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1

Morphological Transform for Image Compression  

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A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs) is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of mo...

Enrique Guzmán; Oleksiy Pogrebnyak; Cornelio Yañez; Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

2008-01-01

2

Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation  

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This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

?akari? Jasenka

2010-01-01

3

Renal tumors associated with germline SDHB mutation show distinctive morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Germline succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB) mutation causes pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndrome type 4 (PGL4). PGL4 is characterized by pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma, type 2 (SDHB negative) gastrointestinal stromal tumors and renal tumors, which are usually classified as carcinoma. We report 4 kindreds with 5 PGL4-associated renal tumors. Four of the tumors occurred before the age of 30 years, 4 were in the left kidney, 3 were in female patients, and 4 demonstrated consistent but previously unrecognized morphology. The tumors were composed of cuboidal cells with bubbly eosinophilic cytoplasm and indistinct cell borders. Many of the cells displayed distinctive cytoplasmic inclusions, which were vacuolated or contained eosinophilic fluid-like material. The cells were arranged in solid nests or in tubules surrounding central spaces. The tumors were well circumscribed or lobulated and frequently showed cystic change. Benign tubules or glomeruli were often entrapped at the edges of the tumors. The fifth tumor lacked these features but displayed sarcomatoid dedifferentiation. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB was completely negative in all 4 available tumors. Death from metastatic disease occurred in the patient with dedifferentiated tumor 1 year after diagnosis, whereas the other 4 tumors were cured by local excision alone (mean follow-up, 11 y; range, 2 to 30 y). We conclude that morphology supported by negative immunohistochemistry for SDHB can be used to identify kindreds with germline SDHB mutations (PGL4 syndrome) presenting with this unique type of renal tumor. These renal tumors appear to have a good prognosis after complete excision unless there is sarcomatoid dedifferentiation. PMID:21934479

Gill, Anthony J; Pachter, Nicholas S; Chou, Angela; Young, Barbara; Clarkson, Adele; Tucker, Katherine M; Winship, Ingrid M; Earls, Peter; Benn, Diana E; Robinson, Bruce G; Fleming, Stewart; Clifton-Bligh, Roderick J

2011-10-01

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Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation  

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Abstract A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without st...

2011-01-01

5

X-ray microscopy of human spermatozoa shows change of mitochondrial morphology after capacitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using X-ray microscopy two morphologically distinct states were observed of the human spermatozoan mitochondria: (i) compact and tightly wrapped around the axoneme, and (ii) morphologically transformed, i.e. with circular areas of high X-ray transmission, either loosely wrapped around the axoneme or distended. The spermatozoa were examined at two stages of their post-ejaculation maturation process, i.e. as present in fresh ejaculated semen and after in-vitro capacitation. X-ray microscopy allowed sample preparation that was as simple as for conventional light microscopy whilst giving high resolution (30 nm) imaging of samples in liquid media compatible with the requirements of live biological specimens. The specimens were not fixed, stained or metal coated. These features make X-ray microscopy useful in the study of cells, particularly cells in suspension. The relative frequencies of the two morphological states of the mitochondria in seminal plasma and after in-vitro capacitation were compared. In seminal plasma, almost all spermatozoa had compact and tightly wrapped mitochondria. After harvesting by swim-up technique, an increase in the morphologically transformed state had occurred. However, the greatest increase in the morphologically transformed state occurred when the sample had been incubated under capacitating conditions. In this case almost all spermatozoa had morphologically transformed mitochondria.

Vorup-Jensen, T; Hjort, T

1999-01-01

6

Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium  

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Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv) showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, el...

Nikoli? Radomirka R.; Miti? Nevena V.

2003-01-01

7

Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group  

CERN Document Server

In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

Carraro, Giovanni

2014-01-01

8

Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

Chan Kap

2005-09-01

9

Morphologic transformation of the thymus in developing zebrafish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphologic transformation of the developing zebrafish thymus from 1 week postfertilization (wpf) to 15 wpf is described. The thymus overall morphology changed from a small pouch-like shape at 1 wpf to a conical shape between 2 and 3 wpf before acquiring a more complex shape from 4 wpf onward. Rapid growth rate along the lateral axis at the region near the pharyngeal epithelium occurred between 1 and 2 wpf, whereas rapid growth rate along the dorsal-ventral axis occurred between 3 and 6 wpf. Expansion of thymocyte population beginning from 1 wpf became more evident by 2 to 3 wpf, as indicated by the apparent increase of different sizes of lymphocytes, recombination activating gene-1 (rag-1), and T-cell antigen receptor alpha chain constant region (TCRAC) -positive cells. Tissue section in situ hybridization (ISH) analysis with rag-1 probe reveals that cortex-medullary regionalization has begun between 1 and 2 wpf as rag-1 expression clearly demarcated the cortex, whereas the medulla was rag-1 negative. The presence of TCRAC-positive cells in the medulla by 2-3 wpf, suggests that the thymic selection processes had begun. The zebrafish thymus is morphologically mature by 3 wpf. Early signs of thymic involution were observed in zebrafish aged 15 wpf. PMID:12203724

Lam, S H; Chua, H L; Gong, Z; Wen, Z; Lam, T J; Sin, Y M

2002-09-01

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On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmon resonances at very similar wave lengths, is much lower for the corrugated NR arrays. The activity of the NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 � 10. In contrast an over-estimated (because of their hydrophobic character) EF of 6 � 10 is obtained for the smooth NR arrays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

2011-01-01

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Sympatric Biomphalaria species (Gastropoda: Planorbidae in Lake Albert, Uganda, show homoplasies in shell morphology  

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Full Text Available The three known sympatricBiomphalaria species that occur in Lake Albert; B. choanomphala, B. stanleyi and B. sudanica, were studied using both molecular (COI, 16S and ITS and shell morphometric data. An unidentified sample of 18 Biomphalaria specimens from Lake Albert were divided in three morphotypes according to aperture height and coiling rate and subsequently identified through molecular inferences and morphometry. The 18 specimens were identified as follows; six specimens were identified as B. sudanica, seven species as B. stanleyi, four as B. cf. choanomphala and a single specimen as B. pfeifferi. The latter was inferred with strong molecular support only, since it had similar shell morphology to typical B. stanleyi snails, thus it might be an ecophenotypic form of B. pfeifferi adapted to a lacustrine environment. Biomphalaria stanleyi exists in forms that resemble B. choanomphala, and B. choanomphala has further overlap in morphology with B. smithi. However, the results showed some disagreement between molecular and morphometric identification, hence making it difficult to rely on shell morphology alone in identification. Overall the morphometric analysis divided Biomphalaria in two possible ecophenotypes i.e. a lacustrine type with rapidly increasing whorls and relatively high apertures and a non-lacustrine type (including snails inhabiting lake edges with slowly increasing whorls and low apertures.

Thomas K. Kristensen

2011-10-01

12

Automatic Segmentation of Glottal Space from Video Images Based on Mathematical Morphology and the hough Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocal disorders directly arise from the physical shape of the vocal cords. Videostroboscopic imaging provides doctors with valuable information about the physical shape of the vocal cords and about the way these cords move. Segmentation of the glottal space is necessary in order to characterize morphological disorders of vocal folds. One of the main problems with the methods presented is their low level of accuracy. To solve this problem, an automatic method based on Mathematical Morphology edge detection and the Hough transformation is presented in this article to extract the glottal space from the videostroboscopic images presented. This method and two other popular algorithms, histogram and active contour, are performed on 10 sets of videostroboscopy data from excised larynx experiments to compare their performances in analyzing videostroboscopy images. The accuracy in computing glottal area of these methods are investigated. The results show that our proposed method provides the most accurate and efficient detection, and is applicable when processing low-resolution images. In this paper we used edge detection based on geometric morphology to detecting the edges of vocal cords. Then in the next step the edges that were extracted, using Hough transform change to some lines. After that through using proposed algorithm, we omit the extra lines and extract the glottis.

Davod Aghlmandi

2012-08-01

13

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2013-06-20

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Molecular phylogeny of cetaceans prompts revision of morphological transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The echolocating toothed whales and the filter-feeding baleen whales are traditionally considered as two monophyletic lineages that originated from the extinct cetacean suborder Archaeoceti. While current interpretation of the morphological and behavioural data sets supports toothed-whale monophyly, molecular phylogenies contradict this long-accepted taxonomic subdivision. The molecular data indicate that one group of toothed whales, the sperm whales, Is more closely related to the morphologically highly divergent baleen whales than to other odontocetes. Furthermore, these molecular analyses tentatively suggest a more recent origin of baleen whales than has been generally accepted. Although a thorough cladistic analysis of all relevant morphological data is still needed, reevaluation of some of the most important of these characters helps to reconcile the morphological and the molecular approaches. PMID:21237057

Milinkovitch, M C

1995-08-01

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Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation  

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Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

Nikesh T. Gadare

2014-02-01

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Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ? We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ? Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ?50% of furnace anneal. ? Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

2012-02-29

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Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

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An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5) was performed. They were compared to those of cont...

Nikoli? Radomirka; Miti? Nevena

2005-01-01

18

Fast Euclidean morphological operators using local distance transformation by propagation  

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We propose a new method to compute the morphological dilation of a binary image with a circular structuring element of any given size, on a discrete lattice. The algorithm is equivalent to applying a threshold on an exact Euclidean distance map, but computations are restricted to a minimum number of pixels. The complexity of this dilation algorithm is compared to the complexity of the commonly used approximation of circular structuring elements and found to have a similar cost, while providin...

Cuisenaire, O.; Macq, B.

1999-01-01

19

Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

Hunter Cynthia L

2009-02-01

20

Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
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R-Ras induces malignant, but not morphologic, transformation of NIH3T3 cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although previous studies have not identified transforming properties of the Ras-related protein R-Ras, two recent observations have prompted our further evaluation of R-Ras function. First, we observed that mutant forms of the closely related R-Ras2/TC21 protein (approximately 70% identity) exhibited the same potent transforming activity as oncogenic Ras proteins. Second, R-Ras association with Bcl-2 suggested a possible role for R-Ras in apoptotic growth control. Therefore, we have performed a detailed analysis of R-Ras transforming potential in NIH3T3 cells. Whereas expression of a mutant R-Ras protein (38V; analogous to the 12V activating Ras mutation) did not induce morphologic transformation of NIH3T3 cells, R-Ras(38V)-expressing cells proliferated in low serum, formed colonies in soft agar, and formed progressive tumors in nude mice. Like Ras-transformed cells, R-Ras(38V)-transformed cells exhibited constitutively activated mitogen activated protein kinases. Furthermore, R-Ras(38V) stimulated transcriptional activation of Ras-responsive promoter elements, and this activity (and transformation) was blocked by Raf dominant negative proteins. Finally, whereas co-expression of Bcl-2 did not cause significant alteration in wild type or mutant R-Ras transforming activity, coexpression of v-Myc and R-Ras(38V) induced a striking morphologic transformation of NIH3T3 cells. Taken together, these observations suggest that aberrant R-Ras function may stimulate malignant transformation, in the absence of morphologic transformation, via up-regulation of part of the Ras signal transduction pathway. PMID:7936652

Cox, A D; Brtva, T R; Lowe, D G; Der, C J

1994-11-01

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Followers or activists? Social scientists in the reality shows of transformation  

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Institution building in the knowledge sector; Re-institutionalization of scientific schools; Experts and advisors; Think tanks and transformation; Social criticism and the new elite; Have scholars taken part in local democratic transitions? Historians and/or judges - are these alternative role sets for social researchers during the transformation decade? Policy impacts in theory building.

Tama?s, Pa?l; Kaase, Max; Sparschuh, Vera; Wenninger, Agnieszka; Informationszentrum Sozialwissenschaften; Gesis, Servicestelle Osteuropa; Collegium Budapest, Institute For Advanced Study

2002-01-01

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Depudecin induces morphological reversion of transformed fibroblasts via the inhibition of histone deacetylase  

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Depudecin is a fungal metabolite that reverts the rounded phenotype of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts transformed with v-ras and v-src oncogenes to the flattened phenotype of the nontransformed parental cells. The mechanism of detransformation induced by this agent had not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that depudecin inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity effectively both in vivo and in vitro. Depudecin induces similar morphological reversion in v-ras transformed NIH 3T3 cells as do other ...

Kwon, Ho Jeong; Owa, Takashi; Hassig, Christian A.; Shimada, Junichi; Schreiber, Stuart L.

1998-01-01

24

Nuclear morphology and morphometry of B-lymphocyte transformation. Implications for follicular center cell lymphomas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the major tenets of current non-Hodgkin's lymphoma classifications is the relationship of morphologic subtypes to stages in the sequence of normal B-lymphocyte transformation occurring in the germinal follicle. To test this hypothesis, quantitative morphometric image analysis was carried out on in vivo and in vitro samples of mouse splenic lymphocytes in which transformation was induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a specific B-cell mitogen. The results were compared with a s...

Dardick, I.; Sinnott, N. M.; Hall, R.; Bajenko-carr, T. A.; Setterfield, G.

1983-01-01

25

Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research. PMID:23635867

Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

2013-09-01

26

Characterization of morphology and kinetics of bainite transformation in a low alloy steel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Bainite transformation is ubiquitous in steels for pressure vessel applications in thermal and nuclear power plants. In this class of steels bainite is the dominant phase found in the microstructure, after industrial thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatment of pressure vessel component. The study of bainite transformation has been carried out using both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions. Previous studies have reported significant differences in the morphology and the type of bainite formed under these two conditions. Continuous cooling has been shown to result in a wider variety of bainite transformation products as compared with isothermal treatments. This has important implications for the technological properties of power plant components such as strength, toughness and hardenability. In the present study the cooling transformation characteristics of a new CrMo pressure vessel steel has been examined using dilatometry supplemented with TEM examination. The dilatometric data were analyzed to determine the activation energy and Avrami exponents. It was found that bainite with different morphologies formed over the cooling rates employed and were kinetically distinct. The dilatometric study along with TEM studies has shown that non-isothermal decomposition of austenite in this steel results in a complex microstructure containing an array of bainite morphologies. The bainitic ferrite plates are seen to be associated with various inter- and intra- plate constituents as the cooling rate changes. Despite this the transformation remains essentially bainitic over the range of cooling rates studied. Three different cooling rate regimes with distinctly different calculated Avrami exponents have been observed. (author)

2005-11-01

27

Testing the Hypothesis of the Morphological Transformation from Field Spiral to Cluster S0  

CERN Document Server

Hubble Space Telescope observations of distant clusters have suggested a steep increase in the proportion of S0 galaxies between the distant clusters and clusters at the present-day. It has been proposed that this increase results from the transformation of the morphologies of accreted field galaxies from spirals to S0s. We have simulated the evolution of the morphological mix in clusters based on a simple model in order to test this morphological transformation hypothesis. In order to reproduce the apparently rapid increase in the ratio of S0 galaxies to ellipticals in the clusters, our model requires that: (1) galaxy accretion rate has to be high (more than half of the present-day cluster population must have been accreted since z~0.5), and (2) most of the accreted spirals, with morphological types as late as Scdm, must have transformed to S0's. Although the latter requirement may be difficult to meet, it is possible that such bulge-weak spirals have already been `pre-processed' into the bulge-strong galaxi...

Kodama, T; Kodama, Tadayuki; Smail, Ian

2000-01-01

28

Analysis of banded morphology in multiphase steels based on a discrete dislocation–transformation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the austenitic microstructural morphology on the mechanical response of a multiphase steel is analyzed by comparing two relevant configurations, namely (i) uniformly distributed grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferritic matrix and (ii) a banded morphology of the two phases. The analysis is carried out numerically using a discrete dislocation–transformation model that captures processes occurring at sub-grain length scales connected to nucleation and evolution of individual dislocations and martensitic platelets inside the austenitic grains. The simulations indicate that a microstructure composed of uniformly distributed grains of austenite is optimal in terms of strength since it delays the onset of plastic localization compared with banded microstructures

2011-10-01

29

Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants  

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Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

Lutsyk A. D.

2012-04-01

30

p21H-ras-induced morphological transformation and increases in c-myc expression are independent of functional protein kinase C.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has previously been demonstrated that efficient DNA synthesis by oncogenic p21H-ras only occurs in the presence of insulin and is absolutely dependent on functional protein kinase C. Here we show that morphological transformation induced by oncogenic p21H-ras does not require functional protein kinase C. The early phases of protein kinase C-independent morphological transformation do not require de novo protein synthesis. We have also demonstrated that the introduction of p21H-ras into qui...

Lloyd, A. C.; Paterson, H. F.; Morris, J. D.; Hall, A.; Marshall, C. J.

1989-01-01

31

FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ?9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3??O4) generated from F (??0.04) and L (??0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (??0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ? Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ? Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ? Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ? Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ? Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

2012-10-01

32

Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO2, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO2 is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe2(COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm.

2012-03-01

33

Transformation and morphology of crystalline phases in the hydrothermal processing of amorphous silica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation and morphology of crystalline phases have been investigated in the hydrothermal processing of amorphous silica in the ranges of 0.02-0.5% KOH, 200-400 deg.C and 1-360 hr. The hydroxylation of the surface of silica using KOH solution was essential for obtaining a-quartz by hydrothermal processing. Below 300 deg.C, amorphous silica first transformed to SiO{sub 2}-X particles, and then to a-cristobalite. Above 300 deg.C, amorphous silica first transformed to SiO{sub 2}-K particles, and then to b-cristobalite. The synthesis time for obtaining {alpha}-quartz crystal was decreased as increase of temperature and KOH concentration. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs.

Yu, Hyo-Shin; Yang, Dong-Hyo; Rhee, Kang-In; Lee, Churl-Kyoung [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

2001-04-30

34

Phase Transformations in CuAu: Morphologies and Kinetics from Quantum Mechanics  

Science.gov (United States)

The existence of a modulated superlattice at intermediate temperatures in CuAu gives rise to a rich and complex set of phase transformations. For example, quenches from high and low temperatures into the modulated region leads respectively to the nucleation of labyrinth and bullseye patterns. In this alloy even the formation of the ordered superlattice from a disordered phase is dramatically different than that which occurs in standard disorder/order transformations. This transformation is strongly influenced by the presence of small metastable droplets that are the size of the modulated wavelength. A theoretical description(Bulbul Chakraborty, Ken Elder and Nigel Goldenfeld, Physica A, in press (1995)) of these kinetics and morphologies will be presented and compared to experiment. This description is based on a time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau equation that was derived from a quantum mechanical Hamiltonian using the embedded atom method(Bulbul Chakraborty and Zhigang Xi, Phys. Rev. Lett 68), 2039 (1992).

Elder, Ken; Chakraborty, Bulbul; Goldenfeld, Nigel

1996-03-01

35

Depudecin induces morphological reversion of transformed fibroblasts via the inhibition of histone deacetylase  

Science.gov (United States)

Depudecin is a fungal metabolite that reverts the rounded phenotype of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts transformed with v-ras and v-src oncogenes to the flattened phenotype of the nontransformed parental cells. The mechanism of detransformation induced by this agent had not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that depudecin inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity effectively both in vivo and in vitro. Depudecin induces similar morphological reversion in v-ras transformed NIH 3T3 cells as do other naturally occurring HDAC inhibitors such as trichostatin A or trapoxin. It competitively inhibits the binding of [3H]trapoxin in vitro and the nuclear binding of a trapoxin–coumarin fluorophore in vivo, suggesting that depudecin shares a nuclear binding protein and site on that protein with trapoxin. Furthermore, depudecin induces hyperacetylation of histones in a dose-dependent manner and at concentrations comparable with that required for detransformation. An in vitro histone deacetylase assay, using purified recombinant HDAC1, reveals that depudecin inhibits 50% of the enzyme activity at a concentration of 4.7 ?M. These results demonstrate that depudecin is a novel HDAC inhibitor and suggest that its ability to induce morphological reversion of transformed cells is the result of its HDAC inhibitory activity.

Kwon, Ho Jeong; Owa, Takashi; Hassig, Christian A.; Shimada, Junichi; Schreiber, Stuart L.

1998-01-01

36

Thermal stability of electrodeposited platinum nanowires and morphological transformations at elevated temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pt nanowires were prepared by template electrodeposition using ion track etched polymer membranes and analysed with respect to their thermal stability. Driven by Rayleigh instability, the polycrystalline Pt nanostructures experienced structural transformations and finally fragmented into linear chains of nanospheres at temperatures much below the melting point of bulk Pt. Morphological changes were systematically studied by electron microscopy and compared with previously reported results on other metal nanowires and theoretical predictions. In addition, nanowires could readily be interconnected to two-dimensional assemblies by taking advantage of the rapid diffusion processes. This study will help to predict the durability of integrated nanowires and contributes to the understanding of thermal-induced transformations for polycrystalline nanowires. PMID:23117337

Rauber, M; Muench, F; Toimil-Molares, M E; Ensinger, W

2012-11-30

37

MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

38

Automatic urban road extraction on DSM data based on fuzzy ART, region growing, morphological operations and radon transform  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, an automatic urban road extraction, as part of Intelligent Transportation research, has attracted the researchers due to the important role for the next modern transportation where urban area plays the main role within the transportation system. In this work, we propose a new combination of fuzzy ART clustering, Region growing, Morphological Operations and Radon transform (ARMOR) for automatic extraction of urban road networks from the digital surface model (DSM). The DSM data, which is based-on the elevation of surface, overcome a serious building's shadow problem as in the aerial photo image. Due to the different elevation between the road and the buildings, the thresholding technique yields a fast initial road extraction. The threshold values are obtained from Fuzzy ART clustering of the geometrical points in the histogram. The initial road is then expanded using region growing. Though most of the road regions are extracted, it contains a lot of non-road areas and the edge is still rough. A fast way to smoothing the region is by employing the morphology closing operation. Furthermore, we perform the road line filter by opening operation with a line shape structuring element, where the line orientation is obtained from the Radon Transform. Finally, the road network is constructed based-on B-Spline from the extracted road skeleton. The experimental result shows that the proposed method running faster and increases the quality and the accuracy about 10% higher than the highest result of the compared method.

Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

2013-10-01

39

Structural and morphological transformations of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The structural and morphological transformations of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 Degree-Sign C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85 Degree-Sign was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached {approx}50% of furnace anneal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

Hsu, Ming-Yi; Thang, Nguyen Van; Wang Chih; Leu Jihperng, E-mail: jimleu@mail.nctu.edu.tw

2012-02-29

40

Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations  

CERN Document Server

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

2007-01-01

42

Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

2009-01-01

43

A novel application for transmission of Orthogonal Embedded Images by using Morphological Transform Domain & cryptographic methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a data-hiding technique for water marked images and secured transmission of those watermarked images to the destination . today’s lot of companies are stored their data in the images, they store data with their ownership. To achieve blind watermark extraction, it is difficult to use the detail coefficients directly as a location map to determine the data-hiding locations. Hence, we view flipping an edge pixel in binary images as shifting the edge location one pixel horizontally and vertically. Based on this we propose an morphological binary wavelet transform to track the shifted edges, which thus facilitates blind watermark extraction with support of cryptographic concepts. In existing block-based approach, in which the block size is taken as 3*3 pixels or larger,and then we insert the text into that particular blocks and they are using morphological binary wavelet transform.now wepropose an alternative approach to the above approach i.e we process an image in 2*2 pixel blocks. This gives high security when compared to existing approach.This allows flexibility in tracking the edges and also achieves low computational complexity. The two processing cases that flipping the candidates of one does not affect the flippability conditions of another are employed for orthogonal embedding, which means when ever we are embedded some text into the image the nieghbour pixels are not effected.A novel effective Backward-Forward Minimization method is proposed, which considers both back-wardly those neighboring processed embeddable candidates and forwardly those unprocessed flippable candidates that may be affected by flipping the current pixel. In this way, the total visual distortion can be minimized.

M.Venkata Kishore,

2011-05-01

44

An Improved Compound Morphological Transform Algorithm for Video P-frame Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DCT has block effect and the "mosquito noise" and become more obvious in the low transmission. It is difficult to meet the satisfaction of video transmission in narrow bandwidth and high quality requirements. Video image based on mathematical morphology inter-frame coding technique is the use of inter-frame motion compensation coding algorithm through complex morphological transformation, using the structural elements of the macro block irregular pieces for opening and closing operation, selecting and filtering the irregular pieces and then estimating and encoding the small irregular size for motion and motion vector and finding the matching block with absolute difference to achieve inter-frame prediction. The simulation can achieve relatively fine compensation to improve the coding efficiency and under the same compression ratio the video quality can be improved, the deficiencies of the DCT algorithm in image transmission are remedied to improve the effect of image transmission, to reduce the computational complexity, to improve signal noise ratio. It is of great significance in decoding and transmitting the network video.

Wang Xiao-li

2013-01-01

45

Cigarette smoke-induced morphological transformation of Bhas 42 cells in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vitro cell transformation assays detect transformed cells that have acquired the distinct characteristics of malignant cells and thus model one stage of in vivo carcinogenesis. These assays have been proposed as surrogate models for predicting the non-genotoxic carcinogenic potential of chemicals. The Bhas 42 cell transformation assay, a short-term assay that uses v-Ha-ras-transfected Balb/c 3T3 cells, can detect the tumour promoter-like activities of chemicals, but has not previously been used with cigarette smoke. The particulate phase of cigarette smoke (total particulate matter [TPM]) is known to induce tumours in vivo in the mouse skin painting assay. Therefore, we investigated the ability of this Bhas cell assay to form morphologically transformed foci in vitro when repeatedly challenged with TPM from a standard research cigarette. TPM induced a dose-dependent increase in Type III foci, and a significant increase (up to 20-fold) in focus formation at moderately toxic concentrations between 5 and 60µg TPM/ml, with a peak at 20µg/ml. Three batches of TPM were tested in three independent experiments. Precision (repeatability and reproducibility) was calculated by using 0, 5, 10, and 20µg TPM/ml. Repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation obtained from the normalised slopes of the dose-response curves, were 17.2% and 19.6%, respectively; the slopes were 0.7402 ± 0.1247, 0.9347 ± 0.1316, and 0.8772 ± 0.1767 (increase factor?ml/mg TPM; mean ± SD) ; and the goodness of fit (r2) of the mean slopes, each derived from n = 6 repeats, was 0.9449, 0.8198, and 0.8344, respectively. This in vitro assay with Bhas 42 cells, which are regarded as already initiated in the two-stage paradigm of carcinogenesis (initiation and promotion), is able to detect cell transformation induced by cigarette smoke in a dose-dependent manner with a high sensitivity and good precision. Because this assay is fast and yields reliable results, it may be useful in product assessment, as well as for further investigation of the non-genotoxic carcinogenic activity of tobacco smoke-related test substances. PMID:23781935

Weisensee, Dirk; Poth, Albrecht; Roemer, Ewald; Conroy, Lynda L; Schlage, Walter K

2013-05-01

46

Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

Sami Soljanlahti

2008-09-01

47

Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres. ? This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. ? Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. ? The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. ? The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500–600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO106PO70EO106) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu3+-doped Y2O3: Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy.

2012-11-25

48

Range disjunctions, speciation, and morphological transformation rates in the liverwort genus Leptoscyphus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bryophytes and angiosperms exhibit similar intercontinental disjunct distributions that have traditionally been explained by continental drift. Such disjunct distributions are, however, typically observed at the species level in bryophytes, whereas they occur at much higher taxonomic level in angiosperms. The corollary of this observation is that morphological evolution in bryophytes is exceedingly slow. These hypotheses can now be explicitly tested with the advent of molecular dating. In this article, we show that the trans-Atlantic disjunctions observed in the mostly tropical liverwort genus Leptoscyphus date back to 5.5 Myr, thus largely postdating the opening of the South Atlantic. The temporal calibration of the phylogeny allows us to estimate for the first time the absolute timing of morphological evolution in bryophytes. The time frame necessary for shifts to occur between character states was estimated on average at ca. 4.05+/-1.86 Myr. As opposed to the traditional view that bryophyte evolution has been triggered by episodic shifts in habitat conditions, our analyses furthermore suggest that morphological and molecular divergence gradually accumulated in the genus, which contrasts with the rapid diversification documented in some tropical trees. PMID:19154356

Devos, Nicolas; Vanderpoorten, Alain

2009-03-01

49

Low-temperature phase and morphology transformations in noble metal nanocatalysts  

Science.gov (United States)

In situ real-time x-ray diffraction was used to study temperature-induced structural changes of 1-5 nm Au, Pt, and AuPt nanocatalysts supported on silicon substrates. Synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction indicates that the as-synthesized Au and Au64Pt36 nanoparticles have a non-crystalline structure, while the Pt nanoparticles have the expected cubic structure. The nanoparticles undergo dramatic structural changes at temperatures as low as 120 °C. During low-temperature annealing, the Au and AuPt nanoparticles first melt and then immediately coalesce to form 4-5 nm crystalline structures. The Pt nanoparticles also aggregate but with limited intermediate melting. The detailed mechanisms of nucleation and growth, though, are quite different for the three types of nanoparticles. Most interestingly, solidification of high-density AuPt nanoparticles involves an unusual transient morphological transformation that affects only the surface of the particles. AuPt nanoparticles on silicon undergo partial phase segregation only upon annealing at extremely high temperatures (800 °C).

Malis, O.; Byard, C.; Mott, D.; Wanjala, B. N.; Loukrakpam, R.; Luo, J.; Zhong, C. J.

2011-01-01

50

Low-temperature phase and morphology transformations in noble metal nanocatalysts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In situ real-time x-ray diffraction was used to study temperature-induced structural changes of 1-5 nm Au, Pt, and AuPt nanocatalysts supported on silicon substrates. Synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction indicates that the as-synthesized Au and Au64Pt36 nanoparticles have a non-crystalline structure, while the Pt nanoparticles have the expected cubic structure. The nanoparticles undergo dramatic structural changes at temperatures as low as 120 deg. C. During low-temperature annealing, the Au and AuPt nanoparticles first melt and then immediately coalesce to form 4-5 nm crystalline structures. The Pt nanoparticles also aggregate but with limited intermediate melting. The detailed mechanisms of nucleation and growth, though, are quite different for the three types of nanoparticles. Most interestingly, solidification of high-density AuPt nanoparticles involves an unusual transient morphological transformation that affects only the surface of the particles. AuPt nanoparticles on silicon undergo partial phase segregation only upon annealing at extremely high temperatures (800 deg. C).

2011-01-14

51

Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

1991-01-01

52

The mechanism of the surface morphology transformation for the carbon nanotube thin film irradiated via excimer laser  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, the surface morphology transformation of the sprayed carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film irradiated with the excimer laser has been systematically investigated. Under the excimer-laser irradiation, two phenomena, including the annealing and ablation effects, were found to be dependent on the incident laser energy and overlapping ratios. Moreover, the extremely high protrusions would be produced in the interface between the annealing and ablation regions. The mechanism of the CNT thin film under the excimer laser irradiation was, therefore, proposed to derive the surface morphology modifications and the further reinforced crystallinity with proper laser energy densities and overlapping ratios.

Chien, Yun-Shan; Lee, I-Che; Yang, Po-Yu; Wang, Chao-Lung; Tsai, Wan-Lin; Wang, Kuang-Yu; Chou, Chia-Hsin; Cheng, Huang-Chung [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

2013-05-06

53

THE 10k zCOSMOS: MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES IN THE GROUP ENVIRONMENT SINCE z ?1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z = 1 using a large well-defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with MB luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z ? 0.5 and log(M*/Msun) ? 10.2, the 'effect' of the group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving color and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to three to four times higher correcting for infall and the appearance of new groups. The rates reach values as high as 0.3-0.7 Gyr-1 in the groups (for masses around the crossing mass 1010.5 Msun), implying transformation timescales of 1.4-3 Gyr, compared with less than 0.2 Gyr-1, i.e., timescales >5 Gyr, outside of groups. All three transformation rates decrease at higher stellar masses, and must also decrease at lower masses below 1010 Msun which we cannot probe well. The rates involving color and star formation are consistently higher than those for morphology, by a factor of about 50%. Our conclusion is that the transformations that drive the evolution of the overall galaxy population since z ? 1 must occur at a rate two to four times higher in groups than outside of them.

2010-07-20

54

Early and late molecular and morphologic changes that occur during the in vitro transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The amastigogenesis primary of T. cruzi occurs naturally when metacyclic trypomastigotes transform into amastigotes within the cells of the mammalian host. The in vitro study of the macromolecular changes that occur over several days during the transformation process should provide significant indications of how the parasite adapts to the mammalian host environment. We show here that metacyclic trypomastigotes pre-incubated at 37° C in a protein-rich medium reach a high degree of transformation to amastigotes when re-incubated in the fresh medium. Giemsa-stained smears show that during the pre-incubation phase, the metacyclic trypomastigotes undergo lengthening at the posterior end and a thinning out of the entire body. SDS-PAGE analysis of polypeptides and glycopeptides or Western blot with stage-specific antisera analyses indicate that the in vitro primary amastigogenesis is associated with abrupt changes in protein, glycoprotein, and stage-specific antigens that occur simultaneously during the first 24 hours of pre-incubation. Since the differentiating system consists of a rich media at 37° C, temperature and medium constitution must trigger a macromolecular differentiation to amastigotes that precedes the morphological transformation by several days. This transformation is associated with the rearrangement of stage-specific antigens and takes place when the culture medium is changed.

VÍCTOR T CONTRERAS

2002-01-01

55

Early and late molecular and morphologic changes that occur during the in vitro transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english The amastigogenesis primary of T. cruzi occurs naturally when metacyclic trypomastigotes transform into amastigotes within the cells of the mammalian host. The in vitro study of the macromolecular changes that occur over several days during the transformation process should provide significant indic [...] ations of how the parasite adapts to the mammalian host environment. We show here that metacyclic trypomastigotes pre-incubated at 37° C in a protein-rich medium reach a high degree of transformation to amastigotes when re-incubated in the fresh medium. Giemsa-stained smears show that during the pre-incubation phase, the metacyclic trypomastigotes undergo lengthening at the posterior end and a thinning out of the entire body. SDS-PAGE analysis of polypeptides and glycopeptides or Western blot with stage-specific antisera analyses indicate that the in vitro primary amastigogenesis is associated with abrupt changes in protein, glycoprotein, and stage-specific antigens that occur simultaneously during the first 24 hours of pre-incubation. Since the differentiating system consists of a rich media at 37° C, temperature and medium constitution must trigger a macromolecular differentiation to amastigotes that precedes the morphological transformation by several days. This transformation is associated with the rearrangement of stage-specific antigens and takes place when the culture medium is changed.

CONTRERAS, VÍCTOR T; NAVARRO, MARÍA C; DE LIMA, ANA R; DURAN, FRANCY; ARTEAGA, ROSA; FRANCO, YUNAIMY.

56

Morphology transformation of patterned, uniform and faceted GaN microcrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the growth and characterization of patterned and uniformly distributed GaN microcrystals with well-defined facets and epitaxy. The microcrystals were grown on a mask patterned by lithography. The GaN microcrystals were formed by selective-area epitaxy using metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The GaN microcrystals have similar sizes and shapes. Each microcrystal consists of an upper and a lower part, which are rotated by 30 deg. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there is a rather clear interface between the two parts of the crystal, suggesting a sudden change in the growth direction. We performed ab initio calculations for the surface energies of hexagonal GaN, and the growth morphology is explained based on surface energy considerations

2008-01-07

57

Karyotypic changes with neoplastic conversion in morphologically transformed golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosomes from nine morphologically transformed (MT) cell lines (designated MT14 to MT22) of Golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays and from tumor-derived cell lines (MT14T to MT22T), obtained after injection of MT cells, were analyzed by the Giemsa banding method. MT cell lines showed a variety of numerical abnormalities. All of the MT cell lines involved trisomy of chromosomes 11 (80 to 100% of cells in each cell line) and 3 (8% of MT22 cells and 100% in other cell lines). Although the latent period for tumor growth differed greatly, eight of nine MT cell lines (MT14 to MT21) produced tumors at the site of injection. All tumor-derived cell lines involved trisomy of chromosome 3 at a 100% rate of incidence. Seven of nine tumor-derived cell lines (MT15T to MT18T, MT20T to MT22T) lost one chromosome 11 from the trisomic condition, resulting in disomy of chromosome 11. These results suggest that trisomies of chromosomes 11 and 3 may play a role in X-ray-induced neoplastic progression

1990-02-01

58

The role of the Src homology domains in morphological transformation by v-src.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Src homology (SH2 and SH3) domains of v-Src are required for transformation of Rat-2 cells and for wild-type (morphr) transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). We report herein that the N-terminal domains of v-Src, when expressed in trans, cannot complement the transformation defect of a deletion mutant lacking the "unique," SH3, and SH2 regions. However, the same regions of Src can promote transformation when translocated to the C terminus of v-Src, although the transf...

1997-01-01

59

The pace of morphological change: historical transformation of skull shape in St Bernard dogs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Owing to the great morphological diversity of domestic dogs (Canis familiaris), the study of historical shape change in dog skulls provides an excellent opportunity for investigating the dynamics of morphological evolution. Breed standards make known which features were selected by breeders. Here we use the methods of geometric morphometrics to study change of skull shape in a series of purebred St Bernard dogs spanning nearly 120 years. A regression of shape on time was highly significant an...

Drake, Abby Grace; Klingenberg, Christian Peter

2008-01-01

60

Persistence of sister chromatid exchanges and in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster fetal cells by chemical and physical carcinogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of neoplastic cell transformation is closely associated with DNA alterations which occur shortly after carcinogen exposure. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation is a sensitive indicator of carcinogen-DNA interaction and correlates with the induction of morphological cell transformation. The persistence of lesions generating SCE produced by chemical and physical carcinogens and its relevance to the induction of morphologic transformation was evaluated in coordinated experiments with cultured Syrian hamster fetal cells (HFC). Exponentially growing HFC were exposed for 1 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platinum (II) diaminedichloride (cis Pt II), N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU), mitomycin C (MMC), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (AcAAF) or u.v. light irradiated. SCE analysis demonstrates that for a period of 48 h after carcinogen exposure, during which time the cells undergo at least four replicative cycles, DNA damage generating SCE induced by all chemical carcinogens either persisted or was partially removed, whereas u.v.-induced lesions were completely removed. An elevated SCE frequency persisted after two additional cell cycles after treatment with BP, AcAAF or MMC without increased cell lethality as compared to other carcinogens whose lesions were completely eliminated during the same period

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

2010-07-01

62

Morphological transformation of BALB/3T3 mouse embryo cells in vitro by vomitoxin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transforming potential of vomitoxin, a trichothecene mycotoxin produced on cereal grains by fungi of the genus Fusarium, was assessed using mouse embryo BALB/3T3 A31-1-1 cells. Cells grown in Eagle's basal medium with Earle's salts supplemented with 7.5% foetal bovine serum were treated with highly purified vomitoxin, which was dissolved in distilled water and filter-sterilized. Assays were conducted using cells from three different passages at dose levels ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 microgram/ml. The treatment time was 48 hr and the highest dose levels tested produced approximately 10% survival as determined by in situ cell counts. Distilled water and 3-methylcholanthrene (5.0 micrograms/ml) were used as the vehicle and positive controls, respectively. Of the 20 dishes examined per dose group, the numbers of type III foci were 0-1 in the solvent control, 12-15 in the positive control and 0-9 in the treated groups. Comparison of the three assays showed that the level of response varied with passage number. Of the three passages of cells tested-passage numbers 6, 8 and 9 (p6, p8 and p9)--passage-9 cells produced the strongest positive effect. PMID:3366424

Sheu, C W; Moreland, F M; Lee, J K; Dunkel, V C

1988-03-01

63

Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: Impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

2014-08-17

64

FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH- in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ? 9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F > L > G with almost 30 % of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3...

Usman, Muhammad; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Hanna, Khalil; Gre?goire, Brian; Faure, Pierre; Ruby, Christian

2012-01-01

65

Anabaena sp. PCC7120 transformed with glycine methylation genes from Aphanothece halophytica synthesized glycine betaine showing increased tolerance to salt.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photosynthetic, nitrogen-fixing Anabaena strains play an important role in the carbon and nitrogen cycles in tropical paddy fields although they are salt sensitive. Improvement in salt tolerance of Anabaena cells by expressing glycine betaine-synthesizing genes is an interesting subject. Due to the absence of choline in cyanobacteria, choline-oxidizing enzyme could not be used for the synthesis of glycine betaine. Here, the genes encoding glycine-sarcosine and dimethylglycine methyltransferases (ApGSMT-DMT) from a halotolerant cyanobacterium Aphanothece halophytica were expressed in Anabaena sp. strain PCC7120. The ApGSMT-DMT-expressing Anabaena cells were capable of synthesizing glycine betaine without the addition of any substance. The accumulation level of glycine betaine in Anabaena increased with rise of salt concentration. The transformed cells exhibited an improved growth and more tolerance to salinity than the control cells. The present work provides a prospect to engineer a nitrogen-fixing cyanobacterium having enhanced tolerance to stress by manipulating de novo synthesis of glycine betaine. PMID:22707090

Waditee-Sirisattha, Rungaroon; Singh, Meenakshi; Kageyama, Hakuto; Sittipol, Daungjai; Rai, Ashwani K; Takabe, Teruhiro

2012-11-01

66

Morphological instabilities and branching processes at the initiation of the eutectoid transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A linearized stability approach has been used to study the initiation of lamellar growth in pearlite via a branching mechanism. It is quite apparent, even from the very simple analysis presented in this paper, that the morphological instability of two growing phases with coupled diffusion fields is highly interdependent; that is, the morphological instability of the ferrite will drive branching processes in the cementite. This type of coupled instability would contribute to the branching processes in the cementite. This type of coupled instability would contribute to the branching mechanism proposed by Hillert for the initiation of a lamellar growth in pearlite and is consistent with experimental observation.

Hackney, S.A. (Dept. of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (US))

1991-06-01

67

Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

2012-10-15

68

On the morphology of the directionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interlamellar spacings and microstructural faults of the unidirectionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid are investigated by metallographic methods. In agreement with measurements of Mellor and Chadwick we find widely spread interlamellar spacings. The quality of the microstructure is seriously influenced by the transformation rate. While the alignment of the lamellae is nearly perfect in the central parts of the samples at rates of 0.27 and 0.45 cm/h, the lamellar character is lost at 18 cm/h. Primary crystals of the ?-phase and the delta-phase, eutectoid sub-boundaries, deviations of the lamellae from the main growth direction and periodical growth bands are found as microstructural faults. Moreover the discontinuous coarsening reaction starts at eutectoid grain boundaries. The primary crystals and the growth bands can be explained by influences of the unidirectional solidification which immediately precedes the unidirectional eutectoid transformation. The deviations of the lamellae from main growth direction are caused by irregularities of the transformation front. These are able to migrate on the transformation front transverse to the growth direction. (orig.)

1977-12-01

69

Transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon and carbon in rice straw-derived biochars under different pyrolytic temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochars are increasingly recognized as environmentally friendly and cheap remediation agents for soil pollution. The roles of silicon in biochars and interactions between silicon and carbon have been neglected in the literature to date, while the transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon in Si-rich biochars remain largely unaddressed. In this study, Si-rich biochars derived from rice straw were prepared under 150-700 °C (named RS150-RS700). The transformation and morphology of carbon and silicon in biochar particles were monitored by FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. With increasing pyrolytic temperature, silicon accumulated, and its speciation changed from amorphous to crystalline matter, while the organic matter evolved from aliphatic to aromatic. For rice straw biomass containing amorphous carbon and amorphous silicon, dehydration (pyrolytic temperature. Along with SEM-EDX images of biochars before and after water washing, we proposed a structural relationship between carbon and silicon in biochars to explain the mutual protection between carbon and silicon under different pyrolysis temperatures, which contribute to the broader understanding of biochar chemistry and structure. The silicon dissolution kinetics suggests that high Si biochars could serve as a novel slow release source of biologically available Si in low Si agricultural soils. PMID:24601595

Xiao, Xin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

2014-03-18

70

Effective Morphological Extraction of True Fingerprint Minutiae based on the Hit or Miss Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fingerprints are the most widely used parameter for personal identification amongst allbiometrics based personal authentication systems. As most Automatic FingerprintRecognition Systems are based on local ridge features known as minutiae, markingminutiae accurately and rejecting false ones is critically important. In this paper we proposean algorithm for extracting minutiae from a fingerprint image using the binary Hit or Misstransform (HMT of mathematical morphology. We have developed and tested structuringelements for different types of minutiae present in a fingerprint image to be used by the HMTafter preprocessing the image with morphological operators. This results in efficient minutiaedetection, thereby saving a lot of effort in the post processing stage. The algorithm is testedon a large number of images. Experimental results depict the effectiveness of the proposedtechnique.

Roli Bansal, Priti Sehgal & Punam Bedi

2010-06-01

71

Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES  

CERN Document Server

We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

2008-01-01

72

Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perfo...

Parvati, K.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Mariya Das, M.

2009-01-01

73

Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2014-03-01

74

Morphological transformations in rat thymus under influence of multiplegravitational overloads and after pharmaceutical correction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using light and transmission electron microscopy techniques morphological features of mature male Wistar rats, which were exposed to hypergravity (9 g, 10 minutes, daily, 45times, were investigated. It was revealed, that reaction of thymus on multiple hypergravity resulted in haemodynamic changes and involution of lymphoid tissue according to the adaptive and compensatory reaction of the organ under repeated stress action. Administration of glutargin as an adaptogen under systematic hypergravity overloads provides certain corrective effect. Hypergravity-induced involution changes neither progress, nor totally arrest.

Moroz G.A.

2012-01-01

75

The morphological transformation of red sequence galaxies in the distant cluster XMMU J1229+0151  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at z = 0.98 drawn from the High Acuity Wide field K-band Imager Cluster Survey. Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the Wide Field Nearby Galaxy-clusters Survey cluster survey reveals that at z ˜ 1 the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the low-redshift comparison sample at the same luminosities. Despite these differences between the morphological composition of the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151 and in low-redshift samples, we find that to within the uncertainties, no such difference exists in the ratio of luminous to faint galaxies along the red sequence.

Cerulo, P.; Couch, W. J.; Lidman, C.; Delaye, L.; Demarco, R.; Huertas-Company, M.; Mei, S.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.

2014-04-01

76

Transformational  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

The U.S. Army is currently in the midst of unprecedented transformation. Weapons, vehicles, technology, and most important, people, are the focus of the Army's future change. Understanding the relationship between people (soldiers) and change is a definite leadership challenge. By combining emerging technologies with people and change, future leadership challenges increase immeasurably. Transformational leadership is about leading an organization through change. In its purest form, it is the ability to guide and direct those within a given organization, focusing on one clear, directed vision through the application of the components of transformational leadership. As the U. S. Army continues to change and progress through the twenty-first century, we will without doubt need transformational leaders to spearhead this change, leaders that can effectively guide and direct their subordinates through this transformation, and to serve as agents of change. The purpose of this monograph is to determine the applicability of transformational leadership within the U. S. Army through an analysis and comparison of transformational leadership styles and techniques based upon selected evaluation criteria. Moreover, the base question to be answered is should transformational leadership be adopted at all leadership levels within the Army, or at specific levels only? The case studies are an analysis and historic significance of transformational leadership, centering on two renowned transformational leaders of our Army, General George C. Marshall, and General William E. DePuy. Both of these leaders possessed exceptional transformational leadership ability through periods of true change and transformation within the U. S. Army. Furthermore, the case studies apply the principles of transformational leadership to these leaders abilities, decision-making, and overall.

2003-01-01

77

Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

Kamala Devi.K

2012-07-01

78

Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perform a proper segmentation, a property that is often fulfilled in contour detection where the boundaries of the objects are expressed as ridges. For region-based segmentation, it is possible to convert the edges of the objects into ridges by calculating an edge map of the image. Watershed is normally implemented by region growing, based on a set of markers to avoid oversegmentation.

M. Mariya Das

2009-01-01

79

Boron nitride nanotubes as nanocrucibles for morphology and phase transformations in encapsulated nanowires of the Mg-O system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were filled with nanowires made of Mg-containing compounds: a metallic Mg-based material; a MgO-based phase; and a thermally and chemically unstable oxygen-rich MgO2-based phase. Crystallography of the tubes and their fillings was studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These compounds displayed markedly different behavior inside BN nanotube channels during in situ TEM electron-irradiation-induced and thermal heating. The interplay between phases, their morphology and phase transformations were observed under heating. Thus the applicability of chemically and thermally stable BN nanotubes as one-dimensional nanocrucibles for novel nanoscale metallurgy/chemistry in the practically important Mg-O system has been thoroughly documented. This opens up a pathway for BN nanotube-channel-confined reactions in other inorganic systems

2004-06-21

80

Survey Shows Colleges Transform Graduates.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to this survey, the overwhelming majority of tribal college graduates are working or attending college, despite the scarce opportunities and high rates of unemployment on reservations. Graduates are frequently employed in "high need" occupations such as teaching and health care. The survey report, "Creating Role Models for Change," is…

Tribal College Journal, 2000

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

?-Fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma show similar morphology but different histogenesis with respect to SALL4 expression.  

Science.gov (United States)

?-Fetoprotein is expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma, yolk sac tumor, and some gastric carcinomas. The ?-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma composed of hepatoid and common adenocarcinoma shows morphological similarities to combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, the expression of putative hepatic stem/progenitor markers (EpCAM, OV-6, DLK-1, and NCAM/CD56), hepatocyte markers (HepParI, ?-fetoprotein, glypican 3), and the germ cell marker SALL4 was examined in ?-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma (20 cases) and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma (20 cases) for evaluation of pathologic differentiation and also the histogenesis of both tumors. The SALL4 protein was expressed in 95% of ?-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma, including the hepatoid component (hepatoid gastric carcinoma), but was absent in combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. Glypican 3 and ?-fetoprotein were detected in all hepatoid-type ?-fetoprotein-producing gastric carcinoma but variably in combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. NCAM/CD56 was expressed focally in combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma but was rare in hepatoid gastric carcinoma. EpCAM, DLK-1, and OV6 were variably expressed in hepatoid gastric carcinoma and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma. SALL4 was a useful differential marker for combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma and hepatoid gastric carcinoma. The histogenesis of hepatoid gastric carcinoma expressing SALL4 seems to reflect fetal gut differentiation or involve the germ cell lineage and may be different from that of combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma involving the hepatic stem cell or progenitor cell lineages. In conclusion, hepatoid gastric carcinoma and combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma shared morphologies, whereas the distinction of hepatoid gastric carcinoma from combined hepatocellular and cholangiocarcinoma is possible by immunostaining for SALL4. These 2 tumors seem to differ in their histogenesis with respect to SALL4 expression.1. PMID:22516245

Ikeda, Hiroko; Sato, Yasunori; Yoneda, Norihide; Harada, Kenichi; Sasaki, Motoko; Kitamura, Seiko; Sudo, Yoshiko; Ooi, Akishi; Nakanuma, Yasuni

2012-11-01

82

Chemical and morphological transformation through hydrothermal process for LiFePO4 preparation in organic-free system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? LiFePO4 (LFP) is synthesized hydrothermally in organics-free reaction system at 160 °C. ? Samples were collected from identical autoclave at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period. ? The mechanism for chemical and morphological transformation of crystalline LFP is understood. ? LFP synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. ? Reducing the particle size of the precursors will be an effective way to obtain fine LFP particles. -- Abstract: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis in an organic-free system. Samples were collected at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size analysis. Two precursors, Li3PO4 and Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O, form easily at ambient temperature. They dissolve into ions once temperature increases to 135 °C. LFP nuclei form rapidly at 135–140 °C and grow fast at 140–150 °C. The crystal morphology transforms from diamond to polygon plate at 150–160 °C. The B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size decrease as reaction time prolongs. The thickness of the platelets remains unchanged within the range of 60–100 nm for each LFP sample. The sample synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon (LFP/C-2) exhibits optimum electrochemical performances that the specific discharge capacities are 162.1, 150.8 and 136.9 mAh g?1 at 0.2 C, 1 C and 5 C, respectively. Reducing the precursors’ particle size would be an effective way to shorten the reaction time and obtain fine particles with high specific surface area and high purity

2013-04-30

83

TRANSFORMATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

84

Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

KamilaOglecka

2012-05-01

85

Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures and morphology transformation during annealing processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wire- and belt-like single-crystalline titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized by using a simple thermal annealing method, which has often been avoided for the synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures from high melting point metals such as Ti. The synthesis method requires neither high reaction temperature nor complicated reaction processes, and can be used for producing dense nanomaterials with relatively short reaction time at temperatures much lower than the melting point of titanium and titanium dioxide. Key synthesis factors including the choice of eutectic catalyst, growth temperature, and annealing time were systematically investigated. The synthesis reaction was promoted by a copper eutectic catalyst, producing long nanostructures with short reaction times. For example, it was observed that only 30 min of annealing time at 850 deg. C was enough to produce densely grown ?10 ?m long nanowires with diameters of ?100 nm, and longer reaction time brought about morphology changes from wires to belts as well as producing longer nanostructures up to ?30 ?m. The nanostructures have the crystalline rutile structure along the growth direction. Finally, our simple and effective method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures could be utilized for growing other metal oxide nanowires from high melting temperature metals.

2009-03-09

86

A new segmentation method of CR images based on discrete wavelet transform and mathematics morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we propose a segmentation method of CR(computed radiography) images with being rid of under-segmentation and over-segmentation. An under-segmentation occurs when pixels belonging to different objects are grouped into a single region. Such errors are the most dangerous because they can invalidate the whole segmentation process. The phenomenon always takes place when we segment CR images because of the principle of CR. In order to depressed under-segmentation, we enhance the CR images using DWT (discrete wavelet transform) to get more detail of CR image features. As we enhance the CR image, the over-segmentation maybe occurs. Compared with under-segmentation, the over-segmentation occurs when a single objects is subdivided by segmentation into several region. For the purpose of preventing from the over-segmentation, we present a scheme for enhanced CR images based on watershed algorithm that solves over-segmentation problem. We use marker-based watershed algorithm. Together with gradient image and marker image, watershed segmentation can make sure to partition CR image into meaningful object and avoid further segmentation of homogeneous regions. The result of the proposed algorithm are compared with those of other standard methods. Experiments have shown a better result and indeed solved under-segmentation and over-segmentation problems.

Li, Zhe; Huang, Lian-qing

2006-01-01

87

The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics  

CERN Document Server

Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

2009-01-01

88

Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

This video clip demonstrates the process of transformation. When a bacterial cell dies, the DNA in the cell breaks into fragments. This free DNA can be taken up by certain bacteria and integrated into their DNA.

American Society For Microbiology;

2002-01-01

89

Adaptive order morphology edge detection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operato...

Yuanni Wang; Fei Ge

2012-01-01

90

DNA ADDUCTS, METABOLISM, AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMING ACTIVITY OF ACEANTHRYLENE IN C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Aceanthrylene (ACE), a cycioponta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (CP-PAH) related to anthracene, has been studied for Its ability to be metabolized, to form DNA adducts, and to morphologically transform C3H101/2CL8 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. lthough ACE has been ...

91

Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

2012-11-01

92

Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nfujita@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); and others

2012-11-15

93

Interphase precipitation in vanadium-alloyed steels: Strengthening contribution and morphological variability with austenite to ferrite transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of characteristic features of interphase precipitation in steels with progressive of austenite-to-ferrite transformation is analyzed from both experimental and modeling approaches. The model developed describing the time and temperature evolution of sheet spacing and particle spacing shows good agreement with the experimental data. The interactions between the transformation and interphase-precipitated carbides are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the occurrence of fibrous carbides. It is suggested that the ease of interface motion is the main factor controlling its appearance. Finally, the local strengthening in a single ferrite grain containing different precipitation states is analyzed by nanoindentation and compared with the theoretical calculations. The evolution of strengthening induced by interphase precipitation with the microstructural parameters is then discussed

2014-02-01

94

Electronic stool subtraction using quadratic regression, morphological operations, and distance transforms  

Science.gov (United States)

CT colonography (CTC) is being extensively studied for its potential value in colon examinations, since it offers many advantages such as lower risk and less patient discomfort. However, CTC, like all other types of full structural colorectal examinations to date, requires complete bowel preparation. The inconvenience and discomfort associated with this preparation is an important obstacle to compliance with currently recommended colorectal screening guidelines. To maximize compliance, CTC would ideally be performed on an unprepared colon. However, in an unprepared colon residual stool and fluid can mimic soft tissue density and thus confound the identification of polyps. An alternative is to tag the stool with an opacifying agent so that it is brighter than soft tissue and thus easily recognized automatically and then reset to air values. However, such electronic stool subtraction in a totally unprepared colon is difficult to perform accurately for several reasons, including poorly labeled areas of stool, the need to accurately quantify partial volume effects, and noise. In this study the qualitative performance of a novel stool subtraction algorithm was assessed in unprepared CT colonography screening exams of 26 consecutive volunteers. Results showed that nearly all stool was removed in 62% of the cases, fold erosion was mild or nonexistent in 75% of the cases, and wall erosion was mild or non-existent in 100% of cases. Although further study and refinement of the stool subtraction process is required, CT colonography of the unprepared colon with electronic stool subtraction is feasible.

Carston, Michael; Manduca, Armando; Johnson, C. Daniel

2007-03-01

95

Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift  

CERN Multimedia

"Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

Cameron, E

2012-01-01

96

Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500-600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO{sub 106}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 106}) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Wang, Qin; Guo, Jing; Jia, Wenjing; Liu, Baocang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (China)

2012-11-25

97

Phase Transformation and Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition Process Through Alkali Treatment and Calcination  

Science.gov (United States)

The phase transformation and morphology of calcium phosphate prepared by the electrochemical deposition (ECD) process through alkali treatment and calcination have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the ECD process, when the excess OH- was produced, the reaction of 10Ca2++6PO{4/3-}+2OH-?Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 takes place on the Ti-6Al-4V and the HA is deposited. The XRD results reveal that the as-deposit was mostly composed of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (Ca2H4P2O9; DCPD) and the minor phase of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HA). After NaOH treatment, all DCPD were converted to HA. Moreover, the content of HA phase increases with ECD potential. After being calcined at 673 K and 873 K (400 °C and 600 °C) for 4 hours, the phase of HA maintained the major phase for an alkali-treated deposited sample. After being calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, some HA decomposed and caused the minor phases of ?-tricalcium phosphate ( ?-Ca3(PO4)2; ?-TCP), calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7; CPP), and calcium oxide (CaO) formation. The ?-TCP becomes the major phase with residual HA and CaO after being calcined at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 4 hours. The crack forms due to the release of absorbed water from the interior to top surface of sample. For the as-alkali treatment samples, the microstructures were affected by ECD potentials; when the deposited samples after alkali treatment and calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the microstructure presents the need-like "preforming HA" (pre-HA) from the matrix of plate-like postforming HA (post-HA).

Chen, Hui-Ting; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Szu-Hao; Shih, Wei-Jen; Li, Wong-Long

2014-04-01

98

Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

2014-03-01

99

Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

2010-04-01

100

Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
101

Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

2013-10-01

102

N-Nitrosodiethylamine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone Induced Morphological Transformation of C3H/10T1/2CL8 Cells Expressing Human Cytochrome P450 2A6.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfection of specific genes into cells capable of expressing chemically induced morphological cell transformation provides a valuable approach to study the mechanisms of action of carcinogens. A human cytochrome P450 isozyme, CYP2A6, has been successfu...

S. Nesnow S. Beck S. Rosenblum J. Lasley H. F. Tiano M. Hosokawa C. L. Crespi R. Langenbach

1994-01-01

103

Morphological transformation induced by chemical carcinogens is enhanced by the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D/sub 3/, 1. cap alpha. ,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The active metabolite of vitamin D/sub 3/, 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) was found to increase the frequency of morphologically transformed colonies induced by chemical carcinogens in the hamster embryo cell transformation assay. Treatment of the embryo cells with either benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-) 7..beta..,8..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 3 days followed by treatment of the cells with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ for 4 days resulted in an increase in the transformation frequency compared to cells treated with the carcinogen only. Reversing the order of the treatment (i.e., incubating the cells with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ prior to benzo(a)pyrene treatment) did not result in such an enhancement. Vitamin D/sub 3/ and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, another metabolite of this vitamin, also enhanced the frequency of cell transformation but were less potent than 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Pyrene, which is not carcinogenic, did not induce transformed colonies, nor did the combination of pyrene and 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ treatment result in the development of such colonies. Benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), which is considered as either an inactive or weak carcinogen, was also ineffective in inducing transformed colonies. However, in the two-stage protocol when B(e)P was used with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, the authors observed a significant number of transformed colonies. These studies demonstrate that 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ resembles phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate in its capacity to enhance morphological transformation in carcinogen-treated hamster embryo cells. These results suggest that this vitamin D/sub 3/ metabolite may act as a natural promoter of carcinogenesis in fibroblastic cells.

Jones, C.A.; Callaham, M.F.; Huberman, E.

1984-03-01

104

Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Shows Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier Transform Infrared Imagin...

Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

105

Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti-12(wt.%)Mo alloy. In-situ Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress induced ...

Sun, F.; Zangh, J. Y.; Marteleur, M.; Gloriant, Thierry; Vermaut, P.; Laille?, Denis; Castany, Philippe; Curfs, C.; Jacques, P. J.; Prima, F.

2013-01-01

106

Variability of biological responses to silicas: effect of origin, crystallinity, and state of surface on generation of reactive oxygen species and morphological transformation of mammalian cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variously modified quartz dusts and one amorphous diatomaceous earth have been compared in their potential to release HO* radicals and in their activity in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. Both original dusts, made up by well-crystallized quartz particles, or by mostly amorphous, variously shaped, silica particles, were active in HO* release, were cytotoxic, and induced morphological transformation in SHE cells. The cristobalite dust, obtained by heating quartz above the phase transition temperature, lost any activity in free radical release, cytotoxicity, and transforming potency. Surface-modified quartz dusts were obtained by a mild etching with HF, by depriving the surface of trace iron with deferoxamine, or by enriching it with iron. The chemical and biological activity decreased in all cases. Both iron-deprived and iron-enriched quartz were nearly inactive. A linear correlation was found between the amount of HO* released by the particles and the transformation frequency. When the SHE cell assay was performed in the presence of mannitol or antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase [SOD] or catalase), the number of transformed cells markedly decreased. This effect was more pronounced for catalase and mannitol than for SOD. HO* release was reduced, but not suppressed, by deferoxamine. All the above results are consistent with the presence of two kinds of surface sites active in HO* release and cell transformation: (1) silicon-based radicals, abundant on freshly ground dusts, which generate the HO* radicals without the superoxide ion as intermediate; and (2) isolated iron centers where the Haber-Weiss cycle takes place, with the superoxide ion as intermediate. The activities of both sites are inhibited by mannitol or catalase, whereas only the last one is inhibited by SOD. PMID:11570678

Fubini, B; Fenoglio, I; Elias, Z; Poirot, O

2001-01-01

107

Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

2008-06-30

108

Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic ?'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal ?-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) ?-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from ?'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

2008-06-30

109

In Vitro Cercariae Transformation: Comparison of Mechanical and Nonmechanical Methods and Observation of Morphological Changes of Detached Cercariae Tails  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schistosomula, the larval stage of schistosomes in vertebrate hosts, are highly vulnerable and considered an ideal target for vaccine and drug development. Although the schistosomule stage is essential for biological studies, collecting sufficient numbers of schistosomula from their definitive hosts in vivo is difficult to accomplish. However, in vitro collection via cercariae transformation can effectively yield high numbers of schistosomula. We compared a current and widely used double-ende...

Coultas, Kristen A.; Zhang, Si-ming

2012-01-01

110

Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: {yields} High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. {yields} Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. {yields} Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. {yields} Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 {sup o}C temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 {sup o}C is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 {sup o}C the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 10{sup 10}/cm{sup 2}. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

Kesaria, Manoj; Shetty, Satish [International Centre for Material Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Cohen, P.I. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Shivaprasad, S.M., E-mail: smsprasad@jncasr.ac.in [International Centre for Material Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

2011-11-15

111

Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. ? Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. ? Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. ? Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 oC temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 oC is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 oC the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 1010/cm2. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

2011-11-01

112

Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (ppulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

2012-07-01

113

Influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers orientation relationship and variants morphology during ? ? ? phase transformation in a near ? titanium alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We studied prior ? deformation and cooling rate influence on Burgers OR obeying. ? Stress/strain elastic anisotropy at grain-scale were evaluated by CPFEM simulation. ? External factors have no significant influence on the Burgers OR respecting. ? Strain and cooling rate has a significant influence on morphologies of ? variants. ? Elastic anisotropy but not the mean value significantly affect Burgers OR obeying. - Abstract: High temperature compression deformation studies of Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V titanium alloy in full ? phase region with different strains/strain rates and then with subsequent varied cooling rates were performed to understand the microstructure evolution. Crystal orientation information and microstructure morphology of all tested samples were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The crystal orientations of prior high temperature ? grains were estimated by reconstructing the retained ? phase at room temperature. The theoretical crystal orientations of all possible ? variants within an investigated prior ? grain were calculated according to the Burgers orientation relationship (OR) between parent and product phase. The calculated and experimental results were then compared and analyzed. The influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers OR between prior ? matrix and precipitated ? phase were investigated. Full discussions have been conducted by combination of crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) grain-scale simulation results. The results indicate that external factors (such as deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate) have a slight influence on the obeying of Burgers OR rule during ? ? ? phase transformation. However, strain rate and cooling rate have a significant effect on the morphology of precipitated ? phase.

2012-07-15

114

Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

1983-01-01

115

The Morphological Transformation of Red-Sequence Galaxies in the Distant Cluster XMMU J1229+0151  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at $z=0.98$ drawn from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the WINGS cluster survey reveals that at $z\\sim1$ the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMUJ1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the lo...

Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Delaye, L; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R

2014-01-01

116

Crystal Structure of cis-[PtCl2(PyCN2] (PyCN = 4-Cyanopyridine Showing Temperature Dependent Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Platinum mononuclear complex, cis-[PtCl2(PyCN2] (1, PyCN = 4-cyanopyridine, has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes as yellow plates from the reaction of a mixture of K2PtCl4 and PyCN (=1:2 in H2O, that was left to stand at room temperature with the addition of Me2CO. Compound 1 forms the square-planar coordination geometry around the Pt atom coordinated to two Cl– ions and two pyridines of PyCN ligands in cis position. Single crystal of 1 shows the temperature dependent phase transition around 140 K, where the crystal space groups change from P21/c (high temperature to  (low temperature, which is caused by the stabilization of intermolecular interaction.

Kazuhiro Uemura

2013-04-01

117

N-NITROSODIETHYLAMINE AND 4-(METHYLNITROSAMINO)-1-(3-PYRIDYL)-1-BUTANONE INDUCED MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF CH3/10T1/2CL8 CELLS EXPRESSING HUMAN CYTOCHROME P450 2A6  

Science.gov (United States)

Transfection of specific genes into cells capable of expressing chemically-induced morphological cell transformation provides a valuable approach to study the mechanisms of action of carcinogens. uman cytochrome P450 isozyme, CYP2A6, has been successfully expressed from a retrovi...

118

Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ?20 nm and height of ?7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere

2008-09-15

119

Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of {approx}20 nm and height of {approx}7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere.

Kukreja, L.M. [Laser Materials Processing Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)], E-mail: kukreja@cat.ernet.in; Koslowski, B.; Steiner, R.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P. [Abteilung Festkoerperphysik, Universitaet Ulm, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

2008-09-15

120

[The basic types and forms of the fine structure of mitochondrial cristae: the degree of their evolutionary stability (capacity for morphological transformations)].  

Science.gov (United States)

The organellological analysis being made of the fine structure of mitochondria in different species of the kingdom Protista, and in different cells of representatives of the kingdoms Plantae and Animalia (Metazoa). On the base of this analysis the following classification of types and forms of the fine structure of mitochondrial cristae is proposed. The Ist type, with lamellar (flat) cristae includes four morphological forms: ribbon, sheet, bundle-like and rounded ones (discoidal and plate-like). The 2nd type, with vesicular cristae, includes bubble, ampule, and sac-like ones. The 3rd type with tubular cristae. Among the representatives of each kingdom (Protista, Plantae and Metazoa) all the three types of mitochondrial cristae have been observed. The majority of cells of higher plants and higher animals have lamellar mitochondrial cristae, but sometimes (in some tissues) there are cells with tubular or vesicular mitochondrial cristae. On the base of the above classification some other conclusions have been made. Among the eukaryotes the vesicular cristae are spread as widely as tubular and lamellar ones. Only in a few macrotaxa (superphyla and phyla) of Protista all the investigated organisms have mitochondria of similar cristal organization. For example, Ciliophora have only tubular, and Cryptophyta only lamellar mitochondrial cristae. In the majority of protistan macrotaxa a certain mitochondrial type of cristae may dominate, but there is the number of species with some different mitochondrial patterns (Euglenophyta, Chlorophyta, Chrysophyta, Mycetozoa, etc.). In some macrotaxa (Chrysophyta, Mycetozoa, etc.) such mitochondrial patterns as mentioned above, are characteristic of the lower organisms. Finally, in some macrotaxa of Protista mitochondrial cristae of two or three types may appear in different species, sometimes even within the same genus; for example--Sporozoa, Myxospora and Ascetospora. In the course of ontogenesis of the vertebrates and insects, cell mitochondria in some of their tissues can change their morphological type from lamellar to tubular or vesicular. Similar transformations of mitochondrial cristae were observed in the life cycles of some trypanosomes (Kinetoplastida) and in the flagellate Polytoma (Chlorophyta) due to modifications in the culture conditions. It is undoubtedly that the principle of morphological concervatism in the organization of mitochondrial cristae may be used for purposes of systematics and phylogeny, however only after a thorough comparative organellological analysis of the fine structure in numerous species of the examined taxon. PMID:8328023

Seravin, L N

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

122

Morphological transformation induced by multiwall carbon nanotubes on Balb/3T3 cell model as an in vitro end point of carcinogenic potential.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work we investigated the toxicological effects of nude and chemically functionalised (-NH(2), -OH and -COOH groups) multiwall carbon nanotubes (mwCNTs) using immortalised mouse fibroblasts cell line (Balb/3T3) as in vitro model, alternative to the use of animals, to assess basal cytotoxicity, carcinogenic potential, genotoxicity and cell interaction of nanomaterials (NM). Combining in vitro tests such as cell transformation assay and micronucleus with physicochemical and topological analysis, we obtained results showing no cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Carcinogenic potential and mwCNTs interaction with cells were instead evident. We stressed the importance that different toxicological end points have to be considered when studying NM, therefore, assays able to detect long-term effects, such as carcinogenicity, must be taken into account together with a panel of tests able to detect more immediate effects like basal cytotoxicity or genotoxicity. PMID:22279961

Ponti, Jessica; Broggi, Francesca; Mariani, Valentina; De Marzi, Laura; Colognato, Renato; Marmorato, Patrick; Gioria, Sabrina; Gilliland, Douglas; Pascual Garcìa, César; Meschini, Stefania; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese; Rauscher, Hubert; Rossi, François

2013-03-01

123

Effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compound during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation process  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Effect of a 10 T high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compounds during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation has been investigated. Results indicate that the field has split the MnBi crystal along the (0 0 1)-crystal plane during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation process and the split MnBi crystals align and aggregate along the magnetic field direction. Along with the change of the MnBi phase morphology, the magnetic property changes greatly. Indeed, with the alignment and aggregation of the spit MnBi phases, the saturation magnetization M{sub s} and the magnetic susceptibility {chi} increase, and the coercive field H{sub c} and the remnant magnetization M{sub r} decrease. This implies that a high magnetic field may have caused the magnetic property of the MnBi phase to transform towards soft magnetism. Above results may be attributed to the enhancement of the magnetization and the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation in a high magnetic field.

Li Xi [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); EPM-SIMAP, ENSHMG BP 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: xi@hmg.inpg.fr; Ren Zhongming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Fautrelle, Yves [EPM-SIMAP, ENSHMG BP 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Deng Kang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

2009-09-15

124

Effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compound during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of a 10 T high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compounds during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation has been investigated. Results indicate that the field has split the MnBi crystal along the (0 0 1)-crystal plane during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process and the split MnBi crystals align and aggregate along the magnetic field direction. Along with the change of the MnBi phase morphology, the magnetic property changes greatly. Indeed, with the alignment and aggregation of the spit MnBi phases, the saturation magnetization Ms and the magnetic susceptibility ? increase, and the coercive field Hc and the remnant magnetization Mr decrease. This implies that a high magnetic field may have caused the magnetic property of the MnBi phase to transform towards soft magnetism. Above results may be attributed to the enhancement of the magnetization and the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation in a high magnetic field.

2009-09-01

125

Effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compound during the Mn 1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of a 10 T high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compounds during the Mn 1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation has been investigated. Results indicate that the field has split the MnBi crystal along the (0 0 1)-crystal plane during the Mn 1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process and the split MnBi crystals align and aggregate along the magnetic field direction. Along with the change of the MnBi phase morphology, the magnetic property changes greatly. Indeed, with the alignment and aggregation of the spit MnBi phases, the saturation magnetization Ms and the magnetic susceptibility ? increase, and the coercive field H c and the remnant magnetization M r decrease. This implies that a high magnetic field may have caused the magnetic property of the MnBi phase to transform towards soft magnetism. Above results may be attributed to the enhancement of the magnetization and the Mn 1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation in a high magnetic field.

Li, Xi; Ren, Zhongming; Fautrelle, Yves; Deng, Kang

2009-09-01

126

Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

2014-02-27

127

Backlund transformations as canonical transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Toda and Wadati as well as Kodama and Wadati have shown that the Backlund transformations for the exponential lattice equation, sine-Gordon equation, K-dV equation and modified K-dV equation, are canonical transformation. The pupose of this paper is to show that the Backlund transformations for the Boussinesq equation, for a generalizeed K-dV equation, for a model equation for shallow water waves, and for the nonlinear Schoroedinger equation, are also canonical transformations

1977-01-01

128

Immunologic and biochemical detection of cell surface alterations following morphological transformation or mutation of C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells by chemical carcinogens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The C3H/10T1/2 C1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cell line is a permanent, cultured line whose hypotetraploid cells are contact inhibited and nontumorigenic in immunosuppressed syngeneic mice. Upon treatment with certain chemical carcinogens or radiation, some of these cells become morphologically transformed so that they are no longer contact inhibited and form foci, which are tumorigenic in immunosuppressed, syngeneic mice. Resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain can also be chemically induced in these cells, presumably by mutation of the gene encoding the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase cation transport enzyme. Thus C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells find utility as in vitro neoplastic transformation and mutation systems. Morphologic transformation induced by chemical carcinogens in C3H/10T1/2 cells is accompanied by complex antigenic changes. These changes were studied using /sup 125/I labelled Protein A IRMA and fluorescence-activated cell sorter immunofluorescence assays. A panel of thirty different polyclonal antisera was prepared against transformed and nontransformed C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. Mutation of the gene encoding the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme is hypothesized to be responsible for the chemical carcinogen inducation of the ouabain resistance (Oua/sup r/) phenotype in C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. In order to test this hypothesis, the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme activity of wild type and Oua/sup r/ C3H/10T1/2 cells were characterized for resistance to ouabain.

Shibuya, M.L.

1986-01-01

129

Immunologic and biochemical detection of cell surface alterations following morphological transformation or mutation of C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells by chemical carcinogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The C3H/10T1/2 C1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cell line is a permanent, cultured line whose hypotetraploid cells are contact inhibited and nontumorigenic in immunosuppressed syngeneic mice. Upon treatment with certain chemical carcinogens or radiation, some of these cells become morphologically transformed so that they are no longer contact inhibited and form foci, which are tumorigenic in immunosuppressed, syngeneic mice. Resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain can also be chemically induced in these cells, presumably by mutation of the gene encoding the Na+, K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase cation transport enzyme. Thus C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells find utility as in vitro neoplastic transformation and mutation systems. Morphologic transformation induced by chemical carcinogens in C3H/10T1/2 cells is accompanied by complex antigenic changes. These changes were studied using 125I labelled Protein A IRMA and fluorescence-activated cell sorter immunofluorescence assays. A panel of thirty different polyclonal antisera was prepared against transformed and nontransformed C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. Mutation of the gene encoding the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme is hypothesized to be responsible for the chemical carcinogen inducation of the ouabain resistance (Oua/sup r/) phenotype in C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. In order to test this hypothesis, the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme activity of wild type and Oua/sup r/ C3H/10T1/2 cells were characterized for resistance to ouabain

1986-01-01

130

Transformation 2 - Transformation Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

This lesson explains the procedure of introducing a new gene into a plant cell (transformation). It discusses the main goals of the transformation process and describes the four main methods of transformation.

131

Structural and morphological transformations of the (NH4, Na)-exchanged zeolites 4A, 13X and synthetic mordenite by thermal treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermal treatment of (NH4, Na)-exchanged zeolites 4A and 13X results in the formation of an amorphous phase (T < 1000 degreesC) and a crystalline phase of mullite at temperatures above 1000 degreesC. No structural changes have been noticed for the (NH4, Na)-exchanged synthetic mordenite treated under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and particle size analysis were used to characterize the initial...

Kosanovic?, Cleo; Subotic?, Boris; Ristic?, Alenka

2002-01-01

132

Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype / Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneti [...] camente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhous [...] e conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

Simone, Pohl; Nei Fernandes, Lopes; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel, Braga; Rodrigo, Danielowski; Ilda Mariclei de Castro da, Silva; Jose Antonio, Peters.

133

Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representa...

Chin-Pan Huang; Chaparro, Luis F.

2010-01-01

134

Characterization of the procera tomato mutant shows novel functions of the SlDELLA protein in the control of flower morphology, cell division and expansion, and the auxin-signaling pathway during fruit-set and development.  

Science.gov (United States)

procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA?. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA? or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA? application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set. PMID:22942390

Carrera, Esther; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Peres, Lazaro Eustaquio Pereira; Atares, Alejandro; Garcia-Martinez, Jose Luis

2012-11-01

135

Correlation of transformation from epithelial to mesenchymal-like morphology and endogenous bFGF levels in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

CG-1 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells in monolayer culture formed both cohesive, epithelial-like colonies and scattered, fibroblastic-like colonies in mixed proportions. In the presence of exogenously added bFGF (4 ng/ml), about 85% of the colonies formed were fibroblastic-like. CG-1 cells were capable of synthesizing and releasing bFGF, and, when compared by the immunological method, cells in fibroblastic-lke colonies were found to contain higher levels of endogenous bFGF than cells in the epithelial-like colonies. Furthermore, cells in the peripheral region of the epithelial-like colonies, which were fibroblastic-like in morphology, also appeared to contain higher levels of endogenous bFGF. In addition, in the presence of suramin, neutralizing antibody to bFGF, or neutralizing antibodies to bFGF and EGF, the number of cohesive colonies formed was greatly increased. Moreover, addition of the 2 M NaCl-eluted heparin-Sepharose fraction of the CG-1 cell-coditioned medium promoted the formation of dispersed colony in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that bFGF can regulate CG-1 cell phenotype in an autocrine manner. PMID:8077277

Chen, J K; Shen, L S; Chao, H H

1994-09-01

136

Two pairs of 1 : 2 nickel(II) and copper(II) metal-complex dyes showing the same trans configuration and azo-hydrazone transformation but different thermal properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two pairs of 1: 2 neutral trans mononuclear transition-metal (M = Ni(II) and Cu(II)) complexes of pyridine-2,4-dione and quinoline-2,4-dione based heterocyclic dyes have been structurally and spectrally characterized and compared herein. X-ray single-crystal diffraction analyses of four complexes, namely trans-[Ni(La)2(DMF)2] (1), trans-[Cu(La)2(DMF)2] (2), trans-[Ni(Lb)2(DMF)2] (3) and trans-[Cu(Lb)2(DMF)2] (4), reveal that they have the same trans configuration between the bidentate chelating dianionic ligands and two axially coordinated DMF molecules. Furthermore, a transformation from the hydrazone to azo configuration has been observed for both bidentate chelating ligands La(-) and Lb(-) after metal-ion complexation. More importantly, the simultaneous DSC/TG-MS-FTIR method has been used to explore the thermal stability of four neutral metal-complex dyes 1-4, where the two axially coordinated DMF molecules in Ni(II) and Cu(II) complexes exhibit distinguishable decomposition behavior because of their different M-O bond lengths originating from the Jahn-Teller distortions. PMID:23538669

Chen, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Yin-Ge; Tao, Tao; Geng, Jiao; Huang, Wei; Qian, Hui-Fen

2013-06-01

137

In situ x-ray diffraction of an arc weld showing the phase transformations of Ti and Fe as a function of position in the weld performed at a synchrotron  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The synchrotron x-ray source provides a unique opportunity to observe open-quotes in-situclose quotes processes. The formation of the open-quotes short-livedclose quotes intermediate species, Ta2C, during the combustion synthesis of TaC, has been observed and reported by monitoring the Bragg diffraction peaks of the reactants and products. Similarly, the synthesis of the ferroelectric material, BaTiO3, and subsequent phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal have also been investigated. These experiments would not have been possible without the high incident x-ray flux available at a synchrotron source. The physical and mechanical properties of a weld join are highly independent upon the thermal history of the weld. Factors such as grain size, which increases with annealing, influence the tensile strength of the weld. This work presents the results of an investigation of the phase changes in two materials, titanium and stainless steel, which occur during the welding process. 4 refs., 3 figs

1994-01-01

138

Morphological reversals  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The term morphological reversal describes the situation where the members of a morphological opposition switch their functions in some context (as with Hebrew gender marking, where -Ø~-a marks masculine~feminine with adjectives but feminine~masculine with numerals). There is a long tradition of polemic against the notion that morphology can encode systematic reversals, and an equally long tradition of reintroducing them under different names (e.g. polarity, exchange rules or morphosyntactic ...

Baerman, M.

2007-01-01

139

Backlund Transformations & Their Prolongations ??????? ??????? ?????????  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the main properties of equations admitting solitons, is that it can represented as the integrability conditions of Backlund maps. Some of these Backlund maps are ordinary Backlund maps and some are auto-Backlund transformations. In this paper the authors show, with examples, that prolongations of auto-Backlund transformations are again auto- Backlund transformations. Also prolongations of ordinary Backlund transformations yield again ordinary Backlund transformations with the same inte...

El-sabbagh, M.; Ahmad, A.

1989-01-01

140

Spacetime transformation acoustics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recently proposed analogue transformation method has allowed the extension of transformation acoustics to general spacetime transformations. We analyze here in detail the differences between this new analogue transformation acoustics (ATA) method and the standard one (STA). We show explicitly that STA is not suitable for transformations that mix space and time. ATA takes as starting point the acoustic equation for the velocity potential, instead of that for the pressure as...

Garci?a-meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barcelo?, C.; Jannes, G.; Sa?nchez-dehesa, J.; Marti?nez, A.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

Diana Vargas

2012-09-01

142

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

143

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

144

Acoustic Emission and Shape Memory Effect in the Martensitic Transformation  

CERN Multimedia

Acoustic emission signals are known to exhibit a high degree of reproducibility in time and show correlations with the growth and shrinkage of martensite domains when athermal martensites are subjected to repeated thermal cycling in a restricted temperature range. We show that a recently introduced two dimensional model for the martensitic transformation mimics these features. We also show that these features are related to the shape-memory effect where near full reversal of morphological features are seen under these thermal cycling conditions.

Sreekala, S

2003-01-01

145

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors induce cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation preferentially in transformed cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs that show promise in blocking the growth of tumors. Here, we report that FTIs are capable of inducing apoptosis of transformed but not untransformed cells. Treatment of v-K-ras-transformed normal rat kidney (KNRK) cells with FTIs leads to the induction of apoptotic cell morphology, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. In addition, fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis of FTI-treated KNRK cells shows...

Suzuki, Nobutaka; Urano, Jun; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

1998-01-01

146

Demonstration Road Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

Shropshire, Steven

2009-04-06

147

Laplace Transform Analytical Restructure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the Laplace transform definition is implemented without resorting to Adomian decomposition nor Homotopy perturbation methods. We show that the said transform can be simply calculated by differentiation of the original function. Various analytic consequent results are given. The simplicity and efficacy of the method are illustrated through many examples with shown Maple graphs, and transform tables are provided. Finally, a new infinite series representation related to Laplace transforms of trigonometric functions is proposed.

Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem

2013-06-01

148

Generalized transforms and convolutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

David Skoug

1997-03-01

149

Solar Light Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

150

Morphology of ceramic matrix composites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper we recalled some main principles of automatic image analysis and basic transformations to investigate the morphology of composite materials. This gives, for example, access to volume fractions, granulometries, homogeneity of materials, size distribution and shape of fibers, mean contact numbers between fibers,.. Experimental results are presented in the case of some ceramic matrix composite materials. (orig.) 25 refs.

Chermant, J.L. [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere e du Rayonnement, 14 - Caen (France)

1999-03-01

151

Showing Value (Editorial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

Denise Koufogiannakis

2009-06-01

152

Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

Amalia Torre

2011-07-01

153

Activation of the Raf-1/MAP kinase cascade is not sufficient for Ras transformation of RIE-1 epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potent transforming activity of membrane-targeted Raf-1 (Raf-CAAX) suggests that Ras transformation is triggered primarily by a Ras-mediated translocation of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane. However, whereas constitutively activated mutants of Ras [H-Ras(61L) and K-Ras4B(12V)] and Raf-1 (DeltaRaf-22W and Raf-CAAX) caused indistinguishable morphologic and growth (in soft agar and nude mice) transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, only mutant Ras caused morphologic transformation of RIE-1 rat intestinal cells. Furthermore, only mutant Ras-expressing RIE-1 cells formed colonies in soft agar and developed rapid and progressive tumors in nude mice. We also observed that activated Ras, but not Raf-1, caused transformation of IEC-6 rat intestinal and MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells. Although both Ras- and DeltaRaf-22W-expressing RIE-1 cells showed elevated Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activities, only Ras-transformed cells produced secreted factors that promoted RIE-1 transformation. Incubation of untransformed RIE-1 cells in the presence of conditioned medium from Ras-expressing, but not DeltaRaf-22W-expressing, cells caused a rapid and stable morphologic transformation that was indistinguishable from the morphology of Ras-transformed RIE-1 cells. Thus, induction of an autocrine growth mechanism may distinguish the transforming actions of Ras and Raf. In summary, our observations demonstrate that oncogenic Ras activation of the Raf/MAP kinase pathway alone is not sufficient for full tumorigenic transformation of RIE-1 epithelial cells. Thus, Raf-independent signaling events are essential for oncogenic Ras transformation of epithelial cells, but not fibroblasts. PMID:8692920

Oldham, S M; Clark, G J; Gangarosa, L M; Coffey, R J; Der, C J

1996-07-01

154

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

1966-01-00

155

Power law statistics of avalanches in martensitic transformation  

CERN Multimedia

We devise a two dimensional model that mimics the recently observed power law distributions for the amplitudes and durations of the acoustic emission signals observed during martensitic transformation [ Vives {\\it et al}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 72}, 1694 (1994)]. We include a threshold mechanism arising from the athermal nature of transformation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains, inertial effects, and dissipation arising due to the motion of the interface. The model exhibits thermal hysteresis of the transformation, and more importantly, it shows that the energy is released in the form of avalanches with power law distributions for their amplitudes and durations. Computer simulations also reveal morphological features similar to those observed in real systems.

Ahluwalia, R

2001-01-01

156

The general quadratic Radon transform  

Science.gov (United States)

The general quadratic Radon transform in two dimensions is investigated. Whereas the classical Radon transform of a smooth function represents the integration over all lines, the general quadratic Radon transform integrates over all conic sections. First, the parabolic isofocal Radon transform, i.e. the restriction of the general quadratic Radon transform to all parabolae with focus in the origin, is defined and illustrated. We show its intense relation to the classical Radon transform, deduce a support theorem, formulate an extension of the support theorem and derive an inversion formula. The natural extension to a more general class of isofocal quadratic Radon transforms is outlined. We show how the general quadratic Radon transform can be derived from the integrals over all parabolae by solving the related Cauchy problem. Finally, we introduce an entirely geometrical definition of a generalized Radon transform, the oriented generalized Radon transform.

Denecker, Koen; Van Overloop, Jeroen; Sommen, Frank

1998-06-01

157

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

158

Transforming magnets  

CERN Document Server

Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

Sun, F

2014-01-01

159

Plastic Deformation and Martensitic Transformation in Iron Alloys.  

Science.gov (United States)

An electron transmission study has been made of the martensite transformation in a series of stainless steels. The influence of chemical composition on martensite morphology has been investigated and the composition ranges which transform to lath, surface...

J. F. Breedis A. Lawley J. D. Meakin

1965-01-01

160

Nonlocal and Multivariate Mathematical Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The generalization of mathematical morphology to multivariate images is addressed in this paper. The proposed approach is fully unsupervised and consists in constructing a complete lattice from an image as a rank transformation together with a learned ordering of vectors. This unsupervised ordering of vectors relies on three steps: dictionary learning, manifold learning and out of sample extension. In addition to providing an efficient way to construct a vectorial ordering, nonlocal configura...

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Geometric Morphology of Granular Materials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a new method to transform the spectral pixel information of a micrograph into an affine geometric description, which allows us to analyze the morphology of granular materials. We use spectral and pulse-coupled neural network based segmentation techniques to generate blobs, and a newly developed algorithm to extract dilated contours. A constrained Delaunay tesselation of the contour points results in a triangular mesh. This mesh is the basic ingredient of the Choda...

Schlei, B. R.; Prasad, L.; Skourikhine, A. N.

2000-01-01

162

Transformation Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

Stroud, Mrs.

2010-09-01

163

Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

DR. H. B. KEKRE

2010-05-01

164

Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

Chaparro LuisF

2010-01-01

165

Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

Chin-Pan Huang

2010-01-01

166

Solidification and the ?/? phase transformation of steels in relation to casting defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many advanced steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast due to cracking and breakout problems in the continuous casting process especially at high casting speeds. In this study an attempt was made to obtain practical understanding of the solidification and the ??? phase transformation of various commercial steels using high-temperature laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Under rapid cooling conditions the transformation morphology showed a massive-type of transition rather than a classical diffusion-controlled transformation.

2012-01-12

167

Solidification and the ?/? phase transformation of steels in relation to casting defects  

Science.gov (United States)

Many advanced steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast due to cracking and breakout problems in the continuous casting process especially at high casting speeds. In this study an attempt was made to obtain practical understanding of the solidification and the ??? phase transformation of various commercial steels using high-temperature laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Under rapid cooling conditions the transformation morphology showed a massive-type of transition rather than a classical diffusion-controlled transformation.

Moon, Suk-Chun; Dippenaar, Rian; Lee, Sang-Hyeon

2012-01-01

168

'Ex-Situ' Annealing and Structural Transformations in Gold Nanoparticles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The atomic structure and morphology of gold nanoparticles have been studied using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The structural transformations of these particles have been probed through ex-situ annealing experiments, yielding population statistics on structure as a function of particle size and annealing temperature. The results show that for an original structurally heterogeneous particle population, there is a rise in the percentage of particles with the decahedral morphology as annealing temperature is increased. This can be correlated with a reduction in the number of icosahedral particles as a function of annealing temperature. HRTEM imaging following low temperature annealing reveals a range of modified and distorted decahedral particles, giving insight into the temperature threshold of the solid state transformation and the microstructural processes occurring.

2012-07-02

169

Morphological transitions in molecular and polymeric materials: patterning, fabrication, devices  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis individuates and characterizes irreversible transformations occurring in specific organic and oligomeric/polymeric thin films. These transformations are dewetting in discotic liquid crystals thin films and dewetting and smoothing in oligomeric and polyemeric films. Irreversible transformations are extensively characterized by means of optical and atomic force microscopy. In the case of discotic liquid crystals films the morphological characterization is performed sinchronically wi...

Calo?, Annalisa

2010-01-01

170

Carcinogenesis in tissue culture. 22. Malignant transformation of cloned rat liver cells treated in culture with 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene and properties of the transformed cells  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cultured rat liver cells which were cloned from a single cell were transformed into malignant cells by a chemical carcinogen, 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene (DAB. The DAB-transformed cells produced tumors when back-transplanted into new-born rats but the carcinogen-untreated control cells did not. Characteristics of the transformed liver cells were compared to those of DAB-untreated control cells in regard to the morphology, the consumption of DAB from the culture medium by the cells, the incorporation of 3H.DAB into the cells, and the aggregate.forming ability of the cells in rotation culture. The results showed that no significant parameter of malig. nant transformation in culture was detectable except the tumorigenicity of the transformed cells upon the inoculation into animals.

Miyahara,Y.

1974-04-01

171

Segmentation of DTI based on tensorial morphological gradient  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a segmentation technique for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This technique is based on a tensorial morphological gradient (TMG), defined as the maximum dissimilarity over the neighborhood. Once this gradient is computed, the tensorial segmentation problem becomes an scalar one, which can be solved by conventional techniques, such as watershed transform and thresholding. Similarity functions, namely the dot product, the tensorial dot product, the J-divergence and the Frobenius norm, were compared, in order to understand their differences regarding the measurement of tensor dissimilarities. The study showed that the dot product and the tensorial dot product turned out to be inappropriate for computation of the TMG, while the Frobenius norm and the J-divergence were both capable of measuring tensor dissimilarities, despite the distortion of Frobenius norm, since it is not an affine invariant measure. In order to validate the TMG as a solution for DTI segmentation, its computation was performed using distinct similarity measures and structuring elements. TMG results were also compared to fractional anisotropy. Finally, synthetic and real DTI were used in the method validation. Experiments showed that the TMG enables the segmentation of DTI by watershed transform or by a simple choice of a threshold. The strength of the proposed segmentation method is its simplicity and robustness, consequences of TMG computation. It enables the use, not only of well-known algorithms and tools from the mathematical morphology, but also of any other segmentation method to segment DTI, since TMG computation transforms tensorial images in scalar ones.

Rittner, Leticia; de Alencar Lotufo, Roberto

2009-02-01

172

Transformer models in the EMTP  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects that transformers have on power systems and how these effects are represented in the EMTP, were discussed. The support routines which are available for creating EMTP transformer models were summarized. A simple delta/wye-connected generator step-up transformer bank was used to show different ways of modelling transformers and EMTP data input files showed the formats for creating the models. 5 refs., 18 figs.

Dommel, H.W. [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver, BC (Canada). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-08-01

173

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG) are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of inte...

Rau Aarathi; Kini Hema; Pai Radha

2009-01-01

174

Raf and RhoA cooperate to transform intestinal epithelial cells and induce growth resistance to transforming growth factor beta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although unregulated activation of the Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/Erk signaling pathway is believed to be a central mechanism by which many cell types undergo oncogenic transformation, recent studies indicate that activation of Raf kinase by oncogenic Ras is not sufficient to cause tumorigenic transformation in intestinal epithelial cells. Thus, identification of signaling proteins and pathways that interact with Raf to transform intestinal epithelial cells may be critical for understanding aberrant growth control in the intestinal epithelium. Functional interactions between Raf and the small GTPase RhoA were studied in RIE-1 cells overexpressing both activated Raf(22W) and activated RhoA(63L). Double transfectants were morphologically transformed, formed colonies in soft agar, grew in nude mice, overexpressed cyclin D1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and were resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor (TGF) beta. RIE-Raf and RIE-RhoA single transfectants showed none of these characteristics. Expression of a dominant-negative RhoA(N19) construct in RIE-Ras(12V) cells was associated with markedly reduced COX-2 mRNA, COX-2 protein, and prostaglandin E2 levels when compared with RIE-Ras(12V) cells transfected with vector alone. However, no change in transformed morphology, growth in soft agar, cyclin D1 expression, TGFalpha expression, or TGFbeta sensitivity was observed. In summary, coexpression of activated Raf and RhoA induces transformation and TGFbeta resistance in intestinal epithelial cells. Although blockade of RhoA signaling reverses certain well-described characteristics of RIE-Ras cells, it is insufficient to reverse the transformed phenotype and restore TGFbeta sensitivity. Blockade of additional Rho family members or alternate Ras effector pathways may be necessary to fully reverse the Ras phenotype. PMID:15140945

Du, Jianguo; Jiang, Bo; Coffey, Robert J; Barnard, John

2004-04-01

175

KLF8 transcription factor participates in oncogenic transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) is a member of the family of KLF transcription factors. Several KLF members have been shown to play a role in oncogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that KLF8 mediates cell cycle progression downstream of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) by upregulating cyclin D1. FAK plays a critical role in transformation and tumorigenesis and is aberrantly upregulated in many types of human cancer. Little is known about the function of KLF8 in these regards. Here we provide evidence suggesting a novel role of KLF8 in oncogenic transformation. We show that KLF8 expression is elevated in several types of human cancer cells and primary tumor tissues. Induced expression of ectopic KLF8 causes serum-independent growth and morphological transformation in NIH3T3 cells and enhances anchorage-independent growth of v-Src-transformed cells. In contrast, expression of a dominant-negative mutant of KLF8 dramatically suppresses the transformed phenotypes induced by v-Src. In addition, the KLF8-enhanced transformation in the v-Src cells was prevented by ablating cyclin D1 expression. Overall, these results indicate that KLF8 is required for v-Src-induced transformation and may play a role in tumor progression of human cancer. PMID:16832343

Wang, X; Zhao, J

2007-01-18

176

Hadamard Transforms  

CERN Document Server

The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

2011-01-01

177

The richest superclusters. I. Morphology  

CERN Document Server

We study the morphology of the richest superclusters from the catalogues of superclusters of galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and compare the morphology of real superclusters with model superclusters in the Millennium Simulation. We use Minkowski functionals and shapefinders to quantify the morphology of superclusters: their sizes, shapes, and clumpiness. We generate empirical models of simple geometry to understand which morphologies correspond to the supercluster shapefinders. We show that rich superclusters have elongated, filamentary shapes with high-density clumps in their core regions. The clumpiness of superclusters is determined using the fourth Minkowski functional $V_3$. In the $K_1$-$K_2$ shapefinder plane the morphology of superclusters is described by a curve which is characteristic to multi-branching filaments. We also find that the differences between the fourth Minkowski functional $V_3$ for the bright and faint galaxies in observed superclusters are larger than in simulated superclu...

Einasto, M; Liivam"agi, L J; Einasto, J; Tago, E; Martínez, V J; Starck, J -L; Müller, V; Hein"am"aki, P; Nurmi, P; Gramann, M; Hütsi, G

2007-01-01

178

Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

1997-09-20

179

Carcinogenesis in tissue culture. 29: neoplastic transformation of a normal human diploid cell strain, WI-38, with Co-60 gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts were exposed to Co-60 gamma rays 4 times at a total dose of 1400 rads and transformed into neoplastic cells in culture. The transformed WI-38 cells which are growing steadily without showing aging phenomena at the present time showed epithelial-like morphology, abnormal karyology, B-type isoenzyme pattern of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and produced sarcomas when transplanted into cheek pouches of hamsters treated with anti-hamster thymocyte serum.

Namba, M.; Nishitani, K.; Kimoto, T.

1978-08-01

180

Flightlessness affects cranial morphology in birds  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Flightless birds belonging to phylogenetically distant clades share several morphological features in the pectoral and pelvic apparatus. There are indications that skull morphology is also influenced by flightlessness. In this study we used a large number of flightless species to test whether flightlessness in modern birds does indeed affect cranial morphology. Discriminant analyses and variation partitioning show evidence for a relationship between skull morphology and the flightless conditi...

Gussekloo, S. W. S.; Cubo, J.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiote...

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

2005-01-01

182

Wavelet transforms versus Fourier transforms  

CERN Document Server

This note is a very basic introduction to wavelets. It starts with an orthogonal basis of piecewise constant functions, constructed by dilation and translation. The ``wavelet transform'' maps each $f(x)$ to its coefficients with respect to this basis. The mathematics is simple and the transform is fast (faster than the Fast Fourier Transform, which we briefly explain), but approximation by piecewise constants is poor. To improve this first wavelet, we are led to dilation equations and their unusual solutions. Higher-order wavelets are constructed, and it is surprisingly quick to compute with them --- always indirectly and recursively. We comment informally on the contest between these transforms in signal processing, especially for video and image compression (including high-definition television). So far the Fourier Transform --- or its 8 by 8 windowed version, the Discrete Cosine Transform --- is often chosen. But wavelets are already competitive, and they are ahead for fingerprints. We present a sample of ...

Strang, G

1993-01-01

183

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Valsa mali: an efficient tool for random insertion mutagenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valsa mali is a causal agent of apple and pear trees canker disease, which is a destructive disease that causes serious economic losses in eastern Asia, especially in China. The lack of an efficient transformation system for Valsa mali retards its investigation, which poses difficulties to control the disease. In this research, a transformation system for this pathogen was established for the first time using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), with the optimal transformation conditions as follows: 10(6)/mL conidia suspension, cocultivation temperature 22°C, cocultivation time 72 hours, and 200? ? M acetosyringone (AS) in the inductive medium. The average transformation efficiency was 1015.00 ± 37.35 transformants per 10(6) recipient conidia. Thirty transformants were randomly selected for further confirmation and the results showed the presence of T-DNA in all hygromycin B resistant transformants and also revealed random and single gene integration with genetic stability. Compared with wild-type strain, those transformants exhibited various differences in morphology, conidia production, and conidia germination ability. In addition, pathogenicity assays revealed that 14 transformants had mitigated pathogenicity, while one had enhanced infection ability. The results suggest that ATMT of V. mali is a useful tool to gain novel insight into this economically important pathogen at molecular levels. PMID:24381526

Wang, Caixia; Guan, Xiangnan; Wang, Hanyan; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Li, Baohua

2013-01-01

184

Visualizing Transformation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book â??The Transformerâ?? written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurathâ??s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by â??rewindingâ? transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

Pedersen, Pia

185

Robust unbiased transformations with censoring  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the literature, there have been several papers about unbiased estimation in presence of censoring. In this work, we generalise the doubly robust unbiased transformation with censoring proposed by Rubin and Van der Laan and Suzukawa. We show it is the uniformly minimum variance unbiased transformation with censoring. The new more general transformation we obtain is also doubly robust and asymptotically normal.

Bousquet, Damien

2013-01-01

186

Application of Numerical Taxonomy to Lip Morphology in the Genus Polystachya Hook (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

SCLA, a numerical taxonomic method was applied to lip morphology in the genus Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae) in Nigeria. The basic data matrix was prepared by coding for the presence or absence of the attributes of characters involved. The data were standardized so that the values of a particular character were transformed into values ranging from zero to one. The SCLA showed that reproductive characters are much better than the vegetative characters earlier used in the distribution of Polys...

Falorunso, Abayomi Ezekiel; Jayeola, Adeniyi Akanni

2009-01-01

187

Morphological comparison of axenic amastigogenesis of trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Amastigogenesis occurs first when metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine urine differentiate into amastigotes inside mammalian host cells and a secondary process when tissue-derived trypomastigotes invade new cells and differentiate newly to amastigotes. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared the morphological patterns manifested by trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during their axenic-transformation to amastigotes in acidic medium at 37°C. We show here t...

Navarro, Mari?a C.; Lima, Ana R.; José Askue; Contreras, Vi?ctor T.

2003-01-01

188

Fibonacci thresholding: signal representation and morphological filters  

Science.gov (United States)

A new weighted thresholding concept is presented, which is used for the set-theoretical representation of signals, the producing new signals containing a large number of key features that are in the original signals and the design new morphological filters. Such representation maps many operations of non binary signal and image processing to the union of the simple operations over the binary signals and images. The weighted thresholding is invariant under the morphological transformations, including the basic ones, erosion and dilation. The main idea of using the weighted thresholding is in the choice of the special level of thresholding on which we can concentrate all our attention for the future processing. Together with arithmetical thresholding the so-called Fibonacci levels are chosen because of many interesting properties; one of them is the effective decomposition of the median filter. Experimental results show that the Fibonacci thresholding is much promised and can be used for many applications, including the image enhancement, segmentation, and edge detection.

Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

2014-02-01

189

mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

CHEN A-lin

2009-10-01

190

Covariant Transform  

CERN Document Server

The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, coherent states, group representations, Hardy space, functional calculus, Berezin calculus, Radon transform, Moebius map, maximal function, affine group, special linear group, numerical range, characteristic function, functional model.

Kisil, Vladimir V

2010-01-01

191

Synthesis of Morphology―controlled Niobium Oxide Nanorods Array  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphology―controlled niobium oxide nanorods array were successfully prepared in a mixed NH4F and H2O2 solution by using niobium powder as the starting materials via hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of niobium oxide film were characterized by X―ray diffraction patterns(XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The reaction time and hydrothermal temperature and concentration of NH4F, which affect the final composition and morphology of niobium oxide films, were also investigated in details. The results show that niobium oxide crystal have a strong anisotropy growth in the presence of NH4F and H2O2, which guides the oriented growth of hexagonal nanorods array on the niobium powder surface. The concentration of NH4F play great roles in the formation of the final products, the morphological of niobium oxide film is transformed from polyhedron granule to circular nanorods array and aggregated nanoparticles with the increase of NH4F concentration. Niobium oxide nanorods arrays can be obtained at Nb substrate after hythermal reaction at 150¡?or 10h with adding 0.5g NH4F. A formation mechanism is also proposed.

CHAI Qing-Li, LIU Lei, PAN Hao, CHEN Jie, YU Ang, XU Mei-Gui, TU Luo, ZHOU Xing-Fu

2011-10-01

192

Morphological comparison of axenic amastigogenesis of trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Amastigogenesis occurs first when metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine urine differentiate into amastigotes inside mammalian host cells and a secondary process when tissue-derived trypomastigotes invade new cells and differentiate newly to amastigotes. Using scanning electron microscopy, we co [...] mpared the morphological patterns manifested by trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during their axenic-transformation to amastigotes in acidic medium at 37°C. We show here that in culture MEMTAU medium, secondary and primary axenic amastigogenesis display different morphologies. As already described, we also observed a high differentiation rate of trypomastigotes into amastigotes. Conversely, the transformation rate of in vitro-induced-metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes was significantly slower and displayed distinct patterns of transformation that seem environment-dependent. Morphological comparisons of extracelullar and intracellular amastigotes showed marked similarities, albeit some differences were also detected. SDS-PAGE analyses of protein and glycoprotein from primary and axenic extracelullar amastigotes showed similarities in glycopeptide profiles, but variations between their proteins demonstrated differences in their respective macromolecular constitutions. The data indicate that primary and axenic secondary amastigogenesis of T. cruzi may be the result of different developmental processes and suggest that the respective intracellular mechanisms driving amastigogenesis may not be the same.

Navarro, María C; De Lima, Ana R; Askue, José; Contreras, Víctor T.

193

Morphological comparison of axenic amastigogenesis of trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amastigogenesis occurs first when metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine urine differentiate into amastigotes inside mammalian host cells and a secondary process when tissue-derived trypomastigotes invade new cells and differentiate newly to amastigotes. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared the morphological patterns manifested by trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during their axenic-transformation to amastigotes in acidic medium at 37°C. We show here that in culture MEMTAU medium, secondary and primary axenic amastigogenesis display different morphologies. As already described, we also observed a high differentiation rate of trypomastigotes into amastigotes. Conversely, the transformation rate of in vitro-induced-metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes was significantly slower and displayed distinct patterns of transformation that seem environment-dependent. Morphological comparisons of extracelullar and intracellular amastigotes showed marked similarities, albeit some differences were also detected. SDS-PAGE analyses of protein and glycoprotein from primary and axenic extracelullar amastigotes showed similarities in glycopeptide profiles, but variations between their proteins demonstrated differences in their respective macromolecular constitutions. The data indicate that primary and axenic secondary amastigogenesis of T. cruzi may be the result of different developmental processes and suggest that the respective intracellular mechanisms driving amastigogenesis may not be the same.

Navarro María C

2003-01-01

194

SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGFâ?? signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

Qiu, Weimin; Harkness, Linda

195

Transformation Golf  

Science.gov (United States)

In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

2011-01-01

196

Peritectic transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some experimental observations on the Al-Al3Ti and Cd-Cd3Ag peritectic systems are discussed in relation to transformation rates. In steady-stage unidirectional solidification equilibrium between the solid and liquid phases is closely approached at all points of the solid-liquid interface. An approximate diffusion analysis permits prediction of the rate of growth of the peritectic envelope by diffusion through the envelope. In the Al-Al3Ti system the peritectic product is formed principally by direct transformation from the liquid phase, and attack on the properitectic phase is minimal. In the Cd-Cd3Ag system the peritectic transformation goes almost to completion, and direct transformation from the liquid plays a minor part

1977-01-01

197

DNA Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer's historic experiment used techniques to cut and paste DNA to create the first custom-made organism containing recombined or 'recombinant' DNA. Cohen and Boyer inserted the recombinant DNA molecule they created into E. coli bacteria by means of a plasmid, thereby inducing the uptake and expression of a foreign DNA sequence known as 'transformation.' This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA transformation through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-04-06

198

Covariant Transform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H{sub 2}, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

Kisil, Vladimir V, E-mail: kisilv@maths.leeds.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2011-03-01

199

The transformer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transformer is an essential component of modern electric power systems. It converts electricity with a low current and a high voltage into electricity with a high current and a low voltage (or vice versa) with almost no loss of energy. This paper reviews the history of the development of the transformer from Faraday's experiments in 1831 to the modern-day oil-cooled version. A brief forecast is made of its future development.

Coltman, J.W.

1988-01-01

200

Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2008-10-21

 
 
 
 
201

Transforming giants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

202

Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Psidium Species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The present study was conducted to estimate genetic relationship among 20 genotypes of Psidium guajava and two species viz., P friedrichsthalianum Ndz. and P. catleianum Sabine, by morphological characterization. Out of 16 morphological characters studied, only inflorescence type did not show any variation, while the remaining traits showed variability to considerable extent. Morphological data on different genotypes were used to calculate similarity matrix which ranged from 0.06 to 0.50.and ...

Sharma, Anshu; Sehrawat, Surinder Kumar; Singhrot, Ran Singh; Tele, Ajinath

2010-01-01

203

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

2011-12-10

204

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

2011-12-10

205

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation-mediated mutagenesis in both targeted and random manners has been widely applied to decipher gene function in diverse fungi. However, a transformation system has not yet been established for lichen fungi, severely limiting our ability to study their biology and mechanism underpinning symbiosis via gene manipulation. Here, we report the first successful transformation of the lichen fungus, Umbilicaria muehlenbergii, via the use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We generated a total of 918 transformants employing a binary vector that carries the hygromycin B phosphotransferase gene as a selection marker and the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene for labeling transformants. Randomly selected transformants appeared mitotically stable, based on their maintenance of hygromycin B resistance after five generations of growth without selection. Genomic Southern blot showed that 88% of 784 transformants contained a single T-DNA insert in their genome. A number of putative mutants affected in colony color, size, and/or morphology were found among these transformants, supporting the utility of Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) for random insertional mutagenesis of U. muehlenbergii. This ATMT approach potentially offers a systematic gene functional study with genome sequences of U. muehlenbergii that is currently underway. PMID:24386304

Park, Sook-Young; Jeong, Min-Hye; Wang, Hai-Ying; Kim, Jung A; Yu, Nan-Hee; Kim, Sungbeom; Cheong, Yong Hwa; Kang, Seogchan; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Hur, Jae-Seoun

2013-01-01

206

Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

M.Mani Roja

2012-12-01

207

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-11-01

208

Birational transformations of weighted graphs  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the notion of a standard weighted graph and show that every weighted graph has an essentially unique standard model. Moreover we classify birational transformations between such models. Our central result shows that these are composed of elementary transformations. The latter ones are defined similarly to the well known elementary transformations of ruled surfaces. In a forthcoming paper, we apply these results in the geometric setup to obtain standard equivariant completions of affine surfaces with an action of certain algebraic groups. We show that these completions are unique up to equivariant elementary transformations.

Flenner, H; Zaidenberg, M G; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Zaidenberg, Mikhail

2005-01-01

209

Transformation Multiphysics  

CERN Document Server

Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

210

Harmonic cancellation characteristics of specially connected transformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specially connected transformers such as V-V, Scott and Le-Blanc transformers are used to convert a three-phase supply into one or two single-phase supplies. These transformers are commonly used in the electro locomotive traction systems. This paper investigates the harmonic cancellation characteristics of such transformers. The results show that when two harmonic-producing loads are connected to each single-phase side of the transformers, the harmonics produced by the loads will cancel out at the primary sides of the transformers. The amount of cancellation is affected by transformer type and harmonic order. The study is performed for seven types of specially connected transformers. (author)

Mazin, Hooman Erfanian; Xu, Wilsun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2009-12-15

211

Transformational leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rapid changes in the health care system have caused competition among institutions, as organizations are restructured to increase client satisfaction, resulting in the need for a new style of leadership. The transformational leader communicates the mission and vision of the organization and empowers others to effectively resolve conflicts that may arise with change. The health care team that can cope with changes and conflicts views restructuring as a positive transaction and approaches client satisfaction with energy and motivation. Institutions with transformational leadership are the ones that will survive the transition. PMID:8945261

Taccetta-Chapnick, M

1996-01-01

212

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Millan, Marília Pereira Bueno.

213

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-06-01

214

Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Phospholipid hydrolysis to free fatty acid and l-lyso-phospholipid by water-soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the surface of lipid membranes exhibits a poorly understood transition from a low-activity lag phase to a burst regime of rapid hydrolysis. Understanding this kinetic phenomenon may increase our insight into the function of PLA2 under physiological conditions as well as into general interfacial catalysis. In the present study we apply for the first time cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the PLA2 hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag-burst phenomenon reflects a cascade process. The PLA(2)-induced changes in lipid composition transform the morphology which in turn results in an acceleration of the rate of hydrolysis because of a strong coupling between the PLA(2) activity and the morphology of the lipid suspension.

Callisen, Thomas Hønger

1998-01-01

215

SDSS DR7 superclusters. Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Aims: We study the morphology of a set of superclusters drawn from the SDSS DR7. Methods: We calculate the luminosity density field to determine superclusters from a flux-limited sample of galaxies from SDSS DR7 and select superclusters with 300 and more galaxies for our study. We characterise the morphology of superclusters using the fourth Minkowski functional V3, the morphological signature (the curve in the shapefinder's K1-K2 plane) and the shape parameter (the ratio of the shapefinders K1/K2). We investigate the supercluster sample using multidimensional normal mixture modelling. We use Abell clusters to identify our superclusters with known superclusters and to study the large-scale distribution of superclusters. Results: The superclusters in our sample form three chains of superclusters; one of them is the Sloan Great Wall. Most superclusters have filament-like overall shapes. Superclusters can be divided into two sets; more elongated superclusters are more luminous, richer, have larger diameters and a more complex fine structure than less elongated superclusters. The fine structure of superclusters can be divided into four main morphological types: spiders, multispiders, filaments, and multibranching filaments. We present the 2D and 3D distribution of galaxies and rich groups, the fourth Minkowski functional, and the morphological signature for all superclusters. Conclusions: Widely different morphologies of superclusters show that their evolution has been dissimilar. A study of a larger sample of superclusters from observations and simulations is needed to understand the morphological variety of superclusters and the possible connection between the morphology of superclusters and their large-scale environment.

Einasto, M.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Tago, E.; Saar, E.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, J.; Martínez, V. J.; Heinämäki, P.

2011-08-01

216

Analyses of the Watershed Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the framework of mathematical morphology, watershed transform (WT represents a key stepin image segmentation procedure. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of some existingwatershed approaches in the discrete case: WT based on flooding, WT based on path-costminimization, watershed based on topology preservation, WT based on local condition and WTbased on minimum spanning forest. For each approach, we present detailed description ofprocessing procedure followed by mathematical foundations and algorithm of reference. Recentpublications based on some approaches are also presented and discussed. Our study concludeswith a classification of different watershed transform algorithms according to solution uniqueness,topology preservation, prerequisites minima computing and linearity.

Ramzi Mahmoudi, Mohamed AKIL

2011-12-01

217

Similarity transformations of MAPs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

Andersen Allan T.

1999-01-01

218

Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

Joly, E.

2004-01-01

219

Improved Seismic Denoising CURVELET Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. For quality we compare visual effect of data. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

Renu Awasthi,

2012-09-01

220

A Bijective String Sorting Transform  

CERN Document Server

Given a string of characters, the Burrows-Wheeler Transform rearranges the characters in it so as to produce another string of the same length which is more amenable to compression techniques such as move to front, run-length encoding, and entropy encoders. We present a variant of the transform which gives rise to similar or better compression value, but, unlike the original, the transform we present is bijective, in that the inverse transformation exists for all strings. Our experiments indicate that using our variant of the transform gives rise to better compression ratio than the original Burrows-Wheeler transform. We also show that both the transform and its inverse can be computed in linear time and consuming linear storage.

Gil, Joseph Yossi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers  

CERN Document Server

At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

2013-01-01

222

Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

Ilana Feldman

2011-01-01

223

Producing Talent and Variety Shows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

Szabo, Chuck

1995-01-01

224

Floral Transformation of Wheat  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

225

Computing Prosodic Morphology  

CERN Document Server

This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

Kiraz, G A

1996-01-01

226

Morphology of partial globozoospermia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total globozoospermia is a rare sperm morphology disorder that consists of 100% round-headed, acrosomeless spermatozoa. There is also a larger group of patients whose sperm cells are partially acrosomeless. The aim of this investigation was to describe partial globozoospermia compared to total globozoospermia and normozoospermia. Ejaculates from 10 patients with more than 50% acrosomeless spermatozoa (partial globozoospermia), 3 patients with total globozoospermia, and 9 normozoospermic controls were analyzed with light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and flow cytometry. Qualitative and quantitative examination of spermatozoa from the 3 groups shows differences in the percentage of round-headed sperm cells and acrosome malformation. Total globozoospermia presents as a homogenous kind of teratozoospermia. Partial globozoospermia is a distinctive sperm malformation with an increased proportion of round-headed sperm cells and acrosome malformations compared to normozoospermia, which exists separately from total globozoospermia. It thereby contains oval sperm cells that may have distinctive malformations of the sperm head matrix, but also morphologically normal sperm cells that may be used in a clinical setting. PMID:20864651

Dam, Anika H; Ramos, Liliana; Dijkman, Henry B; Woestenenk, Rob; Robben, Hannie; van den Hoven, Leonie; Kremer, Jan A

2011-01-01

227

Neoplastic Transformation of Human Bronchial Cells by Lead Chromate Particles  

Science.gov (United States)

Particulate hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is a well-established human lung carcinogen with widespread exposure among people in occupational settings and the general public. However, no studies have examined the chromate-induced malignant transformation of human lung epithelial cells, its predominant target. Human papillomavirus–immortalized human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells were used to better understand the mechanisms involved in human bronchial carcinogenesis induced by particulate chromate. We found that aneuploid cells increased in a concentration-dependent manner after chronic exposure to lead chromate. Moreover, chronic exposure to lead chromate induced BEP2D cell transformation. Transformed BEP2D cells developed through a series of sequential steps, including altered cell morphology, loss of cell contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. Specifically, a 5-day exposure to lead chromate induced foci formation with 0, 1, 5, and 10 ?g/cm2 lead chromate inducing 0, 7, 3, and 15 foci in 10 dishes. Anchorage independence was observed in cell lines derived from these foci. These foci-derived cells also showed centrosome amplification and increases in aneuploid metaphases. Our study demonstrates that particulate Cr(VI) is able to transform human bronchial epithelial cells, and that chromosome instability may play an important role in particulate Cr(VI)-induced neoplastic transformation.

Xie, Hong; Holmes, Amie L.; Wise, Sandra S.; Huang, Shouping; Peng, Cheng; Wise, John Pierce

2007-01-01

228

Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: 'Mahalle' as an urban structure since the Ottoman period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of 'mahalle' which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize 'mahalle' with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

?mre Özbek Eren

2012-11-01

229

Loss of transforming growth factor-beta 2 leads to impairment of central synapse function  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: The formation of functional synapses is a crucial event in neuronal network formation, and with regard to regulation of breathing it is essential for life. Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?) superfamily act as intercellular signaling molecules during synaptogenesis of the neuromuscular junction of Drosophila and are involved in synaptic function of sensory neurons of Aplysia. Results: Here we show that while TGF-?2 is not crucial for the morphology and function...

2008-01-01

230

Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

Zaluzec, N. J.

1979-01-01

231

Physiochemical phase transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas Condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results of the studies of structural and chemical transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas condensation. The effect of the morphology and agglomeration on the phase transformation reaction path in self-oxidation and in controlled reduction processes are discussed in detail. As-prepared samples show self-oxidation related to the non-core/shell morphology of the particles. Annealing of particles at 250 deg. C in reducing atmosphere leads to the oxidation of the particles showing coexistence of CoO and Co3O4 structures. This is explained by the diffusion of oxygen from the amorphous oxide surface to the bulk of the nanoparticles. Upon increasing the reaction temperature beyond 250 deg. C, reductive transformation of the samples occurs systematically, from CoO/Co3O4 to CoO to Co (HCP + FCC) and eventually to Co (FCC). We have presented X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic data to track the structural and chemical transformation paths. We found strong correlation between structural and magnetic properties. Thermodynamic stability as a function of reaction temperature on the phase/chemical transformation is also discussed.

2009-08-15

232

Clifford Algebra and Space-Time Transformations: Lorentz Transformation and Inertial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We review the Inertial transformation and Lorentz transformation under a new context, by using Clifford Algebra or Geometric Algebra. The apparent contradiction between theses two approach is simply stems from different procedures for clock synchronization associated with different choices of the coordinates used to describe the physical world. We find the physical and coordinates components of both transformations. A important result is that in the case of Inertial transformation the physical components are exactly the Galilean transformations, but the speed of light is not c. Another interesting result is due to the fact the Lorentz transformations lead directly to physical components, and this case the speed of light is c. Finally e show that both scenarios, de-synchronization Einstein theory and synchronized theory, are all mathematically equivalent by means of Clifford Algebra Transformations.

de Oliveira, R; de Campos, V H G

2013-01-01

233

Transformations Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

Different forms of communication have always had a tendency to transform interactions and everyday life in ways that have surprised people from many different backgrounds. Academics have long been interested in such dynamic transformations, and this electronic journal represents one of the responses to such processes. As their site notes, this journal is "dedicated to the exploration of ideas, issues and debates emerging out of contemporary global culture." Visitors to the site can read the complete version of every issue on the site, and they will be pleased to find such intriguing titles as "Rethinking Regionality", "Accidental Environments", and "Fleeing the City". Interested parties can also consult the site to learn about the journal's editorial board, their calls for papers, submission guidelines, and related links.

234

Chemical transformations in ultrathin chalcogenide nanowires.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the chemical transformations in ultrathin chalcogenide nanowires with an aim to understand the parameters that control the morphology and crystal structure of the product. Ultrathin Te nanowires were transformed into Ag2Te nanowires with preservation of the single crystallinity. The Ag2Te nanowires were then converted into CdTe, ZnTe, and PbTe using cation-exchange reactions, and the CdTe nanowires were further transformed into PtTe2 nanotubes. On the basis of the solubility products of the ionic solids, the crystal structures of the involved solids, the reaction kinetics, and the reaction conditions for transformations, we were able to reach the following conclusions: (i) The solubility products of ionic solids can be used as a rough criterion to predict if the transformation is thermodynamically favorable or not. (ii) The morphological preservation of reactant nanowires is more sensitive to the change in length rather than the total volume in addition to the lattice matching between the reactant and product nanowires. (iii) The crystal structure resulting from a transformation should be determined by the free energy of formation and the stability of the products. (iv) The transformation involving small volume change or topotactic lattice matching is considered homogeneous along the entire length of the nanowires, preserving both the single crystallinity and the morphology of the reactant nanowires. PMID:20337466

Moon, Geon Dae; Ko, Sungwook; Xia, Younan; Jeong, Unyong

2010-04-27

235

XML Transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

Felician ALECU

2012-04-01

236

Physical and electrical characterization of Ni-Si Phase transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The thermal stability and phase characteristics involved in processing nickel silicided films formed on three different gate dielectric layers (SiO2, HfSiO, and HfO2) were investigated. The electrical properties and surface morphology of Ni-Silicides formed by Ni-Si solid-state reaction were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), sheet resistance, atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and capacitance-voltage (C-V) curves. Results show that the Ni-Silicide formations undergo a phase transformation from a low resistivity-NiSi to a high resistivity-NiSi2 phase, which has a strong dependence on annealing temperature despite underlying gate dielectric materials. It has been found that a mixed-phase of Ni2Si, NiSi and NiSi2 was commonly observed during phase transformation. A unique integration process was developed to obtain a thermally stable NiSi phase at high temperatures, which proved to delay the conversion of intermediate silicide phases to its terminal phase (NiSi2) effectively. The focus of the present work is to facilitate the correlations of Ni-Si phase transformation with its electrical and morphological properties

2008-12-01

237

Gaucher disease with foamy transformed macrophages and erythrophagocytic activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Foamy transformation of macrophages is typically seen in lysosomal storage disorders in patients with Niemann-Pick disease, but foamy Gaucher cells (GC) were previously reported only once, in the autopsy report. Although the majority of stored glucocerebroside in GC is of erythrocyte origin, apparent erythrophagocytosis by GC in bone marrow is an unusual finding. Here, we describe the case of an adult non-Jewish Caucasian male with a heterozygous Gaucher disease type 1 (mutations c.1226A>G and c.1448T>C in the GBA1 gene) who presented with atypical morphology of GC on bone marrow examination. Approximately 15% of his GC showed a notable erythrophagocytic activity or unusual appearance of foamy transformed macrophages with a great number of vacuoles and erythrocyte rests in the cytoplasm. This report highlights the fact that morphological examination of cells and tissue specimens is very helpful in the diagnosis of a storage disorder but that confirmatory testing for specific diseases should always follow. Moreover, it is now clear that Gaucher disease should be a part of the differential diagnosis of foamy transformed macrophages. PMID:21113739

Machaczka, Maciej; Klimkowska, Monika; Regenthal, Sofie; Hägglund, Hans

2011-02-01

238

Rod Microglia: A Morphological Definition  

Science.gov (United States)

Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our group has described rod microglia aligning end-to-end with one another to form trains adjacent to neuronal processes. Confusion in the literature regarding rod microglia arises from some reports referring to the sausage-shaped cell body, while ignoring the spatial distribution of processes. Here, we systematically define the morphological characteristics of rod microglia that form after diffuse brain injury in the rat, which differ morphologically from the spurious rod microglia found in uninjured sham. Rod microglia in the diffuse-injured rat brain show a ratio of 1.79±0.03 cell length?cell width at day 1 post-injury, which increases to 3.35±0.05 at day 7, compared to sham (1.17±0.02). The soma length?width differs only at day 7 post-injury (2.92±0.07 length?width), compared to sham (2.49±0.05). Further analysis indicated that rod microglia may not elongate in cell length but rather narrow in cell width, and retract planar (side) processes. These morphological characteristics serve as a tool for distinguishing rod microglia from other morphologies. The function of rod microglia remains enigmatic; based on morphology we propose origins and functions for rod microglia after acute neurological insult, which may provide biomarkers or therapeutic targets.

Taylor, Samuel E.; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina

2014-01-01

239

Bacterial Transformation Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

The "glowing genes" activity on this engaging website shows students the process of bacterial transformation, a specific type of genetic engineering. This online activity supplements a hands-on lab at the Dolan DNA Learning Center's Harlem DNA Lab, in which plasmids, or tiny loops of DNA that contain genes, are inserted into a harmless strain of E.coli.

Dolan DNA Learning Center * (Dolan DNA Learning Center;)

2010-05-27

240

Electron microscopic observations on the morphological and mineralogical changes in feldspar during the weathering process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plagioclase feldspar in anorthositic rocks of Suryun area Korea, occurs predominantly as labradorite and show alteration into clay minerals under a distinct alteration sequence related to the degree of weathering. Under optical microscope, the feldspar shows that the alteration process was initiated by dissolution along microcracks, cleavage and twinning planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the morphological changes in feldspar during various stages of weathering. In the initial stage, selective etching has resulted in the formation of etch pits which on increased weathering have developed into stacks or sheaf structures. This on further weathering transformed into intermixed tubular and platy structures forming halloysite and kaolinite minerals respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also shows occurrence of tubular and platey shape minerals with variable dimensions. EPMA analysis and EDS patterns exhibit consistency with the morphological and mineralogical changes during alteration process of feldspar under weathering conditions. (author)

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

Xiaodong Zheng

2010-12-01

242

Native morphology of influenza virions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Influenza A virus is an enveloped virus with a segmented, single-strand, negative-sense RNA genome. Its virions show spherical or filamentous shapes of about 100 nm in diameter and occasionally irregular morphology, which exemplifies the pleomorphic nature of these virions. Each viral RNA segment (vRNA forms a ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP, along with an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex and multiple copies of nucleoproteins; the RNPs reside in the enveloped virions. Here, we focus on electron microscopic analyses of influenza virions and RNPs. Based on the morphological and structural observations obtained by using electron microscopic techniques, we present a model of the native morphology of the influenza virion.

TakeshiNoda

2012-01-01

243

Transformation optics and metamaterials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M [Birck Nanotechnology Center School of ECE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

2011-01-31

244

Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the ?th fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

2010-08-01

245

Rotary Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

246

Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general un...

Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting; Yan, Zhichao

2012-01-01

247

Generalized field-transforming metamaterials  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

Tretyakov, Sergei; Alitalo, Pekka

2008-01-01

248

Microbial Transformation of Macrocyclic Trichothecenes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A resting culture of Rhizopus arrhizus (ATCC 11145) transformed verrucarin A into 16-hydroxyverrucarin A, whereas R. arrhizus transformed verrucarin B into a mixture of 16-hydroxyverrucarin B and 3?-hydroxyverrucarin A. Relative to verrucarins A and B, the 16-hydroxy derivatives showed marked increases in activity, as tested in vivo against P388 mouse leukemia.

1983-01-01

249

Transformation of lakes in mires  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

Stanis?aw Marek

1992-03-01

250

Seidel elements and Mirror transformations  

CERN Multimedia

The goal of this article is to give a precise relation between the mirror symmetry transformation of Givental and the Seidel elements for a smooth projective toric variety $X$ with $-K_X$ nef. We show that the Seidel elements entirely reconstruct the mirror transformation and mirror coordinates.

Gonzalez, Eduardo

2011-01-01

251

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors induce dramatic morphological changes of KNRK cells that are blocked by microtubule interfering agents  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) exhibit the remarkable ability to inhibit transformed phenotypes of a variety of human cancer cell lines and to block the growth of cancer cells in a number of animal model systems. In this paper, we report that the addition of FTI to v-K-ras- transformed NRK cells (KNRK) results in dramatic morphological changes. Within 24 h after the addition of FTI, the round morphology of KNRK cells was changed to an elongated (flattened and spread out) morphology res...

Suzuki, Nobutaka; Del Villar, Keith; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko

1998-01-01

252

Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as formability and strength. However, the difficulty of predicting the material behaviour is one of the major drawbacks of these steels. In order to model this behaviour it is of great importance to be able to characterize the morphology, crystallography and the amount of different types of martensite. The...

Naraghi, Reza

2009-01-01

253

Transformation plasticity in ductile solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

Olson, G.B.

1993-02-01

254

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

Science.gov (United States)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface. During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles). The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left. The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green. Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil. The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top. The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo. For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

255

Quantifying Morphological Computation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent’s behaviour, or how an embodied agent can maximise the exploitation of its morphology within its environment. In this work we derive two concepts of measuring morphological computation, and we discuss their relation to the Information Bottleneck Method. The first concepts asks how much the world contributes to the overall behaviour and the second concept asks how much the agent’s action contributes to a behaviour. Various measures are derived from the concepts and validated in two experiments that highlight their strengths and weaknesses.

Nihat Ay

2013-05-01

256

Lorentz Transformations  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a particularly didactic and transparent derivation of basic properties of the Lorentz group. The generators for rotations around an arbitrary axis and boosts along an arbitrary direction, as well as their commutation relations, are written as functions of the components of the unit vectors that define the axis of rotation and direction of the boost. For finite values of the the angle of rotation or the boost's velocity, collectively denoted by V, the existence of an exponential expansion for the coordinate transformation's matrix (in terms V and the generators) requires that the matrix's derivative with respect to V, be equal to the product of this matrix with the generator. This condition can only be satisfied if the transformation is additive as it is indeed the case for rotations, whereas velocities are not additive in Relativity. If it is assumed, however, that for boosts such an expansion exists, with V = V(v), v being the velocity, and if the above condition is imposed on the boost'...

Durney, Bernard R

2011-01-01

257

The richest superclusters. I. Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Context: Superclusters are the largest systems in the Universe to give us information about the formation and evolution of structures in the very early Universe. Our present series of papers is devoted to the study of the morphology and internal structure of superclusters of galaxies. Aims: We study the morphology of the richest superclusters from the catalogs of superclusters of galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and compare the morphology of real superclusters with model superclusters in the Millennium Simulation. Methods: We use Minkowski functionals and shapefinders to quantify the morphology of superclusters: their sizes, shapes, and clumpiness. We generate empirical models of simple geometry to understand which morphologies correspond to the supercluster shapefinders (Appendix A). Results: Rich superclusters have elongated, filamentary shapes with high-density clumps in their core regions. The clumpiness of superclusters is determined using the fourth Minkowski functional V_3. In the K_1-K2 shapefinder plane the morphology of superclusters is described by a curve which is characteristic of multi-branching filaments as shown by our empirical models. We found several differences between observed and model superclusters. The curves of the fourth Minkowski functional V3 for observed and model superclusters have different shapes indicating that their structure is different. The values of V3 for the supercluster SCL126 (the Sloan Great Wall) show that this supercluster has a very high density core which is absent in other superclusters. The values of the shapefinders H1-H3 and K1 and K2 for observed superclusters have much larger scatter than for model superclusters. The differences between the fourth Minkowski functional V3 for the bright and faint galaxies in observed superclusters are larger than in simulated superclusters. Conclusions: Our results show how the Minkowski functionals and shapefinders can be used to describe the morphology of superclusters: their shapes, sizes and clumpiness. The shapes of observed superclusters are more diverse than the shapes of simulated superclusters. The larger scatter of the fourth Minkowski functional V3 for the bright and faint galaxies for observed superclusters compared to simulated superclusters is an indication that the clumpiness of bright and faint galaxies in models does not reflect well the clumpiness of different galaxies in observed superclusters. Our results suggest also that the volume covered by the Millennium Simulations may be too small to properly describe the large morphological variety of superclusters.

Einasto, M.; Saar, E.; Liivamägi, L. J.; Einasto, J.; Tago, E.; Martínez, V. J.; Starck, J.-L.; Müller, V.; Heinämäki, P.; Nurmi, P.; Gramann, M.; Hütsi, G.

2007-12-01

258

Morphology of Southern Hemisphere  

Canada Institute for Scientific and Technical Information (Canada)

A morphology of riometer auroral absorption is derived from hourly values, determined at several Southern Hemisphere stations, located both near the centre of the auroral absorption zone and at higher and lower latitude fringes of the zone. Since spatial coverage of the data precludes a detailed morphology determination, use was made as guideline at all stages of an auroral absorption model derived for the Northern Hemisphere (NH). The day-to-day variability was first determined from cumulative amplitude-probability distributions calculated for a given hour at a given location for a range of geophysical conditions. These distributions are found to be well represented by log-normal distributions for most locations, times-of-day and solar and geomagnetic activity levels, over the range of absorption for which values are more accurate (typically 0.3 dB or above). Furthermore, parameters of log-normal distributions are found to be related following a known simple expression, so as to permit full specification of any distribution by a single parameter. Both these results are found to be consistent with the NH counterparts. Then time-of-day dependencies were determined for several distribution parameters. These were also found to show the same features than in the NH except for locations near the so-called South Atlantic Anomaly of the geomagnetic field. Determination of latitude and longitude dependencies are only possible when due account is taken of the widening and equator ward movement of the auroral absorption zone with increasing geomagnetic activity level. Assuming Gaussian latitude dependencies apply for all hours, longitude factors are determined so as to be consistent with observed geomagnetic activity level dependencies of absorption distribution parameters for the different longitudes.

2006-01-01

259

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type. One case of primary adenocarcinoma was included in this study, where the adjacent bladder mucosa showed CG. Evaluation of the histological features of CG, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion and differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Rau Aarathi

2009-04-01

260

Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain boundaries, whereas at lower temperatures so-called bainitic ? plates nucleate both at grain boundaries and intragranularly. This morphological transition with decreasing temperature is associated with a change in transformation mechanism. The combined results of EPMA, OM and dilatometry show that the growth of these bainitic ? plates is partitionless, and not accompanied by a volume change. Subsequently, a post-transformation redistribution of Fe takes place, which causes a dilatation that can be modelled based on the diffusion of Fe and the interface-area density. This mechanism as well as the formed microstructure are similar to bainite in steel, and therefore we chose to denote this transformation product as bainitic ?. In addition, the AFM observations on bainitic ? plates show an invariant plane strain surface relief with tilt angles that are consistent with the Burgers' transformation model based on shear. In contrast, the AFM results show that the formation of primary ? is accompanied by an irregular dip on a free surface, which is in agreement with the volume decrease measured using dilatometry. Furthermore, the EPMA results show that primary ? is formed by a partitioning transformation. The change in transformation mechanism with decreasing temperature is supported by the observed trend in both the dilatation and the volume fraction ? as a function of temperature

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
261

Comparison of malignant transformation of cells vitro induced by high LET and low LET radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To compare the characteristics of malignant transformation of the adult Wistar rat lung fibroblast cell line (WAL-F1) in vitro induced by high LET (238Pu alpha particles, 5.25 MeV) and low LET (X-rays 180 kV) radiations. Methods: A model of cell transformation in vitro was used; the changes of morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cell induced by two types of radiations were observed; the carcinogenesis of transformed cells in vivo was studied. Results: The results showed that the morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cells were basically similar. However, there were some differences between biological effects of cell transformation induced by these radiation types: (1) The model of cell surviving curve for alpha particles was a single hit and single target model with a D0 value of 0.172 Gy, while that for X-rays was a single hit and multi-target model with a D0 value of 1.66 Gy; (2) the iso-effect dose of proliferative ability, chromosome aberration rate, and colony-forming rate for X-rays were 10 times higher than these for alpha particles; (3) the latent period of cell transformation for alpha particles was delayed about 4-5 passages as compared with that for X-rays; and (4) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for alpha particles versus X-rays was approximately 6.0 at an alpha dose of 0.5 Gy. Conclusion: The results suggest that the high LET radiation showed higher carcinogenic effect in vitro on cells than low LET radiation did

1997-06-01

262

The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

2005-01-01

263

Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-11-01

264

Computation of Hilbert Transform via Discrete Cosine Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hilbert transform (HT is an important tool in constructing analytic signals for various purposes, such as envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, amplitude modulation, shift invariant wavelet analysis and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. In this work we introduce a method for computation of HT based on the discrete cosine transform (DCT. We show that the Hilbert transformed signal can be obtained by replacing the cosine kernel in inverse DCT by the sine kernel. We describe a FFT-based method for the computation of HT and the analytic signal. We show the usefulness of the proposed method in mechanical vibration and ultrasonic echo and transmission measurements.

Hannu Olkkonen

2010-12-01

265

Investigation of relation between both sulfur removal and adsorption capacity with surface morphology of a pyrolysed Turkish lignite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In considering with morphological physicochemical transformations of the coal samples pyrolysed in CO{sub 2} atmosphere at different temperatures, the change of their adsorptive capacities have been investigated. It was seen that the change occurred in the monolayer adsorption capacities as parallel to morphological transformations of the coal surface is particularly connected with the amount of organic sulfur present in the coal matrix. Adsorption capacity is not affected from the contents of pyritic sulfur and ash of coal samples. The measurements of zeta potential of the pyrolysed coal samples also showed that pyrolysis modified the functional groups on surface of the coal, depending on the pyrolysis temperature. Short communication. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

S. Karaca; R. Bayrak; A. Gurses [Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey). Department of Chemistry

2003-05-01

266

Transforming activity of retroviral genomes encoding Gag-Axl fusion proteins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retroviral genomes encoding a portion of the Moloney murine leukemia virus Gag protein fused to portions of the murine axl cDNA were constructed so as to mimic naturally occurring transforming viruses. Virus MA1 retained 5 amino acids of the extracellular domain and the complete transmembrane and intracellular domains of Axl; virus MA2 retained only the intracellular Axl sequences beginning 33 amino acids downstream of the transmembrane region. Although both viruses could transform NIH 3T3 cells, they induced different morphological changes. MA1 transformants became elongated and assumed a cross-hatched pattern, while MA2 transformants were round and very refractile and grew to high density. Gag-Axl and Glyco-Gag-Axl proteins were detected in both types of transformed cells and were predominantly localized to the cytoplasmic compartment. When cell-free v-axl virus supernatants were introduced into wild-type BALB/c neonates, Rag-2-deficient mice, or c-myc transgenic mice, they did not cause tumors in a 3-month period. However, MA2-transformed NIH 3T3 cells, but not MA1 or control cells, could establish sarcomas by subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection into BALB/c neonates. These results show that the transforming potential of the axl gene can be activated by truncation of the extracellular domain of the receptor and fusion of the remaining sequence to the gag gene.

Zhang, Q K; Boast, S; de los Santos, K; Begemann, M; Goff, S P

1996-01-01

267

Size effects on the martensitic phase transformation of NiTi nanograins  

Science.gov (United States)

The analysis of nanocrystalline NiTi by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) shows that the martensitic transformation proceeds by the formation of atomic-scale twins. Grains of a size less than about 50 nm do not transform to martensite even upon large undercooling. A systematic investigation of these phenomena was carried out elucidating the influence of the grain size on the energy barrier of the transformation. Based on the experiment, nanograins were modeled as spherical inclusions containing (0 0 1) compound twinned martensite. Decomposition of the transformation strains of the inclusions into a shear eigenstrain and a normal eigenstrain facilitates the analytical calculation of shear and normal strain energies in dependence of grain size, twin layer width and elastic properties. Stresses were computed analytically for special cases, otherwise numerically. The shear stresses that alternate from twin layer to twin layer are concentrated at the grain boundaries causing a contribution to the strain energy scaling with the surface area of the inclusion, whereas the strain energy induced by the normal components of the transformation strain and the temperature dependent chemical free energy scale with the volume of the inclusion. In the nanograins these different energy contributions were calculated which allow to predict a critical grain size below which the martensitic transformation becomes unlikely. Finally, the experimental result of the atomic-scale twinning can be explained by analytical calculations that account for the transformation-opposing contributions of the shear strain and the twin boundary energy of the twin-banded morphology of martensitic nanograins.

Waitz, T.; Antretter, T.; Fischer, F. D.; Simha, N. K.; Karnthaler, H. P.

2007-02-01

268

Instrument transformers - Part 2 : Inductive voltage transformers  

CERN Document Server

Applies to new inductive voltage transformers for use with electrical measuring instruments and electrical protective devices at frequencies from 15 to 100 Hz. This standard relates basically to transformers with separate windings, but also to autotransformers. It replaces IEC 60186 (1987) plus Amendments 1 and 2 only for inductive voltage transformers. IEC 60186 remains in force for capacitive voltage transformers.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

2003-01-01

269

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses a significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene–substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intrinsic morphology of freestanding graphene. The regulated extrinsic morphology of graphene sheds light on new pathways to fine tune the properties of graphene. To guide further research to explore these fertile opportunities, this paper reviews recent progress on modeling and experimental studies of the extrinsic morphology of graphene under a wide range of external regulation, including two-dimensional and one-dimensional substrate surface features and one-dimensional and zero-dimensional nanoscale scaffolds (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles)

2011-07-01

270

Medical Image Retrieval Using Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to access the stability of transformation methods for medical image analysis. The reason for image retrieval is due to the increase in acquisition of images. Imaging has occupied a huge role in the management of patients, whether hospitalized or not. Depending upon the patient’s clinical problem, a variety of imaging modalities were available for use. In this article various distance methods were used and then they are compared for effective medical image retrieval. A transform based approach is followed for effective retrieval. This paper describes discrete Fourier transforms (DFT, discrete cosine transforms (DCT, discrete wavelet transforms(DWT, complex wavelet transforms (CWT and rotated complex wavelet transform filter (RCWF for medical image retrieval. From the final results it is very clear that each transforms performance defers and shows different results in retrieval of medical images. DWT shows the best results in terms of average retrieval results with 95% precision and 83% recall value, average searching time with 8 seconds, and less number of irrelevant images. These results indicate that these easily computable similarity distance measures have a wide variety of medical image retrieval applications.

Mannivannan VASUKI

2013-06-01

271

On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Let B (â??blackâ?) and W (â??whiteâ?) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

2007-01-01

272

Phase transformations in nickel sulphide: Microstructures and mechanisms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel sulphide inclusions are known to be responsible for delayed fracture in tempered glasses due to phase transformation within the inclusion. Microstructural identification of the phase transformation mechanisms in the Ni-S system close to the NiS composition were carried out on a series of partially transformed states. Observations allow to investigate the morphological evolution during transformation, the phase orientation relationships and the first stages of the transformation were investigated by optical microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The transformation mechanisms change significantly with the change in sulphur content of the ?-NiS phase. Massive transformation is observed for near-stoichiometric composition. For overstoichiometric composition, the transformation is controlled by a long-range diffusion mechanism. The influence of stoichiometry and impurities (Fe) on the microstructural evolution and transformation mechanisms has also been studied.

2010-05-01

273

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

S Canaider

2009-12-01

274

Arnold Transform Based Steganography  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Steganography exploits the use of host data to hide a piece of information in such a way that it is imperceptible to human observer. Its main objectives are robustness, high payload, and imperceptibility. Digital images, videos, sound files, and other computer files can be used as carrier to embed the information. This paper deals with digital gray scale digital images, and presents a secure steganography scheme for hiding a larger size secret-image into smaller size cover- image. Arnold Transformation is performed to obtain scrambled secret image. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is performed on both host / cover image and secret image / information, and this is followed by alpha blending operation. The approach shows satisfactory results. Results show that proposed algorithm is highly secured with good perceptual invisibility.

Manisha Boora,

2013-09-01

275

Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

Jian-Hua Li

2013-04-01

276

An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia) shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecul...

Romeralo Maria; Cavender James C; Landolt John C; Stephenson Steven L; Baldauf Sandra L

2011-01-01

277

Transformation to Lienard form  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We show that certain two-dimensional differential systems can be transformed to a system of Li'{e}nard type. This enables known criteria for the existence of a centre for Li'{e}nard systems to be exploited, so extending the range of techniques which are available for proving that conditions which are known to be necessary for a centre are also sufficient.

W. A. Albarakati

2000-12-01

278

Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms  

CERN Document Server

Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

2014-01-01

279

Computer Simulation of Martensitic Transformation Under Stress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper reports a computer simulation of martensitic transformation in both Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Ni-C alloys by a 2-dimensional model. The influence of the imposed stress on the mechanical behaviour, the transformation kinetics, and the microstructure are illustrated for Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The study of transformation kinetics shows the following features : (1) in case of stress-free transformation, both alloys transform in burst, the transformation will go directly to near completion once a band c...

Wen, Y.; Denis, S.; Gautier, E.

1996-01-01

280

Morphological control of polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane (PODS) was prepared by coating glass substrates with liquid ocatdecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) followed by dipping-in a solvent. The morphology control of PODS was investigated by the post curing temperature as well as the use of different solvents. The resulting substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, and wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It is shown that both post curing temperature and extracting solvents affect the morphology of PODS. The temperature dependent morphology was investigated and is ascribed to the physiochemical properties of PODS. For the solvent-dependent morphology, it is proposed that the solvation capability of a solvent to OTS and the presence of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface are critical in the PODS morphology. This paper shows the controlling parameter and possible explanation in the crystallinity and wettability of PODS films, which may be useful to other silane-based systems.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

CaCO3 crystallization and morphology control by using purified soluble protein related to shell regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

The soluble protein related to shell regeneration (SPSR) plays an important role to repair the damaged shell. In this study, the SPSR was used as a biocatalyst to control the crystal growth and morphology during in vitro CaCO3 crystallization. Anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) was applied to separate the SPSR constituents. Each fraction from purification of the SPSR was subjected to CaCO3 crystallization to identify the fraction's effect on controlling the CaCO3 crystal morphology. CaCO3 crystallization experiments were performed by mixing solutions of CaCl2 and purified SPSR in the presence of vaporized (NH4)2CO3. The morphology of the CaCO3 crystals was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The synthesized CaCO3 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to reveal the type of crystals formed. In vitro CaCO3 crystallization process showed the effect of SPSR on the morphology change of CaCO3 crystals. We identified a condition for rapid crystal growth and specific morphology of CaCO3 in the presence of SPSR. Thus, our study confirms that SPSR governs CaCO3 crystallization and influences the observed crystal morphology.

Sambudi, Nonni S.; Park, Seung Bin; Lee, Seung-Woo

2013-06-01

282

Image Approximation by Adaptive Tetrolet Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to get an efficient image representation we introduce a new adaptive Haar wavelet transform, called Tetrolet Transform. Tetrolets are Haar-type wavelets whose supports are tetrominoes which are shapes made by connecting four equal-sized squares. The corresponding filter bank algorithm is simple but enormously effective. Numerical results show the strong efficiency of the tetrolet transform for image compression.

Krommweh, Jens

2009-01-01

283

The Houdini Transformation: True, but Illusory  

Science.gov (United States)

Molenaar (2003, 2011) showed that a common factor model could be transformed into an equivalent model without factors, involving only observed variables and residual errors. He called this invertible transformation the Houdini transformation. His derivation involved concepts from time series and state space theory. This article verifies the…

Bentler, Peter M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

2012-01-01

284

Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described X{sub m} Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kamran, N [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Milson, R, E-mail: david.gomez-ullate@fis.ucm.e, E-mail: nkamran@math.mcgill.c, E-mail: rmilson@dal.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

2010-10-29

285

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

2011-02-01

286

THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to carry out the computations are shown and some new results are presented

1996-01-01

287

Refiner auto transformer motor start  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Issues involved in the multiple failures of auto-transformers installed by F inlay Forest Limited on 20,000 hp, 13.8 kV refiners in 1995, are discussed. Reasons for auto-transformer starting are reviewed, and design consideration for medium voltage auto-transformer starting are addressed within the context of the Finlay experience. Results indicated that in all four failures, the high voltages that developed on the neutral connection of the auto-transformer were due to improper surge protection. Measurements subsequent to installation of capacitors and arresters showed that the neutral voltages have been brought under control. The Finlay experience indicates that auto-transformers can be a safe and reliable method of motor starting, provided that they are properly installed.

Stout, J.; Bogh, D.

1998-06-01

288

WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

Guy Courbebaisse

2011-05-01

289

Finite element simulation of phase field model for nanoscale martensitic transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

A finite element framework of a phase field model for nanoscale martensitic transformation is proposed on the basis of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau kinetic equations. The bulk total free energy consists of the chemical driving energy, the interfacial energy, the elastic energy, the inertial energy (for a dynamic case), the energy due to applied field and the effects of surface energy which need to be considered at the nanoscale. Single-variant and multi-variant martensitic phase transformations in a nano-sized NiAl plate are considered. The numerical results show the effects of each energy item on the phase transformation and the self-accommodating twinned morphologies as the result of strain energy minimization.

She, Hui; Liu, Yulan; Wang, Biao; Ma, Decai

2013-10-01

290

Automatic building extraction in VHR images using advanced morphological operators  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a new method for buildings extraction in Very High Resolution (VHR) remotely sensed images based on binary mathematical morphology (MM) operators. The proposed approach involves several advanced morphological operators among which an adaptive hit-or-miss transform with varying sizes and shapes of the structuring element and a bidimensional granulometry intended to determine the optimal filtering parameters automatically. A clustering-based approach for image binarization i...

Lefe?vre, Se?bastien; Weber, Jonathan; Sheeren, David

2007-01-01

291

Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

Gabhane Sushma

2009-01-01

292

Application of Numerical Taxonomy to Lip Morphology in the Genus Polystachya Hook (Orchidaceae in Nigeria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available SCLA, a numerical taxonomic method was applied to lip morphology in the genus Polystachya Hook. (Orchidaceae in Nigeria. The basic data matrix was prepared by coding for the presence or absence of the attributes of characters involved. The data were standardized so that the values of a particular character were transformed into values ranging from zero to one. The SCLA showed that reproductive characters are much better than the vegetative characters earlier used in the distribution of Polystachya species into their sections. In the case of reproductive characters, more clusters were reported; this may be an indication of more sections in Polystachya than those earlier reported.

Adeniyi Akanni JAYEOLA

2009-06-01

293

New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the meth...

2008-01-01

294

Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles  

CERN Document Server

Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

295

Characteristic Morphology of Benzophenone Crystal.  

Science.gov (United States)

The theoretical studies and experiments on the morphology of benzophenone crystal were carried out. The quantitative models of the morphological theory all predicted that the characteristic morphology of benzophenone crystal was surrounded with (110), (01...

H. X. Cang W. Huang Y. Zhou

1995-01-01

296

Tungsten powder morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part of a study which has been undertaken to examine the effects of various experimental variables on the morphologies of the products at different stages in the tungsten powder production sequence is reported. In particular the precipitation process used to produce the ammonium paratungstate, the temperature of reduction and the ratio of hydrogen to water vapor in the reducing atmosphere have been investigated. It was found that the morphology of tungsten powder produced from ammonium paratungstate is related to the original morphology of the paratungstate material. Increasing the temperature of reduction of blue oxide causes a change in the morphology of the resultant metal product. At temperatures up to approximately 7000C, porous particles, of the same overall morphology as the original APT particles, are produced. At 7000C and above, new smaller particles of tungsten are produced but these are joined and retained in the framework of the original APT particle. The change in metal particle morphology is related to a change in the morphology of the oxide WO2 which occurs in the temperature range 700 to 8000C. Controlled reduction in H2/H2O mixtures produces the sub-oxide W18O49 which forms as small interlocking rod-like whiskers. These give the possibility of using chemical control of morphology to produce submicron oxide or metal particles.Freeze-dried APT appears to offer some advantages asso-W piated with the degree of separation of both fine W18O49 and fine W particles during processing. ?-W is produced by reduction of a temperature of 5000C, while ?-W is produced by reduction at temperatures of 6000C and above

1976-06-27

297

Instrument transformers - Part 1: Current transformers  

CERN Multimedia

Applies to newly manufactured current transformers for use with electrical measuring instruments and electrical protective devices at frequencies from 15 Hz to 100 Hz. Applies basically to transformers with separate windings, but also to autotransformers.

International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

2003-01-01

298

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar+) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 1018 to 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux

2013-04-01

299

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar{sup +}) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 10{sup 18} to 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux.

Atta, Ali; Fawzy, Yasser H.A. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) (Egypt); Bek, Alpan, E-mail: bek@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara (Turkey); Abdel-Hamid, Hassan M. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, Applied Medical Sciences Faculty, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); El-Oker, Mohamed M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-04-01

300

Hough transform from the radon transform.  

Science.gov (United States)

An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed through examples, and the appropriate generalization to arbitrary curves is discussed. PMID:21868933

Deans, S R

1981-02-01

 
 
 
 
301

Liquid Metal Transformers  

CERN Document Server

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

302

Shape invariance through Crum transformation  

CERN Multimedia

We show in a rigorous way that Crum's result on equal eigenvalue spectrum of Sturm-Liouville problems can be obtained iteratively by successive Darboux transformations. It can be shown that all neighbouring Darboux-transformed potentials of higher order, u_{k} and u_{k+1}, satisfy the condition of shape invariance provided the original potential u does. We use this result to proof that under the condition of shape invariance the n-th iteration of the original Sturm-Liouville problem defined through shape invariance is equal to the n-th Crum transformation

Organista, J O; Rosu, H C; Organista, Jose Orlando

2006-01-01

303

Bacteria Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Illustrates the beginning stages of gene cloning. This animation shows how plasmids become recombinant and are inserted into bacteria cells. This is the second of four animations detailing the gene cloning process. To begin at the beginning, see Making a Recombinant Plasmid. (To see the next animation, go to Making a Gene Library.)

304

[In vitro transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by four chemicals].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the early passage diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were used as the source of target. Four chemicals were appraised in SHE transformation test to determine whether they were carcinogens or not. They were (1) 2-benzoyl-hydrazono-1,3-diethiolane(BHD) (technical product); (2) isoprothiolane (pure product); (3) isoprothiolane (technical product); (4) benzene-abstracts from coal smoke of coke oven (benzene-abstracts). The results showed that morphological transformation was not observed when cells were not treated or treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, BHD, pure isoprothiolane and the technical product of isoprothiolane. The highest concentration had considerable cytotoxicity. In the groups of positive control (1.0 microgram/ml 3-methyl-cholanthrene, 10.0 micrograms/ml benzo (a) pyrene) and benzene-abstracts, we could observe colonies with random or criss-cross orientation and dense piling-up of cells. According to well known positive criteria, the benzene-abstracts can induce SHE cells morphological transformation. The other three chemicals can not induce SHE cells transformation. PMID:2793154

Zhang, Z Z; Zeng, X G; Guo, J T; Sun, M L; Zhang, X L

1989-03-01

305

On K-transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

C. Nasim

1981-09-01

306

In vitro transformation of rat renal cells by treatment with ferric nitrilotriacetate.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA in vivo causes acute renal tubular injury and finally induces renal cell carcinoma. There is accumulating evidence that these processes involve free radicals generated by Fe-NTA. To study the mechanism of renal carcinogenesis by Fe-NTA, we attempted to induce malignant transformation of primary cultured renal cells by treatment with Fe-NTA. When primary cultured renal cells (PRC were treated continuously with Fe-NTA, all of the PRC died without transformation. On the other hand, when PRC were treated intermittently with Fe-NTA, transformed epithelial colonies were observed at 3 weeks after the first treatment. The established transformed cell line (RK523 showed drastic morphological transformation, grew in soft agar, and formed tumors when transplanted into athymic nude mice. These results indicate that the balance between cytotoxicity and mutagenecity is important for Fe-NTA induced transformation. The RK523 cell line may be a useful model for studying renal carcinogenesis in vitro.

Kakehashi C

2001-04-01

307

Lorentz Transformation of Blackbody Radiation  

CERN Multimedia

We present a simple calculation of the Lorentz transformation of the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation at temperature T. Here we emphasize that T is the temperature in the blackbody rest frame and does not change. We thus avoid the confused and confusing question of how temperature transforms. We show by explicit calculation that at zero temperature the spectral distribution is invariant. At finite temperature we find the well known result familiar in discussions of the the 2.7! K cosmic radiation.

Ford, G W

2013-01-01

308

Backlund transformations and Hamiltonian flows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we show that, under certain conditions, parametric Backlund transformations (BTs) for a finite dimensional integrable system can be interpreted as solutions to the equations of motion defined by an associated non-autonomous Hamiltonian. The two systems share the same constants of motion. This observation lead to the identification of the Hamiltonian interpolating the iteration of the discrete map defined by the transformations, that indeed will be a linear combi...

Zullo, Federico

2012-01-01

309

Transformational leadership and job satisfaction.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship of head nurse leadership style to staff nurse job satisfaction was investigated using the leadership paradigm of transformational and transactional leadership. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire and the Index of Work Satisfaction were completed by 122 staff nurses employed throughout acute care community hospitals in many patient care areas. Correlations showed a significant positive relationship between those head nurses exhibiting a transformational leadership style and the job satisfaction of their staff nurses. PMID:7659370

Medley, F; Larochelle, D R

1995-09-01

310

Schema Transformation without Database Reorganization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue for avoiding database reorganizations due to schema modification in object-oriented systems, since these are expensive operations and they conflict with reusing existing software components. We show that data independence, which is a neglected concept in object databases, helps to avoid reorganizations in case of capacity preserving and reducing schema transformations. We informally present a couple of examples to illustrate the idea of a schema transformation metho...

Tresch, Markus; Scholl, Marc H.

1993-01-01

311

Characterization of Thermo Sensitive Genetic Male Sterile Lines for Temperature Sensitivity, Morphology and Floral Biology in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermo sensitive genetic male sterile lines were screened for temperature sensitivity and their morphology and floral biology were studied. All the six TGMS lines clearly showed a tendency of transformation from sterile to fertile phase, when temperature was decreased in the field as well as under growth chamber conditions. Fertility restoration was more at lower temperature (28/21°C and 24/21°C) for all the six TGMS lines. All the TGMS lines exhibited critical sterility point at temperatur...

Ramakrishna, S.; Mallikarjuna Swamy, B. P.; Mishra, B.; Virakthamath, B. C.; Illyas Ahmed, M.

2006-01-01

312

Generalized Fourier transforms classes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

2002-01-01

313

Influence of Strontium on Hydroxyapatite Morphology and Luminescence Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strontium Hydroxyapatite (SrxCa10-x(PO46(OH2, x=0, 3, 5, 10 powder with fluorescence property was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were employed to analyze phase change, characteristics and fluorescence property of samples. The experimental results indicate that the morphology of samples is spherical particle(D=1~2 ?m, and with the amount of strontium changed from 0 to 100mol%, the morphology of spherical particle changes from short nanorods to nanosheets and then long nanorods. The samples show an intense and bright blue emission from 375 nm to 500 nm centered at 432 nm under long-wavelength UV light excitation (351 nm. The PL emission intensity firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the strontium content. When strontium content is 30%, the PL emission intensity reaches the maximum.

ZHAO Xin, WANG De-Ping, QIU Wen-Qing, YE Song

2013-01-01

314

A free energy model for observed morphology of mitochondrial cristae  

Science.gov (United States)

Electron tomograms have revealed that in normal mitochondria the inner membrane self-assembles into a complex structure that contains both tubular and flat lamellar cristae components. This structure, which contains one matrix compartment, is believed to be essential to the proper functioning of mitochondria as the powerhouse of the cell. It was indeed observed that the morphology is lost during programmed cell death - the mitochondrial inner membrane transforms into multiple vesicular matrix compartments. We have been able to construct a model in which the observed morphology can be obtained by minimizing the system's free energy. The model assumes that mechanical forces act on the membrane, which we believe to be exerted by proteins. In order to test the model, we measured the structural features of mitochondria in HeLa cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts using 3D electron tomography. Data obtained from different mitochondria show excellent agreement. The model predicts that the crista membrane structure of healthy mitochondria is stabilized by tensile forces of the order of 10 pN, comparable to those typical of motor proteins. The model also predicts reasonable values for the pressure difference across and the surface tension of crista membranes.

Baljon, Arlette; Ghochani, Mariam; Nulton, Jim; Salamon, Peter; Frey, Terrence; Rabinovitch, Avinoam

2010-03-01

315

Dendritic shape of precipitates observed in the solid state transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The gamma phase precipitates out in the dendritic morphology when the alloy was reacted at 750 deg. C after homogenization at 950 deg. C. This morphology appears to be the result of special crystallographic features of the precipitating phase in relation to the parent phase, which is quite unusual in the solid state phase transformations. On the basis of similarity in the crystal structure and low mismatch in the parameters, we have predicted few other binary alloy systems in which dendritic morphology is expected in the solid state precipitation. The list includes alloys in Ag-Zn and Cu-Sn systems. Our present work is based on this prediction. Beta-phase alloys in Ag-Zn and Ni-Zn systems and gamma-phase alloys in Cu-Sn system were prepared which show single phase (intermediate solid solution) at homogenization temperature. After homogenization, the samples were cooled down to the reaction temperature in the two phase region. It was indeed found that the precipitates formed in the dendritic shape. (orig./A.B.)

1997-01-01

316

Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R. D.

1986-01-01

317

Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

2011-01-01

318

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals. PMID:24059041

Ma, Donghua; Zheng, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhen

2013-08-01

319

Self-assembly in an evaporating nanofluid droplet: rapid transformation of nanorods into 3D fibre network structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon evaporation, ZnO nanorods in a nanofluid droplet undergo rapid and spontaneous chemical and morphological transformation into centimetre-long Zn(OH)2 fibres, via a mechanism very different from that for coffee rings. We show that the detailed nanostructure and micromorphology in the residual thin film depend intricately on the ambient moisture, nanofluid solvent composition and substrate surface chemistry. Upon thermal annealing, these Zn(OH)2 fibres readily undergo further chemical and morphological transformation, forming nanoporous fibres with the pore size tuneable by temperature. Our results point to a simple route for generating a self-assembled 3D structure with ultralong and nanoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 fibres/belts, and may also be of interest to the fields of evaporation controlled dynamic self-assembly, non-equilibrium crystallisation, and flow and fingering instabilities in nanofluids. PMID:24946161

Wu, H; Chen, L X; Zeng, X Q; Ren, T H; Briscoe, Wuge H

2014-08-01

320

Interaction of nearshore, beach and dune systems: implications for barrier island morphology (Invited)  

Science.gov (United States)

Improvements and advances in technology permit the measurement of sediment transport and fluid dynamics at increasingly smaller temporal and spatial scales. While these studies provide greater insight about small-scale processes, it remains unclear how to transfer this improved understanding of these processes to the convergences and divergences of transport that are ultimately responsible for the evolution of nearshore, beach and dune environments. A series of field experiments are used to examine how small-scale processes and the exchange of sediment amongst the nearshore, beach and dune is dependent on the antecedent morphology. Specifically, the transport of sediment from beach to dune is shown to depend on the synchronization of sediment supply and transport potential that vary as the beach and backshore evolve. The evolution of the beach and backshore in turn depends on the transformation of the incident wave field over the nearshore profile, which is dependent on the bathymetry of the inner-shelf. In this respect, the interaction of nearshore, beach and dune systems is self-reinforcing and evidence is presented to show this interaction is responsible for the alongshore variation in barrier island morphology. It is argued that the dependency of process on morphology creates new opportunities for research in which changes in process vary with changes morphology in both space and time.

Houser, C.; Weymer, B. A.; Trimble, S. M.; Barrineau, C. P.

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
321

Revealing differentially expressed proteins in two morphological forms of Spirulina platensis by proteomic analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spirulina is distinguished from other cyanobacteria by its spiral morphology; however, this cyanobacterium has frequently been observed with a linear morphology in laboratory and industrial conditions. In our laboratory conditions, the simultaneously presence of the linear and spiral forms has also been observed. In the present study, the two forms of S. platensis C1 were separated and grown as axenic cultures in order to study the proteins that were differentially expressed in the soluble and insoluble protein fractions of the spiral and the linear forms. Two dimensional-differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) was performed to separate differentially expressed proteins that were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. The differentially expressed proteins suggested two points. First, the morphological change is possibly induced by various environmental stresses such as oxygen level, carbon dioxide level, nutrient availability, and light. Second, the change of cell-shape might be a result of the change in a cell shape determination mechanism. Thus, this study is the first to show evidence at the protein level that may explain this morphological transformation in Spirulina. PMID:17914191

Hongsthong, Apiradee; Sirijuntarut, Matura; Prommeenate, Peerada; Thammathorn, Sritana; Bunnag, Boosya; Cheevadhanarak, Supapon; Tanticharoen, Morakot

2007-06-01

322

Groundwater dynamics in a coastal aquifer: combined effects of tides and beach morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The interaction between fresh groundwater and seawater, driven by oceanic oscillations and the inland hydraulic head gradient, has been shown to affect the pore water characteristics, which in turn influence the fate of contaminants in coastal aquifers. We show here that beach morphology interacting with the tidal force can also modulate nearshore groundwater flow and solute transport. Detailed field investigations were combined with numerical simulations to examine the groundwater dynamics in a carbonate-sandy intertidal aquifer on the tropical island of Rarotonga, Cook Islands. Groundwater salinity values revealed different salinity distributions under conditions of different beach profiles, inland heads and tidal signals. Fresh groundwater was also found to discharge around an intertidal beach slope break (located in the middle region of intertidal zone). This suggests that the interplay of beach morphology and tidal forcing may play an important role in groundwater flow and solute transport near the shore. The numerical models enabled quantitatively analysis of the effects of beach morphology on groundwater circulations and solute pathway. We found that (1) the groundwater discharge location is largely controlled by beach morphology in connection with the tidal force; (2) under particular conditions, the groundwater flow pattern is very sensitive to the beach slope breaks. In particular, the beach slope break combined with the tidal oscillation can induce local circulation cells. These results further demonstrate the complexity of nearshore groundwater systems and have implications for future studies of nutrients transport and transformations associated with SGD.

Zhang, Y.; Li, L.; Erler, D.

2013-12-01

323

The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion  

CERN Document Server

The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zuky, Ali A

2011-01-01

324

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

CERN Document Server

We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of rank-reduced transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${\\mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${\\mathcal F}_k$, ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ with $k=1,...,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${\\mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,...,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo\\`{e}ve transform. The operations ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ are auxiliary for finding ${\\mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding...

Torokhti, A; Howlett, Phil; Torokhti, Anatoli

2006-01-01

325

Quantum transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ?q replaced by ?q with dq = dq/?1-?2(q), where ?2(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures ?W and ?Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (?q2 + ?W)? = 0

1998-01-01

326

Transformation of the Zagreb urban region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

Milan Ili?

2004-01-01

327

Morphology of rhinoceros platelets.  

Science.gov (United States)

Basic hematological information about rhinoceros species is limited. In this study, we have determined the platelet counts and described the platelet morphology of free-living white (Ceratotherium simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros using light and electron microscopy. The platelet counts of the two species were similar, but there were significant differences in platelet size as well as morphology between the species. The presence of large, nondiscoid platelet forms, resembling proplatelet or stress platelet forms, were observed in both, although not as often in the white rhinoceros as in the black rhinoceros. PMID:10081152

Du Plessis, L; Botha, A J; Stevens, K

1999-03-01

328

The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different f...

Firouz AL-wassai; Kalyankar, Dr N. V.; Dr. Ali Al-Zuky

2011-01-01

329

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and rel...

Hood, Michael E.; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

330

Quantum operations, state transformations and probabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In quantum operations, probabilities characterize both the degree of the success of a state transformation and, as density operator eigenvalues, the degree of mixedness of the final state. We give a unified treatment of pure?pure state transformations, covering both probabilistic and deterministic cases. We then discuss the role of majorization in describing the dynamics of mixing in quantum operations. The conditions for mixing enhancement for all initial states are derived. We show that mixing is monotonically decreasing for deterministic pure?pure transformations, and discuss the relationship between these transformations and deterministic local operations with classical communication entanglement transformations

2002-05-01

331

Integral-geometry morphological image analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews a general method to characterize the morphology of two- and three-dimensional patterns in terms of geometrical and topological descriptors. Based on concepts of integral geometry, it involves the calculation of the Minkowski functionals of black-and-white images representing the patterns. The result of this approach is an objective, numerical characterization of a given pattern. We briefly review the basic elements of morphological image processing, a technique to transform images to patterns that are amenable to further morphological image analysis. The image processing technique is applied to electron microscope images of nano-ceramic particles and metal-oxide precipitates. The emphasis of this review is on the practical aspects of the integral-geometry-based morphological image analysis but we discuss its mathematical foundations as well. Applications to simple lattice structures, triply periodic minimal surfaces, and the Klein bottle serve to illustrate the basic steps of the approach. More advanced applications include random point sets, percolation and complex structures found in block copolymers.

Michielsen, K.; De Raedt, H.

2001-07-01

332

Ferrite Morphology and Variations in Ferrite Content in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four distinct ferrite morphologies have been identified in type 308 stainless steel multipass welds: vermicular, lacy, acicular, and globular. The first three ferrite types are related to transformations following solidification and the fourth is related ...

S. A. David S. E. Hanzelka C. P. Haltom

1981-01-01

333

BLOOD VESSELS EXTRACTION USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The retinal vasculature is composed of the arteries and veins with their tributaries which are visible within the retinal image. The segmentation and measurement of the retinal vasculature is of primary interest in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of systemic and ophthalmologic conditions. The accurate segmentation of the retinal blood vessels is often an essential prerequisite step in the identification of retinal anatomy and pathology. In this study, we present an automated approach for blood vessels extraction using mathematical morphology. Two main steps are involved: enhancement operation is applied to the original retinal image in order to remove the noise and increase contrast of retinal blood vessels and morphology operations are employed to extract retinal blood vessels. This operation of segmentation is applied to binary image of top-hat transformation. The result was compared with other algorithms and give better results.

Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

2013-01-01

334

Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different morphologies of ?+? microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single ?-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the ? to ? phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the ? phase transformed to colonies of ? at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

2010-07-01

335

Linear transformations of quantum states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers the most general linear transformation of a quantum state. We enumerate the conditions necessary to retain a physical interpretation of the transformed state: hermiticity, normalization and complete positivity. We show that these can be formulated in terms of an associated transformation introduced by Choi in 1975. We extend his treatment and display the mathematical argumentation in a manner closer to that used in traditional quantum physics. We contend that our approach displays the implications of the physical requirements in a simple and intuitive way. In addition, defining an arbitrary vector, we may derive a probability distribution over the spectrum of the associated transformation. This fixes the average of the eigenvalue independently of the vector chosen. The formal results are illustrated by a couple of examples

2008-04-01

336

Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades  

CERN Document Server

Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

Shafiq, M Zubair

2013-01-01

337

Semigroups of Upsilon transformations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of random integral representations of Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed.

Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

2008-01-01

338

Dynamic Upsilon Transformations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of stochastic integral representations of Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed.

Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

2007-01-01

339

An Improved Chirplet Transform and Its Application for Harmonics Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chirplet transform is the generalization form of fast Fourier transform , short-time Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It has the most flexible time frequency window and successfully used in practices. However, the chirplet transform has not inherent inverse transform, and can not overcome the signal reconstructing problem. In this paper, we proposed the improved chirplet transform (ICT and constructed the inverse ICT. Finally, by simulating the harmonic voltages, The power of the improved chirplet transform are illustrated for harmonic detection. The contours clearly showed the harmonic occurrence time and harmonic duration.

Guo-Sheng Hu

2011-07-01

340

A color morphological segmentation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we propose to use the classic framework of a morphological segmentation. Each step of the framework involves the utilization of image analysis operators. We propose some new operators operating on the color of the image (the simplification, the gradient, the watershed and the region usion). The segmentation method is illustrated by experimental results.

Lezoray, Olivier; Elmoataz, Abderrahim; Cardot, Hubert; Revenu, Marinette

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Interfacial interaction and morphology of EVOH and ionomer blends by scanning thermal microscopy and its correlation with barrier characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a blend, the interfacial interaction between the component phases can be effectively utilized to bring about homogeneous mixing and unique performances. While in conventional blends, preserving the morphology of the melt mixed state is unfeasible because of the strong thermodynamic tendency of the components to phase separate, herein, we report the intermolecular interaction of two hydrogen bonded polymers such as a barrier polymer poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) with an ionic polymer in their blends, which work symbiotically to achieve the desirable characteristics. We demonstrate the creation of a unique ellipsoid microfibrilliar morphology and melt exfoliation of one polymer in the blends through intermolecular interaction and achieve high oxygen barrier characteristics. Scanning thermal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm the presence of such unique morphology. The interfacial interaction and formation of interphase was evident from the local thermal analysis results combined with photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PA-FTIR). PA-FTIR confirms the chemical nature of the interaction, while the differential scanning calorimetry results indicate modification of the EVOH phase by the ionomer. The shift of Tg and broadening of the tan delta curve is evident from dynamic mechanical analysis confirming the interaction of the blend components. The blend B(60) with microfibrillar morphology shows fourfold drop in oxygen permeability indicating the role of interfacial interaction and desired morphology. PMID:18439030

Shelat, Kinnari J; Dutta, Naba K; Choudhury, Namita R

2008-05-20

342

Approximate quantum Fourier transform and decoherence  

CERN Document Server

We discuss the advantages of using the approximate quantum Fourier transform (AQFT) in algorithms which involve periodicity estimations. We analyse quantum networks performing AQFT in the presence of decoherence and show that extensive approximations can be made before the accuracy of AQFT (as compared with regular quantum Fourier transform) is compromised. We show that for some computations an approximation may imply a better performance.

Barenco, A; Suominen, K A; Torma, P; Barenco, Adriano; Ekert, Artur; Suominen, Kalle Antti; Torma, Paivi

1996-01-01

343

Bogoliubov Transformations and Entanglement of Two Fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that Bogoliubov transformations, widely used in quantum field theory, can be also useful in quantum information theory. Namely, we show that the problem of the choice of tensor product decomposition in the system of two fermions can be analysed with the help of Bogoliubov transformations of creation and annihilation operators. (author)

2007-01-01

344

Relation Between Catalyst-assisted Entanglement Transformation and Multiple-copy Transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in [R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005)] that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For purely probabilistic setting we ...

Feng, Yuan; Duan, Runyao; Ying, Mingsheng

2003-01-01

345

Heat transformation; Waermetransformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Waste heat can be upgraded through heat transformation either by means of externally supplied work or driving heat or by using a part of the waste heat itself. A large number of industrially proven cyclic processes are available for this purpose. Due to the poor efficiency of electric power production processes mechanically driven heat transformation processes are usually already thermodynamically inferior to heating through cogeneration or through thermally driven transformation processes. This holds especially true if heat pumps can be used to further reduce thermodynamic losses in the heat generation process. Aside from these principal considerations the selection of a suitable transformation process depends crucially on the operating conditions of the waste heat producing plant and on the heat supply and discharge situation in the plant`s environment. The prospects offered by such applications are particularly favourable if they permit achieving other technological or environmental goals beside waste heat utilisation. Studies of selected industrial applications show that given favourable technological framework conditions economically efficient uses of heat transformation processes are possible, i.e. pay for themselves within 1 to 5 years, even if one calculates with today`s energy prices and confines oneself to energetic aspects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Aufwertung von Abwaerme durch Waermetransformation kann sowohl mit Hilfe von Arbeit oder Antriebswaerme als auch durch Nutzung eines Teils der Abwaerme selbst erfolgen. Zu diesem Zwecke steht eine Vielzahl von industriell erprobten Kreisprozessen zur Verfuegung. Mechanisch angetriebene Waermetransformationsprozesse sind auf Grund des Wirkungsgrades der Elektroenergieerzeugung der Waermeversorgung durch Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung und durch waermeangetriebene Transformationsprozesse, meist bereits thermodynamisch unterlegen. Das gilt besonders fuer den Fall, dass durch den Waermepumpeneinsatz zusaetzlich thermodynamische Verluste bei der Waermeversorgung vermieden werden koennen. Trotz dieser prinzipiellen Aspekte ist die Auswahl eines geeigneten Transformationsprozesses massgeblich von den Betriebsbedingungen der abwaermeerzeugenden Anlage und von der Waermever- und -entsorgungssituation im Umfeld der Anlage abhaengig. Besonders guenstige Einsatzbedingungen liegen dann vor, wenn neben der Abwaermenutzung weitere technologische oder umwelttechnische Zielstellungen erfuellt werden koennen. Wie untersuchte industrielle Beispiele ziegen, ergeben sich auch bei den gegenwaertigen Energiepreisen unter guenstigen technologischen Randbedingungen selbst aus ausschliesslich energetischen Gruenden oekonomisch sinnvolle Einsatzmoeglichkeiten fuer Waermetransformationsprozesse, d.h. Rueckflussdauern von 1-5 Jahren. (orig.)

Hebecker, D. [Halle-Wittenberg Univ., Merseburg (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik und Energiewirtschaft

1995-12-31

346

The Bianchi-Darboux transform of L-isothermic surfaces  

CERN Multimedia

We study an analogue of the classical Bianchi-Darboux transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in Laguerre geometry, the Bianchi-Darboux transformation. We show how to construct the Bianchi-Darboux transforms of an L-isothermic surface by solving an integrable linear differential system. We then establish a permutability theorem for iterated Bianchi-Darboux transforms.

Musso, E

2000-01-01

347

Identification of a second transforming region in bovine papillomavirus DNA.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) has been used as a model for studying papillomavirus genetics because BPV-1 virions or BPV-1 genomic viral DNA efficiently induce morphologic transformation of certain cultured cells. Previous studies of BPV-1-induced transformation have found that a cloned 5.4-kilobase (kb) fragment (69T) of the genome is transforming and that a 2.3-kb segment from the 3' end of this fragment is also transforming if activated by a retroviral regulatory element (the long t...

Schiller, J. T.; Vass, W. C.; Lowy, D. R.

1984-01-01

348

Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

RENU AWASTHI

2012-09-01

349

A generalized Meijer transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a series of papers [1-6], Kratzel studies a generalized version of the classical Meijer transformation with the Kernel function (stνη(q,ν+1; (stq. This transformation is referred to as GM transformation which reduces to the classical Meijer transform when q=1. He also discussed a second generalization of the Meijer transform involving the Kernel function λν(n(x which reduces to the Meijer function when n=2 and the Laplace transform when n=1. This is called the Meijer-Laplace (or ML transformation. This paper is concerned with a study of both GM and ML transforms in the distributional sense. Several properties of these transformations including inversion, uniqueness, and analyticity are discussed in some detail.

L. Debnath

1985-06-01

350

Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

2010-03-24

351

A basin morphology approach to colour image segmentation by region merging  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The problem of colour image segmentation is investigated in the context of mathematical morphology. Morphological operators are extended to colour images by means of a lexicographical ordering in a polar colour space, which are then employed in the preprocessing stage. The actual segmentation is based on the use of the watershed transformation, followed by region merging, with the procedure being formalized as a basin morphology, where regions are “eroded” in order to form greater catchme...

Aptoula, Erchan; Lefe?vre, Se?bastien

2007-01-01

352

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. PMID:21963525

Ren, Zhenhua; Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin; Chen, Zhiguo; Zhang, Y Alex

2011-12-10

353

On discrete cosine transform  

CERN Document Server

The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

Zhou, Jianqin

2011-01-01

354

Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

Bo-Young Hur

2009-11-01

355

Color-selection criteria and rest-frame optical morphologies of 1.5 < z < 3.5 active and passive galaxies with WFC3  

CERN Document Server

We use the high angular resolution in the near-infrared of the WFC3 on HST to identify and characterize 1.5 10^10.5 Msun. In contrast, less massive galaxies maintain an irregular morphology in the rest-frame optical light, indicating that, at these epochs, low-mass galaxies are not dynamically settled. At the highest masses, >10^11 Msun, galaxies at 2.25 < z < 3.5 show the whole variety of morphologies, from irregular to d isk to spheroid, in roughly similar proportions. Strikingly, however, galaxies of similar high masses at 1.5 < z < 2.25 are virtually all elliptical-like spheroids. In our small sample, the fraction of star-forming galaxies at these mass scales decreases from ~60% to zero. If confirmed, this indicates that z ~ 2 is the epoch of both the morphological transformations and quenching of star-formation that results in the massive elliptical population.

Cameron, E; Oesch, P A; Bouwens, R J; Illingworth, G D; Trenti, M; Labbe, I; Magee, D

2010-01-01

356

Laser induced structural phase transformation of cobalt oxides nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phases of cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanostructures are prepared using thermolysis route at the same reaction temperature 296 degrees C with synthetic approach conditions. These nanostructures show mixture of nearly spherical and nanoflake morphologies. The structural phases of these nanostructures transform to spinel-Co3O4 by application of heat or Raman excitation laser beam power. The absorbance spectra of fcc and hcp-CoO and Co3O4 nanostructures yield significantly higher values of band gap which can be explained by electron confinement. Such results provide new opportunities for optimizing and enhancing the properties and performance of cobalt oxide nanomaterial. PMID:24758071

Ravindra, A V; Behera, B C; Padhan, P

2014-07-01

357

Fungal transformation and schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The schistosomicidal effects of pimaradienoic acid (PA) and two derivatives, obtained by fungal transformation in the presence of Aspergillus ochraceus, were investigated. PA was the only compound with antischistosomal activity among the three diterpenes studied, with the ability to significantly reduce the viability of the parasites at concentrations ranging from 25 to 100 ?M. PA also promoted morphological alterations of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni, separated all the worm couples, and affected the production and development of eggs. Moreover, this compound was devoid of toxicity toward human fibroblasts. In a preliminary in vivo experiment, PA at a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly diminished the number of parasites in infected Balb/c mice. Taken together, these results show that PA may be potentially employed in the discovery of novel schistosomicidal agents, and that diterpenes are an important class of natural compounds for the investigation of agents capable of fighting the parasite responsible for human schistosomiasis. PMID:22899607

Porto, Thiago S; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Magalhães, Lizandra G; dos Santos, Raquel A; Furtado, Niege A J C; Arakawa, Nilton S; Said, Suraia; de Oliveira, Dionéia C R; Gregório, Luiz E; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Veneziani, Rodrigo C S; Ambrósio, Sérgio R

2012-08-01

358

Mastocytosis: immunophenotypical features of the transformed mast cells are unique among hematopoietic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastocytosis is a disease of bone marrow origin histologically characterized by compact tissue infiltrates of atypical mast cells never seen in reactive states. Most patients with mastocytosis have transformed mast cells carrying an activating point mutation at codon 816 of KIT and also show an elevated serum tryptase level. In this article immunophenotypical features of mast cells are described. Based on these features, mast cells are not closely related to other myeloid cells. Using the knowledge on aberrantly expressed antigens by mast cells, the hematopathologist should be able to recognize the disease even in the presence of unusual morphologic findings or an associated hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease. PMID:24745676

Horny, Hans-Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Valent, Peter

2014-05-01

359

Morphological Detection of Malware  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

2008-01-01

360

Learning the Morphological Diversity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article proposes a new method for image separation into a linear combination of morphological components. Sparsity in global dictionaries is used to extract the cartoon and oscillating content of the image. Complicated texture patterns are extracted by learning adapted local dictionaries that sparsify patches in the image. These global and local sparsity priors together with the data fidelity define a non-convex energy and the separation is obtained as a stationary point of this energy. ...

Peyre?, Gabriel; Fadili, Jalal; Starck, Jean Luc

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Shedding New Light on the Molecular Architecture of Oocytes Using a Combination of Synchrotron Fourier Transform-Infrared and Raman Spectroscopic Mapping  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Synchrotron Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) and Raman microspectroscopy were applied to investigate changes in the molecular architecture of mouse oocytes and demonstrate the overall morphology of the maturing oocyte. Here we show that differences were identified between immature mouse oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) and mature metaphase II (MII) stage when using this technology, without the introduction of any extrinsic markers, labels, or dyes. GV mouse oocytes were found to have a ...

2008-01-01

362

Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

2012-10-01

363

Early morphological changes following gamma irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The in vitro system was used to study early ultrastructural effects following gamma irradiation of human pituitary adenomas and neurinomas with 30 and 70 Gy single doses, respectively. The acoustic neurinoma cells showed a large number of intracellular myelin figures and vesiculation of cytoplasm. The pituitary tumour cells showed vacuolization of cytoplasm and cell organelles. Occasionally, electron-dense cytoplasmaic inclusion bodies with a fibrillar substructure occurred. The differences between the two types of tumours in irradiation-induced morphological changes may indicate differences in their biochemical structure and metabolic activities. The morphological findings after irradiation of specimens from all four neurinomas were rather similar after the same length of time but the structural alterations of pituitary cells differed considerably between individual tumours. The 70 Gy dose caused more rapidly-occurring morphological alterations than the 30 Gy single dose. (author)

1981-01-01

364

Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Psidium Species  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate genetic relationship among 20 genotypes of Psidium guajava and two species viz., P friedrichsthalianum Ndz. and P. catleianum Sabine, by morphological characterization. Out of 16 morphological characters studied, only inflorescence type did not show any variation, while the remaining traits showed variability to considerable extent. Morphological data on different genotypes were used to calculate similarity matrix which ranged from 0.06 to 0.50.and based on this cluster analysis was done using UPGMA. The genetic variation among genotypes was high enough to divide them into two major clusters. Cluster I consisted of ?Chakaiya Rehmannagar?, ?Gutaniwala?, ?Super Max Ruby?, and ?Spear Acid?, whereas cluster II consisted of the rest of 18 genotypes.

Ajinath TELE

2010-06-01

365

Mineralogy, morphology and crystal-chemistry of the monazite from Catalao 1 (Goias, Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Catalao alkaline carbonatite complex hosts a number of mineral resources including monazite. This mineral is a common accessory phase in two lithological units: carbonatite and silexite. Textural evidence suggest that monazite replaced carbonates in the carbonatite and crystallized simultaneously with quartz in the silexite. Monazite was resistant to the strong laterization that affected the massif, except for the incipient transformation into gorceixite or cerianite. In both carbonatite and silexite, monazite occurs as a complex aggregate of sub-micrometric crystals, showing unusual morphological and chemical characteristics. It contains Ca, Sr, and Ba in the A-site, and shows a certain degree of hydration indicated by ATD and IV data. Structural formulae calculated on the basis of sum of cations=1 show a moderate ionic deficiency in the anionic site. Rietveld refinement indicated poor crystallinity. Notwithstanding these peculiar characteristics, cell dimensions are similar to those of standard monazite. (author)

2004-03-01

366

Learning doubly sparse transforms for images.  

Science.gov (United States)

The sparsity of images in a transform domain or dictionary has been exploited in many applications in image processing. For example, analytical sparsifying transforms, such as wavelets and discrete cosine transform (DCT), have been extensively used in compression standards. Recently, synthesis sparsifying dictionaries that are directly adapted to the data have become popular especially in applications such as image denoising. Following up on our recent research, where we introduced the idea of learning square sparsifying transforms, we propose here novel problem formulations for learning doubly sparse transforms for signals or image patches. These transforms are a product of a fixed, fast analytic transform such as the DCT, and an adaptive matrix constrained to be sparse. Such transforms can be learnt, stored, and implemented efficiently. We show the superior promise of our learnt transforms as compared with analytical sparsifying transforms such as the DCT for image representation. We also show promising performance in image denoising that compares favorably with approaches involving learnt synthesis dictionaries such as the K-SVD algorithm. The proposed approach is also much faster than K-SVD denoising. PMID:23893720

Ravishankar, Saiprasad; Bresler, Yoram

2013-12-01

367

Characterisation of ramified microglial cells: detailed morphology, morphological plasticity and proliferative capability.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Several cellular properties of brain microglia in the rat were investigated using both whole tissue and cultures of dissociated cerebral cortical cells. As revealed by thiamine pyrophosphatase histochemistry, tissue microglia possessed a highly distinctive cellular morphology. Stained microglia showed similar overall features of morphology and distribution in both preparations; however, the cells in culture displayed some slight differences from those of the tissue, including larger somata an...

Glenn, J. A.; Ward, S. A.; Stone, C. R.; Booth, P. L.; Thomas, W. E.

1992-01-01

368

THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

2010-08-20

369

Transformation History Dependence of Shape Memory Effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Calorimetric and thermomechanical experiments with single crystals and polycrystals of CuAlZnMn shape memory alloy show how the reverse martensitic transformation - shape memory effect - is affected by the forward transformation history, in particular by the: i) transformation path from austenite to martensite, ii) deformation in martensite, iii) annealing in martensite under stress. It is suggested that a shape memory alloy is able to partially keep information about the forward transformati...

1997-01-01

370

Waveguide taper engineering using coordinate transformation technology  

CERN Document Server

Spatial coordinate transformation is a suitable tool for the design of complex electromagnetic structures. In this paper, we define three spatial coordinate transformations which show the possibility of designing a taper between two different waveguides. A parametric study is presented for the three transformations and we propose achievable values of permittivity and permeability that can be obtained with existing metamaterials. The performances of such defined structures are demonstrated by finite element numerical simulations.

Tichit, Paul-Henri; de Lustrac, Andre; 10.1364/OE.18.000767

2010-01-01

371

Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation  

CERN Document Server

We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described $X_m$ Laguerre polynomials in terms of a state-adding Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape-invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

Gomez-Ullate, David; Milson, Robert

2010-01-01

372

Sine-Gordon wobbles through bäcklund transformations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we construct the wobble exact solution of sine-Gordon equation by means of B acklund Transformations. We nd the parameters of the transformations corresponding to the Bianchi diagram for the wobble as a particular 3-soliton solutions. We show that this solution agrees with the wobbles obtained by K albermann and Segur by means of the Inverse Scattering Transform, and by Ferreira et al. using the Hirota method. The new formulation introduced allows to identify e...

Cuenda, Sara; Quintero, Niurka R.; Sa?nchez, Angel

2011-01-01

373

Characterization of point transformations in quantum mechanics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We characterize point transformations in quantum mechanics from the mathematical viewpoint. To conclude that the canonical variables given by each point transformation in quantum mechanics correctly describe the extended point transformation, we show that they are all selfadjoint operators in $L^2(\\mathbb{R}^n)$ and that the continuous spectrum of each coincides with $\\mathbb{R}$. They are also shown to satisfy the canonical commutation relations.

Ohnuki, Yoshio; Watanabe, Shuji

2012-01-01

374

Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor ?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-?. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-? when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to "1"2"5I TGF-?: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted "3"5S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-? receptor. The TGF-? resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

1987-01-01

375

Transforms and Applications Handbook  

CERN Document Server

Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

Poularikas, Alexander D

2010-01-01

376

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10-4 Pa to 102 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

2010-04-02

377

The Mass Assembly Histories of Galaxies of Various Morphologies in the GOODS Fields  

Science.gov (United States)

We present an analysis of the growth of stellar mass with cosmic time partitioned according to galaxy morphology. Using a well-defined catalog of 2150 galaxies based, in part, on archival data in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) fields, we assign morphological types in three broad classes (ellipticals, spirals, peculiar/irregulars) to a limit of zAB=22.5 and make the resulting catalog publicly available. Utilizing 893 spectroscopic redshifts, supplemented by 1013 determined photometrically, we combine optical photometry from the GOODS catalog and deep Ks-band imaging to assign stellar masses to each galaxy in our sample. We find little evolution in the form of the galaxy stellar mass function from z~1 to z=0, especially at the high-mass end where our results are most robust. Although the population of massive galaxies is relatively well established at z~1, its morphological mix continues to change, with an increasing proportion of early-type galaxies at later times. By constructing type-dependent stellar mass functions, we show that in each of three redshift intervals, E/S0 galaxies dominate the higher mass population, while spirals are favored at lower masses. This transition occurs at a stellar mass of (2-3)×1010 Msolar at z~0.3 (similar to local studies), but there is evidence that the relevant mass scale moves to higher mass at earlier epochs. Such evolution may represent the morphological extension of the ``downsizing'' phenomenon, in which the most massive galaxies stop forming stars first, with lower mass galaxies becoming quiescent later. We infer that more massive galaxies evolve into spheroidal systems at earlier times, and that this morphological transformation may only be completed 1-2 Gyr after the galaxies emerge from their active star-forming phase. We discuss several lines of evidence suggesting that merging may play a key role in generating this pattern of evolution.

Bundy, Kevin; Ellis, Richard S.; Conselice, Christopher J.

2005-06-01

378

Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or material simplification. The corresponding invisibility performances of the approximate or simplified cylindrical cloaks are presented in detail.

Qiu, Min unknown

2008-01-01

379

Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass.

Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

2012-01-01

380

Transformational silicon electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 ?m), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-?/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. PMID:24476361

Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

2014-02-25

 
 
 
 
381

Shiftable multiscale transforms  

Science.gov (United States)

A type of translational invariance, referred to as shiftability, is defined for wavelet transforms. The property of shiftability is first discussed with respect to individual parameters: spatial position, orientation, and scale. The discussion then focuses on transformations that are simultaneously shiftable with respect to subsets of these parameters. It is shown that the critical sampling condition on the wavelet transforms must be relaxed to achieve shiftability. Two example transforms are implemented and applied to several signal and image processing problems.

Simoncelli, Eero P.; Freeman, William T.; Adelson, Edward H.; Heeger, David J.

1992-01-01

382

DNA Transformation, Continued  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA transformation is a naturally occurring but rare event in which DNA can be transferred into bacteria. In 1970, Morton Mandel and Akiko Higa discovered a way to make E. coli more 'competent' for transforming foreign DNA. Their calcium chloride method is widely used today to obtain high-efficiency transforming cells. This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents the second part of explaining DNA transformation through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-03-14

383

Fractional Darboux Transformations  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial differential equations.

Humi, M

2002-01-01

384

Complex Hilbert Transform Filter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Hilbert transform is a basic tool in constructing analytical signals for a various applications such as amplitude modulation, envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, quadrature decoding, shift-invariant multi-rate signal processing and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. This work introduces a complex Hilbert transform (CHT) filter, where the real and imaginary parts are a Hilbert transform pair. The CHT filtered signal is analytic, i.e. its Fourier transform is zero in negative frequency ran...

2011-01-01

385

Finite BRST transformations for the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Letter we analyse the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson (BLG) theory in N=1 superspace. Furthermore, we will construct the BRST transformations for this theory. These BRST transformations will be integrated out to obtain the finite field dependent version of BRST (FFBRST) transformations. We will also analyse the effect of the FFBRST transformations on the effective action. We will thus show that the FFBRST transformations can be used to relate generating functionals of the BLG theory in two different gauges

2013-04-10

386

Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

Graham J. Alexander

2011-10-01

387

Morphological change in machines accelerates the evolution of robust behavior  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Most animals exhibit significant neurological and morphological change throughout their lifetime. No robots to date, however, grow new morphological structure while behaving. This is due to technological limitations but also because it is unclear that morphological change provides a benefit to the acquisition of robust behavior in machines. Here I show that in evolving populations of simulated robots, if robots grow from anguilliform into legged robots during their lifetime in the early stage...

2011-01-01

388

Mechanisms of transformation toughening  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Modelling the thermodynamics and kinetics of isothermal martensitic transformation under stress, transformation toughening in austenitic steels, and dispersed phase transformation plasticity in low alloy steels are discussed briefly in this progress report for Doe Grant DE-FG02-88ER45365.

Olson, G.B.

1992-02-01

389

Transformations - Composition (NLVM)  

Science.gov (United States)

This Java applet enables learners to explore compositions of two transformations (among sliding, flipping and turning) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the transformations to see the effect on a transformed image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

390

The Influence of Ageing on Martensite Morphology in Shape Memory CuZnAl Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The martensitic transformation behaviour, morphology and microstructures in copper-based shape memory alloys are strongly influenced by the post-quench heat treatments and ageing. Martensitic transformation initiates at a critical temperature and grows by the formation of martensite variants on cooling up to martensite finish temperature. These alloys are metastable at the matrix ?-phase condition, and reversibility of transformation and formation of martensite variants from the matrix are r...

Kayali, N.; O?zgen, S.; Adigu?zel, O.

1997-01-01

391

Canonical transformations in three-dimensional phase space  

CERN Document Server

Canonical transformation in a three-dimensional phase space endowed with Nambu bracket is discussed in a general framework. Definition of the canonical transformations is constructed as based on canonoid transformations. It is shown that generating functions, transformed Hamilton functions and the transformation itself for given generating functions can be determined by solving Pfaffian differential equations corresponding to that quantities. Types of the generating functions are introduced and all of them is listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed. Finally, we show that decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase space as in the usual two-dimensional one.

Dereli, T; Hakioglu, T

2009-01-01

392

Canonical Transformations in Three-Dimensional Phase-Space  

Science.gov (United States)

Canonical transformation in a three-dimensional phase-space endowed with Nambu bracket is discussed in a general framework. Definition of the canonical transformations is constructed based on canonoid transformations. It is shown that generating functions, transformed Hamilton functions and the transformation itself for given generating functions can be determined by solving Pfaffian differential equations corresponding to that quantities. Types of the generating functions are introduced and all of them are listed. Infinitesimal canonical transformations are also discussed. Finally, we show that the decomposition of canonical transformations is also possible in three-dimensional phase space as in the usual two-dimensional one.

Dereli, Tekin; Te?men, Adnan; Hakio?lu, Tu?rul

393

MODIFIED MUTLIRESOLUTION MEDICAL IMAGE SEGMENTATION BASED ON WAVELET TRANSFORM?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wavelet Transform is used to analyze image. The watershed transformations a useful morphological segmentation tool is used for a variety of grey-scale images. An efficient method of segmentation is presented in this proposed method by modified multiresolution, which combines the pyramidal image segmentation with hierarchical watershed segmentation algorithm. The segmentation procedure consists of pyramid representation, image segmentation, region merging and region projection. Each layer is split into a number of regions by rooting labeling technique and boundary is extracted by threshold. Morphological operation is used to smooth the image.

Dr. K.R.Ananth

2014-06-01

394

Nearly optimal sparse fourier transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: An O(k log n)-time randomized algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and An O(k log n log(n/k))-time randomized algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k=o(n). They are the first known algorithms that satisfy t...

Hassanieh, Haitham; Indyk, Piotr; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric C.

2012-01-01

395

Nearly Optimal Sparse Fourier Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time randomized algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time randomized algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). They are the first known...

Hassanieh, Haitham; Indyk, Piotr; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

2012-01-01

396

Partial reversion of the transformed phenotype in HRAS-transfected tumorigenic cells by transfer of a human gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformed phenotype of rat FE-8 cells transfected by an activated human HRAS gene was suppressed upon fusion with normal cells. An experimental approach was developed to identify and isolate a human gene capable of suppressing the transforming activity of the HRAS oncogene in FE-8 cells. Genomic DNA from human placenta was introduced into FE-8 cells by cotransfection with the plasmid pY3 conferring hygromycin B resistance. Transfectants were selected in medium containing hygromycin B. HRAS-transformed FE-8 cells showed an increased sensitivity toward ouabain when compared to their normal counterparts. Therefore, the population of transfected hygromycin B-resistant cells was treated with ouabain to eliminate cells with a transformed phenotype. Ouabain selection resulted in a small number of cell clones exhibiting a more normal phenotype. The clones had lost the morphology of transformed cells and required anchorage for growth. The tumorigenicity of transfectants in nude mice was reduced by not completely abolished. FE-8 revertants continued to express the p21 RAS protein. Human repetitive sequences contained in the DNA of a secondary transfectant were used for isolation of the suppressor gene from reverted FE-8 cells. The cloned DNA fragment was transfected into tumorigenic FE-8 cells and conferred a partial reversion of the transformed phenotype

1988-01-01

397

[Morphological identification of blastocysts].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors have attempted to systematize the currently known specific morphological features of the composition of Blastocystis spp. existing in different forms and to present this material as a reference table, by understanding the need for further data clarification. In addition, the paper describes observations of variations in the forms of human blastocysts. In particular, it depicts the species of multinucleated cysts, the identification of which may cause difficulties in diagnosing and differentiating these forms with some representative species of the genus Entamoeba. PMID:24738219

2014-01-01

398

Morphological analysis of ionomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

1990-01-01

399

Vesta's shape and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body. PMID:22582254

Jaumann, R; Williams, D A; Buczkowski, D L; Yingst, R A; Preusker, F; Hiesinger, H; Schmedemann, N; Kneissl, T; Vincent, J B; Blewett, D T; Buratti, B J; Carsenty, U; Denevi, B W; De Sanctis, M C; Garry, W B; Keller, H U; Kersten, E; Krohn, K; Li, J-Y; Marchi, S; Matz, K D; McCord, T B; McSween, H Y; Mest, S C; Mittlefehldt, D W; Mottola, S; Nathues, A; Neukum, G; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Prettyman, T H; Raymond, C A; Roatsch, T; Russell, C T; Schenk, P; Schmidt, B E; Scholten, F; Stephan, K; Sykes, M V; Tricarico, P; Wagner, R; Zuber, M T; Sierks, H

2012-05-11

400

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Henry, Ovri; Monde, Kamma Celestine.

 
 
 
 
401

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri Henry

2008-03-01

402

Transformation behavior of layered LaOCl to La(OH)3 nanostructures in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LnOCl (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) with layered structure was transformed into Ln(OH)3 in water. The electron microscopy images of La(OH)3 showed various nanostructures such as nanoneedles, nanowires, nanoneedle chains, nanoneedle bundles, and nanochain bundles. Although the formation mechanism is not accompanied by a typical exfoliation of LaOCl into individual sheets because of no existence of true van der Waals gap between layers, this transformation proceeds in highly controlled manner to yield regular nanostructures. The nanoneedles are the fundamental building blocks for the evolution of other complex one-dimensional structures, depending on their assembly fashions. The length and number of nanoneedles constituting single bundle structure can be slightly controlled by adjusting the pH values of aqueous solutions. The shape of LaOCl precursor plays a key role in the final size, morphology, and alignment of La(OH)3 nanoneedles at room temperature

2006-08-25

403

Transformation behavior of layered LaOCl to La(OH){sub 3} nanostructures in water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LnOCl (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) with layered structure was transformed into Ln(OH){sub 3} in water. The electron microscopy images of La(OH){sub 3} showed various nanostructures such as nanoneedles, nanowires, nanoneedle chains, nanoneedle bundles, and nanochain bundles. Although the formation mechanism is not accompanied by a typical exfoliation of LaOCl into individual sheets because of no existence of true van der Waals gap between layers, this transformation proceeds in highly controlled manner to yield regular nanostructures. The nanoneedles are the fundamental building blocks for the evolution of other complex one-dimensional structures, depending on their assembly fashions. The length and number of nanoneedles constituting single bundle structure can be slightly controlled by adjusting the pH values of aqueous solutions. The shape of LaOCl precursor plays a key role in the final size, morphology, and alignment of La(OH){sub 3} nanoneedles at room temperature.

Lee, Seoung-Soo [College of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Kyung Ki 449-701 (Korea, Republic of); Byeon, Song-Ho [College of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyung Hee University, Kyung Ki 449-701 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: shbyun@khu.ac.kr

2006-08-25

404

Mutagenicity, sister chromatid exchange inducibility and in vitro cell transforming ability of particulates from Athens air  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Airborne particulates were collected over a period of twelve months by the use of Hi-Vol samplers in the basin of Athens, Greece. N-Hexane extracts were tested in a battery of in vitro tests for their ability to induce mutation in bacteria as well as mutations, sister chromatid exchange and morphological transformation in cultured mammalian cells. Positive results were found for mutagenicity with Salmonella strain TA98 in the Ames assay, for sister chromatid exchange induction in CHO cells and for transformation in BALB/c 3T3 cells in culture. They also showed weak non-dose-related induction of ouabain resistance in BALB/c 3T3 cells. The contribution of oxidizing and nitrating agents found in the Athens atmosphere, together with sunlight UV irradiation in the formation of direct acting mutagens and potential carcinogens from ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, is suggested.

Athanasiou, K.; Arzimanoglou, I.; Piccoli, C.; Yamasaki, H.

1987-09-01

405

In Situ Hydroxyapatite Synthesis: Influence of Collagen on Its Structural and Morphological Characteristic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HA was synthesized in situ by the precipitation method, with and without the presence of collagen (COLL, to study its influence on HA’s structural and morphological characteristics. The material was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD, thermogravimetric analysis (TG and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The Ca/P molar ratio was influenced by collagen addition—1.89 and 2.38 for samples without and with collagen, respectively. The WAXD pattern revealed better resolution and intensity besides higher crystallinity degree of the HA in the presence of collagen. The photomicrographs showed a strong influence of collagen on the HA morphology.

Luis C. Mendes

2012-08-01

406

General Î¥-transformations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as Υ transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy processes.

Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan

2008-01-01

407

Transformed Auto-correlation  

CERN Document Server

A transformed auto-correlation method is presented here, where a received signal is transformed based on a priori reflecting model, and then the transformed signal is cross-correlated to its original one. If the model is correct, after transformation, the reflected signal will be coherent to the transmitted signal, with zero delay. A map of transformed auto-correlation function with zero delay can be generated in a given parametric space. The significant peaks in the map may indicate the possible reflectors nearby the central transmitter. The true values of the parameters of reflectors can be estimated at the same time.

Zhou, Jianfeng

2014-01-01

408

Bound state transformation walls  

CERN Document Server

In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and tha...

Andriyash, Evgeny; Jafferis, Daniel L; Moore, Gregory W

2010-01-01

409

Fast Color Space Transformations Using Minimax Approximations  

CERN Document Server

Color space transformations are frequently used in image processing, graphics, and visualization applications. In many cases, these transformations are complex nonlinear functions, which prohibits their use in time-critical applications. In this paper, we present a new approach called Minimax Approximations for Color-space Transformations (MACT).We demonstrate MACT on three commonly used color space transformations. Extensive experiments on a large and diverse image set and comparisons with well-known multidimensional lookup table interpolation methods show that MACT achieves an excellent balance among four criteria: ease of implementation, memory usage, accuracy, and computational speed.

Celebi, M Emre; Celiker, Fatih; 10.1049/iet-ipr.2008.0172

2010-01-01

410

New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the method. The results obtained justify the advantage of this methodology. MATLAB 7 was used to carry out the computations.

A. Adawi

2008-01-01

411

Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments

2006-07-01

412

The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 ? a2)/?2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/?2). Physically, (a1 ? a2)/?2 and (a1 + a2)/?2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form

2012-10-01

413

Molecular Expressions: Electricity and Magnetism - Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This java simulation illustrates the operation of a transformer. The user can change the input voltage and the number of primary and secondary windings. The simulation shows the input and output signal for the transformer. This resource is part of a larger collection on electricity and magnetism by the same authors.

Davidson, Michael

2007-10-23