behavior because of their different M-O bond lengths originating from the Jahn-Teller distortions. PMID:23538669

  16. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

  17. Geometric Morphology of Granular Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Schlei, B R; Skourikhine, A N

    2000-01-01

    We present a new method to transform the spectral pixel information of a micrograph into an affine geometric description, which allows us to analyze the morphology of granular materials. We use spectral and pulse-coupled neural network based segmentation techniques to generate blobs, and a newly developed algorithm to extract dilated contours. A constrained Delaunay tesselation of the contour points results in a triangular mesh. This mesh is the basic ingredient of the Chodal Axis Transform, which provides a morphological decomposition of shapes. Such decomposition allows for grain separation and the efficient computation of the statistical features of granular materials.

  18. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  19. Generalized transforms and convolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Skoug

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

  20. Homemade Laser Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

  1. The Diane Rehm Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

  2. Galaxy Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2013-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass...

  3. Feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic image based on multiscale analysis and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shibin; Yu, Shaode; Yang, Yuhan; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm for feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic images is proposed in this paper. The approach bases on multiscale transform and mathematical morphology. First of all, the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid operator is applied to transform the mammography into different scale subband images. In addition, the detail or high frequency subimages are equalized by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) and low-pass subimages are processed by mathematical morphology. Finally, the enhanced image of feature and contrast is reconstructed from the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid coefficients modified at one or more levels by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and mathematical morphology, respectively. The enhanced image is processed by global nonlinear operator. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is effective for feature and contrast enhancement of mammogram. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm is measured by contrast evaluation criterion for image, signal-noise-ratio (SNR), and contrast improvement index (CII). PMID:24416072

  4. Demonstration Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  5. Showing What They Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  6. Blue Ribbon Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Judy Domeny

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

  7. A simple model for some unusual properties of martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2004-01-01

    We report a detailed numerical investigation of a recently introduced two dimensional model for square-to-rectangle martensitic transformation that explains several unusual features of the martensitic transformation. This model includes inertial effects, dissipation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains and an inhomogeneous stress field to describe the effect of lattice defects which serves as nucleation centers. Both single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation has been studied for single quench situation and thermal cycling. The final stage morphologies of single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation bear considerable similarity suggesting that the initial distribution of the defects is not important. Thermal cycling using continuous cooling and heating simulations show the existence of hysteresis in the transformation. More importantly, the rate of energy dissipated occurs in the forms of bursts with power law statistics for their amplitudes and durations which explains the result...

  8. Show-Me Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Show-Me Center is a partnership of four NSF-sponsored middle grades mathematics curriculum development Satellite Centers (University of Wisconsin, Michigan State University, University of Montana, and the Educational Development Center). The group's website provides "information and resources needed to support selection and implementation of standards-based middle grades mathematics curricula." The Video Showcase includes segments on Number, Algebra, Geometry, Measure, and Data Analysis, with information on ways to obtain the complete video set. The Curricula Showcase provides general information, unit goals, sample lessons and teacher pages spanning four projects: the Connected Mathematics Project (CMP), Mathematics in Context (MiC), MathScape: Seeing and Thinking Mathematically, and Middle Grades Math Thematics. The website also posts Show-Me Center newsletters, information on upcoming conferences and workshops, and links to resources including published articles and unpublished commentary on mathematics school reform.

  9. Show-Me Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

  10. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  11. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  12. Wavelet transform adaptive filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Laurence M.

    1994-10-01

    An LMS adaptive filtering algorithm is presented utilizing wavelet transforms. Its performance is compared to DCT and Walsh-Hadamard transform-based adaptive filtering. The experimental analysis is performed in the case of the system identification of an unknown system or filter for stationary input signals. The results show some improvement in the weight modelling of the filter with comparable convergence rates. A new performance criteria, the diagonality factor, is introduced in order to show the specific effect of the wavelet transform on a signal. A Mean Average Difference is also utilized to compare the weight modelling performance of the various transform-based LMS adaptive filterings studied in this paper.

  13. Egg: the Arts Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

  14. American History Picture Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ms. Bennion

    2009-11-23

    In class we read Katie's Picture Show, a book about a girl who discovers art first-hand one day at an art museum in London. She realizes she can climb into the paintings, explore her surroundings, and even solve problems for the subjects of the paintings. As part of our unit on American history, we are going to use art to further learn about some of the important events we have been discussing. Each of these works of art depicts an important event in American History. When you click on a picture, you will be able to see the name of the event as well as the artist who created it. You will be using all three pictures for this assignment.Use the websites ...

  15. Two-step synthesis of witherite and tuning of morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Jiqing; Liu, Xin; Gao, Wei; Wang, Chengwei; Feng, Huajie; Zhao, Xiaolan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Chen, Liuping, E-mail: cesclp@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2010-02-15

    Compared to conventional methods, a simple route is offered for synthesis of BaCO{sub 3} with CO{sub 2} and least energy consumption. And the morphology of BaCO{sub 3} was tuned by controlling reaction conditions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to characterize the products, the results showed that the products with various morphologies had the same crystal phase and growth direction. However, the distinct difference of the prepared products were determined by Raman and UV-vis spectra, showing shape-dependent optical properties. The results provide a useful model system for investigating the shape-dependent optical properties of carbonate nanocrystals.

  16. Two-step synthesis of witherite and tuning of morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compared to conventional methods, a simple route is offered for synthesis of BaCO3 with CO2 and least energy consumption. And the morphology of BaCO3 was tuned by controlling reaction conditions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to characterize the products, the results showed that the products with various morphologies had the same crystal phase and growth direction. However, the distinct difference of the prepared products were determined by Raman and UV-vis spectra, showing shape-dependent optical properties. The results provide a useful model system for investigating the shape-dependent optical properties of carbonate nanocrystals.

  17. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  18. Digital Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

  19. Solidification and the ?/? phase transformation of steels in relation to casting defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advanced steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast due to cracking and breakout problems in the continuous casting process especially at high casting speeds. In this study an attempt was made to obtain practical understanding of the solidification and the ??? phase transformation of various commercial steels using high-temperature laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Under rapid cooling conditions the transformation morphology showed a massive-type of transition rather than a classical diffusion-controlled transformation.

  20. Measure Transformed Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we derive a new framework for independent component analysis (ICA), called measure-transformed ICA (MTICA), that is based on applying a structured transform to the probability distribution of the observation vector, i.e., transformation of the probability measure defined on its observation space. By judicious choice of the transform we show that the separation matrix can be uniquely determined via diagonalization of several measure-transformed covariance matric...

  1. Biological properties of "partial" transformation mutants of Rous sarcoma virus and characterization of their pp60src kinase.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, D. D.; Beckmann, R. P.; Harms, E. H.; Nakamura, K.; Weber, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated mutants of Rous sarcoma virus from an unmutagenized stock of the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of Rous sarcoma virus. These mutants induce only a "partial" transformation, and the transformation properties induced show unusual properties or combinations. Cells infected with mutant CU2 have a unique "blebby" morphology, have lost surface fibronectin, form very small colonies in soft agar, and are nearly normal with respect to adhesiveness and hexose transport. Cells infected with muta...

  2. Transforming magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, F

    2014-01-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

  3. Conformal transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

    2015-01-01

    The field of transformation optics shows that media containing gradients in optical properties are equivalent to curved geometries of spacetime for the propagation of light. Conformal transformation optics -- a particular variant of this feature -- can be used to design devices with novel functionalities from inhomogeneous, isotropic dielectric media.

  4. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  5. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  6. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  7. Acoustic emission and shape memory effect in the martensitic transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G

    2003-04-01

    Acoustic emission signals are known to exhibit a high degree of reproducibility in time and show correlations with the growth and shrinkage of martensite domains when athermal martensites are subjected to repeated thermal cycling in a restricted temperature range. We show that a recently introduced two dimensional model for the martensitic transformation mimics these features. We also show that these features are related to the shape memory effect where near full reversal of morphological features are seen under these thermal cycling conditions. PMID:12689301

  8. THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiote...

  9. Cell transformation and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

  10. On Radon transforms on tori

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmavirta, Joonas

    2014-01-01

    We show injectivity of the X-ray transform and the $d$-plane Radon transform for distributions on the $n$-torus, lowering the regularity assumption in the recent work by Abouelaz and Rouvi\\`ere. We also show solenoidal injectivity of the X-ray transform on the $n$-torus for tensor fields of any order, allowing the tensors to have distribution valued coefficients. These imply new injectivity results for the periodic broken ray transform on cubes of any dimension.

  11. Transformation Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Stroud

    2010-09-01

    Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

  12. General ?-transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as ? transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy processes.

  13. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

  14. Isolation of mutants with aberrant mitochondrial morphology from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaoge; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

    2004-10-01

    To identify genes related to plant mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, novel mutants with respect to mitochondrial morphology were isolated from an ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS)-mutated population of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mitochondria were visualized by transforming Arabidopsis with a gene for a fusion protein consisting of GFP and a mitochondria-targeting pre-sequence. From 19,000 M2 populations, 17 mutants were isolated by fluorescent microscopic observations. All mitochondria in these mutants were longer and/or larger than wild-type mitochondria. The approximate chromosomal loci of the mutations of seven mutants that grew well were determined. The mitochondrial phenotypes of six of the mutants were recessive but the mitochondrial phenotype of the seventh mutant was dominant. Chromosomal rough mapping of the seven mutants showed that the mutations occurred at four different loci. At least one of these loci was novel, i.e., it was different from loci of other known mitochondrial morphology mutants of Arabidopsis and different from loci of Arabidopsis homologues of yeast genes related to mitochondrial morphology. PMID:15599060

  15. Hadamard Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

    2011-01-01

    The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

  16. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

  17. Hierarchical Mesoporous In2O3 with Enhanced CO Sensing and Photocatalytic Performance: Distinct Morphologies of In(OH)3 via Self Assembly Coupled in Situ Solid-Solid Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasundaram, Arunkumar; Basak, Pratyay; Manorama, Sunkara V; Krishna, Binoy; Sanyadanam, Srinath

    2015-04-15

    The present investigation details our interesting findings and insights into the evolution of exotic hierarchical superstructures of In(OH)3 under solvothermal conditions. Controlled variation of reaction parameters such as, reactant concentration, solvent system, crystal structure modifiers, water content along with temperature and time, yielded remarkable architectures. Diverse morphologies achieved for the first time includes (i) raspberry-like hollow spheres, (ii) nanosheet-assembled spheres, (iii) nanoparticle-assembled spheres, (iv) nanocube-assembled hollow spheres, (v) yolk-like spheres, (vi) solid spheres, (vii) nanosheets/flakes, and (viii) ultrafine nanosheets. A plausible mechanism is proposed based on the evidence gathered from a comprehensive analysis aided by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Key stages of morphological evolution could be discerned and rationally correlated with nucleation, growth, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening mediated by dissolution-redeposition mechanism coupled with solid evacuation. Remarkably phase-pure bcc-In2O3 with retention of precursor morphology could be realized postcalcination at 400 °C, which underlines the advantage of this strategy. Two typical hierarchical structures (raspberry-like hollow spheres and nanoparticles assembled spheres) were investigated for their gas sensing and photocatalytic performances to highlight the advantages offered by nanostructuring. An impressive sensor response, Smax ? 7340 and 4055, respectively for the two structures along with appreciably fast response/recovery times over a wide concentration range and as low as 1 ppm exhibits the superior sensitivity toward carbon monoxide (CO). When compared to commercial In2O3, estimated rate constant indicates ?3-4 times enhancement in photocatalytic activity of the substrates toward Rhodamine-B. PMID:25798883

  18. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

  19. In-situ studies of the martensitic transformation in epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Robert; Schultz, Ludwig; Faehler, Sebastian [IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Dresden University of Technology (Germany); Buschbeck, Joerg; Thomas, Michael [IFW Dresden (Germany); Heczko, Oleg [IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2009-07-01

    The martensitic transformation of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films on rigid substrates is examined with respect to changes of structure, microstructure, magnetic and electronic properties. For this, temperature dependent atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray, magnetization and resistivity measurements are used. The combination of these in-situ methods give a comprehensive understanding of the martensitic transformation and allows to identify differences of constrained epitaxial films compared to bulk. Experiments show the formation of a twinned, orthorhombic martensite with high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy from the austenite around room temperature. While most features are similar to a first order transformation, the transformation proceeds continuously to lower temperatures, an effect which could be explained by the constrain of the rigid substrate. The high-resolution AFM micrographs directly reveal how martensite variants grow and show the converging of variants from different nucleation origins. A crystallographic modell is presented which explains the regular, triangular morphology observed by AFM in the martensite state.

  20. Real Clifford Windowed Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi; Adji, Sriwulan; Zhao, Jiman

    2011-01-01

    We study the windowed Fourier transform in the framework of Clifford analysis, which we call the Clifford windowed Fourier transform (CWFT). Based on the spectral representation of the Clifford Fourier transform (CFT), we derive several important properties such as shift, modulation, reconstruction formula, orthogonality relation, isometry, and reproducing kernel. We also present an example to show the differences between the classical windowed Fourier transform (WFT) and the C...

  1. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, Sergei; Nefedov, Igor; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, ...

  2. Wavelet transforms versus Fourier transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Strang, Gilbert

    1993-01-01

    This note is a very basic introduction to wavelets. It starts with an orthogonal basis of piecewise constant functions, constructed by dilation and translation. The ``wavelet transform'' maps each $f(x)$ to its coefficients with respect to this basis. The mathematics is simple and the transform is fast (faster than the Fast Fourier Transform, which we briefly explain), but approximation by piecewise constants is poor. To improve this first wavelet, we are led to dilation equ...

  3. Transformational Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.; Hiles, John E.

    2006-01-01

    Transformational Events is a new pedagogic pattern that explains how innovations (and other transformations) happened. The pattern is three temporal stages: an interval of increasingly unsatisfactory ad hoc solutions to a persistent problem (the "mess"), an offer of an invention or of a new way of thinking, and a period of widespread adoption and…

  4. mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN A-lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

  5. El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

    1340-13-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

  6. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  7. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  8. Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation to myoepithelial carcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyris, Prokopios P; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Cayci, Zuzan; Singh, Charanjeet; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

    2013-03-01

    Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the lacrimal glands. Like its salivary gland counterpart, lacrimal AdCC can rarely undergo high-grade transformation ("dedifferentiation"). We herein report the clinical, radiographic and microscopic findings of a lacrimal gland AdCC with high grade transformation, occurring in a 39-year-old female patient. In contrast to salivary gland AdCC with high-grade transformation, which usually shows a high grade component with "ductal" differentiation, in the case presented, the "dedifferentiated" component showed morphologic and immunohistochemical features of myoepithelial differentiation. PMID:22829347

  9. Probing morphological changes in polymersomes with magnetic birefringence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikken, Roger S M; Kerkenaar, Harmen H M; Nolte, Roeland J M; Maan, Jan C; van Hest, Jan C M; Christianen, Peter C M; Wilson, Daniela A

    2014-05-25

    Magnetic birefringence was used for in situ monitoring of the morphological changes in diamagnetic polymersomes during shape-transformation by dialysis. The birefringence was found to be very sensitive to the polymersome morphology, as determined by electron microscopy. The deflation of polymersomes into disks was observed, followed by a bending and partial inflation into stomatocytes. PMID:24212531

  10. Galaxy Zoo: the dependence of morphology and colour on environment

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Sp; Nichol, Rc; Baldry, Ik; Land, K.; Lintott, Cj; Schawinski, K.; Slosar, A.; Szalay, As; Thomas, D.; Torki, M.; Andreescu, D.; Edmondson, Em; Miller, Cj; Murray, P.; Raddick, Mj

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for over 10 5 objects from Galaxy Zoo, the largest sample of visually classified morphologies yet compiled. We conclusively show that colour and morphology fractions are very different functions of environment. Both colour and morphology are sensitive to stellar mass. However, at fixed stellar mass, while colour is also highly sensitive to environment, morphology displays much weaker enviro...

  11. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  12. Ganglioneuroblastic Transformation in Olfactory Neuroblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Timothy; Plessis, Daniel Du; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sloan, Philip; Mcqueen, Andrew; Meikle, David; Kelly, Charles; Robinson, Max

    2011-01-01

    Ganglioneuroblastic transformation in olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an exceptionally rare phenomenon. We document the case of a patient with a poorly differentiated sinonasal malignancy that recurred following treatment with chemoradiotherapy and showed ganglioneuroblastic transformation. Although the index tumour showed neuroendocrine differentiation, it did not have the typical clinico-pathological features associated with ONB. We highlight the diagnostic difficulties in establishing an ...

  13. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  14. Geometric morphology of cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlei, B. R. (Bernd R.); Prasad, L. (Lakshaman); Skourikhine, A. N. (Alexei N.)

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate how to derive morphological information from micrographs, i.e., grey-level images, of polymeric foams. The segmentation of the images is performed by applying a pulse-coupled neural network. This processing generates blobs of the foams walls/struts and voids, respectively. The contours of the blobs and their corresponding points form the input to a constrained Delaunay tessellation, which provides an unstructured grid of the material under consideration. The subsequently applied Chordal Axis Transform captures the intrinsic shape characteristics, and facilitates the identification and localization of key morphological features. While stochastic features of the polymeric foams struts/walls such as areas, aspect ratios, etc., already can be computed at this stage, the foams voids require further geometric processing. The voids are separated into single foam cells. This shape manipulation leads to a refinement of the initial blob contours, which then requires the repeated application of the constrained Delaunay tessellation and Chordal Axis Transform, respectively. Using minimum enclosing rectangles for each foam cell, finally the stochastic features of the foam voids are computed.

  15. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

  17. Electron microscopic observations on the morphological and mineralogical changes in feldspar during the weathering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plagioclase feldspar in anorthositic rocks of Suryun area Korea, occurs predominantly as labradorite and show alteration into clay minerals under a distinct alteration sequence related to the degree of weathering. Under optical microscope, the feldspar shows that the alteration process was initiated by dissolution along microcracks, cleavage and twinning planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the morphological changes in feldspar during various stages of weathering. In the initial stage, selective etching has resulted in the formation of etch pits which on increased weathering have developed into stacks or sheaf structures. This on further weathering transformed into intermixed tubular and platy structures forming halloysite and kaolinite minerals respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also shows occurrence of tubular and platey shape minerals with variable dimensions. EPMA analysis and EDS patterns exhibit consistency with the morphological and mineralogical changes during alteration process of feldspar under weathering conditions. (author)

  18. Psychoanalytic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    The author describes how Bion took Freud's conception of dreams as a form of thought and used it as the basis of his theory of transformations. Bion developed an expanded theory of 'dream thought', understood as a process of selection and transformation of sensory and emotional experiences. In this theory, the work of analysis is in turn conceived as a process not only of deciphering symbols, of revealing already existing unconscious meanings, but also of symbol production--of a process for generating thoughts and conferring meaning on experiences that have never been conscious and never been repressed because they have never been 'thought'. Analysis, in its specific operational sense, becomes a system of transformation whereby unconscious somatopsychic processes acquire the conditions for representability and become capable of translation into thoughts, words and interpretations. The rules of transformation applied by the patient in his representations and those applied by the analyst in his interpretations have the same importance for the analytic process as those described by Freud for the process of dreaming. The author discusses the broad categories of transformation adduced by Bion (rigid motion, projective, and in hallucinosis) and introduces some further distinctions within them. PMID:18055372

  19. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  20. Morphology of partial globozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Anika H; Ramos, Liliana; Dijkman, Henry B; Woestenenk, Rob; Robben, Hannie; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kremer, Jan A

    2011-01-01

    Total globozoospermia is a rare sperm morphology disorder that consists of 100% round-headed, acrosomeless spermatozoa. There is also a larger group of patients whose sperm cells are partially acrosomeless. The aim of this investigation was to describe partial globozoospermia compared to total globozoospermia and normozoospermia. Ejaculates from 10 patients with more than 50% acrosomeless spermatozoa (partial globozoospermia), 3 patients with total globozoospermia, and 9 normozoospermic controls were analyzed with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Qualitative and quantitative examination of spermatozoa from the 3 groups shows differences in the percentage of round-headed sperm cells and acrosome malformation. Total globozoospermia presents as a homogenous kind of teratozoospermia. Partial globozoospermia is a distinctive sperm malformation with an increased proportion of round-headed sperm cells and acrosome malformations compared to normozoospermia, which exists separately from total globozoospermia. It thereby contains oval sperm cells that may have distinctive malformations of the sperm head matrix, but also morphologically normal sperm cells that may be used in a clinical setting. PMID:20864651

  1. Transformation Multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

  2. Morphology control of KDP crystallites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The actual crystal morphology is synergistically determined by atomic interactions between the crystal surface, growth units and additives in the mother solution. Our present results microscopically show that the ideal crystal morphology is greatly determined by intrinsic characteristics such as the bond number, direction and strength in the crystallographic frame, while ethanol molecules in the mother solution can intensively affect the crystal size and aspect ratio of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Some quantitative analyses concerning the addition of ethanol to the KDP solution are also described

  3. Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

  4. Computation of Hilbert Transform via Discrete Cosine Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Olkkonen; Peitsa Pesola; Olkkonen, Juuso T.

    2010-01-01

    Hilbert transform (HT) is an important tool in constructing analytic signals for various purposes, such as envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, amplitude modulation, shift invariant wavelet analysis and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. In this work we introduce a method for computation of HT based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT). We show that the Hilbert transformed signal can be obtained by replacing the cosine kernel in inverse DCT by the sine kernel. We describe a FFT-based me...

  5. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  6. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-11-01

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

  7. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navacchi Oriano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

  8. SWAP-70 is important for invasive phenotypes of mouse embryo fibroblasts transformed by v-Src.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Avaniyapuram Kannan; Ihara, Sayoko; Tokuda, Emi; Uematsu, Kimio; Tsuchida, Nobuo; Fukui, Yasuhisa

    2008-04-01

    SWAP-70 is a protein involved in actin rearrangement, especially in membrane ruffling. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in SWAP-70 show impaired membrane ruffling and fail to grow in soft agar after transformation by v-Src. Here, we show that v-Src transformed MEFs expressing SWAP-70 are highly invasive. MEFs expressing SWAP-70 or v-Src alone were far less invasive, suggesting that both proteins were required for the cells to be invasive. Expression of both SWAP-70 and v-Src induced constant membrane ruffling, which may cause vigorous cell movement, probably required for invasiveness of the cells. Expression of v-Src alone morphologically transformed MEFs but formed lamellipodia rather than membrane ruffles, suggesting less aggressive nature of the cells compared with those expressing both SWAP-70 and v-Src. These results suggest that v-Src and SWAP-70 act synergistically in the invasion activity of MEFs. PMID:18344189

  9. The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

  10. Double contours and craniofacial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Hanada, Kooji; Hayashi, Takafumi

    2005-04-01

    This study was done to try to clarify the relationship between double contours and craniofacial morphology. The study sample included 56 pre-orthodontic patients with signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. A comparison of craniofacial structures was done on 32 subjects with bilateral condylar bone change (BBC group: 28 female and 4 male) and 24 subjects with no condylar bone change (NBC group: 21 female and 3 male). The BBC showed significantly greater antegonial and ramus notch depths, as well as significantly more retruded mandibles, shorter ramus heights, and larger mandibular plane angles than the NBC. BBC subjects with bilateral double contours showed significantly more retruded mandibles, larger antegonial notch depth, and shorter lengths from the Sella to the Articulare than BBC subjects with no double contours. The study showed that important relationships exist between the presence of double contours and mandibular morphology and TMJ position. PMID:15898571

  11. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  12. Effect of silk sericin on morphology and structure of calcium carbonate crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui-Bo; Han, Hua-Feng; Ding, Shao; Li, Ze-Hao; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, silk sericin was employed to regulate the mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 composite particles were prepared by the precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride solution in the presence of silk sericin. The as-prepared samples were collected at different reaction time to study the crystallization process of CaCO3 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that silk sericin significantly affected the morphology and crystallographic polymorph of CaCO3. With increasing the reaction time, the crystal phase of CaCO3 transferred from calcite dominated to vaterite dominated mixtures, while the morphology of CaCO3 changed from disk-like calcite crystal to spherical vaterite crystal. These studies showed the potential of silk sericin used as a template molecule to control the growth of inorganic crystal.

  13. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  14. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  15. Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as formability and strength. However, the difficulty of predicting the material behaviour is one of the major drawbacks of these steels. In order to model this behaviour it is of great importance to be able to characterize the morphology, crystallography and the amount of different types of martensite. The...

  16. Transformation of lakes in mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Marek

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

  17. Transformation of lakes in mires

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis?aw Marek

    1992-01-01

    It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

  18. Generalized Fourier-Mukai Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Maciocia, Antony

    1997-01-01

    The paper sets out a generalized framework for Fourier-Mukai transforms and illustrates their use via vector bundle transforms. A Fourier-Mukai transform is, roughly, an isomorphism of derived categories of (sheaves) on smooth varieties X and Y. We show that these can only exist if the first Chern class of the varieties vanishes and, in the case of vector bundle transforms, will exist if and only if there is a bi-universal bundle on XxY which is "strongly simple" in a suitab...

  19. Ganglioneuroblastic transformation in olfactory neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy; Plessis, Daniel Du; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sloan, Philip; McQueen, Andrew; Meikle, David; Kelly, Charles; Robinson, Max

    2012-03-01

    Ganglioneuroblastic transformation in olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an exceptionally rare phenomenon. We document the case of a patient with a poorly differentiated sinonasal malignancy that recurred following treatment with chemoradiotherapy and showed ganglioneuroblastic transformation. Although the index tumour showed neuroendocrine differentiation, it did not have the typical clinico-pathological features associated with ONB. We highlight the diagnostic difficulties in establishing an accurate diagnosis for undifferentiated sinonasal tumours and present evidence that the index tumour was an ONB. The current report is only the third case of ONB showing complete ganglioneuroblastic transformation. PMID:21915707

  20. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Pereira Bueno, Millan.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  1. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  2. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  3. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  4. Nonlocal transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2011-01-01

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects, and provide a physically-incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equi-frequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  5. Transformational plasmon optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongmin; Zentgraf, Thomas; Bartal, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate efficiently molding surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) based on transformation optics. SPPs are surface modes of electromagnetic waves tightly bound at metal-dielectric interfaces, which allow us to scale optics beyond the diffraction limit. Taking advantage of transformation optics, here we show that the propagation of SPPs can be manipulated in a prescribed manner by careful control of the dielectric material properties adjacent to a metal. Since the metal properties are completely unaltered, this methodology provides a practical way for routing light at very small scales. For instance, our approach enables SPPs to travel at uneven and curved surfaces over a broad wavelength range, where SPPs would normally suffer significant scattering losses. In addition, a plasmonic 180 degrees waveguide bend and a plasmonic Luneburg lens with simple designs are presented. The unique design flexibility of the transformational plasmon optics introduced here may open a new door to nano optics and downscaling of photonic circuits. PMID:20465268

  6. Transformational Plasmon Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yongmin; Barta, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

    2010-01-01

    Transformation optics has recently attracted extensive interest, since it provides a novel design methodology for manipulating light at will. Although transformation optics in principle embraces all forms of electromagnetic phenomena on all length scales, so far, much less efforts have been devoted to near-field optical waves, such as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to the tight confinement and strong field enhancement, SPPs are widely used for various purposes at the subwavelength scale. Taking advantage of transformation optics, here we demonstrate that the confinement as well as propagation of SPPs can be managed in a prescribed manner by careful control of the dielectric material properties adjacent to a metal. Since the metal properties are completely unaltered, it provides a straightforward way for practical realizations. We show that our approach can assist to tightly bound SPPs over a broad wavelength band at uneven and curved surfaces, where SPPs would normally suffer significant scattering lo...

  7. Morphological effect on the mechanical behavior of a two-phase Ti3Al-Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study has been made on the deformation and fracture behavior of a two-phase (?2 + ?) Ti3Al-Nb alloy, with particular emphasis on the effect of morphologies. The coarse colony structure obtained by continuously annealing in the two-phase region directly from the ? region results in poor elongation ductility. The fine colony structure obtained by two-phase annealing the ?-quenched specimen also results in poor elongation ductility. However, upon obtaining fine equiaxed or basket-weave structures by following different transformation paths, improvements occur in elongation ductility without any sacrifice in strength. For the fine equiaxed structure, maximum elongation is obtained at the intermediate volume fraction of ?2 while for the basket-weave structure, an increase in the volume fraction of ?2 increases the elongation. Detailed fracture analysis shows that different fracture mechanisms operate for different morphologies, and the critical microstructural unit for arresting fracture also varies, depending on the morphologies

  8. Multiscale top-hat selection transform based infrared and visual image fusion with emphasis on extracting regions of interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiangzhi; Chen, Xiaowu; Zhou, Fugen; Liu, Zhaoying; Xue, Bindang

    2013-09-01

    To effectively combine regions of interest in original infrared and visual images, an adaptively weighted infrared and visual image fusion algorithm is developed based on the multiscale top-hat selection transform. First, the multiscale top-hat selection transform using multiscale structuring elements with increasing sizes is discussed. Second, the image regions of the original infrared and visual images at each scale are extracted by using the multiscale top-hat selection transform. Third, the final fusion regions are constructed from the extracted multiscale image regions. Finally, the final fusion regions are combined into a base image calculated from the original images to form the final fusion result. The combination of the final fusion regions uses the adaptive weight strategy, and the weights are adaptively obtained based on the importance of the extracted features. In the paper, we compare seven image fusion methods: wavelet pyramid algorithm (WP), shift invariant discrete wavelet transform algorithm (SIDWT), Laplacian pyramid algorithm (LP), morphological pyramid algorithm (MP), multiscale morphology based algorithm (MSM), center-surround top-hat transform based algorithm (CSTHT), and the proposed multiscale top-hat selection transform based algorithm. These seven methods are compared over five different publicly available image sets using three metrics of spatial frequency, mean gradient, and Q. The results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and may be useful for the applications related to the infrared and visual image fusion.

  9. EHV transmission line protection using a morphological lifting scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Z.; Ji, T.Y.; Wu, Q.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a novel algorithm for ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection relays of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines, using a morphological lifting scheme (MLS). The MLS focuses on identifying the gradient of the wavefront of a traveling wave contaminated by noise. The proposed algorithm can be used for either transient positional or directional protection. It is evaluated through a variety of simulation studies which are carried out on a typical 400 kV EHV transmission system model using the power simulation program PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show that, with the MLS used, the algorithm is capable of providing accurate responses under various fault conditions in comparison with previous algorithms, such as wavelet transform (WT). (author)

  10. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  11. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  12. Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makeev, Maxim A. E-mail: makeev@baton.phys.lsu.edu; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2002-12-01

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally.

  13. Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental supportn detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally

  14. Morphological control of polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane (PODS) was prepared by coating glass substrates with liquid ocatdecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) followed by dipping-in a solvent. The morphology control of PODS was investigated by the post curing temperature as well as the use of different solvents. The resulting substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, and wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It is shown that both post curing temperature and extracting solvents affect the morphology of PODS. The temperature dependent morphology was investigated and is ascribed to the physiochemical properties of PODS. For the solvent-dependent morphology, it is proposed that the solvation capability of a solvent to OTS and the presence of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface are critical in the PODS morphology. This paper shows the controlling parameter and possible explanation in the crystallinity and wettability of PODS films, which may be useful to other silane-based systems.

  15. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  16. Computation of Hilbert Transform via Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert transform (HT is an important tool in constructing analytic signals for various purposes, such as envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, amplitude modulation, shift invariant wavelet analysis and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. In this work we introduce a method for computation of HT based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT. We show that the Hilbert transformed signal can be obtained by replacing the cosine kernel in inverse DCT by the sine kernel. We describe a FFT-based method for the computation of HT and the analytic signal. We show the usefulness of the proposed method in mechanical vibration and ultrasonic echo and transmission measurements.

  17. Relations between Haar and Walsh/Hadamard transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, B. J.

    1972-01-01

    Relations between the Haar and Walsh/Hadamard (W/H) transforms, which are proved, show that for some applications the Haar transform performs as well as, and faster than, the W/H transform. These relations yield a family of orthogonal transforms including the Haar and W/H transforms with a common fast algorithm.

  18. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  19. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  20. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

  1. Phase transformations in nickel sulphide: Microstructures and mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousfi, Oussama, E-mail: Yousfi_Oussama@yahoo.fr [SIMAP (Science et ingenierie des materiaux et procedes), UMR CNRS, Grenoble-INP, UJF Domaine Universitaire, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Donnadieu, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.donnadieu@simap.grenoble-inp.fr [SIMAP (Science et ingenierie des materiaux et procedes), UMR CNRS, Grenoble-INP, UJF Domaine Universitaire, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Brechet, Yves [SIMAP (Science et ingenierie des materiaux et procedes), UMR CNRS, Grenoble-INP, UJF Domaine Universitaire, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Robaut, Florence; Charlot, Frederic [CMTC, Grenoble-INP, Domaine Universitaire, BP 75, 1130 rue de la Piscine, 38402 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Kasper, Andreas [HRDC, SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS Deutschland Gmbh, Herzogenrath Research and Development Center, Glasstrasse 1, D-52134 Herzogenrath (Germany); Serruys, Francis [CRDC, SAINT-GOBAIN GLASS France, Chantereine Research and Development Center, BP 31-60150 Thourotte (France)

    2010-05-15

    Nickel sulphide inclusions are known to be responsible for delayed fracture in tempered glasses due to phase transformation within the inclusion. Microstructural identification of the phase transformation mechanisms in the Ni-S system close to the NiS composition were carried out on a series of partially transformed states. Observations allow to investigate the morphological evolution during transformation, the phase orientation relationships and the first stages of the transformation were investigated by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation mechanisms change significantly with the change in sulphur content of the {alpha}-NiS phase. Massive transformation is observed for near-stoichiometric composition. For overstoichiometric composition, the transformation is controlled by a long-range diffusion mechanism. The influence of stoichiometry and impurities (Fe) on the microstructural evolution and transformation mechanisms has also been studied.

  2. Reversible transform coding of images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Kunitoshi; Sezaki, Kaoru

    1996-02-01

    Though reversible predictive coding and reversible subband coding exist already as reversible coding of gray-level still images, reversible method has almost not been proposed against transform coding. Therefore, in this paper, we propose some reversible transform coding methods. In case that we use conventional transform coding as it is, we have to make the number of levels of the transform coefficient very large in order to reconstruct the input signal with no distortion. Therefore, we propose transform codings that have reversibility whereas the number of levels of the transform coefficient are not very large. We propose reversible coding methods that correspond to the discrete Walsh-Hadamard, Haar, and cosine transform. Furthermore, we propose a method that uses the difference of the n-th order, a method of which the number of levels of the transform coefficient is the same as that of the input signal, and a reversible overlap transform coding method. Simulation shows that the compression efficiency of the proposed method is almost the same as that of predictive coding.

  3. Forestry transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    State forestry company Lesy, s.p., Banska Bystrica have chosen Austrian state forestry company to operate as their restructuring advisor. 20 million Sk (0.142 mn Euro) were assigned to transformation of Lesy SR from a state enterprise to a state-owned joint-stock company. The whole process should take two years. The joint-stock company should be established at the beginning of next year. 'What we have to do first is to define the objectives and perspectives of this restructuring,' claims new director, Karol Vins. The new boss recalled all directors of the 26 branches. They were given a lot of freedom to trade with wood. The new management wants to establish a profit-making company. At the moment the company has total claims of 600 million Sk (14.59 million Eur) it will have to provision for

  4. Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

  5. Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

  6. Optoelectronic hit/miss transform for screening cervical smear slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanswamy, R.; Turner, R. M.; McKnight, D. J.; Johnson, K. M.; Sharpe, J. P.

    1995-06-01

    An optoelectronic morphological processor for detecting regions of interest (abnormal cells) on a cervical smear slide using the hit/miss transform is presented. Computer simulation of the algorithm tested on 184 Pap-smear images provided 95% detection and 5% false alarm. An optoelectronic implementation of the hit/miss transform is presented, along with preliminary experimental results.

  7. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

  8. Morphology of Ion-Sputtered Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Makeev, M A; Barabási, A L; Makeev, Maxim; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barab\\'asi, Albert-L\\'aszl\\'o

    2002-01-01

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum theory to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect, and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear te...

  9. Morphology of polycrystalline cassiterite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaev, V. V.; Glazov, A. I.

    2014-09-01

    Polycrystalline cassiterite films have been grown by the hydropyrolytic method from a 10(H2O) + 5(SnCl2 · 2H2O) solution (in weight fractions) on corundum substrates. The crystallization regularities are considered and a comparative analysis of the properties of natural and artificial cassiterite crystals is performed. The surface morphology is investigated and the size of crystalline grains is determined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that all films contain tin and oxygen atoms in a ratio corresponding (within the experimental error) to the chemical formula of tin dioxide. It is established that the surface morphology of cassiterite films is characterized by both single crystallites and aggregates of two or more crystals typical of twins. It is suggest that doping can efficiently be used to control the concentration of twins and the stability of their formation.

  10. Uniqueness for the continuous wavelet transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bui, H. -q; Laugesen, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Injectivity of the continuous wavelet transform acting on a square integrable signal is proved under weak conditions on the Fourier transform of the wavelet, namely that it is nonzero somewhere in almost every direction. For a bounded signal (not necessarily square integrable), we show that if the continuous wavelet transform vanishes identically, then the signal must be constant.

  11. A completely covariant approach to transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

  12. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  13. Morphological evolution of domains in spinodal decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datt, Charu; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Govindarajan, Rama

    2015-01-01

    Domain growth in spinodal decomposition is usually described by a single time-evolving length scale. We show that the evolution of morphology of domains is nonmonotonic. The domains elongate rapidly at first and then, with the help of hydrodynamics, return to a more circular shape. The initial elongation phase does not alter with hydrodynamics. A small deviation from critical composition changes the morphology dramatically.

  14. Effect of rapid cooling on polymorphous transformations in pure metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of cooling rate on polymorphous transformations in titanium, zirconium, iron and cobalt is experimentally studied. In group 5 of polymorphous metals (titanium, zirconium, iron, cobalt) a stepped dependence of the starting temperature of polymorphous transformation on cooling rate is detected. In the case of titanium, zirconium and cobalt to each stage its proper morphology of transformation products corresponds. Experimental data for the metals are in a correspondence with kinetic theory of polymorphous transformations. Stepped kinetics of the polymorphous transformation in iron is partially conditioned by the braking of interface with interstitials which is necessary to take into account when further developing the theory

  15. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

  16. Refiner auto transformer motor start

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stout, J.; Bogh, D.

    1998-06-01

    Issues involved in the multiple failures of auto-transformers installed by F inlay Forest Limited on 20,000 hp, 13.8 kV refiners in 1995, are discussed. Reasons for auto-transformer starting are reviewed, and design consideration for medium voltage auto-transformer starting are addressed within the context of the Finlay experience. Results indicated that in all four failures, the high voltages that developed on the neutral connection of the auto-transformer were due to improper surge protection. Measurements subsequent to installation of capacitors and arresters showed that the neutral voltages have been brought under control. The Finlay experience indicates that auto-transformers can be a safe and reliable method of motor starting, provided that they are properly installed.

  17. WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Courbebaisse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

  18. Detection of myocardial ischemia episode using morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yu; Yu, Sung-Nien; Lin, Jou-Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we propose to use morphological features that are easy to identify to differentiate myocardial ischemic beats from normal beats. In general, myocardial ischemia causes alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) signal such as deviation in the ST segment. When the ST segment level deviates from a certain voltage, the beat would be diagnosing as myocardial ischemia. To emphasize on ST variations, the QRS complex of the ECG signal was first subtracted and replaced with a straight line. Five-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed to decompose the waveform into subband components and the A5 subband, which is most sensitive to the changes in the ST segment, was reconstructed for the calculation of 12 morphological features. The support vector machine (SVM) and the 10-fold cross-validation method were employed to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show high values of 95.20%, 93.29%, and, 93.63% in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, that were demonstrated to outperform the other methods in the literature. PMID:24111439

  19. Altered morphology of vegetative amoebae induced by increased expression of the Dictyostelium discoideum ras-related gene rap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebstein, P J; Weeks, G; Spiegelman, G B

    1993-01-01

    The rap1 gene of Dictyostelium discoideum is a member of the ras-gene superfamily of low molecular weight GTPase proteins. The rap1 gene is expressed both during growth and development in D. discoideum. To examine the action of the Rap1 protein in D. discoideum, the rap1 cDNA was expressed under the control of the inducible discoidin promoter. Treatment with conditioned media, which induces the discoidin promoter, increased Rap1 protein levels in vegetative cells approximately six fold. Overexpression of the Rap1 protein correlated with the appearance of morphologically aberrant vegetative amoebae: cells were extensively spread and flattened. The distribution of F-actin was altered in these cells, with an increase in actin staining around the cell periphery. Induction of the discoidin promoter by starvation in the rap1 transformants also resulted in spread flat cells. When starved D. discoideum amoebae are refed with HL5 media, the cells rapidly respond by rounding up. By contrast, the rap1 transformant cells showed a pronounced delay in rounding up. Rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of a p45 protein occurred in both control cells and the rap1 transformant upon refeeding, implying that the signal transduction pathway leading to tyrosine phosphorylation remained functional in the rap1 transformant. We propose that the Rap1 protein functions in the regulation of cell morphology in D. discoideum. PMID:7507418

  20. Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

  1. Hilbert transform assisted complex wavelet transform for neuroelectric signal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkkonen, Hannu; Pesola, Peitsa; Olkkonen, Juuso; Zhou, Hui

    2006-03-15

    In this work, we present a new approach for shift invariant complex wavelet analysis of neuroelectric signals. A key idea is to preprocess the signal with the Hilbert transformer to yield an analytic signal, which is then wavelet transformed using the linear phase complex scaling and wavelet filters. In different scales, the total energy of the wavelet transform coefficients is shift invariant. The decimated analytic wavelet coefficients suffer no aliasing effects, which are predominant in conventional wavelet analysis. We show the usefulness of the present method in multi-scale analysis of the neuroelectric signal waveforms. PMID:16143401

  2. Self-assembly in an evaporating nanofluid droplet: rapid transformation of nanorods into 3D fibre network structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Chen, L X; Zeng, X Q; Ren, T H; Briscoe, Wuge H

    2014-08-01

    Upon evaporation, ZnO nanorods in a nanofluid droplet undergo rapid and spontaneous chemical and morphological transformation into centimetre-long Zn(OH)2 fibres, via a mechanism very different from that for coffee rings. We show that the detailed nanostructure and micromorphology in the residual thin film depend intricately on the ambient moisture, nanofluid solvent composition and substrate surface chemistry. Upon thermal annealing, these Zn(OH)2 fibres readily undergo further chemical and morphological transformation, forming nanoporous fibres with the pore size tuneable by temperature. Our results point to a simple route for generating a self-assembled 3D structure with ultralong and nanoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 fibres/belts, and may also be of interest to the fields of evaporation controlled dynamic self-assembly, non-equilibrium crystallisation, and flow and fingering instabilities in nanofluids. PMID:24946161

  3. Other Infrared (IR) Transform Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1981-10-01

    Profiting from the example of Fourier transform spectroscopy, a number of possible other transform spectroscopies, such as Hadamard, Walsh, and Laplace transforms, have been investigated. A number of other transforms show spectroscopic promise in the IR. (1) CHIRP. Here a tunable laser is coupled via a beamsplitter to a spatially extended sample and a heterodyne detector. The audio frequency output of the latter after chirp transformation yields a range resolved signal useful for remote measurements or nonuniform sample measurements. (2) KRAMERS-KRONIG. This transform, for which a simplified fast calculating procedure has evolved in the Fourier domain, interconverts refraction and absorption spectra. Refractive index spectra offer advantages for tunable laser work, can be used for absorption spectrum correction, and can be conveniently obtained by asymmetric FT-IR. (3) ABSORBANCE NONLINEARITY. Particle size or shape, thickness, or concentration distributions within an inhomogeneous sample can be calculated from line shape distortions produced by the energy nonlinearity of the absorption process. Other transforms of potential ability, such as the Hankel, the equiabsorbance, and two dimensional Fourier transforms, will be briefly mentioned.

  4. Stress sensitivity of stylolite morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Marcus; Koehn, Daniel; Toussaint, Renaud; Renard, François; Schmittbuhl, Jean

    2009-01-01

    Stylolites are rough surfaces that form by localized stress-induced dissolution. Using a set of limestone rock samples collected at different depths from a vertical section in Cirque de Navacelles (France), we study the influence of the lithostatic stress on the stylolites morphology on the basis of a recent morphogenesis model. We measured the roughness of a series of bedding-parallel stylolites and show that their morphology exhibits a scaling invariance with two self-affine scaling regimes separated by a crossover-length ( L) at the millimeter scale consistent with previous studies. The importance of the present contribution is to estimate the stylolite formation stress ? from the sample position in the stratigraphic series and compare it to the crossover-length L using the expected relationship: L ˜ ?-2. We obtained a successful prediction of the crossover behavior and reasonable absolute stress magnitude estimates using relevant parameters: depth of stylolite formation between 300 to 600 m with corresponding normal stress in the range of 10-18 MPa. Accordingly, the stylolite morphology contains a signature of the stress field during formation and we thus suggest that stylolites could be used as paleo-stress gauges of deformation processes in the upper crust.

  5. Liquid Metal Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  6. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povi?, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of ?z/z classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Povi? et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  7. Effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via a hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with different morphologies were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in oleic acid, ethanol and water reaction system, and the surfactant assisted modifications effect was also comparatively studied. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of HA nanorods were discussed in detail. The results showed that the controlled experimental conditions in the systems, such as the content ratio of oleic acid/ethanol, pH value and the content ratio of Ca/P source had an significant effect on the morphology evolution of as-prepared HA nanorods. Further, the selected surfactant additives, such as cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12) also play an important role in the formation of the uniform morphology of HA nanorods. Some possible formation mechanisms of the HA nanorods in the present reaction systems is proposed.

  8. Morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to inorganogel and its effect on the properties of alumina particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-mediated sol-gel process was developed to synthesize the alumina hydoxide whiskers. During the process, inexpensive inorganic salts were used as precursors and supercritical drying method was used to extract the water in hydrogel. The influences of CMC on the gel formation and the particle morphology were investigated. The results show that the formation of CMC-aluminium hydroxide organic-inorganic hybridgels led to a morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to aluminium hydroxide gel, as a result, the precursor with whiskerious morphology was obtained. Such specific morphology of the precursor delayed phase transformation from transition- to ?-alumina greatly, and the ability resistant to sintering was highly enhanced. At presence of CMC, the acicular alumina calcined at 1200 deg. C for 4 h had surface area of 79.6 m2 g-1, much higher than the spherical sample (50 m2 g-1) without CMC. Because of being straightforward, inexpensive and versatile, the approach could be potentially used to prepare other materials with controllable morphologies and might be potentially extended to mass-production

  9. Transition and stability of copolymer adsorption morphologies on the surface of carbon nanotubes and implications on their dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, Asghar Habibnejad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Simon, George P; Williams, Tim; Zhao, Xiao Ling; Stroeve, Pieter; Duan, Wen Hui

    2014-08-26

    In this study, the adsorption morphologies as well as stability and transitions of a commercial dispersant copolymer (BYK 9076) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied using Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy techniques. The results show that the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in ethanol does not increase continuously with increasing copolymer/CNT ratio, which is correlated with the adsorption morphologies of the copolymer on the CNT surface. At a ratio of copolymer/CNT below 0.5, the morphology is random, shifting to a hemimicelle structure at a ratio from 0.5 to 1.0 while at ratios above 1.0, a cylindrical pattern is seen. The hemimicelle morphology is able to prevent the agglomeration of CNTs when the CNT concentration increases to 8.7 mg/mL, while cylindrical morphology is more efficient and stable to provide dispersion of CNTs at higher concentrations of CNTs. PMID:25079653

  10. Morphology and thermodynamic properties of a copolymer with an electronically conducting block: poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Beers, Keith M; Pople, John A; Ho, Victor; Segalman, Rachel A; Balsara, Nitash P

    2012-09-12

    We report on the synthesis and morphology of a block copolymer, poly(3-(2'-ethylhexyl)thiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3EHT-b-PEO), that conducts both electrons and ions. We show that in the melt state the P3EHT-b-PEO chains self-assemble to produce traditional nanoscale morphologies such as lamellae and gyroid. This is in contrast to a majority of previous studies on copolymers with electronically conducting blocks wherein a nanofibrillar morphology is obtained. Our approach enables estimation of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?. The segregation strength between the two blocks is controlled through the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). For the salt-free sample, the gyroid morphology, obtained in the melt state, is transformed into lamellae below the melting temperature of the P3EHT block. This is due to the "breaking out" of the crystalline phase. For the salt-containing sample, P3EHT-b-PEO has a lamellar morphology in both melt and crystalline states (confined crystallization). PMID:22839306

  11. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  12. Large symmetric ? transformations for Hadamard transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many multiplexing instruments utilize the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) to demultiplex the signal. In the past, the HFT includes the ?1 and ?2 transformations to reorder vectors before and after a Sylvester-type Hadamard transform. Although the computational effort involved in the ?1 and the Sylvester-type Hadamard transform scales as n log2n, calculating the ?2 transformation (which only has to be done once) scales as n2. Recently Gunson (1980) has suggested a method by which the ? transformations are symmetric, that is ?2 = ?1. We have calculated a complete set of symmetric ? transformations for FHT of sizes 23 to 230. Special emphasis has been placed on the phase of the ? transformation so as to have the correct phase in the demultiplexed signal

  13. Instrument transformers - Part 1: Current transformers

    CERN Document Server

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Applies to newly manufactured current transformers for use with electrical measuring instruments and electrical protective devices at frequencies from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Applies basically to transformers with separate windings, but also to autotransformers.

  14. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase the productivity in industrial processes. Because of the predictable behavior fungal morphology showed in dependence of osmolality, a customization of morphology for process needs seems feasible.

  15. Platelet morphology analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latger-Cannard, Véronique; Fenneteau, Odile; Salignac, Sylvain; Lecompte, Thomas Pierre; Schlegel, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are very small blood cells (1.5-3 ?m), which play a major role in primary haemostasis and in coagulation mechanisms. Platelet characterization requires their counting (see Chapter 15 ) associated with accurate morphology analysis. We describe the major steps in order to correctly obtain stained blood films, which can be analyzed by optical microscope. Platelet morphology abnormalities are found in acquired malignant hematological diseases such myeloproliferative or myelodysplastic syndromes and acute megakaryoblastic leukemia. A careful analysis of the platelet size and morphology, by detecting either normal platelets with or without excessive anisocytosis, microplatelets, or large/giant platelets, will contribute to inherited thrombocytopenia diagnosis and gather substantial data when looking for an acquired platelet disorders. PMID:23546716

  16. Feature and Contrast Enhancement of Mammographic Image Based on Multiscale Analysis and Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Shibin Wu; Shaode Yu; Yuhan Yang; Yaoqin Xie

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm for feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic images is proposed in this paper. The approach bases on multiscale transform and mathematical morphology. First of all, the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid operator is applied to transform the mammography into different scale subband images. In addition, the detail or high frequency subimages are equalized by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) and low-pass subimages are processed by mathematical morphology. ...

  17. The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ali Al-Zuky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

  18. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; MØller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

  19. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  20. Transformation of the Zagreb urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ili?

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

  1. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  2. Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Hur

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

  3. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

  4. Approximate quantum Fourier transform and decoherence.

    OpenAIRE

    Barenco, A.; Ekert, A.; Suominen, Ka; To?rma?, P.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the advantages of using the approximate quantum Fourier transform (AQFT) in algorithms which involve periodicity estimations. We analyse quantum networks performing AQFT in the presence of decoherence and show that extensive approximations can be made before the accuracy of AQFT (as compared with regular quantum Fourier transform) is compromised. We show that for some computations an approximation may imply a better performance.

  5. Mastocytosis: immunophenotypical features of the transformed mast cells are unique among hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, Hans-Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Valent, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis is a disease of bone marrow origin histologically characterized by compact tissue infiltrates of atypical mast cells never seen in reactive states. Most patients with mastocytosis have transformed mast cells carrying an activating point mutation at codon 816 of KIT and also show an elevated serum tryptase level. In this article immunophenotypical features of mast cells are described. Based on these features, mast cells are not closely related to other myeloid cells. Using the knowledge on aberrantly expressed antigens by mast cells, the hematopathologist should be able to recognize the disease even in the presence of unusual morphologic findings or an associated hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease. PMID:24745676

  6. Transformation Plasticity and Toughening

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, G.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the dynamic evolution of multilevel structure during martensitic transformations provides kinetics-based constitutive relations for transformation plasticity. Application in numerical modeling of ductile fracture by microvoid-softening-induced shear localization, in conjunction wilh metallographic study of crack-tip processes, identifies transformation toughening mechanisms operating on three structural length scales. Dispersed-phase transformation toughening in ultrahigh-strength...

  7. On Hurwitz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R4 ? R3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R8 ? R5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

  8. Fungal transformation and schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Thiago S; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; dos Santos, Raquel A; Furtado, Niege A J C; Arakawa, Nilton S; Said, Suraia; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R; Gregório, Luiz E; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Ambrósio, Sérgio R

    2012-08-01

    The schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid (PA) and two derivatives, obtained by fungal transformation in the presence of Aspergillus ochraceus, were investigated. PA was the only compound with antischistosomal activity among the three diterpenes studied, with the ability to significantly reduce the viability of the parasites at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 ?M. PA also promoted morphological alterations of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni, separated all the worm couples, and affected the production and development of eggs. Moreover, this compound was devoid of toxicity toward human fibroblasts. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, PA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly diminished the number of parasites in infected Balb/c mice. Taken together, these results show that PA may be potentially employed in the discovery of novel schistosomicidal agents, and that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis. PMID:22899607

  9. Early Anthropogenic Transformation of the Danube-Black Sea System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giosan, Liviu; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Constantinescu, Stefan; Filip, Florin; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Kettner, Albert J.; Thom, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea. PMID:22937219

  10. [Induction of cucumber hairy roots and effect of cytokinin 6-BA on its growth and morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, He-Ping; Qi, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Liang, Shan

    2006-05-01

    Hairy roots of Cucumis sativus L. could be incited directly from the cut edges of 10-day-old cotyledon explants after infection with the strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 harboring agropine-type plasmid, pRiA4b for 5 days. It was observed that the percentage of rooting cotyledon explants was more than 90 % 10 days after infection. Hairy roots could grow rapidly and highly branched on solid plant growth regulator-free MS medium. The PCR amplification of rol B genes and vir C gene showed that T-DNA of Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes was integrated and expressed into the genome of transformed cucumber hairy roots. A bacterium-free transformed cucumber hairy root line was selected to culture on solid MS medium to examine influence of exogenous cytokinin 6-BA on growth and morphology alteration of cucumber hairy roots. The results showed that cytokinin 6-BA can influence the growth and altered the morphology of hairy roots. With increasing of 6-BA concentrations, Cucumber hairy roots become shorter and thicker and less branched. 6-BA at the concentration of 0.1 to approximately 3.0 mg/L could delay the appearance of maximum growth peak by 5 days and decreased the content of soluble protein, enhanced the activities of SOD and POD and decreased the levels of endogenous ethylene evolution in cucumber hairy roots. Our results also indicated that cytokinin 6-BA in the medium could influence growth and morphology alternation of cucumber hairy roots and delay its senescence of hairy roots by acting through ethylene. PMID:16755937

  11. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

  12. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  13. Cluster Morphology Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jacquez, Geoffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Most disease clustering methods assume specific shapes and do not evaluate statistical power using the applicable geography, at-risk population, and covariates. Cluster Morphology Analysis (CMA) conducts power analyses of alternative techniques assuming clusters of different relative risks and shapes. Results are ranked by statistical power and false positives, under the rationale that surveillance should (1) find true clusters while (2) avoiding false clusters. CMA then synthesizes results o...

  14. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Vargas; Deisy Chaves Sanchez; Maria Patricia Trujillo Uribe; Jorge Luis Piñeres Mendoza; Juan Manuel Barraza Burgos

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation) from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira), La Jagua (Cesar), Guachinte (Valle del Cauca) and Nechí (Antioquia). Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thicknes...

  15. In Situ Hydroxyapatite Synthesis: Influence of Collagen on Its Structural and Morphological Characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis C. Mendes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA was synthesized in situ by the precipitation method, with and without the presence of collagen (COLL, to study its influence on HA’s structural and morphological characteristics. The material was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Ca/P molar ratio was influenced by collagen addition—1.89 and 2.38 for samples without and with collagen, respectively. The WAXD pattern revealed better resolution and intensity besides higher crystallinity degree of the HA in the presence of collagen. The photomicrographs showed a strong influence of collagen on the HA morphology.

  16. Morphological changes induced by class III chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of Penicillium chrysogenum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zheng, Zhiming; Wang, Peng; Gong, Guohong; Wang, Li; Zhao, Genhai

    2013-04-01

    Chitin synthases catalyze the formation of ?-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between N-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. Several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus Aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in Penicillium chrysogenum. We used BLAST to find the genes encoding chitin synthases in P. chrysogenum related to chitin synthase genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Three homologous sequences coding for a class III chitin synthase CHS4 and two hypothetical proteins in P. chrysogenum were found. The gene which product showed the highest identity and encoded the class III chitin synthase CHS4 was studied in detail. To investigate the role of CHS4 in P. chrysogenum morphogenesis, we developed an RNA interference system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants exhibited a slow growth rate and shorter and more branched hyphae, which were distinct from those of the original strain. The results also showed that the conidiation efficiency of all transformants was reduced sharply and indicated that chs4 is essential in conidia development. The morphologies of all transformants and the original strain in penicillin production were investigated by light microscopy, which showed that changes in chs4 expression led to a completely different morphology during fermentation and eventually caused distinct penicillin yields, especially in the transformants PcRNAi1-17 and PcRNAi2-1 where penicillin production rose by 27 % and 41 %, respectively. PMID:23179625

  17. Approaches to automated morphological classification of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Naim, A

    1994-01-01

    There is an obvious need for automated classification of galaxies, as the number of observed galaxies increases very fast. We examine several approaches to this problem, utilising {\\em Artificial Neural Networks} (ANNs). We quote results from a recent study which show that ANNs can classsify galaxies morphologically as well as humans can.

  18. Functional Morphology: Philosophy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Savarese

    Purpose of Exercise: Provide students with an appreciation of the importance of using a rigorous scientific approach to the study of functional morphology. Students are asked to intuitively interpret the function of fossil skeletal morphologies. From this they identify a variety of genuine methodologies used in functional morphology, appreciate the importance of using multiple approaches, and realize how easy it is to generate untested hypotheses of function (i.e., adaptive storytelling). Materials: Class breaks up into 4 groups of 4 students. Each is presented with a fossil or shell from an invertebrate animal. The shells provided: (1) modern Nautilus, sliced laterally to show the chamber walls; (2) Archimedes bryozoan, just the helically spiraled core of a colony; (3) fossil scaphopod; and (4) fossil gastropod with spines along the apertural lip. Only the group with the gastropod should know the phylogenic affinity of the fossil: tell this group the shell is of a gastropod. The groups with the Archimedes and the scaphopod are asked to interpret the function of the entire shell; they should not be told whether or not the entire skeleton is represented. The Nautilus group is asked to consider the function of the chamber walls. The group with the gastropod is asked to consider the function of just the spines. Procedure: 1. The groups are asked, based on their intuition, to interpret the function of their shell or structure. (5 mins) 2. Without inquiring about their specific interpretations, the groups are then asked to think about what methodologies, philosophies, or logical approaches were utilized to make functional inferences. (5 mins) 3. Each group reports back. 4. On the board generate a list of the approaches identified. These should reflect many of the formal methods recognized within the discipline. Note how interpretations are tenuous or flawed when based on merely one approach; also note mistaken functions because of wrong assumptions or misapplied methods. (10 mins) 5. Follow this with a short lecture / discussion reviewing the formal methods employed in functional morphology. The following files are uploaded as supportive teaching materials: 1. Lesson plan with the "conceptual change model" outline.

  19. Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

  20. Erionite and asbestos differently cause transformation of human mesothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, P; Marconi, A; Palumbo, L; Bruni, B M; Barbone, D; Germano, S; Dogan, A U; Tassi, G F; Porta, C; Mutti, L; Gaudino, G

    2007-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive tumor associated with environmental or occupational exposure to asbestos fibers. Erionite is a fibrous zeolite, morphologically similar to asbestos and it is assumed to be even more carcinogenic. Onset and progression of MM has been suggested as the result of the cooperation between asbestos and other cofactors, such as SV40 virus infection. Nevertheless, several cases of MM were associated with environmental exposure to erionite in Turkey, where SV40 was never isolated in MM specimens. We show here that erionite is poorly cytotoxic, induces proliferating signals and high growth rate in human mesothelial cells (HMC). Long term exposure to erionite, but not to asbestos fibers, transforms HMC in vitro, regardless of the presence of SV40 sequences, leading to foci formation in cultured monolayers. Cells derived from foci display constitutive activation of Akt, NF-kappaB and Erk1/2, show prolonged survival and a deregulated cell cycle, involving cyclin D1 and E overexpression. Our results reveal that erionite is able per se to turn HMC into transformed highly proliferating cells and disclose the carcinogenic properties of erionite, prompting for a careful evaluation of environmental exposure to these fibers. The genetic predisposition to the effect of erionite is a separate subject for investigation. PMID:17354240

  1. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

  2. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

  3. A generalized Meijer transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Debnath

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In a series of papers [1-6], Kratzel studies a generalized version of the classical Meijer transformation with the Kernel function (stνη(q,ν+1; (stq. This transformation is referred to as GM transformation which reduces to the classical Meijer transform when q=1. He also discussed a second generalization of the Meijer transform involving the Kernel function λν(n(x which reduces to the Meijer function when n=2 and the Laplace transform when n=1. This is called the Meijer-Laplace (or ML transformation. This paper is concerned with a study of both GM and ML transforms in the distributional sense. Several properties of these transformations including inversion, uniqueness, and analyticity are discussed in some detail.

  4. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  5. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A

    2002-08-06

    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  6. Partial reversion of the transformed phenotype in HRAS-transfected tumorigenic cells by transfer of a human gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, R.; Iyer, J.; Iten, E.; Nirkko, A.C.

    1988-03-01

    The transformed phenotype of rat FE-8 cells transfected by an activated human HRAS gene was suppressed upon fusion with normal cells. An experimental approach was developed to identify and isolate a human gene capable of suppressing the transforming activity of the HRAS oncogene in FE-8 cells. Genomic DNA from human placenta was introduced into FE-8 cells by cotransfection with the plasmid pY3 conferring hygromycin B resistance. Transfectants were selected in medium containing hygromycin B. HRAS-transformed FE-8 cells showed an increased sensitivity toward ouabain when compared to their normal counterparts. Therefore, the population of transfected hygromycin B-resistant cells was treated with ouabain to eliminate cells with a transformed phenotype. Ouabain selection resulted in a small number of cell clones exhibiting a more normal phenotype. The clones had lost the morphology of transformed cells and required anchorage for growth. The tumorigenicity of transfectants in nude mice was reduced by not completely abolished. FE-8 revertants continued to express the p21 RAS protein. Human repetitive sequences contained in the DNA of a secondary transfectant were used for isolation of the suppressor gene from reverted FE-8 cells. The cloned DNA fragment was transfected into tumorigenic FE-8 cells and conferred a partial reversion of the transformed phenotype.

  7. Characterization of point transformations in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnuki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Shuji

    2012-01-01

    We characterize point transformations in quantum mechanics from the mathematical viewpoint. To conclude that the canonical variables given by each point transformation in quantum mechanics correctly describe the extended point transformation, we show that they are all selfadjoint operators in $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ and that the continuous spectrum of each coincides with $\\mathbb{R}$. They are also shown to satisfy the canonical commutation relations.

  8. Extraction of MHD signal using wavelet transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirnov signal with interference is a nonstationary signal, from which the MHD signal is not effectively extracted using the Fourier transform. A method of wavelet transform for processing the disturbed Mirnov signal is presented. Analyses in theory and experimental results show that the interference is removed effectively and the MHD signal can be extracted from the disturbed Mirnov signal based-on the time-frequency analysis of wavelet transform

  9. Waveguide taper engineering using coordinate transformation technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tichit, Paul-Henri; de Lustrac, Andre; 10.1364/OE.18.000767

    2010-01-01

    Spatial coordinate transformation is a suitable tool for the design of complex electromagnetic structures. In this paper, we define three spatial coordinate transformations which show the possibility of designing a taper between two different waveguides. A parametric study is presented for the three transformations and we propose achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained with existing metamaterials. The performances of such defined structures are demonstrated by finite element numerical simulations.

  10. Discrete Topological Transformations for Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Couprie, Michel; Bertrand, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Topology-based image processing operators usually aim at transforming an image while preserving its topological characteristics. This chapter reviews some approaches which lead to efficient and exact algorithms for topological transformations in 2D, 3D and grayscale images. Some transformations which modify topology in a controlled manner are also described. Finally, based on the framework of critical kernels, we show how to design a topologically sound parallel thinning algorithm guided by a...

  11. Duality constrained meta atoms for transformation optics

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-corbaton, Ivan; Molina-terriza, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    Maxwell's equations in curved space-time are invariant under electromagnetic duality transformations. We exploit this property to constraint the design parameters of metamaterials used for transformations optics. We show that a general transformation must be implemented using a dual-symmetric metamaterial. This can be accomplished constraining the polarisability tensors of their individual constituents, i.e. the meta atoms. We obtain explicit expressions for these constraint...

  12. Resource-Bound Quantification for Graph Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Torrini, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.22.2

    2010-01-01

    Graph transformation has been used to model concurrent systems in software engineering, as well as in biochemistry and life sciences. The application of a transformation rule can be characterised algebraically as construction of a double-pushout (DPO) diagram in the category of graphs. We show how intuitionistic linear logic can be extended with resource-bound quantification, allowing for an implicit handling of the DPO conditions, and how resource logic can be used to reason about graph transformation systems.

  13. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

  14. Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) show developmental plasticity?

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Graham J.; Miller, Ashadee K.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity) causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates) and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum). The two species are ...

  15. Efficient mine detection using wavelet PCA and morphological top hat filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Nizam U.; Alam, Mohammad S.

    2013-03-01

    An efficient unsupervised technique is proposed for land mine detection from highly cluttered inhomogeneous environment. The proposed technique uses multispectral data for which feature extraction is necessary to classify large volume of data. We applied wavelet based principal component analysis to reduce the dimension of the data as well as to reveal information about target from background clutter. To increase the discrimination between target and clutter a linear transformation of the feature extracted bands is performed. Thereafter, morphological algorithm is used to extract the maximum information about the target. The proposed technique shows excellent detection performance while enhancing the processing speed. Test results using various multispectral data sets show excellent performance and verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  16. Morphology and specific interaction of PMMA coating with the surface of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tighilt, F.-Z.; Gabouze, N.; Sam, S.; Belhousse, S.; Beldjilali, K.

    2007-09-01

    In this work, the poly(methyl methacrylate) PMMA grafted into the porous silicon by three different methods: dip coating, spin coating and spreading method has been studied. For this purpose, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) have been carried out to evaluate the surface modification. The EDS spectrum shows the presence of peaks attributed to the carbon and oxygen, which are the principal constituents of the PMMA polymer. Moreover, the FT-IR spectroscopy has detected the existence of specific interactions, especially a stronger hydrogen bending which is suspected to occur between the hydroxyl groups present at the surface of the porous silicon substrate and the carbonyl groups of the polymeric chains. In addition, SEM observations show that the morphology of the PMMA macromolecular chains strongly depends on the deposition-coating method.

  17. [Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Ling; Bu, Huai-Yu; Hao, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Yu-Wei; Jia, Jing-Fen

    2006-01-01

    An efficient system of genetic transformation and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was established in crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) by infecting the segments of cotyledons and hypocotyls of 15d-old seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Hairy roots were produced directly from the wounded surface of the explants or via calluses on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium after infection by A. rhizogenes. Transformed roots grew rapidly either on solid or liquid MS medium, and exhibited typical hairy root phenotypes. The highest transformation frequency (87.4%) was achieved by preculturing cotyledons for 2d and pre-treating the A. rhizogenes with suitable concentration of acetosyringone at logarithmic phase (OD600 = 0.8). The embryogenic calluses with 100% induction frequency were induced from hairy roots on MS medium containing 0.2mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5mg/L NAA and 0.5mg/L KT. Globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon shaped somatic embryos were produced orderly and developed into plantlets when transferred the embryogenic calluses on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L KT, 0.2mg/L IBA and 300mg/L proline. The transformed plants did not show differences in morphology except abundant lateral root branches compared to the non-transformed plants. However, the contents of 3-nitropropanic acid in hairy roots and leaves of one of 5 transformed clones were 57.68% and 58.17% in roots and leaves of untransformed plants, respectively. Opine paper electrophoresis revealed the integration and expression of TR-DNA. PCR analysis confirmed that the TL-DNA including 654 bp rol B sequence was inserted into the genome of transformed hairy roots and their regenerated plants. PMID:16572849

  18. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass.

  19. Superantenna made of transformation media

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, Ulf

    2008-01-01

    We show how transformation media can make a superantenna that is either completely invisible or focuses incoming light into a needle-sharp beam. Our idea is based on representating three-dimensional space as a foliage of sheets and performing two-dimensional conformal maps on each sheet

  20. Galaxy Zoo: the independence of morphology and colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, Steven P; Baldry, Ivan K; Land, Kate; Lintott, Chris J; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Torki, Mehri; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Miller, Christopher J; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for 130352 objects from Galaxy Zoo. The majority of the morphology-density relation is driven by variation in morphological fraction with environment at fixed stellar mass, rather than by the environmental dependence of the stellar mass function. We conclusively show that the colour and morphology bimodalities are largely independent functions of environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments and mostly red in high-density environments. While galaxies with early-type morphology do always have higher red fractions, this is sub-dominant compared to the dependence of red fraction on stellar mass and environment. Only a small part of the colour-density relation thus results from the morphology-density relation. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morph...

  1. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  2. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  3. The Rise and Fall of Passive Disk Galaxies: Morphological Evolution Along the Red Sequence Revealed by COSMOS

    CERN Document Server

    Bundy, K; Carollo, C M; Ellis, R S; Drory, N; Hopkins, P; Salvato, M; Leauthaud, A; Koekemoer, A M; Murray, N; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Ma, C -P; Capak, P; Pozzetti, L; Scoville, N

    2009-01-01

    The increasing abundance of passive "red sequence" galaxies since z=1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show that in detail the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (log Mstar < 10) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with log Mstar < 11 increases, but not as fast as red sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z~1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. We estimate that...

  4. Morphological Enhancement of Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, H. S.; Virmani, J.; Kumar, V.

    2012-09-01

    Mammography is a commonly used technique for early detection of breast cancer. In mammograms, microcalcifications show low contrast margin with the background parenchymal tissue (specifically when the background tissue type is fibroglandular) as a result, subjective analysis of these calcifications with respect to their size, shape and morphology presents a daunting challenge even for experienced radiologists. Thus the present work investigates the potential of two morphological techniques i.e., top-hat morphological processing and h-dome morphological processing for enhancement of microcalcifications embedded in variety of background tissue types including fatty, glandular and fibroglandular tissues while restoring their shape and size. The enhancement results are also compared with standard contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method. For subjective analysis, 25 synthetic images with simulated microcalcifications of various shapes and sizes are used. Objective analysis is carried out on 50 mammographic images taken from benchmark dataset (McGill University mammographic database) by computing quantitative indices like contrast improvement ratio and detail variance/background variance ratios. After rigorous experimentation on both synthetic and benchmark data set it was observed that h-dome morphological processing (with h = 60) is ideally suited for enhancement of microcalcifications while restoring their shape and size.

  5. Morphological pyramids with alternating sequential filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, A; Acharya, R; Ko, S J

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to find a relationship between alternating sequential filters (ASF) and the morphological sampling theorem (MST) developed by Haralick et al. (1987). The motivation behind this approach is to take advantage of the computational efficiency offered by the MST to implement morphological operations. First, we show alternative proofs for opening and closing in the sampled and unsampled domain using the basis functions. These proofs are important because they show that it possible to obtain any level of a morphological pyramid in one step rather than the traditional two-step procedure. This decomposition is then used to show the relationship of the open-closing in the sampled and unsampled domain. An upper and a lower bound, for the above relationships, are presented. Under certain circumstances, an equivalence is shown for open-closing between the sampled and the unsampled domain. An extension to more complicated algorithms using a union of openings and an intersection of closings is also proposed. Using the Hausdorff metric, it is shown that a morphologically reconstructed image cannot have a better accuracy than twice the radius of the reconstruction structuring element. Binary and gray scale examples are presented. PMID:18290046

  6. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

  7. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

  8. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  9. Cellular angiofibroma with atypia or sarcomatous transformation: clinicopathologic analysis of 13 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eleanor; Fletcher, Christopher D M

    2010-05-01

    Cellular angiofibroma is a mesenchymal neoplasm that is characterized by a bland spindle cell component, morphologically reminiscent of spindle cell lipoma, and thick-walled vessels. The tumor occurs equally in men and women and usually arises in the inguino-scrotal or vulvovaginal regions. An earlier study of 51 cases from our group showed that the tumor follows a benign course without any tendency for recurrence. In 1 case, an intralesional microscopic nodule of pleomorphic liposarcoma was observed. The biologic significance of atypia or sarcomatous transformation in cellular angiofibroma remains uncertain. In this study, we characterized clinicopathologic features in 13 cases of cellular angiofibroma with morphologic atypia or sarcomatous transformation. Thirteen cases with atypia or sarcomatous transformation among 154 usual cellular angiofibromas identified between 1993 and 2009 were retrieved from consultation files. There were 12 females and 1 male ranging in age from 39 to 71 years (median age, 46 y). Tumor size ranged from 1.2 to 7.5 cm. In 11 cases, the tumors occurred in the vulva. One case each occurred in the paratesticular and hip regions. Most tumors were located in subcutaneous tissue. There were 4 cases of cellular angiofibroma with atypia. Three showed severely atypical cells as scattered foci within the cellular angiofibroma. One case showed a discrete nodule of atypical cells. There were 9 cases of cellular angiofibroma with morphologic features of sarcomatous transformation. In each case, abrupt transition to a discrete sarcomatous component was seen. Of these 9 cases, the sarcomatous component in 2 cases showed features of pleomorphic liposarcoma with multivacuolated lipoblasts readily identified. Three of these 9 cases showed discrete nodule(s) closely resembling atypical lipomatous tumor within usual cellular angiofibroma. In the remaining 4 cases, the sarcomatous component was composed of pleomorphic spindle cells arranged in various patterns. By immunohistochemistry, atypical cells and sarcomatous areas showed either multifocal or more diffuse p16 expression compared with either scattered or negative expression in the conventional cellular angiofibroma. The 3 cases with atypical lipomatous tumor-like areas were negative for MDM-2 and CDK4. Follow-up information was available for 7 patients (range from 2 to 75 mo; median: 14 mo). Six patients did not develop recurrence or metastasis. One patient died of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary site 27 months after the diagnosis of cellular angiofibroma with sarcomatous transformation. Cellular angiofibroma with atypia or morphologic sarcomatous transformation occurs predominantly in the subcutaneous tissue of the vulva and, as yet, shows no evident tendency to recur based on limited clinical follow-up available for 7 cases. The sarcomatous component can show variable features including atypical lipomatous tumor, pleomorphic liposarcoma, and pleomorphic sarcoma NOS. Overexpression of p16 in the atypical cells and sarcomatous component suggests a possible underlying molecular mechanism. PMID:20305534

  10. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  11. Transforms and Applications Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

  12. Nearly optimal sparse fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hassanieh, Haitham; Indyk, Piotr; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time randomized algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time randomized algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). They are the first known...

  13. Effect of doping cobalt on the micro-morphology and electrochemical properties of birnessite MnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnessite-type MnO2 nanoparticles are synthesized by mixing KMnO4 solution directly with ethylene glycol under ambient conditions. When cobalt exists in the solution, the micro-morphology of the products transforms from conglomeration to dispersive state. The result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) shows that the product is constructed with nanosphere in sizes of ca. 40 nm. These nanospheres are twisted by nanorods clusters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the products are birnessite-type. The electrochemical properties of the prepared materials are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge test in aqueous electrolyte. The product shows a very high specific capacity of 326.4 F g?1. These results indicate that cobalt has great effects on the micro-morphology and electrochemical properties of manganese dioxide. - Highlights: ? Uniform manganese dioxide nanoparticles were prepared via a simple liquid-phase reaction method. ? The morphology of material is sphere-like which is twisted by nanorods clusters. ? Cobalt doping has enhanced capacitive performance

  14. Transforms, algorithms and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the sum of a trigonometric series. The main purpose of these notes is to give a brief overview of some Fourier-related transforms, namely: continuous Fourier transform, Fourier series, discrete Fouri...

  15. Complex Hilbert Transform Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Hannu Olkkonen; Olkkonen, Juuso T.

    2011-01-01

    Hilbert transform is a basic tool in constructing analytical signals for a various applications such as amplitude modulation, envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, quadrature decoding, shift-invariant multi-rate signal processing and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. This work introduces a complex Hilbert transform (CHT) filter, where the real and imaginary parts are a Hilbert transform pair. The CHT filtered signal is analytic, i.e. its Fourier transform is zero in negative frequency ran...

  16. Fast linear canonical transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The linear canonical transform provides a mathematical model of paraxial propagation though quadratic phase systems. We review the literature on numerical approximation of this transform, including discretization, sampling, and fast algorithms, and identify key results. We then propose a frequency-division fast linear canonical transform algorithm comparable to the Sande–Tukey fast Fourier transform. Results calculated with an implementation of this algorithm are presented and compared w...

  17. The inverse loop transform

    OpenAIRE

    Thiemann, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The loop transform in quantum gauge field theory can be recognized as the Fourier transform (or characteristic functional) of a measure on the space of generalized connections modulo gauge transformations. Since this space is a compact Hausdorff space, conversely, we know from the Riesz-Markov theorem that every positive linear functional on the space of continuous functions thereon qualifies as the loop transform of a regular Borel measure on the moduli space. In the presen...

  18. DNA Transformation, Continued

    Science.gov (United States)

    DNA transformation is a naturally occurring but rare event in which DNA can be transferred into bacteria. In 1970, Morton Mandel and Akiko Higa discovered a way to make E. coli more 'competent' for transforming foreign DNA. Their calcium chloride method is widely used today to obtain high-efficiency transforming cells. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents the second part of explaining DNA transformation through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

  19. Transformations of evolving algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Diehl, Stephan

    1995-01-01

    We give a precise definition of evolving algebras nondeterministic, mathematical machines. All proofs in the paper are based on this definition. First we define constant propagation as a transformation on evolving algebras. Then we extend evolving algebras by macro definitions and define folding and unfolding transformations for macros. Next we introduce a simple transformation to flatten transition rules. Finally a pass separation transformation for evolving algebras is presented For all tra...

  20. Frobenius transformation, mirror map and instanton numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that one can express Frobenius transformation on middle-dimensional p-adic cohomology of Calabi-Yau threefold in terms of mirror map and instanton numbers. We express the mirror map in terms of Frobenius transformation on p-adic cohomology. We discuss a p-adic interpretation of the conjecture about integrality of Gopakumar-Vafa invariants

  1. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is reported that 10-7M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  2. Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Bernard M., Ed.; Avolio, Bruce J., Ed.

    This book shows how transformational leadership is expected to contribute to an organization's efforts to improve its operations and the best use of its human resources. The concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are introduced within the framework of a full-range model of leadership. This model is applied to research,…

  3. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CNx thin films as humidity sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CNx thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH4) gas diluted with nitrogen (N2) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C?N triple bond. C=N and C?N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CNx thin film changed from 23.765 k? to 5.845 k? in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CNx films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device

  4. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  5. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  6. Morphological pancreas diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In current morphological pancreas diagnosis, main emphasis is placed on an early detection of pancreas carcinoma, i.e. on the diagnosis of tumors less than 1 cm in size, and on an exact differentiation between pancreas carcinoma and chronic pancreatitis. The somewhat pessimistic attitude shown so far towards the diagnostic methods available has been due to bad results in the diagnosis of apparent pancreas carcinoma, and to complications resulting from invasive diagnostic techniques. An improvement of diagnostic results by new methods and an inter-disciplinary cooperation is now in the offing. This applies both to pre-operative diagnosis and to diagnosis under operation. Especially two methods, thin-needle aspiration biopsy and cytology, in combination with radiological methods have brought about a promising large number of positive diagnoses with only extremely few complications. The successful use of morphological methods in the classification and staging of pancreas carcinoma as well as in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis is reported here. Future efforts will have to be directed towards further improvement of thin-needle biopsy diagnosis, particularly by combining this technique with the advantages of ERCP and the immunological determination of the CEA and other tumor antigens in the pancreatic juice. (orig.)

  7. Field-dependent quantum gauge transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, Sudhaker

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we generalize the quantum gauge transformation of Maxwell theory obtained through gaugeon formalism. The generalization is made by making the bosonic transformation parameter field-dependent. The Jacobian of vacuum functional under field-dependent quantum gauge transformation is calculated explicitly. We show that the quantum gauge transformation with a particular choice of field-dependent parameter connects the gaugeon actions of Maxwell theory in two different gauges. We establish the result by connecting two well-known gauges, namely, Lorentz gauge and axial gauge.

  8. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments

  9. A New Formula for the Inverse Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Wenchang

    2010-01-01

    Finding a computationally efficient algorithm for the inverse continuous wavelet transform is a fundamental topic in applications. In this paper, we show the convergence of the inverse wavelet transform.

  10. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  11. Enhanced Perturbative Continuous Unitary Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Krull, H; Uhrig, G S

    2012-01-01

    Unitary transformations are an essential tool for the theoretical understanding of many systems by mapping them to simpler effective models. A systematically controlled variant to perform such a mapping are perturbative continuous unitary transformations (pCUT) among others. So far, this approach required an equidistant unperturbed spectrum. Here we pursue two goals: First, we extend its applicability to non-equidistant spectra with the particular focus on an efficient derivation of the differential flow equations, which define the enhanced perturbative continuous unitary transformation (epCUT). Second, we show that the numerical integration of the flow equations yields a robust scheme to extract data from the epCUT. The method is illustrated by the perturbation of two-leg spin ladders around the strong-rung-coupling limit for uniform and alternating rung couplings. The latter case provides an example of perturbation around a non-equidistant spectrum.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyu Lan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

  13. Transformation Acoustics in Generic Elastic Media

    CERN Document Server

    Bergamin, Luzi

    2012-01-01

    In this work a transformation acoustics scheme for generic elastic media is developed. Our approach starts form the decomposition of the elasticity tensor in terms of its eigentensors, an idea previously used by Norris. While Norris' transformation acoustics is restricted to the special class of so-called pentamode materials, we show that a similar scheme can be defined for the most general elasticity tensor. As in case of Norris' model (and in sharp contrast to transformation optics), the compatibility equations of the transformation medium are not purely algebraic and it is not guaranteed that solutions to these equations exist for any choice of material parameters and coordinate transformation. Nonetheless, it is shown that our scheme yields new cloaking solutions for certain classes of materials. In particular, we present the first application of a transformation based device for a non-scalar wave equation outside of the field of electromagnetics.

  14. Transformation Properties of the Lagrangian and Eulerian Strain Tensors

    CERN Document Server

    Bahder, T B

    2002-01-01

    A coordinate independent derivation of the Eulerian and Lagrangian strain tensors of finite deformation theory is given based on the parallel propagator, the world function, and the displacement vector field as a three-point tensor. The derivation explicitly shows that the Eulerian and Lagrangian strain tensors are two-point tensors, each a function of both the spatial and material coordinates. The Eulerian strain is a two-point tensor that transforms as a second rank tensor under transformation of spatial coordinates and transforms as a scalar under transformation of the material coordinates. The Lagrangian strain is a two-point tensor that transforms as scalar under transformation of spatial coordinates and transforms as a second rank tensor under transformation of the material coordinates. These transformation properties are needed when transforming the strain tensors from one frame of reference to another moving frame.

  15. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/?L). PMID:25325766

  16. Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60 ?-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ?-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described. (J.P.N.)

  17. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  18. Transformation from Al{sub 3}BC phase to doped TiB{sub 2} or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Wenjie; Li, Pengting; Gao, Tong; Nie, Jinfeng [Key Laboratory of Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250061 (China); Liu, Xiangfa, E-mail: xfliu@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials, Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Shandong, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2013-06-05

    Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al{sub 3}BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB{sub 2} and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al{sub 3}BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB{sub 2} and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al{sub 3}BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated.

  19. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for non-Abelian groups is defined. A slightly relaxed definition is shown to simplify the analysis and the networks that computes the transforms. Efficient networks for computing such transforms for a class of metacyclic groups are introduced. A novel network for computing a Fourier transform for a group used in quantum error-correction is also given.

  20. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Mess.

    1108-11-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own [...] work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  1. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mess

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  2. Micro-mold design controls the 3D morphological evolution of self-assembling multicellular microtissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svoronos, Alexander A; Tejavibulya, Nalin; Schell, Jacquelyn Y; Shenoy, Vivek B; Morgan, Jeffrey R

    2014-04-01

    When seeded into nonadhesive micro-molds, cells self-assemble three-dimensional (3D) multicellular microtissues via the action of cytoskeletal-mediated contraction and cell-cell adhesion. The size and shape of the tissue is a function of the cell type and the size, shape, and obstacles of the micro-mold. In this article, we used human fibroblasts to investigate some of the elements of mold design and how they can be used to guide the morphological changes that occur as a 3D tissue self-organizes. In a loop-ended dogbone mold with two nonadhesive posts, fibroblasts formed a self-constrained tissue whose tension induced morphological changes that ultimately caused the tissue to thin and rupture. Increasing the width of the dogbone's connecting rod increased the stability, whereas increasing its length decreased the stability. Mapping the rupture points showed that the balance of cell volume between the toroid and connecting rod regions of the dogbone tissue controlled the point of rupture. When cells were treated with transforming growth factor-?1, dogbones ruptured sooner due to increased cell contraction. In mold designs to form tissues with more complex shapes such as three interconnected toroids or a honeycomb, obstacle design controlled tension and tissue morphology. When the vertical posts were changed to cones, they became tension modulators that dictated when and where tension was released in a large self-organizing tissue. By understanding how elements of mold design control morphology, we can produce better models to study organogenesis, examine 3D cell mechanics, and fabricate building parts for tissue engineering. PMID:24147855

  3. Intragranular ferrite morphologies in medium carbon vanadium-microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine TTT diagram of medium carbon V-N micro-alloyed steel with emphasis on the development of intragranular ferrite morphologies. The isothermal treatment was carried out at 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C. These treatments were interrupted at different times in order to analyze the evolution of the microstructure. Metallographic evaluation was done using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that at high temperatures (? 500°C polygonal intragranulary nucleated ferrite idiomorphs, combined with grain boundary ferrite and pearlite were produced and followed by an incomplete transformation phenomenon. At intermediate temperatures (450, 500°C an interloced acicular ferrite (AF microstructure is produced, and at low temperatures (400, 350°C the sheave of parallel acicular ferrite plates, similar to bainitic sheaves but intragranularly nucleated were observed. In addition to sheaf type acicular ferrite, the grain boundary nucleated bainitic sheaves are observed. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174004

  4. Cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul; Pérez-Claros, Juan A.; Dong, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In this study, landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for investigating the main aspects of cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Specifically, we explore if the highly derived cranial adaptations for bamboo feeding of the living panda were developed early in the panda's lineage. Results obtained show that the overall cranial morphologies of the oldest known panda, the "pygmy" Ailuropoda microta, and the late Pleistocene Ailuropoda baconi are both very similar to that of their closest living relative, A. melanoleuca, which agrees with a previous proposal based on qualitative criteria. However, we also describe several differences between the crania of A. microta, A. baconi, and A. melanoleuca, including the development of the postorbital process, the orientation of the occipital region, and the expansion of the braincase. As a result, the cranial morphology of A. microta shows a less specialized morphology toward a fibrous and durophagous diet compared to the giant panda. These results are confirmed by a comparative analysis of the dimensions of the upper teeth in bears, which has revealed differences in relative tooth size between A. microta and A. melanoleuca, most probably as a result of mosaic evolution. Therefore, we conclude that cranial shape did not remain essentially uniform in the Ailuropoda lineage, as previously thought, but underwent a number of changes during more than 2 Myr.

  5. Determination of Morphologically Characteristic PCG Segments from Spectrogram Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Reljin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional presentation of phonocardiac signal, simultaneously considering time, amplitude and frequency, allows the determination of morphological characteristic segments in phonocardiogram (PCG, both in short and long sequences. For this purpose, the STFT (Short-Time Fourier Transform spectrogram images were used. By applying some methods known from image processing it is possible to recognize and extract basic heart sounds and murmurs from such time-frequency images. The method is tested over several characteristic test phonocardiac signals.

  6. Nearly Optimal Sparse Fourier Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanieh, Haitham; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). Further, they are the first known algorithms that satisfy this property. Also, if one assumes that the Fast Fourier Transform is optimal, the algorithm for the exactly k-sparse case is optimal for any k = n^{\\Omega(1)} . We complement our algorithmic results by showing that any algorithm for computing the sparse Fourier transform of a general signal must use at least \\Omega(k log(n/k)/ log log n) signal samples, even if it is allowed to perform adaptive sampling.

  7. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Azhari, C. H.; Wong, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  8. Dopant induced morphologies of ZnS nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, N.; Anasane, N.; Soni, H.P. [Physical and Polymer Research Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002, Gujarat (India); Chavda, M. [Department of Applied Physics, Polytechnic, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 002, Gujarat (India); Bodas, D. [Center for Nanobio Sciences, Agharkar Research Institute, Pune 411 004 (India)

    2012-10-15

    We have reported the synthesis of cubic (zinc blende) phase ZnS: Ni{sup 2+} nanoparticles using a simple wet-chemical method. Synthesized ZnS: Ni{sup 2+} nanoparticles had been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Surface morphologies were studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of selected samples were also carried out to confirm the presence of capping agent on the surface of the material. We have demonstrated that various morphologies like spherical, tetrapods, sheet and long-armed multipods are emerged by simple chemical route without any vigorous reaction parameters and changing the concentration of dopant ions only. The probable mechanism for such morphologies has also been suggested. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Morphological techniques for micro calcification and mass enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of microcalcifications and masses from digital mammographic images are important to aid the detection of breast cancer. In this paper, we applied morphological techniques to extract the embedded structures from the images for subsequent analysis. A mammographic phantom was created with embedded structures such as micro nodules, nodules and fibrils. For the reprocessing techniques, intensity transformation of gray scale was applied to the image. The structures of the image were enhanced and segmented using dilation for a morphological operation with morphological closing. Next, low pass Gaussian filter was applied to the image to smooth and reduce noises. It was found that our method improved the detection of microcalcifications and masses with high Peak Signal To Noise Ratio (PSNR). (Author)

  10. Morphological, magnetic and electronic structural studies of nanostructured spinel ferrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, Marcos; Moura Prata, Daniela

    The scope of this thesis includes study of structural, magnetic and electronic properties of nanostructured ferrites with different morphology/geometries (e.g. core/shell and hollow nanoparticles), and non-stroichiomteric thin-films. In the case of core/shell, shell composition is varied and spin glass (SG) features due to the thick amorphous shells are explored. Exchange Bias (EB) for core/shell (ferromagnetic/SG) nanoparticles namely X33Fe 67/XFe67O4 (X = Co, Ni, Fe) is presented. Limitations in the synthesis of various other alloys by inert gas condensation (IGC) due to the difference in the melting points are discussed. The existence of SG phase in these nanoparticles with CoFe2O4 shell results in the enhancement in EB. This is attributed to the large bulk anisotropy constant of the shell compared to other spinel cubic ferrites. Both dc magnetization and ac susceptibility measurements revealed a SG like transition which occurs at unusually large spin freezing temperature (TF ˜ 175K). The SG nature of the transition is also confirmed by the field dependence of the freezing temperature (TF(H)) following the well-known Almeida-Thouless (AT) line, deltaT F ˜ H2/3. Particles exhibit a large exchange bias (HEB ˜ 1357Oe) arising from the core-shell (ferromagnetic-SG) coupling. The unusually high SG transition temperature and large exchange bias effects are attributed to a combination of several factors including the thickness of the amorphous oxide shell and large values of the exchange and anisotropy constants associated with the CoFe2O 4 shell. In another extreme case of disordered spin systems, we synthesized NPs with hollow morphology with intentional choice of material namely NiFe 2O4 (CoFe2O4) which has lowest (highest) bulk anisotropy constant among the spinel ferrites. The hollow NPs are synthesized by self-templating process utilizing coupled interfacial chemical reactions and Kirkendall effect between the core (X33Fe67) and the shell (XFe2O4) of the core/shell structure is described. Reaction temperature and time dependent structural and morphological transformations are presented in detail. NiFe2O4 hollow particles show lack of saturation, enhancement in EB and inverse trend in the blocking temperature as a function of particles size. These are explained as being due to stabilized spin disorder and surface anisotropy. Unlike solid NPs, hollow NPs are polycrystalline. Electronic structure studies are performed by photoemission which reveals that CoFe2O4 particles with hollow morphology have higher degree of inversion compared to solid NPs. Electronic structure in comparison with magnetic studies reveal that particles exhibit uncompensated spins unlike bulk where Neel's collinear spin alignment is expected. For CoFe2O 4, both morphologies show lack of saturation up to 7T of applied field and magnetic irreversibility exists up to 7T of cooling fields for the entire temperature range (10 to 300K). These effects are explained in terms of temperature dependent large bulk anisotropy constant of CoFe2O4. Strong influence of uncompensated spins for particles with hollow morphology is characterized by cooling the sample in large fields, up to (˜9T). Magnitude of horizontal shift is more than three times larger compared to that of particles with solid morphology. 11% vertical shift for particles with hollow morphology is observed, whereas solid particles do not show corresponding shift. Finally, off-stoichiometric NiFe2O4 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at low pressures and relatively high substrate temperatures were studied. Details of electronic structure of the films are presented and compared with stoichiometric bulk counterpart. Significant amount of oxygen vacancies and enhanced cationic inversion for non-stoichiometric thin films is observed. Films show spin glass features which are contrary to the usual ferrimagnetic response of the bulk nickel ferrite and spin freezing temperature which lies above room temperature in low fields (cooling field ˜ 0.1T). Interestingly, an exceptionally large exchange bi

  11. Comparative study on ? energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise ? energy spectrum of 60Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for ? energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to ? energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  12. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 radto a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

  13. Conformal array design with transformation electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Allen, Jeffery; Cummer, Steven A.

    2009-06-01

    We apply the theory of transformation electromagnetics to source arrays and show that a complex conformal antenna array can be made to behave like a geometrically different array when surrounded with a properly designed transformation electromagnetics medium. Numerical simulations are presented to show how a nonuniform circular array can be made to radiate and receive as a uniformly spaced linear array. In this way, transformation electromagnetics provides a method by which all of the advantages of simple arrays in array processing, such as beamforming, can be retained in an array whose elements are constrained to a complex geometry.

  14. Refinement of printer transformations using weighted regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Raja; Maltz, Martin S.

    1996-03-01

    Printer characterization and color correction are often complex transformations, and are derived with numerous measurements or printer models. There are many sources of errors in these transforms, including inaccuracies in lookup table approximation, errors in the printer model, noise in the data, and spatial and temporal non-uniformities in the printer. A method is proposed to increase the accuracy of an existing printer transform with a relatively small number of refinement measurements. A weighted linear least-squares regression technique is used to improve the fit of the printer response to the refinement data. The hypothesis is that a locally linear transform can adequately capture the difference between the true printer transform and its approximation. In contrast to existing approaches that only refine the individual C, M, Y, K responses, the proposed method attempts to account for cross-colorant interactions by using mixed colors in the refinement set. Furthermore, the refinement data is not restricted to lying on a regular grid, and can be freely chosen based on any a priori knowledge about the printer. The approach is tested for two related transforms: the characterization transform which maps CMYK to L*a*b*; and its inverse, the color correction transform that maps L*a*b* to CMYK. Results show an improvement in transform accuracy with a relatively small number of measurements.

  15. An identity for triplets of double Hilbert transforms, with applications to the attenuated Radon transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider an elementary identity for double singular integrals in the plane and show that one can apply this to deduce inversion and product formulae for the Hilbert transform and inversion formulae for the affine and weighted Radon transforms. We will be able to allow many of the previously known weights for which there is an inversion formula for the weighted Radon transform and also pose some new conditions on which weights that can be used. (paper)

  16. The Radon Transform on the Heisenberg Group and the Transversal Radon Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rubin, Boris

    2009-01-01

    The notion of the Radon transform on the Heisenberg group was introduced by R. Strichartz and inspired by D. Geller and E.M. Stein's related work. The more general transversal Radon transform integrates functions on the m-dimensional real Euclidean space over hyperplanes meeting the last coordinate axis. We obtain new boundedness results and explicit inversion formulas for both transforms on $L^p$ functions in the full range of the parameter $p$. We also show that these tran...

  17. The Fourier transform of the Hadamard transform: Multifractals, Sequences and Quantum Chaos

    OpenAIRE

    Meenakshisundaram, N.; Lakshminarayan, Arul

    2005-01-01

    We introduce a class of functions that limit to multifractal measures and which arise when one takes the Fourier transform of the Hadamard transform. This introduces generalizations of the Fourier transform of the well-studied and ubiquitous Thue-Morse sequence, and introduces also generalizations to other intriguing sequences. We show their relevance to quantum chaos, by displaying quantum eigenfunctions of the quantum bakers map that are approximated well by such measures,...

  18. Using wavelet denoising and mathematical morphology in the segmentation technique applied to blood cells images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boix, Macarena; Cantó, Begoña

    2013-04-01

    Accurate image segmentation is used in medical diagnosis since this technique is a noninvasive pre-processing step for biomedical treatment. In this work we present an efficient segmentation method for medical image analysis. In particular, with this method blood cells can be segmented. For that, we combine the wavelet transform with morphological operations. Moreover, the wavelet thresholding technique is used to eliminate the noise and prepare the image for suitable segmentation. In wavelet denoising we determine the best wavelet that shows a segmentation with the largest area in the cell. We study different wavelet families and we conclude that the wavelet db1 is the best and it can serve for posterior works on blood pathologies. The proposed method generates goods results when it is applied on several images. Finally, the proposed algorithm made in MatLab environment is verified for a selected blood cells. PMID:23458301

  19. Oncogene activation during radiation induced transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A major challenge in radiation carcinogenesis is to identify the somatic (gene)s involved in this process. To study this question, the author examined the transforming activity of the DNA isolated from x-ray (600 rad) transformed 10T 1/2 cells using both NIH 3T3 and C3H10T 1/2 cells as recipients in the transfection assay. The resulting frequencies of transfection were 0.02-0.1 foci/?g genomic DNA with NIH 3T3 cells, and 0 - 0.04foci/?g of genomic DNA with 10T 1/2 cells as recipients. The authors also examined oncogene expression during the process of x-ray induced morphological transformation of 10T 1/2 cells. DNA obtained from cells during different stages of transformation (1,2,3,4,5, and 6 weeks) after irradiation and from Type III transformed foci) were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. Preliminary results indicate that the activation of certain oncogens may occur 2-3 weeks after irradiation, well before the appearance of morphologically transformed foci. The results of these and of more detailed studies currently in progress are discussed in the light of previous observations on the kinetics of the development of malignant transformation in irradiated 10T 1/2 cells

  20. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas Le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  1. Morphological and mechanical imaging of Bacillus cereus spore formation at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Stanciu, Cristina; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bacillus are able to transform into metabolically dormant states called (endo) spores in response to nutrient deprivation and other harsh conditions. These morphologically distinct spores are fascinating constructs, amongst the most durable cells in nature, and have attracted attention owing to their relevance in food-related illnesses and bioterrorism. Observing the course of bacterial spore formation (sporulation) spatially, temporally and mechanically, from the vegetative cell to a mature spore, is critical for a better understanding of this process. Here, we present a fast and versatile strategy for monitoring both the morphological and mechanical changes of Bacillus cereus bacteria at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy. Through a strategy of imaging and nanomechanical mapping, we show the morphogenesis of the endospore and released mature endospore. Finally, we investigate individual spores to characterize their surface mechanically. The progression in elasticity coupled with a similarity of characteristic distributions between the incipient endospores and the formed spores show these distinct stages. Taken together, our data demonstrates the power of atomic force microscopy applied in microbiology for probing this important biological process at the single cell scale. PMID:25581787

  2. Radiation effect on some morphological properties of Ag-As-Te thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the features as well as of the optical properties of Ag x As 50-x Te 50 with 3 x 20 films has been studied. The films showed that it was partially transformed from the amorphous to a crystalline one at doses 0.5 to 3 KGy. Gamma radiation effect on the optical spectrum of Ag-As-Te films have been studied for deposited films before and after each radiation dose. It was found that the calculated optical energy gap (Eg) was decreased by increasing Ag content and also, was decreased with the radiation dose up to 3 KGy. Increasing the radiation dose up to 3 KGy induced was indirect transition and consequently decreased the energy gap. This behaviour was associated with the generation of excess of electronic localized states. The surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). It showed that grains developed on the film surface depend on Ag at. % and gamma irradiation, through which morphology has been demonstrated

  3. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  4. Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham J. Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

  5. Towards an ecological understanding of morphological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Alex T

    2014-05-29

    The roots of modern evo-devo can be traced back to the comparative anatomy of the 19th century. Inheriting from this tradition, the field has maintained a mechanistic approach to understanding the origins of distinct animal morphologies. While this focus has produced a valuable body of work, we argue here that a fuller understanding of why species diverge morphologically must be centered on the selective forces driving divergence, and these forces ultimately reside in the ecological context in which organisms live and reproduce. We discuss reasons why we expect many morphological novelties to evolve largely secondarily to, and often as a by-product of, primary selection on life-history traits. By shifting the focus to proximate evolutionary causes, our perspective necessarily prioritises selection experiments as a means of empirical testing. We outline experimental approaches designed to dissect the role of ecological variables in the evolution of animal development and morphology, and we show how methods and advances in fields as diverse as population genomics and ecological stoichiometry can contribute to progress in this direction. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 9999B: XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24890454

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  7. The morphologies and masses of extremely red galaxies in the Groth Strip survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Abreu, David; Eliche-Moral, Carmen; Domínguez-Palmero, Lilian

    2011-01-01

    We present a new cataloge of EROs from the Groth strip and study the relation between their morphology and mass. We find 102 EROs (F814W-K=>4, K11.0 dominantly show compact morphologies, but also include a significant number of sources with a disc morphology.

  8. Morphological text extraction from images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Y Y; Karam, L J

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a morphological technique for text extraction from images. The proposed morphological technique is insensitive to noise, skew and text orientation. It is also free from artifacts that are usually introduced by both fixed/optimal global thresholding and fixed-size block-based local thresholding. Examples are presented to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. PMID:18262934

  9. Hands-on morphological image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Edward R

    2003-01-01

    Morphological image processing, now a standard part of the imaging scientist's toolbox, can be applied to a wide range of industrial applications. Concentrating on applications, this book shows how to analyze a problem and then develop successful algorithms based on the analysis. The book is hands-on in a very real sense: readers can download a demonstration toolbox of techniques and images from the web so they can process the images according to examples in the text.

  10. Polypropylene : Morphology, defects and electrical breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Laihonen, Sari J.

    2005-01-01

    Crystal structure, morphology and crystallization kinetics of melt-crystallized polypropylene and poly(propylene-stat-ethylene) fractions with 2.7 to 11.0 mol% of ethylene were studied by differential scanning calorimeter, wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. With increasing ethylene content the poly(propylene-stat-ethylene) fractions showed unchanged crystallinity, increased unit cell volume and consta...

  11. Black hole growth and host galaxy morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Schawinski, Kevin; Virani, Shanil; Coppi, Paolo; Bamford, Steven P; Treister, Ezequiel; Lintott, Chris J; Sarzi, Marc; Keel, William C; Kaviraj, Sugata; Cardamone, Carolin N; Masters, Karen L; Ross, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    We use data from large surveys of the local Universe (SDSS+Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy-black hole connection is linked to host morphology at a fundamental level. The fraction of early-type galaxies with actively growing black holes, and therefore the AGN duty cycle, declines significantly with increasing black hole mass. Late-type galaxies exhibit the opposite trend: the fraction of actively growing black holes increases with black hole mass.

  12. Evolutionary Learning Algorithm for Multi-layer Morphological Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Chunmei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphological Neural Network (MNN is a novel and important neural network and it has many applications such as image processing and pattern recognition. It makes sense to research the learning algorithm of MNN and its application. A method based on genetic algorithm is presented to train and implement multi-layer morphological neural network in this study. The algorithm calculates the weights and biases of morphological neural network and the genetic algorithm automatically acquire the learning rate. After that, the trained morphological neural network is applied to image restoration. The image restoration simulation and a comparison with the median filter are shown in the end. It shows that the morphological neural network is a quite good method applied to image restoration.

  13. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourie...

  14. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  15. Generalized Stirling transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mourad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangeme...

  16. Transformation in bacillus subtilis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformation deficient mutants were isolated by means of selection for sensitivity to methyl-methane-sulfonate (MMS). The mutations were introduced into a multiple auxotrophic highly transformable recipient. The transformation deficient strains were characterized with respect to their sensitivity to UV-irradiation and treatment with MMS and mitomycin-C (MC) and with respect to both the physico-chemical and biological properties of reextracted donor DNA. (orig.)

  17. Structural transformations in ferrofluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubarev, A. Yu.; Iskakova, L. Yu.

    2003-12-01

    We present results of theoretical study of internal structural transformations in magnetic liquids consisting of identical spherical magnetic particles suspended in a carrier liquid. As the results show, when the dimensionless characteristic energy of magnetic interaction ? between particles is less than a certain critical value ?', the system of particles is in spatially homogeneous state with linear chainlike aggregates. When ? exceeds ?', bulk droplike aggregates, consisting of large number of particles, can occur in this system. The critical parameter ?' decreases when external magnetic field increases. This means that, in accordance with all known experiments, magnetic field stimulates the phase separation. Our estimates of ?' are in agreement with magnitudes of the parameter of interaction between particles in typical ferrofluids where these phase transitions have been observed experimentally. Analysis shows that the bulk dense structures can occur provided that the total number N of particles in the system exceeds a threshold value N', which is about a thousand by order of magnitude. We think that this result explains why the bulk dense clusters, observed in many real experiments, have never been observed in three-dimensional computer simulations of ferrofluids—the total number of particles in these simulations was too small to provide the formation of bulk structures.

  18. Evolution of morphological allometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Firmat, Cyril; Bolstad, Geir H; Voje, Kjetil L; Houle, David; Cassara, Jason; Rouzic, Arnaud Le; Hansen, Thomas F

    2014-07-01

    Morphological allometry refers to patterns of covariance between body parts resulting from variation in body size. Whether measured during growth (ontogenetic allometry), among individuals at similar developmental stage (static allometry), or among populations or species (evolutionary allometry), allometric relationships are often tight and relatively invariant. Consequently, it has been suggested that allometries have low evolvability and could constrain phenotypic evolution by forcing evolving species along fixed trajectories. Alternatively, allometric relationships may result from natural selection for functional optimization. Despite nearly a century of active research, distinguishing between these alternatives remains difficult, partly due to wide differences in the meaning assigned to the term allometry. In particular, a broad use of the term, encompassing any monotonic relationship between body parts, has become common. This usage breaks the connection to the proportional growth regulation that motivated Huxley's original narrow-sense use of allometry to refer to power-law relationships between traits. Focusing on the narrow-sense definition of allometry, we review here evidence for and against the allometry-as-a-constraint hypothesis. Although the low evolvability and the evolutionary invariance of the static allometric slope observed in some studies suggest a possible constraining effect of this parameter on phenotypic evolution, the lack of knowledge about selection on allometry prevents firm conclusions. PMID:24913643

  19. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-20

    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity and/or recyclability of the nanostructured catalysts via control of the structure, composition of the catalytically active NPs, and/or nature of the support. These principles will aid researchers in the rational design and engineering of new types of multifunctional nanocatalysts for the achievement of green and sustainable chemical processes. Although the past decade has brought many advances, there are still challenges in the area of nanocatalysis that need to be addressed. These include loss of catalytic activity during operation due to sintering, leaching of soluble species from the nanocatalysts under harsh reaction conditions, loss of control over well-defined morphologies during the scale-up synthesis of the nanocomposites, and limited examples of enantioselective nanocatalytic systems. The future of nanocatalyst research lies in the judicious design and development of nanocomposite catalysts that are stable and resistant to sintering and leaching, and yet are highly active and enantioselective for the desired catalytic organic transformations, even after multiple runs. The successful generation of such multifunctional nanocatalysts especially in tandem, domino, or cascade reactions would provide a powerful tool for the establishment of green and sustainable technologies. PMID:23350747

  20. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the martensitic transformation in zirconia has been the object of a very large number of studies for the last decades, qualitative and quantitative observations of the formation and growth of relief induced by low temperature treatments has hardly ever been reported. In the first part of the study (Martensitic transformation in zirconia, Part I), we have demonstrated the excellent agreement between the atomic force microscopy quantitative observations and the outputs of the calculations derived from the phenomenological theory of martensitic transformation. The intermediate stages of transformation were nonetheless not considered. In this second part, the growth mechanisms of monoclinic phase resulting from the martensitic transformation in ceria-stabilized zirconia (10 mol% CeO2) are investigated. Surface transformation is induced by aging treatments in water vapor at 413 K. The observations are rationalized by the recent analysis proposed for the crystallographic ABC1 correspondence choice, where the ct axis transforms to the cm axis. Three growth modes are observed and interpreted in terms of transformation strains accommodation. Microcracks formation is observed, explaining grain pop-out where the crystallographic disorientation between two adjacent grains is the largest. The influence of grain boundary paths on the surface relief features is demonstrated. Overall, our results strongly support the non-existence of a critically support the non-existence of a critical grain size for low temperature transformation, confirmed by the classical thermodynamics theory applied to this particular case

  1. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  2. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2012-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  3. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data which allows to estimate the achievable total electrical length and in-band reflection coefficient for transformers consisting of up to twelve transmission line sections in the range of transformation ratios r = 1:5 to 10 and bandwidth ratios  = 2 to 20. This data is obtained using wave transmission matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer.

  4. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  5. Clifford (Geometric) Algebra Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    While the Clifford (geometric) algebra Fourier Transform (CFT) is global, we introduce here the local Clifford (geometric) algebra (GA) wavelet concept. We show how for $n=2,3 (\\mod 4)$ continuous $Cl_n$-valued admissible wavelets can be constructed using the similitude group $SIM(n)$. We strictly aim for real geometric interpretation, and replace the imaginary unit $i \\in \\C$ therefore with a GA blade squaring to $-1$. Consequences due to non-commutativity arise. We expre...

  6. Study on structural, morphological and electrical properties of sputtered titanium nitride films under different argon gas flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, we report the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on silicon (100) substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. The effect of argon flow rate (5, 10, 15 and 20 sccm (Standard cubic centimeter per minute)) on the structural and morphological properties was studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively. The XRD patterns revealed the FCC symmetry of the films with an increase in grain size with increasing argon flow. There is no peak of TiN for the film deposited at lower argon flow (5 sccm), however, with the increase in argon flow (10 and 15 sccm), mixed {(111)–(200)} orientations appeared. This mixed {(111)–(200)} orientation transformed to (111) orientation upon further increase in argon flow to 20 sccm. FESEM micrographs showed a smooth morphology of the film with columnar grain structure. The electrical resistivity measurement showed a higher resistivity value (30 ??cm) for TiN film having (111) preferred orientation and lower resistivity value (18??cm) for the films having mixed {(111)–(200)} orientations. The lower value of resistivity is due to the formation of stoichiometric TiN for the mixed {(111)–(200)} orientation. - Highlights: ? Titanium nitride films with different argon flow rate have been deposited. ? Structural, morphological and electrical properties of these films have been studied. ? The XRD results revealed a change in orientation from mixed (111) ation from mixed (111)–(200) to (111) only. ? FESEM results showed a smooth morphology of the film with columnar grain structure. ? The electrical resistivity was found to be lowest ?18 ??cm for stoichiometric TiN film.

  7. Modification in martensite morphology and magneto-strain through rapid solidification and heat treatment of NiMnGaAl alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satnam; Roy, R. K.; Ghosh, M.; Manik, N. B.; Mitra, A.; Panda, A. K.

    2013-10-01

    The influence of melt spinning and heat treatment on the structure, phase transformation and magnetic field induced strain (MFIS) properties have been investigated for Ni55Mn22Ga22Al1 (at%) alloy. The microstructure showed distinct improvement in morphology of as spun ribbon as compared to ingot. Annealing further enhanced martensite state and displayed systematic arrangement of dislocations. It contributed to increase MFIS to 482 ppm in annealed ribbon as compared to 190 ppm and 28 ppm for as-spun ribbon and ingot, respectively.

  8. The Peculiarities of Martensite Morphology in Nano- and Inhomogeneous Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monastyrsky G.E.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes certain experimental situations, in which the small volumes available for the phase transformation can dramatically affect the morphology, substructure of martensite, martensitic transformation itself. Martensitic structures in standalone nanoparticles as well as that one’s embedded in extrinsic matrix, joint nanograins and multiply connected spaces, gradient structures are given consideration. Much attention is paid to the problem of nucleation and propagation of martensitic phase through peculiar spaces having inhomogeneities and complex 3D connectivity with each other. The conclusion is made about inconsistency of the observed ultimate martensite microstructure in nanosized and inhomogeneous spaces with the current conception of the propagation of martensite-austenite boundary through the available for the transformation volumes as the interface, which sustains the invariant plane strain condition.

  9. Balamuthia mandrillaris: Morphology, biology, and virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Ruqaiyyah; Khan, Naveed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Balamuthia mandrillaris is a protist pathogen that can cause encephalitis with a fatality rate of >95%. This is due to our incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. B. mandrillaris has two stages in its life cycle, an active trophozoite stage during which it divides mitotically. However, under unfavorable conditions, the trophozoite transforms into a dormant cyst stage. A major concern during the course of therapy is that B. mandrillaris can transform into cysts. Cysts are highly resistant to physical and chemical conditions and present a problem in successful antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several lines of evidence suggest that B. mandrillaris encephalitis develops as a result of hematogenous spread, but it is unclear how circulating amoebae enter the central nervous system and cause inflammation, blood-brain barrier disruption, and neuronal injury. Recent studies have identified several parasite-host determinants for B. mandrillaris translocation of the blood-brain barrier, and host inflammatory markers that may be associated with neuronal injury. These determinants may provide important targets for the prevention and treatment of this devastating infection. Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the morphology, biology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of B. mandrillaris encephalitis. PMID:25709948

  10. Image watermarking via fractional polar harmonic transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Min; Li, Bing-Zhao; Sun, Huafei

    2015-01-01

    Invariant harmonic transforms based on the fractional Fourier transform are proposed in this paper. The so-called fractional polar harmonic transforms (FrPHTs) with the order parameter ? are first defined, which are generalizations of the PHTs. Second, a watermarking scheme is presented and discussed in detail associated with the newly defined FrPHTs. Finally, the simulations are clearly performed to verify the well capabilities of the transforms on image watermarking, which show that the proposed transforms with suitable parameters outperform the traditional PHTs. In addition, the experimental results also demonstrate that the order parameter ? has an effect on the performance of FrPHTs in the image watermarking robustness and can improve the watermarking safety.

  11. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P; Blaschke, David B

    2008-01-01

    Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and Einstein relativity. Because of that, in this paper we discuss the rules of conformal transformations for geometric quantities in general relativity. In particular, we discuss the conformal transformations of the matter energy-momentum tensor. We thoroughly discuss the latter and show the subtlety of the conservation law (i.e., the geometrical Bianchi identity) imposed in one of the conformal frames in reference to the other. The subtlety refers to the fact that conformal transformation ``creates'' an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservation law. In an extreme case of the flat original spacetime the matter is ``created'' due to work done by the conformal transformation to bend the spacetime which was originally flat. We also discuss how to construct the conformally invariant gravity which, in the simplest version, is a special case of the Brans-Dicke t...

  12. Efficient selection of banks of transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper show a procedure to select the most profitable transformer banks in an specific service or in new investments with emphasis in the reduction of the operational losses, the cost in useful life, and the increase of the system efficiency using techniques of artificial intelligence. The method constitutes a tool that can be used in field conditions without invasive test and with data of easy acquisition according to the state of the art. The program was developed to analyze any type of transformers or transformer bank connection? single phase, three phase transformers or two or three transformers in symmetric or asymmetric configuration for three phase and single phase services. The economic analysis is made by the Cost of Cycle Life (CCV) of the analyzed configuration. As a case the results obtained in the gas station La Calzada of the Cienfuegos municipality is presented.

  13. Transformation elastodynamics and cloaking for flexural waves

    CERN Document Server

    Colquitt, D J; Gei, M; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Jones, I S

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses an important issue of cloaking transformations for fourth-order partial differential equations representing flexural waves in thin elastic plates. It is shown that, in contrast with the Helmholtz equation, the general form of the partial differential equation is not invariant with respect to the cloaking transformation. The significant result of this paper is the analysis of the transformed equation and its interpretation in the framework of the linear theory of pre-stressed plates. The paper provides a formal framework for transformation elastodynamics as applied to elastic plates. Furthermore, an algorithm is proposed for designing a square cloak for flexural waves, which employs a regularised push-out transformation. Illustrative numerical examples show high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed cloaking algorithm. In particular, a physical configuration involving a perturbation of an interference pattern generated by two coherent sources is presented. It is demonstrated that the pert...

  14. Relationships between Convolution and Correlation for Fourier Transform and Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Mawardi Bahri; Armin Lawi; Naimah Aris1; Af, Muh Saleh; Muh. Nur

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce convolution theorem for the Fourier transform (FT) of two complex functions. We show that the correlation theorem for the FT can be derived using properties of convolution. We develop this idea to derive the correlation theorem for the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT) of the two quaternion functions.

  15. Supernova remnant morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, R. N.

    1994-04-01

    The morphology of supernova remnants is principally determined by two components, a shell formed by interaction of the supernova ejecta with the surrounding medium, and a nebula which is powered directly by the associated pulsar. This nebula, often called a 'plerion', is usually located within the shell. These two components appear to evolve independently; in many cases there is no detectable plerion and in a few cases, the Crab Nebula being the most notable example, there is no detectable shell. A 'theoretician's supernova remnant' has spherical symmetry, but observers know that this is rarely the case. There are four main possible sources of non-sphericity, namely, the surrounding interstellar medium, the circumstellar medium, the surpernova explosion, and the associated pulsar. Supernovae often occured in active star formation regions and these regions often have complex networks of cavities blown by strong stellar winds. A supernova remnant expanding in this environment can consist of a several shell-like structure. IC443 is a good example (Braun and Strom, 1986, Astron. Astrophys., 1264, 193). The enhancement of Supernova remnant (SNR) shell brightness toward the Galactic plane (Caswell, 1977, Proc. Astron. Soc. Aust., 3, 130) is further evidence of the influence of the large-scale structure of the interstellar medium. One of the most common forms of non-sphericity is a bilateral symmetry attributed to a barrel-shaped enhancement of the shell (Kesteven and Caswell, 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 183, 118). There is good evidence that this and the associated bi-annular structure often obseved (Manchester, 1987, Astron. Astrophys., 171, 205) ar due to structure in the circumstellar material resulting from mass loss from the pre-supernova star (Storey et al., 1992, Astron. Astrophys., 265, 752). non-spherical, resulting in corresponding non-spherical enhancements of the synchrotron emission. the synchrotron emission.

  16. Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that two ways of manipulating quantum entanglement - namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)]--are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation

  17. Enhancing ultrasound images by morphology filter and eliminating ringing effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various medical image compression techniques have been proposed for accelerating image propagation in many applications. JPEG2000 is a new generation technique that can encode near lossless ultrasound images at medium bit-rate with diagnostically acceptable quality. Because the coder of JPEG2000 is based on wavelet transform, the reconstructed image will contain some ringing artifacts. Some de-ringing algorithm must be applied to enhance image quality. This study presents quad-tree decomposition and a set of morphological filters for reducing the ringing artifacts of ultrasound images. Specifically, the presented morphological filters use eight predefined morphological operations, including four structuring elements (SE) that include both dilation and erosion. The proposed voting strategy can be used to select the morphological filter for each block to optimize decoded image quality. Image quality can be enhanced by applying the appropriate morphological filter to each block. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique enhances reconstructed ultrasound image quality compared to JPEG2000 at the same bit-rate in terms of both PSNR and the perceptual results

  18. SEGMENTATION USING MULTISCALE MORPHOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANMOZHI.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a crucial step in the field of image processing and pattern recognition. Segmentation allows the identification of structures in an image which can be utilized for further processing. This paper proposes a technique for object segmentation from its background. We utilized both region-based and object-based segmentation capabilities to handle the object segmentation for large-scale database images in a robust and principled manner. MultiScalE Graylevel mOrphological recoNstructions (SEGON is used for segmenting an image. SEGON roughly identifies the background and object regions in the image. To further refine the boundaries of the objects mean-shift segmentation technique is applied on the SEGON processed image. Accuracy of segmentation is evaluated by computing structural similarity index (SSIM, for the image segmented with and without using SEGON. Images collected from Corel, Caltech, PASCAL, UCID and CMU-PIE databases are utilized for this work. Experimental results showed that the proposed object segmentation method outperforms the state-of-the-art image segmentation techniques.

  19. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s. PMID:24580142

  20. Craniofacial morphology in Muenke syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Mette Kirstine; Hermann, Nuno V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether the severity of the cranial phenotype in Muenke syndrome infants with unicoronal synostosis is greater than in infants with nonsyndromic unicoronal synostosis. A total of 23 infants were included in the study. All infants included in the study had a computed tomography (CT)-verified synostosis of the coronal suture. The patients were either placed into the "Muenke" group (n=11) or the "non-Muenke" control group (n=12) on the basis of a test for the P250R mutation in the FGFR3 gene. On the basis of CT scans, a three-dimensional surface model corresponding to bone was created for each individual. The sutures were inspected for synostosis, and the degree of synostosis was assessed. Increased digital markings were recorded for both groups. Craniofacial morphology was assessed quantitatively using bony landmarks and recording of the midsagittal surface of the calvaria, cranial base, and maxillary complex. Increased digital markings were more severe posteriorly in Muenke patients than in non-Muenke patients. The Muenke patients with unilateral coronal synostosis showed a somewhat more severe asymmetry in the anterior part of the skull than the non-Muenke patients. The study indicates differences with regard to severity of increased digital markings and craniofacial asymmetry between the infants with Muenke syndrome and the infants with nonsyndromic unilateral coronal synostosis.

  1. Effect of the structure of ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers on morphology and mechanical properties of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.

  2. Special relativistic temperature transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, K.P. [York, Pennsylvania State Univ., PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Greiner, A.J. [Annville, Lebanon Valley College, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1998-12-01

    A special relativistic temperature transformation is derived for an ideal gas in which the Kelvin temperature is defined in the conventional sense as being proportional to the mean kinetic energy of the component particles. The proposed transformation predicts that a moving body will appear cooler to a stationary observer.

  3. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  4. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  5. A Generalised Hadamard Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Horadam, K. J.

    2005-01-01

    A Generalised Hadamard Transform for multi-phase or multilevel signals is introduced, which includes the Fourier, Generalised, Discrete Fourier, Walsh-Hadamard and Reverse Jacket Transforms. The jacket construction is formalised and shown to admit a tensor product decomposition. Primary matrices under this decomposition are identified. New examples of primary jacket matrices of orders 8 and 12 are presented.

  6. Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the global atmospheric changes is difficult with today's current technology. However, with high resolution and nearly continuous observations from a satellite, it's possible to transform our understanding of the atmosphere. To enable the next generation of atmospheric science, a new class of orbiting atmospheric sensors is being developed. The foundation of this advanced concept is the Fourier Transform Spectrometer, or FTS.

  7. Comparison of heat and radiation sensitivity in normal C3H-10T1/2 cells and cells transformed by radiation or the H ras oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells were transformed from the normal to the malignant state using X-rays or by transfection with a plasmid containing the active H ras oncogene. Clones of cells with a transformed morphology were isolated and grown into large populations. These cells were tested and produced tumors in C/sub 3/H mice. Seven clones transformed by radiation showed a range of sensitivity to heat and X-rays that varied from greater to lesser than the heat and X-ray sensitivity in normal cells. Similar results were observed for the cells transformed by the H ras oncogene. Thus, the malignant transformation of C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells by X-rays or H ras oncogenes did not, in general result in increased thermal sensitivity, implying that the malignant phenotype is not intrinsically more heat sensitive than the normal cell. The thermal sensitivity in the various transformed cell lines was not correlated with membrane cholesterol or phospholipid content

  8. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells irradiated in utero and assayed in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pregnant hamsters were exposed to 300 rad of x rays at 12 days of gestation and the embryos were removed 30 min later. Cell cultures were prepared and transformed cells were identified by altered morphology and growth patterns. Observations were made on chromosome number, fibrinolytic activity of transformed cells, release of macrophage inhibitory factor, the pattern of cellular lysosomal hydrolases, and the ganglioside content of cells. The transformed cells gave rise to tumors in syngeneic hamsters

  9. Transformation of cutaneous T cell lymphoma to large cell lymphoma. A clinicopathologic and immunologic study.

    OpenAIRE

    Salhany, K. E.; Cousar, J. B.; Greer, J. P.; Casey, T. T.; Fields, J. P.; Collins, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) develop a high-grade, large-cell lymphoma associated with rapid deterioration of clinical status. This change in histologic appearance and clinical behavior of CTCL is similar to transformations of other hematopoietic and lymphoid neoplasms. From a group of 92 cases of CTCL, morphologic, immunologic and clinical features were studied in 17 cases of transformed CTCL. Transformation was noted, at presentation or subsequently, in either cutaneo...

  10. Trkalian fields and Radon transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Saygili, K.

    2010-01-01

    We write the spherical curl transformation for Trkalian fields using differential forms. Then we consider Radon transform of these fields. The Radon transform of a Trkalian field satisfies a corresponding eigenvalue equation on a sphere in transform space. The field can be reconstructed using knowledge of the Radon transform on a canonical hemisphere. We consider relation of the Radon transformation with Biot-Savart integral operator and discuss its transform introducing Rad...

  11. Texture transformations in Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness-dependent texture transformation during annealing of initially (1 1 1) fiber-textured face-centered-cubic metal thin films is phenomenologically well known: sufficiently thin films retain the (1 1 1) texture, while sufficiently thick films transform to a (1 0 0) fiber texture. This transformation has been explained based on minimization of strain and interface energies, but recent work calls into question the roles of both of these driving forces. A high-throughput experimental method for the study of this texture transformation has been developed and applied to thin silver films with and without Ti adhesion layers. More than 150 individual samples spanning a range of thicknesses and interface conditions were prepared in a single deposition run. The texture evolution of these samples was characterized using X-ray diffraction as a function of time and temperature during annealing. The transformation proceeds despite the fact that the stresses are too low according to the strain/interface energy model. For films with Ti adhesion layers, the transformation kinetics and extent of transformation depend on the film thickness in a surprising way with intermediate thickness films showing initially fast transformations and stable mixed textures, while thicker films show an incubation time but transform fully. The results are consistent with reduction in defect energy (e.g. dislocations or point defects) as the driving force for secondary grain growth in an environment in which only (1 0 0) recrystallization nuclei can form. The driving force increases with film thickness so the nonmonotonic variation in transformation rate implies that the density of (1 0 0) nuclei decreases with thickness

  12. Complex Hilbert Transform Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert transform is a basic tool in constructing analytical signals for a various applications such as amplitude modulation, envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, quadrature decoding, shift-invariant multi-rate signal processing and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. This work introduces a complex Hilbert transform (CHT filter, where the real and imaginary parts are a Hilbert transform pair. The CHT filtered signal is analytic, i.e. its Fourier transform is zero in negative frequency range. The CHT filter is constructed by half-sample delay operators based on the B-spline transform interpolation and decimation procedure. The CHT filter has an ideal phase response and the magnitude response is maximally flat in the frequency range 0 ? ? ? ?. The CHT filter has integer coefficients and the implementation in VLSI requires only summations and register shifts. We demonstrate the feasibility of the CHT filter in reconstruction of the sign modulated CMOS logic pulses in a fibre optic link.

  13. Morphological redescription of Dirofilaria immitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Adriano P; Melo, Francisco T V; Giese, Elane G; dos Santos, Jeannie N

    2010-06-01

    Morphological descriptions of Dirofilaria immitis are scarce. For this reason, we carried out morphological studies using both light and scanning electron microscopy for this filaroid species. Morphometric and morphological data were compatible with previous descriptions of D. immitis , but several anatomical structures are described by scanning electron microscopy for the first time, such as details of the cuticular striations, positioning of amphids, visualization of anal and vulvar opening, descriptions of deirids, lateral line, the pair of phasmids in the posterior end in females, and visualization of a small pair of latero-terminal papillae in the posterior end in males. PMID:20557193

  14. Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

  15. A model for distribution transformers replacement economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total owning cost of transformers is usually calculated as a present value at time of purchase, using well-defined parameters that take into account specific actual and forecasted financial data including the projected cost of losses over the expected life of the unit. Improvements in transformer efficiency, especially in the last decade, have resulted in changes in evaluation parameters used in such calculations. It is not uncommon to see that the capitalized cost of transformer losses reaches 1.5 times the invoiced price of a transformer. It is therefore of interest to examine the economics of replacing an older transformer by a more efficient unit, rather than refurbishing the older unit. An example of a 50-kVA transformer originally installed in 1974 is used. The analysis shows that if the unit is installed, it is not economical to remove it for replacement with a new unit; but if the transformer is not in service the opposite applies. A computer program running with Lotus 123 is available that aids in these transformer replacement economics calculations. The program also allows sensitivity analyses and comparisons of present worth to changeout and/or refurbishment cost. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Unusual morphological forms of cryptococcus neoformans in cerebrospinal fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcal meningitis is recognized as one of the AIDS defining conditions. It acts as a diagnostic marker for further investigations to establish the retroviral infection. Cryptococcus neoformans can be readily identified by its characteristic capsulated morphology. But rarely variations in morphology may be seen. We report a case of chronic meningitis in an AIDS patient whose cerebrospinal fluid (CSF stained with India ink showed elliptical, peanut shaped and pseudomycelial large yeast cells with thick capsules. The organism was cultured and identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans. Unusual morphological forms may create diagnostic dilemma in the rapid diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.

  17. A resource-based Korean morphological annotation system

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Hyun-Gue

    2007-01-01

    We describe a resource-based method of morphological annotation of written Korean text. Korean is an agglutinative language. The output of our system is a graph of morphemes annotated with accurate linguistic information. The language resources used by the system can be easily updated, which allows us-ers to control the evolution of the per-formances of the system. We show that morphological annotation of Korean text can be performed directly with a lexicon of words and without morpho-logical rules.

  18. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Organic electronic devices are an intense area of research. While some devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED) have matured and are found in a vast amount of consumer electronic devices, their energy producing counterpart, organic photovoltaics (OPV), are still in the process of making the transition from the laboratory into the commercial market. One of the biggest challenges in this process is upscaling the production. The object of this thesis is to investigate the morphology of OPV devices produced from pilot scale roll to roll (R2R) coaters. OPV devices still struggle with low performance, and the morphology is known to have a critical impact on the performance of a device. Several studies have tried to identify the optimal morphology of OPV devices and how to achieve it. Most work has been focused on OPVs produced by spin coating in a small laboratory scale. Devices produced by R2R coating, which works fundamentally different, have not been studied. Traditional production of OPV has required the use of toxic solvents. A new environmentally friendly approach using water based inks, made of nanoparticles, is now being tested. However, nothing is known about the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small domain size to be studied, in the nanometer regime, and the poor contrast due to the similarity of the organic materials. The physical impact of the ink and the process of coating it, was investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, hard X-ray ptychography and soft X-ray transmission imaging. Utilizing the robustness and high resolution of transmission electron microscopy, different preparations of inks were studied. Electron microscopy offers good visualization, but lacks contrast to distinguish similar organic materials, such as P3HT and PCBM, two components of the active layer. Electron diffraction yields information about the crystal structure of the samples but have a coarse spot size. X-ray scattering is a well known technique for measuring shapes, sizes, crystal structures and orientation. Both small- and wide-angle scattering were used to measure the crystallinity of the layers as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed the viability of ptychography as a characterization technique for OPVs evaluated. The ink studies showed that the nanoparticles in the active layer were disrupted. Dense parts of the nanoparticles could be observed surrounded by a bulk of less dense material. The same pattern was seen in preparations made by both coating methods. A difference, observed between the two methods was that the layer produced by R2R consisted of aggregates of particles. The particles in the spin coated samples were uniformly distributed. Furthermore, this thesis focuseds on developing, and testing, a new method for high throughput characterization of OPV devices. An advantage with R2R coating is the continuous production of layers and the possibility to change production parameters continuously during the process. It would therefore be an advantage if the characterization could also be done continuously. For this purpose a small film winder-underwinder was tested. The crystalline structure was measured using small angle X-ray scattering on three samples. The high spatial resol

  19. Morphology of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayre, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Examination of rubber modified epoxy, cured with diethanol amine, via the transmission electron microscope has shown that a broad distribution of rubber particle sizes exists. The average particle size for particles greater than .1 ..mu..m was found to be .8 ..mu..m. A significant population of particles was found whose diameters are less than .1 ..mu..m. Examination of the particle interface showed that the interface between the dispersed phase and the epoxy matrix was sharp within the accuracy of the method used. The morphology observed was compared against morphologies which have been purported to result in toughening via shear banding and crazing. It was found that the observed particle size distribution did not preclude toughening by these mechanisms.

  20. Morphology of rubber modified epoxy encapsulants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Examination of rubber modified epoxy, cured with diethanol amine, via the transmission electron microscope has shown that a broad distribution of rubber particle sizes exists. The average particle size for particles greater than .1 ?m was found to be .8 ?m. A significant population of particles was found whose diameters are less than .1 ?m. Examination of the particle interface showed that the interface between the dispersed phase and the epoxy matrix was sharp within the accuracy of the method used. The morphology observed was compared against morphologies which have been purported to result in toughening via shear banding and crazing. It was found that the observed particle size distribution did not preclude toughening by these mechanisms

  1. Modeling vegetation controls on fluvial morphological trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Walter; Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-10-01

    The role of riparian vegetation in shaping river morphology is widely recognized. The interaction between vegetation growth and riverbed evolution is characterized by complex nonlinear feedbacks, which hinder direct estimates of the role of key elements on the morphological evolutionary trajectories of gravel bed rivers. Adopting a simple theoretical framework, we develop a numerical model which couples hydromorphodynamics with biomass dynamics. We perform a sensitivity analysis considering several parameters as flood intensity, type of vegetation, and groundwater level. We find that the inclusion of vegetation determines a threshold behavior, identifying two possible equilibrium configurations: unvegetated versus vegetated bars. Stable vegetation patterns can establish only under specific conditions, which depend on the different environmental and species-related characteristics. From a management point of view, model results show that relatively small changes in water availability or species composition may determine a sudden shift between dynamic unvegetated conditions to more stable, vegetated rivers.

  2. Morphological effect on the mechanical behavior of a two-phase Ti[sub 3]Al-Nb alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, N.J.; Kim, J.Y. (Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)); Cho, W.S. (Kia Motors Corp., Seoul (Korea, Republic of))

    1993-08-01

    A study has been made on the deformation and fracture behavior of a two-phase ([alpha][sub 2] + [beta]) Ti[sub 3]Al-Nb alloy, with particular emphasis on the effect of morphologies. The coarse colony structure obtained by continuously annealing in the two-phase region directly from the [beta] region results in poor elongation ductility. The fine colony structure obtained by two-phase annealing the [beta]-quenched specimen also results in poor elongation ductility. However, upon obtaining fine equiaxed or basket-weave structures by following different transformation paths, improvements occur in elongation ductility without any sacrifice in strength. For the fine equiaxed structure, maximum elongation is obtained at the intermediate volume fraction of [alpha][sub 2] while for the basket-weave structure, an increase in the volume fraction of [alpha][sub 2] increases the elongation. Detailed fracture analysis shows that different fracture mechanisms operate for different morphologies, and the critical microstructural unit for arresting fracture also varies, depending on the morphologies.

  3. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  4. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  5. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  6. One-Level Prosodic Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Walther, M

    1999-01-01

    Recent developments in theoretical linguistics have lead to a widespread acceptance of constraint-based analyses of prosodic morphology phenomena such as truncation, infixation, floating morphemes and reduplication. Of these, reduplication is particularly challenging for state-of-the-art computational morphology, since it involves copying of some part of a phonological string. In this paper I argue for certain extensions to the one-level model of phonology and morphology (Bird & Ellison 1994) to cover the computational aspects of prosodic morphology using finite-state methods. In a nutshell, enriched lexical representations provide additional automaton arcs to repeat or skip sounds and also to allow insertion of additional material. A kind of resource consciousness is introduced to control this additional freedom, distinguishing between producer and consumer arcs. The non-finite-state copying aspect of reduplication is mapped to automata intersection, itself a non-finite-state operation. Bounded local opt...

  7. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, John F; Carlson, J; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-06-29

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times but could be inadequate in early epochs of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new approach in neutrino flavor transformation modeling. PMID:23004955

  8. PD data for power transformers and reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulski, E.; Burger, H.P. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands); Vaillancourt, G.H. [Institut de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada); Brooks, R. [Haefely (Emil) und Cie AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The general trends in partial discharge (PD) patterns as they occur during induced voltage tests of power transformers and reactors were studied. Measurements from more than 80 power transformers and reactors were included in a database. The measurements were analysed using statistical tools such as the group average analysis technique. Discrimination between possible clusters could be made with this technique. The time span of a measurement and the measuring channel were the two important parameters that were considered when evaluating the discharge data. The database made it possible to distinguish between transformers showing different discharge behaviour. 1 ref., 1 tab., 9 figs.

  9. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology of Interstellar Ice Analogues

    OpenAIRE

    Accolla, Mario

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic observations of cold and dense interstellar clouds show the presence of "dirty ice" mantles on dust grains, mainly composed by water molecules. These ices are enriched by the presence of other simple species that are either formed by surface reactions or accreted from the gas phase. While there is quite a general consensus that interstellar water ice is mainly amorphous, its morphology (porous or compact) still remains poorly known. Morphology is important due to its influence b...

  10. A resource-based Korean morphological annotation system

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyun-gue; Laporte, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We describe a resource-based method of morphological annotation of written Korean text. Korean is an agglutinative language. The output of our system is a graph of morphemes annotated with accurate linguistic information. The language resources used by the system can be easily updated, which allows us-ers to control the evolution of the per-formances of the system. We show that morphological annotation of Korean text can be performed directly with a lexicon of words and with...

  11. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of Meloidogyne mayaguensis Isolates from Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, J.; Powers, T. O.; Mullin, P. G.; Inserra, R. N.; Dickson, D. W.

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of Meloidogyne mayaguensis is confirmed in Florida; this is the first report for the continental United States. Meloidogyne mayaguensis is a virulent species that can reproduce on host cultivars bred for nematode resistance. The perineal patterns of M. mayaguensis isolates from Florida show morphological variability and often are similar to M. incognita. Useful morphological characters for the separation of M. mayaguensis from M. incognita from Florida are the male stylet length...

  12. A discrete fractional random transform

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2006-01-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  13. The Practice of Transformative Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Omiunota

    2009-01-01

    The author examined the practice of transformative pedagogy in an undergraduate teacher education program. The research was guided by two questions: What is the impact of transformative pedagogy on fostering preservice teachers' transformative learning? and What practices of transformative pedagogy impact student transformative learning?…

  14. Morphological Algorithms for Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Chanda Bhabatosh

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical morphological operators are based on set theoretic approach and are suitable for extracting shape information. Some important operators are dilation, erosion, opening and closing. Image intensity profile may be viewed as a topographical surface, where pixel co-ordinate stands for the location and the intensity for the altitude. Thus, the surface relief and slope represent different types of object features. Hence, morphological tools are found very effective for image processing....

  15. Study on nonlocal morphological operators

    OpenAIRE

    Salembier Clairon, Philippe Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies nonlocal morphological operators. Following the strategy proposed for the Nonlocal means filter, these operators are based on a local and adaptive definition of the structuring element which is specified by searching for patches in the image that are similar to the one surrounding the pixel being filtered. After presenting the basic nonlocal morphological operators using generic structuring elements, we study their robustness in the presence of noise. Then...

  16. Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ong, Sang-bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitochondrial fusion proteins (mitofusins 1 and 2, and optic atrophy 1) and the mitochondrial fission proteins (dynamin-related peptide 1 and mitochondrial fission protein 1) and have been implicated in a...

  17. Investigation of the Surface Morphology and Structural Characterization of Palm Fiber Reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PF-ABS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrun Neher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of Injection Moulding Machine (IMM Palm fiber reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS composites (PF-ABS were prepared. Three sets of samples were prepared for three different wt% (5%, 10% and 20% of fiber contents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR experiments were performed to study the surface morphology, microstructure (if it crystalline or noncrystalline and new bond formation after preparation of the composites. SEM pattern shows that after addition of palm fiber in PF-ABS composites the brittleness increased due to creation of voids in the composites except 10% fiber content in PF-ABS. From XRD pattern it is clear that the palm fiber, ABS and PF-ABS composites are amorphous in nature. Moreover FTIR spectrum shows that there is no new bond formed after addition of palm fiber in ABS polymeric matrix to create PF-ABS composites.

  18. Effect of morphology of dispersed nano-CeO2 on far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongbin; Xu, Anping; Liang, Jinsheng

    2011-11-01

    Dispersed nano-CeO2 successfully grew on the surface of natural tourmaline powders by a precipitation method. The results of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots could apparently enhance the far infrared emission property of tourmaline in relation to CeO2 nanoparticles. This is the first report regarding the effect of the morphology of nano-CeO2 on the far infrared emission property of natural tourmaline. The results of the characterization by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that CeO2 (111) nanospots have much more chemisorbed oxygen than CeO2 nanoparticles, which is beneficial to the unit cell volume shrinkage of tourmaline, thus increasing its far infrared emissivity. PMID:22413254

  19. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants. PMID:18327591

  20. Genetics of Follicular Lymphoma Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pasqualucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent disease, but 30%–40% of cases undergo histologic transformation to an aggressive malignancy, typically represented by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. The pathogenesis of this process remains largely unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show here that the dominant clone of FL and transformed FL (tFL arise by divergent evolution from a common mutated precursor through the acquisition of distinct genetic events. Mutations in epigenetic modifiers and antiapoptotic genes are introduced early in the common precursor, whereas tFL is specifically associated with alterations deregulating cell-cycle progression and DNA damage responses (CDKN2A/B, MYC, and TP53 as well as aberrant somatic hypermutation. The genomic profile of tFL shares similarities with that of germinal center B cell-type de novo DLBCL but also displays unique combinations of altered genes with diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  1. Flexible transformation plasmonics using graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Wei Bing; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Hong Ju; Ni, Zhen Hua; Dong, Zheng Gao; Cui, Tie Jun

    2013-05-01

    The flexible control of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) is important and intriguing due to its wide application in novel plasmonic devices. Transformation optics (TO) offers the capability either to confine the SPP propagation on rigid curved/uneven surfaces, or to control the flow of SPPs on planar surfaces. However, TO has not permitted us to confine, manipulate, and control SPP waves on flexible curved surfaces. Here, we propose to confine and freely control flexible SPPs using TO and graphene. We show that SPP waves can be naturally confined and propagate on curved or uneven graphene surfaces with little bending and radiation losses, and the confined SPPs are further manipulated and controlled using TO. Flexible plasmonic devices are presented, including the bending waveguides, wave splitter, and Luneburg lens on curved surfaces. Together with the intrinsic flexibility, graphene can be served as a good platform for flexible transformation plasmonics. PMID:23669904

  2. Development of mental transformation abilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Andrea; Möhring, Wenke; Newcombe, Nora S

    2014-10-01

    Mental representation and transformation of spatial information is often examined with mental rotation (MR) tasks, which require deciding whether a rotated image is the same as or the mirror version of an upright image. Recent research with infants shows early discrimination of objects from mirror-image versions. However, even at the age of 4 years, many children perform at near chance level on more standard measures. Similar age discrepancies can be observed in other domains, including perspective taking, theory of mind, and intuitive physics. These paradoxical results raise the questions of how performance relates to competence and how to conceptualize developmental change. There may be a common underlying mechanism: the development of the ability to imagine things and mentally transform them in a prospective fashion. PMID:24973167

  3. Hydrothermal preparation and characterization of based-alloy Bi2Te3 nanostructure with different morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, based-alloy Bi2Te3 nanostructure with different morphologies was synthesized by a hydrothermal process based on the reaction between Bi(NO3)3, TeCl4, and KBH4 in water at various conditions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectrum and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The result shows that the Bi2Te3 crystals have diameters ranging from 20 to 25 nm with high purity. Other factors, such as the reaction time, the different capping agent and the sort of reductant also have influence on the morphology of the final products to some extent. By variation of reductant, conversion rode-like to flower-like was obtained. Organic ligands play a manifold role in the formation of the chainlike nanostructures as both coordinate ligand and architecture template, and a possible formation mechanism is proposed.

  4. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with different morphologies from melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Zhang, Bingqing; Shi, Jingying; Yang, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from melamine-formaldehyde (MR) resin using FeCl3 or supported FeCl3 as catalysts. The growth of NCNTs follows a decomposition-reconstruction mechanism, in which the polymer precursor would totally gasify during pyrolysis process and then transformed into carbon nanotubes. The morphology of the NCNTs could be adjusted via applying different catalyst supports and three kinds of carbon nanotubes with outer-diameter of 20-200 nm and morphologies of either bamboo-like or hollow interiors were obtained. Nitrogen atoms in the materials were mainly in the form of pyridinic and quaternary form while the formation of iron species strongly depended on the interaction between iron precursor and organic carbon/nitrogen sources. All MR resin derived NCNTs are efficient toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). NCNTs prepared using FeCl3 as catalyst showed the highest ORR activity with half-wave potentials of -0.17 V, which is comparable with commercial Pt/C. This is probably because of a close contact between MR resin and iron precursor could enhance the iron-ligand coordination strength and thus steadily improve the performance of the catalyst. PMID:25790324

  5. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptorcy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  6. Characterization of chemical vapour deposited diamond films: correlation between hydrogen incorporation and film morphology and quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to tailor diamond synthesized through chemical vapour deposition (CVD) for different applications, many diamond films of different colours and variable quality were deposited by a 5 kW microwave plasma CVD reactor under different growth conditions. The morphology, quality and hydrogen incorporation of these films were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, respectively. From this study, a general trend between hydrogen incorporation and film colour, morphology and quality was found. That is, as the films sorted by colour gradually become darker, ranging from white through grey to black, high magnification SEM images illustrate that the smoothness of the well defined crystalline facet gradually decreases and second nucleation starts to appear on it, indicating gradual degradation of the crystalline quality. Correspondingly, Raman spectra evidence that the diamond Raman peak at 1332 cm-1 becomes broader and the non-diamond carbon band around 1500 cm-1 starts to appear and becomes stronger, confirming increase of the non-diamond component and decrease of the phase purity of the film, while FTIR spectra show that the CH stretching band and the two CVD diamond specific peaks around 2830 cm-1 rise rapidly, and this indicates that the total amount of hydrogen incorporated into the film increases significantly

  7. Morphological modifications of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings under amino acids effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, R.; Lemelle, A.; Untereiner, V.; Manfait, M.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Benhayoune, H.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by pulsed electrodeposition. This work aims to observe the morphological modifications of the coating when an amino acid is added to the electrolytic solution used in the process. The effects of two amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) are studied at a low and a high concentration. The coating morphology is observed at a nanometer scale by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The structural characterization of the coating is performed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, corrosion measurements of the prosthetic surfaces are carried out by potentiodynamic polarization experiments in a physiological solution named Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). The results show that the addition of an amino acid to the electrolytic solution leads to the decrease of the size of the crystallites which compose the prosthetic calcium phosphate coating that becomes denser and less porous than the coatings obtained without amino acid. Consequently, the corrosion behavior of the prosthetic material immersed in DMEM is improved.

  8. Tuning chemical and physical cross-links in silk electrogels for morphological analysis and mechanical reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yinan; Xia, Xiaoxia; Shang, Ke; Elia, Roberto; Huang, Wenwen; Cebe, Peggy; Leisk, Gary; Omenetto, Fiorenzo; Kaplan, David L

    2013-08-12

    Electrochemically controlled, reversible assembly of biopolymers into hydrogel structures is a promising technique for on-demand cell or drug encapsulation and release systems. An electrochemically sol-gel transition has been demonstrated in regenerated Bombyx mori silk fibroin, offering a controllable way to generate biocompatible and reversible adhesives and other biomedical materials. Despite the involvement of an electrochemically triggered electrophoretic migration of the silk molecules, the mechanism of the reversible electrogelation remains unclear. It is, however, known that the freshly prepared silk electrogels (e-gels) adopt a predominantly random coil conformation, indicating a lack of cross-linking as well as thermal, mechanical, and morphological stabilities. In the present work, the tuning of covalent and physical ?-sheet cross-links in silk hydrogels was studied for programming the structural properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed delicate morphology, including locally aligned fibrillar structures, in silk e-gels, preserved by combining glutaraldehyde-cross-linking and ethanol dehydration. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of either electrogelled, vortex-induced or spontaneously formed silk hydrogels showed that the secondary structure of silk e-gels was tunable between non-?-sheet-dominated and ?-sheet-dominated states. Dynamic oscillatory rheology confirmed the mechanical reinforcement of silk e-gels provided by controlled chemical and physical cross-links. The selective incorporation of either chemical or physical or both cross-links into the electrochemically responsive, originally unstructured silk e-gel should help in the design for electrochemically responsive protein polymers. PMID:23859710

  9. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  10. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  11. Two-dimensional quaternion wavelet transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi; Ashino, Ryuichi; Vaillancourt, R. Mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT). We express the admissibility condition in terms of the (right-sided) quaternion Fourier transform. We show that its fundamental properties, such as inner product, norm relation, and inversion formula, can be established whenever the quaternion wavelets satisfy a particular admissibility condition. We present several examples of the CQWT. As an application we derive a Heisenberg type uncertainty princ...

  12. Atypical burkitt's lymphoma transforming from follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung Lap P; Loong Florence; Hwang Yu Y; Chim Chor S

    2011-01-01

    Amongst follicular lymphoma that transforms into a high-grade lymphoma, majority are diffuse large B cell lymphoma. Here we reported a rare atypical Burkitt's lymphoma transformation from an asymptomatic follicular lymphoma. Lymph node biopsy showed a composite lymphoma with infiltration of the inter-follicular areas by high grade small non-cleaved lymphoma cells amongst neoplastic follicles. Moreover, FISH and molecular genetic study confirmed concomitant MYC translocations and t(14;18) in t...

  13. A General Geometric Fourier Transform Convolution Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bujack, Roxana; Scheuermann, Gerik; Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The large variety of Fourier transforms in geometric algebras inspired the straight forward definition of ``A General Geometric Fourier Transform`` in Bujack et al., Proc. of ICCA9, covering most versions in the literature. We showed which constraints are additionally necessary to obtain certain features like linearity, a scaling, or a shift theorem. In this paper we extend the former results by a convolution theorem.

  14. A note on Fourier-Mukai transform

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshioka, Kota

    2001-01-01

    In this note, we consider the problem on the preservation of stability under the Fourier-Mukai transforms. We first show that the Fourier-Mukai transform on an abelian surface or a K3 surface does not always preserve the stability, even for a $\\mu$-stable vector bundle. We next provide some positive results on this problem. Finally we discuss the birational map of moduli spaces on an abelian surface.

  15. Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, William Y; Sanford, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services" addresses the fundamental ideology of Cloud Services and how enterprises in commercial, federal, and defense industries can transform their current information technology and management models to adopt this new method. It goes beyond the mere description of service frameworks in relation to cloud technologies and operations and provides practical path-forward solutions for identified challenges. For instance, as organizations transform their data and service models to compete in a new environment where data and services coexist with others in

  16. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  17. Assessment of Morphological Variation in Irish Brassica oleracea Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing the morphological variation in 25 accessions of an Irish collection of Brassica oleracea using 44 morphological traits. The morphological traits showed a pronounced variation among accessions. Vegetative preflowering and maturity traits revealed higher variation than seedling traits. Of the 44 morphological descriptors used, 28 were significantly different and proved useful in examining diversity and differentiating among accessions studied. Principal component analysis (PCA showed variation among accessions, where 87.24% of the total variation in the morphological data was separated on the first five components, indicating a high degree of correlation among traits studied. Cluster analysis grouped the 25 accessions into 4 main groups, corresponding to kales, cauliflowers, cabbages and sprouts, and also showed a sort of correlation between clustering pattern and eco-geographical distribution of the accessions. Furthermore, this study identified 9 highly diverse accessions, providing opportunities for optimising parental sources in future breeding programs to develop new or more productive Brassica varieties. Morphological traits were deemed useful for assessing the diversity and relationships in Irish Brassica oleracea species.

  18. Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows Two cases ... Missouri and Texas are giving insight into a freshwater algae that can infect wounds. Reporting in the ...

  19. Moment invariants for two-dimensional and three-dimensional characterization of the morphology of gamma-prime precipitates in nickel-base superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macsleyne, Jeremiah P.

    The relation between microstructural features and a material's properties is central to materials science. Certain morphological features of a microstructure can only be determined by 3-D characterization techniques, e.g. the connectivity of precipitates, and the true precipitate shape; others require geometric assumptions for stereological estimates, e.g. precipitate size distribution and the number of precipitates. When these inherently 3-D features affect the properties of a specific material, experimental techniques are necessary to investigate the 3-D nature of the microstructure, and to provide a more complete microstructural characterization. The quantitative description of 2-D and 3-D shapes is of fundamental importance to microstructural characterization. One approach to describing a microstructure is to characterize the shapes of individual precipitates. This characterization has typically been limited to particle size, aspect-ratio, and other qualitative descriptors. In general, these are insufficient and do not provide an adequate characterization in a way that allows for a direct comparison between different microstructures. This is evident during microstructure evolution when changes in precipitate morphology occur or when precipitates exhibit complex shapes. In this thesis, we show how moment invariants (combinations of second order moments that are invariant w.r.t. affine or similarity transformations) can be used as sensitive shape discriminators in 2-D and 3-D. This work focuses on the characterization of the two phase microstructure of nickel base superalloys and specically the gamma-prime (Ni3Al) precipitate morphology. Experimental data is collected by means of automated Focused-Ion Beam (FIB) based serial sectioning. Techniques for automated image processing and segmentation are developed which allow for direct conversion of raw serial-sectioning data to 3-D microstructural data. The gamma-prime precipitate morphology is characterized using second order moment invariants in conjunction with other shape parameters such as volume and surface area. This provides a quantitative description of the gamma-prime precipitate morphology and allows for variations in morphology to be identified.

  20. Frequency conversion by exploiting time in transformation optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fundamental framework of transformation optics describes how coordinate transformations on electromagnetic fields can be physically realized through complex material parameters. This approach includes the possibility of transforming time as well as space, but the applications of such transformations remain relatively unexplored. Here we analyze the material properties and wave effects of a one-dimensional spatially varying time transformation. This transformation results in relatively simple electromagnetic material parameters defined by isotropic dielectric constants with a time-varying magnetoelectric coupling constant. We show that the resulting wave and field behavior in this medium is what is expected from the transformation, namely that an input frequency is scaled to a new and arbitrary output frequency defined by the overall magnitude of the time transformation. While the parameters required to realize such a medium are complex, we describe how the needed time-varying magnetoelectric coupling is feasible using an externally tunable electromagnetic metamaterials approach

  1. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

  2. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  3. Mechanical properties of fibroblasts depend on level of cancer transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, Yu M; Lomakina, M E; Bagrov, D V; Makhnovskiy, P I; Alexandrova, A Y; Kirpichnikov, M P; Shaitan, K V

    2014-05-01

    Recently, it was revealed that tumor cells are significantly softer than normal cells. Although this phenomenon is well known, it is connected with many questions which are still unanswered. Among these questions are the molecular mechanisms which cause the change in stiffness and the correlation between cell mechanical properties and their metastatic potential. We studied mechanical properties of cells with different levels of cancer transformation. Transformed cells in three systems with different transformation types (monooncogenic N-RAS, viral and cells of tumor origin) were characterized according to their morphology, actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion organization. Transformation led to reduction of cell spreading and thus decreasing the cell area, disorganization of actin cytoskeleton, lack of actin stress fibers and decline in the number and size of focal adhesions. These alterations manifested in a varying degree depending on type of transformation. Force spectroscopy by atomic force microscopy with spherical probes was carried out to measure the Young's modulus of cells. In all cases the Young's moduli were fitted well by log-normal distribution. All the transformed cell lines were found to be 40-80% softer than the corresponding normal ones. For the cell system with a low level of transformation the difference in stiffness was less pronounced than for the two other systems. This suggests that cell mechanical properties change upon transformation, and acquisition of invasive capabilities is accompanied by significant softening. PMID:24530505

  4. Transformer design tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  5. Crazy Qubit Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, L; Hardy, Lucien; Song, David D.

    2001-01-01

    We generalise our previous results of universal linear manipulations [Phys. Rev. A63, 032304 (2001)] to investigate three types of nonlinear qubit transformations using measurement and quantum based schemes. Firstly, nonlinear rotations are studied. We rotate different parts of a Bloch sphere in opposite directions about the z-axis. The second transformation is a map which sends a qubit to its orthogonal state (which we define as ORTHOG). We consider the case when the ORTHOG is applied to only a partial area of a Bloch sphere. We also study nonlinear general transformation, i.e. (theta,phi)->(theta-alpha,phi), again, applied only to part of the Bloch sphere. In order to achieve these three operations, we consider different measurement preparations and derive the optimal average (instead of universal) quantum unitary transformations. We also introduce a simple method for a qubit measurement and its application to other cases.

  6. Quaternions and Lorentz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, it was argued by some authors that number systems with non-commutative multiplication laws can provide a deeper physical insight into many open theoretical problems. The generalization of the Lorentz group to transformations with faster-than-light speed parameters (the so-called 'extended theory of relativity') has shown itself - apart from the real existence of tachyons - to be a useful tool in order to deal, within a purely classical (i.e. relativistic but not quantum-mechanical) frame work, with antiparticles, discrete symmetries, CPT-covariance, and so on. Therefore, it seems worthwhile looking for possible connections between non-commutative number systems and 'superluminal' Lorentz transformations. In this paper, the author reviews how Lorentz transformations (both subluminal and superluminal) have been translated in quaterion language. Besides, some considerations are made on possible, further developments of the theory, according to the suggestions by the group properties of quaternionic (generalized) Lorentz transformations (QGLT). (Auth.)

  7. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with community thought. The difficulty with a show this elaborate and intricate is communicating on a level understandable for teenagers, whilst not treating them like children. Professional space scientists know how easy it is to lose oneself in technical specifics. This would, of course, only confuse young people. The author would like to discuss the ideas for this show with a knowledgeable audience and hopefully get some (constructive) feedback.

  8. Rooting in Km selective media as efficient in vitro selection method for sunflower genetic transformation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Mabel, Radonic; Julián Marcos, Zimmermann; Diego, Zavallo; Nilda, López; Marisa, López Bilbao.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Despite of numerous publications in sunflower genetic transformation, there is no efficient or reproducible protocol with low number of escapes. The latter would indicate that the selection method is not effective. In this work we used Km as selective agent, Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain a [...] nd a vector with the nptII gene under the nos promoter and uidA gene under 35S promoter. The response of agroinfected (A) and control (C) explants during the in vitro culture was studied and in both cases in presence or absence of Km in order to assign a differential morphologic response between transformed and non-transformed plants. The characteristics analyzed were: height, colour/aspect of the plantlets, in vitro rooting and in vitro bud-flower development. Selection was applied from the third regeneration media. Among the A plantlets two were capable of rooting, being positive by PCR, whereas the C were unable to root in presence of Km. One of them gave 6 seeds and in these plants, it was determined the presence of the transgene by PCR and GUS staining. This work shows that in Km selection, colour/aspect of shoots is not useful as selection criteria whereas rooting is an effective selection method in which no escapes were obtained.

  9. Multistep nature of X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in mammalian cells. Genetic alterations and instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation has been studied in Syrian hamster embryo cells. Unirradiated cells had a limited life span, whereas the irradiated cells escaped senescence, showed altered morphology, and acquired anchorage-independence and tumorigenicity in a stepwise manner during successive transfers after irradiation. Multiple genetic changes may be associated with the expression of various transformed phenotypes. In fact, sequential alterations of various chromosomes were required for the malignant progression of irradiated cells. Oncogene activation was examined by the NIH3T3 transfection assay, no detectable changes having been identified so far. The only difference in oncogene expression detected was the augmented expression of the c-myc gene which was observed consistently. These findings indicate the multistep nature of X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation. Although the molecular changes involved in these process are still to be elucidated, recent studies have indicated that the instability induced by irradiation inherited through the progeny of irradiated cells is associated with those changes. This genetic instability provides a new way with which to elucidate the multistep process of radiation oncogenesis. The predicted mechanism and future studies are discussed. (author). 61 refs

  10. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  11. Canonical transformations in quantum mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Blaszak, Maciej; Domanski, Ziemowit

    2012-01-01

    Quantum canonical transformations are defined algebraically outside of a Hilbert space context. This generalizes the quantum canonical transformations of Weyl and Dirac to include non-unitary transformations. The importance of non-unitary transformations for constructing solutions of the Schr\\"odinger equation is discussed. Three elementary canonical transformations are shown both to have quantum implementations as finite transformations and to generate, classically and infi...

  12. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  13. Electromagnetic potentials without gauge transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubykalo, A; Espinoza, A [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, A.P. C-580, Zacatecas (Mexico); Alvarado Flores, R, E-mail: achubykalo@yahoo.com.mx [Centro de Estudios Multidisciplinarios, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Av. Insurgentes 108A, tercer piso, col. Centro, Zacatecas, Zac, C.p. 98000 (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we show that the use of the Helmholtz theorem enables the derivation of uniquely determined electromagnetic potentials without the necessity of using gauge transformation. We show that the electromagnetic field comprises two components, one of which is characterized by instantaneous action at a distance, whereas the other propagates in retarded form with the velocity of light. In our attempt to show the superiority of the new proposed method to the standard one, we argue that the action-at-a-distance components cannot be considered as a drawback of our method, because the recommended procedure for eliminating the action at a distance in the Coulomb gauge leads to theoretical subtleties that allow us to say that the needed gauge transformation is not guaranteed. One of the theoretical consequences of this new definition is that, in addition to the electric E and magnetic B fields, the electromagnetic potentials are real physical quantities. We show that this property of the electromagnetic potentials in quantum mechanics is also a property of the electromagnetic potentials in classical electrodynamics.

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Studying Voltage Transformer Ferroresonance

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Radmanesh; Hamid Fathi

    2012-01-01

    This study studies the effect of Circuit Breaker Shunt Resistance (CBSR), Metal Oxide Vaistor (MOV) and Neutral earth Resistance (NR) on the control of ferroresonance in the voltage transformer. It is expected that NR can controlled ferroresonance better than MOV and CBSR. Study has been done on a one phase voltage transformer rated 100 VA, 275 kV. The simulation results reveal that considering the CBSR and MOV exhibits a great mitigating effect on ferroresonance overvoltages, but these resis...

  16. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  17. Selection of Transformed Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  18. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Meant to serve an "entertaining textbook," this book belongs to a rare genre. It is written for all students and practitioners who deal with Fourier transformation. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are covered, and particular emphasis is placed on window functions. Many illustrations and easy-to-solve exercises make the book especially accessible, and its humorous style will add to the pleasure of learning from it.

  19. Parallel Fast Legendre Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Alves Inda, M.; Bisseling, R. H.; Maslen, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss a parallel implementation of a fast algorithm for the discrete polynomial Legendre transform We give an introduction to the DriscollHealy algorithm using polynomial arithmetic and present experimental results on the eciency and accuracy of our implementation The algorithms were implemented in ANSI C using the BSPlib communications library Furthermore we present a new algorithm for computing the Chebyshev transform of two vectors at the same time

  20. Advancing Sustainable Urban Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Mccormick, Kes; Anderberg, Stefan; Coenen, Lars; Neij, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the urgency to respond to climate change and to promote sustainable development, there are few powerful initiatives that are decisively shifting urban development in a sustainable, resilient and low-carbon direction. This Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production explores sustainable urban transformation focusing on structural transformation processes – multi-dimensional and radical change – that can effectively direct urban development towards amb...

  1. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    OpenAIRE

    Dicle Donmez; Ozhan Simsek; Tolga Izgu; Yildiz Aka Kacar; Yesim Yalcin Mendi

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus t...

  2. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CN{sub x} thin films as humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N. F. H; Hussain, N. S. Mohamed; Awang, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ritikos, R.; Kamal, S. A. A. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CN{sub x} thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH{sub 4}) gas diluted with nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C?N triple bond. C=N and C?N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CN{sub x} thin film changed from 23.765 k? to 5.845 k? in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CN{sub x} films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device.

  3. Culex quinquefasciatus vitellogenesis: morphological and biochemical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André F Cardoso

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The vitellogenic process in Culex quinquefasciatus, which is triggered by a blood meal, involves the synthesis, distribution and storage of the nutrients necessary for embryo development. The fat body of an adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus revealed two cell types: large trophocytes and small, eosinophilic, "oenocyte-like" cells, which show no morphological changes throughout the gonotrophic cycle. Trophocytes, which only begin to synthesise vitellogenin (Vg 12 h post-blood meal (PBM, undergo a series of morphological changes following engorgement. These changes include the expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER and Golgi complex, which are later destroyed by autophagosomes. At 84 h PBM, trophocytes return to their pre-engorgement morphology. The ovarian follicles of non-blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus contain a cluster of eight undifferentiated cells surrounded by follicular epithelium. After engorgement, the oocyte membrane facing the perioocytic space increases its absorptive surface by microvilli development; large amounts of Vg and lipids are stored between 24 and 48 h PBM. Along with yolk storage in the oocyte, follicular cells exhibit the development of RER cisternae and electron-dense granules begin to fill the perioocytic space, possibly giving rise to endochorion. Later in the gonotrophic cycle, electron-dense vesicles, which are possible exochorion precursors, fuse at the apical membrane of follicular cells. This fusion is followed by follicular cell degeneration.

  4. Culex quinquefasciatus vitellogenesis: morphological and biochemical aspects

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    André F, Cardoso; Renato L, Cres; Alexandre S, Moura; Fábio de, Almeida; A Tania, Bijovsky.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The vitellogenic process in Culex quinquefasciatus, which is triggered by a blood meal, involves the synthesis, distribution and storage of the nutrients necessary for embryo development. The fat body of an adult female Cx. quinquefasciatus revealed two cell types: large trophocytes and small, eosin [...] ophilic, "oenocyte-like" cells, which show no morphological changes throughout the gonotrophic cycle. Trophocytes, which only begin to synthesise vitellogenin (Vg) 12 h post-blood meal (PBM), undergo a series of morphological changes following engorgement. These changes include the expansion of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and Golgi complex, which are later destroyed by autophagosomes. At 84 h PBM, trophocytes return to their pre-engorgement morphology. The ovarian follicles of non-blood-fed Cx. quinquefasciatus contain a cluster of eight undifferentiated cells surrounded by follicular epithelium. After engorgement, the oocyte membrane facing the perioocytic space increases its absorptive surface by microvilli development; large amounts of Vg and lipids are stored between 24 and 48 h PBM. Along with yolk storage in the oocyte, follicular cells exhibit the development of RER cisternae and electron-dense granules begin to fill the perioocytic space, possibly giving rise to endochorion. Later in the gonotrophic cycle, electron-dense vesicles, which are possible exochorion precursors, fuse at the apical membrane of follicular cells. This fusion is followed by follicular cell degeneration.

  5. PCL-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone: morphology, mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovac, Dajana; Gallego Ferrer, Gloria; Ivankovic, Marica; Ivankovic, Hrvoje

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, poly(?-caprolactone)-coated hydroxyapatite scaffold derived from cuttlefish bone was prepared. Hydrothermal transformation of aragonitic cuttlefish bone into hydroxyapatite (HAp) was performed at 200°C retaining the cuttlebone architecture. The HAp scaffold was coated with a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) using vacuum impregnation technique. The compositional and morphological properties of HAp and PCL-coated HAp scaffolds were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Bioactivity was tested by immersion in Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and mechanical tests were performed at compression. The results showed that PCL-coated HAp (HAp/PCL) scaffold resulted in a material with improved mechanical properties that keep the original interconnected porous structure indispensable for tissue growth and vascularization. The compressive strength (0.88MPa) and the elastic modulus (15.5MPa) are within the lower range of properties reported for human trabecular bones. The in vitro mineralization of calcium phosphate (CP) that produces the bone-like apatite was observed on both the pure HAp scaffold and the HAp/PCL composite scaffold. The prepared bioactive scaffold with enhanced mechanical properties is a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications. PMID:24268280

  6. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.

    2007-01-01

    Protein Structure and Biophysics, Novo Nordisk A/S, Novo Nordisk Park, DK-2760 Malov, Denmark, Centre for Insoluble Protein Structures (inSPIN), Department of Life Sciences, Aalborg University, Sohngaardsholmsvej 49, DK-9000 Aalborg, Denmark, and Institute of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Aarhus, Wilhelm Meyers Alle, DK-8000 Arhus C, Denmark. The 29-residue peptide hormone glucagon readily fibrillates at low pH, but the structure and morphology of the fibrils are very sensitive to the environmental conditions. Here we have investigated the mechanism behind the differences in morphology observed when glucagon fibrils are formed at different peptide concentrations. Electron microscopy shows that fibrils formed at low glucagon concentration (0.25 mg/mL) are twisted, while fibrils formed at high concentration (8 mg/mL) are straight. Monitoring the fibrillation kinetics at different concentrations, we find that the lag time has an unexpected maximum at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, with faster fibrillation at both lower and higher concentrations. Seeding experiments show that small amounts of straight fibril seeds can accelerate fibril growth at both low and high glucagon concentration, while twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We propose that the glucagon trimer is able to specifically inhibit growth of the twisted fibril morphology. Such inhibitory binding of molecules in an unproductive conformation could also play a role in the selection of morphologies for other fibril-forming peptides and proteins.

  7. Transformations of q-boson and q-fermion algebras

    CERN Document Server

    Swamy, P N

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the algebras satisfied by q-deformed boson and fermion oscillators, in particular the transformations of the algebra from one form to another. Based on a specific algebra proposed in recent literature, we show that the algebra of deformed fermions can be transformed to that of undeformed standard fermions. Furthermore we also show that the algebra of q-deformed fermions can be transformed to that of undeformed standard bosons.

  8. Natural Amino Acid Based Phenolic Derivatives for Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology and Antibacterial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod Kumar, V.; Nithya, S.; Shyam, Aswin; Sai Subramanian, N. [SASTRA Univ., Tamil Nadu (India); Philip Anthony, Savarimuthu [M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with spherical and prism morphologies were formed at room temperature depend on the amino acid attached with phenolic unit. Absorption studies showed 410-420 nm surface plasmon resonance absorption for spherical nanoparticles whereas prism morphology showed three absorption peaks (382, 452 and 523 nm). The formation of spherical and prism morphology was confirmed by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial studies of both the morphologies did not show any significant differences in the inhibition of bacterial growth.

  9. Natural Amino Acid Based Phenolic Derivatives for Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology and Antibacterial Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with spherical and prism morphologies were formed at room temperature depend on the amino acid attached with phenolic unit. Absorption studies showed 410-420 nm surface plasmon resonance absorption for spherical nanoparticles whereas prism morphology showed three absorption peaks (382, 452 and 523 nm). The formation of spherical and prism morphology was confirmed by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial studies of both the morphologies did not show any significant differences in the inhibition of bacterial growth

  10. Phase formation and morphology control of niobium oxide nanopillars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanopillar metal oxide thin films offer versatility as ultra high surface area supports and conductors. Metal oxide properties (e.g. stability, conductivity) can be tuned via phase and composition control to achieve desired application-specific functionality. Here we demonstrate phase control of high surface area thin films grown by glancing angle deposition and transformed to desired phases through high temperature annealing in a reducing environment. The post-annealed properties such as stoichiometry, phase, and morphology are shown to be largely dependent on initial film structure and hydrogen forming gas flow rate. Initially amorphous films of approximate stoichiometry Nb2O5 are transformed to NbO2 or NbNxO1-x through annealing. Transformation to oxygen-deficient phases is more easily achieved for films of higher initial porosity. Higher forming gas flow rates result in both increased oxygen removal and significantly less physical degradation of nanostructures. A phase map is included as a guide to phase formation and morphology control in annealed nanopillar niobium oxide films.

  11. Influence of Intrinsic Myocardial Conduction on Paced QRS Morphology During Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Follow up

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendra Deshmukh; Latchumanadhas, K.; Pandurangi, Ulhas M.; Mullasari, Ajit S.

    2008-01-01

    We report two cases of patients of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) whose ECGs, during follow up, showed different paced QRS morphology as compared to those of immediate post-device implantation. Parameters of leads, including sensitivity and capture thresholds, were unchanged. There was no lead dislodgement confirmed on fluoroscopy. The ECGs obtained in device off mode showed different intrinsic QRS morphology as compared to those of pre-implant morphology. These changes were attribut...

  12. Electrical impedance measurements predict cellular transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Giljun; Choi, Chang K; English, Anthony E; Sparer, Tim E

    2009-03-01

    Cellular transformation is the first step in cancer development. Two features of cellular transformation are proliferation in reduced serum and loss of contact inhibition. Electronic Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) measurements have been used to measure cellular proliferation, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and attachment. We have used impedance measurements to distinguish normal cells from cells transformed with a constitutively active chemokine receptor, CXCR2. CXCR2, a member of the G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) family, is normally involved in cellular activation and migration, but a single amino acid substitution leads to constitutive activity. NIH3T3 cells were transformed with a constitutively active CXCR2 (D143V_CXCR2) and growth in reduced serum and foci formation were measured using established biological assays and compared to data from ECIS. The results of this study show that impedance measurements provide a quick and reliable way of measuring cellular transformation and provide real time assessment of transformed cellular parameters. Use of the ECIS system could allow a rapid screening of anti-cancer drugs that alter cellular transformation. PMID:19356706

  13. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  14. Tilapia show immunization response against Ich

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study compares the immune response of Nile tilapia and red tilapia against parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ich) using a cohabitation challenge model. Both Nile and red tilapia showed strong immune response post immunization with live Ich theronts by IP injection or immersion. Blood serum...

  15. Mike Pentz showing visitors around CESAR

    CERN Multimedia

    1964-01-01

    Mike Pentz, leader of the CESAR Group, shows visitors around the 2 MeV electron storage ring. Here they are in the vault of the injector (a 2 MV van de Graaff generator), next to the 2 beam lines, one leading to the ring, the other to the spectrometer.

  16. Showing Enantiomorphous Crystals of Tartaric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Gamboa, Julio

    2007-01-01

    Most of the articles and textbooks that show drawings of enantiomorphous crystals use an inadequate view to appreciate the fact that they are non-superimposable mirror images of one another. If a graphical presentation of crystal chirality is not evident, the main attribute of crystal enantiomorphism can not be recognized by students. The classic…

  17. Entanglement transformations using separable operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study conditions for the deterministic transformation |?>?|?> of a bipartite entangled state by a separable operation. If the separable operation is a local operation with classical communication (LOCC), Nielsen's majorization theorem provides necessary and sufficient conditions. For the general case, we derive a necessary condition in terms of products of Schmidt coefficients, which is equivalent to the Nielsen condition when either of the two factor spaces is of dimension 2, but is otherwise weaker. One implication is that no separable operation can reverse a deterministic map produced by another separable operation, if one excludes the case where the Schmidt coefficients of |?> are the same as those of |?>. The question of sufficient conditions in the general separable case remains open. When the Schmidt coefficients of |?> are the same as those of |?>, we show that the Kraus operators of the separable transformation restricted to the supports of |?> on the factor spaces are proportional to unitaries. When that proportionality holds and the factor spaces have equal dimension, we find conditions for the deterministic transformation of a collection of several full Schmidt rank pure states |?j> to pure states |?j>

  18. Mathematical morphology-based approach to the enhancement of morphological features in medical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimori Yoshitaka

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical image processing is essential in many fields of medical research and clinical practice because it greatly facilitates early and accurate detection and diagnosis of diseases. In particular, contrast enhancement is important for optimal image quality and visibility. This paper proposes a new image processing method for enhancing morphological features of masses and other abnormalities in medical images. Method The proposed method involves two steps: (1 selective extraction of target features by mathematical morphology and (2 enhancement of the extracted features by two contrast modification techniques. Results The goal of the proposed method is to enable enhancement of fine morphological features of a lesion region with high suppression of surrounding tissues. The effectiveness of the method was evaluated in quantitative terms of the contrast improvement ratio. The results clearly show that the method outperforms five conventional contrast enhancement methods. The effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed method were further demonstrated by application to three types of medical images: a mammographic image, a chest radiographic image, and a retinal image. Conclusion The proposed method enables specific extraction and enhancement of mass lesions, which is essential for clinical diagnosis based on medical image analysis. Thus, the method can be expected to achieve automatic recognition of lesion location and quantitative analysis of legion morphology.

  19. Material parameters and vector scaling in transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The degree to which the coordinate transformation concept first demonstrated for electromagnetic waves can be applied to other classes of waves remains an open question. In this work, we thoroughly examine the coordinate transformation invariance of acoustic waves. We employ a purely physical argument to show how the acoustic velocity vector must transform differently than the E and H fields in Maxwell's equations, which explains why acoustic coordinate transformation invariance was not found in some previous analyses. A first principles analysis of the acoustic equations under arbitrary coordinate transformations confirms that the divergence operator is preserved only if velocity transforms in this physically correct way. This analysis also yields closed-form expressions for the bulk modulus and mass density tensor of the material required to realize an arbitrary coordinate transformation on the acoustic fields, which we show are equivalent to forms presented elsewhere. We demonstrate the computation of these material parameters in two specific cases and show that the change in velocity and pressure gradient vectors under a nonorthogonal coordinate transformation is precisely how these vectors must change from purely physical arguments. This analysis confirms that all of the electromagnetic devices and materials that have been conceived using the coordinate transformation approach are also in principle realizable for acoustic waves. Together with previous work, this waves. Together with previous work, this analysis also shows how the curl, divergence and gradient operators maintain form under arbitrary coordinate transformations, opening the door to analyzing other wave systems built on these three vector operators.

  20. Material parameters and vector scaling in transformation acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummer, Steven A; Rahm, Marco [Center for Metamaterials and Integrated Plasmonics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Schurig, David [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)], E-mail: cummer@ee.duke.edu

    2008-11-15

    The degree to which the coordinate transformation concept first demonstrated for electromagnetic waves can be applied to other classes of waves remains an open question. In this work, we thoroughly examine the coordinate transformation invariance of acoustic waves. We employ a purely physical argument to show how the acoustic velocity vector must transform differently than the E and H fields in Maxwell's equations, which explains why acoustic coordinate transformation invariance was not found in some previous analyses. A first principles analysis of the acoustic equations under arbitrary coordinate transformations confirms that the divergence operator is preserved only if velocity transforms in this physically correct way. This analysis also yields closed-form expressions for the bulk modulus and mass density tensor of the material required to realize an arbitrary coordinate transformation on the acoustic fields, which we show are equivalent to forms presented elsewhere. We demonstrate the computation of these material parameters in two specific cases and show that the change in velocity and pressure gradient vectors under a nonorthogonal coordinate transformation is precisely how these vectors must change from purely physical arguments. This analysis confirms that all of the electromagnetic devices and materials that have been conceived using the coordinate transformation approach are also in principle realizable for acoustic waves. Together with previous work, this analysis also shows how the curl, divergence and gradient operators maintain form under arbitrary coordinate transformations, opening the door to analyzing other wave systems built on these three vector operators.