WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Morphological Transform for Image Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

2008-05-01

2

Morphological transformation of NGC 205?  

CERN Document Server

NGC 205 is a dwarf elliptical galaxy which shows many features that are more typical of disk galaxies, and our recent study of the central stellar population has added another peculiarity. In the central regions, star formation has been on-going continuously for a few hundred Myr, until ca. 20 Myr ago, perhaps fed by gas funneled to the center in the course of morphological transformation. In this contribution we use a deep, wide-field image obtained at a scale of 2"/px to show that subtle structures can be detected in and near the body of the dwarf galaxy. The southern tidal tail can be mapped out to unprecedented distances from the center, and we suggest that the northern tail is partially hidden behind a very extended dust lane, or ring, belonging to M31. A spiral pattern emerges across the body of the galaxy, but it might be explained by another M31 dust filament.

Saviane, Ivo; Hallas, Tony

2009-01-01

3

Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating well-known urban and technical factors with presence of water on a surface model, optimum results are obtained with respect to water percentage in cities. Overall results of the research represent an instruction for future transformations of urban structures encouraged by water presence.

?akari? Jasenka

2010-01-01

4

Enhancement of Images Using Morphological Transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber’s law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber’s law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are presented.

K.Sreedhar

2012-03-01

5

Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster  

Science.gov (United States)

This proposal seeks to document the various stages of ram pressure stripping of brightspiral galaxies evolving in the rich Coma cluster environment. Based on two ram pressurestripping examples we have already found in Coma, we have selected an additional fivetargets which manifest signs of ICM-ISM interactions. These seven objects are distributedin a ring around the inner core of Coma, sampling different locations in the cluster andeach can be expected to show a different phase of evolution of the stripping process. Wepropose WFC3 UVIS imaging to reveal the details of the interactions. From theseobservations, we will be able to piece together a coherent picture of the processes whichdrive morphological transformation and evolution of disk galaxies in rich environments.The ionization and global star formation patterns, both spatial and temporal, will revealand characterize the ISM-ICM interactions driving the evolution of galaxies in clustersand altering their morphologies.

Gregg, Michael

2014-10-01

6

Morphological transformation of NGC 205?  

Science.gov (United States)

NGC 205 is a small galaxy (M/M? = 0.7 × 109; MV = -16.6) currently located 36? NW of M31. It is classified as dE because in ground-based images it appears as an elliptical body. However past investigations have revealed characteristics that are more typical of a disk galaxy: the specific frequency of globular clusters is 1.8; the large scale dynamics shows partial rotational support; there is a significant amount (106 M?) of rotating gas (molecular and atomic) and dust; the central regions harbor a fairly complex stellar population, including a 100-500 Myr old nucleus surrounded by 50- and 100-Myr old stellar associations (see references in Monaco et al. 2009; M09). Very recently, thanks to hst/acs imaging we have been able to reveal a young central ‘field’ population (M09), extending out to ~40? in radius (~160 pc). The luminosity function of the main sequence can be fitted with Saviane et al. (2004) model of continuous star formation (SF) from at least ~600 Myr ago to ~60 Myr ago. We found that 1.5 × 105 M? in stars were produced from ~300 Myr to ~60 Myr ago, with a SF rate of 7 × 10-4 M? yr-1. A continuous SF seems to support the latest simulations of NGC 205 orbit: Howley et al. (2008) found that the galaxy must be moving with a velocity 300-500 km s-1 (comparable to the escape velocity) along an almost radial orbit, and it should be approaching M31 for the first time. An episodic SF triggered by passages through M31 disk every ~300 Myr in a bound orbit (Cepa & Beckman 1988) is excluded by our data.

Saviane, Ivo; Monaco, Lorenzo; Hallas, Tony

2010-04-01

7

Transformation of Galaxy Morphology and Luminosity Classes  

CERN Document Server

We present a unified picture on the evolution of galaxy luminosity and morphology. Galaxy morphology is found to depend critically on the local environment set up by the nearest neighbor galaxy in addition to luminosity and the large scale density. When a galaxy is located farther than the virial radius from its closest neighbor, the probability for the galaxy to have an early morphological type is an increasing function only of luminosity and the local density due to the nearest neighbor ($\\rho_1$). The tide produced by the nearest neighbor is thought to be responsible for the morphology transformation toward the early type at these separations. When the separation is less than the virial radius, i.e. when $\\rho_1 > \\rho_{\\rm virial}$, its morphology depends also on the neighbor's morphology and the large-scale background density over a few Mpc scales ($\\rho_{20}$) in addition to luminosity and $\\rho_1$. The early type probability keeps increasing as $\\rho_1$ increases if its neighbor is an early type. But t...

Park, Changbom; Choi, Yun-Young

2007-01-01

8

Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. PMID:23872198

Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

2013-10-01

9

Reversible transformations of gold nanoparticle morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein is reported a metamorphosis taking place in a gold nanosized system. The observed phenomenon of shape and size transformations was found to be completely reversible. Unlike most procedures in the literature where shape and size control occur in the synthetic step by adding growth- and shape-controlling agents such as surfactants or polymers, in this system postsynthetic changes in shape and size can be carried out simply by changing the ratio of reactive, competing reagents, more specifically, alkylthiols versus tetralkylammonium salts. Interestingly, the transfer of gold metal occurs (large prismatic particles to small particles and vice versa) under the influence of reagents that do not cause such interactions with bulk gold. All intermediate steps of the morphology change were observed using HRTEM and electron diffraction. The processes of breaking down and "welding back" solid metal nanoparticles occur under mild conditions and are remarkable examples of the unique chemical properties of nanomaterials. The described process is expected to be relevant to other nanoscale systems where similar structural circumstances could occur. PMID:16262276

Stoeva, Savka I; Zaikovski, Vladimir; Prasad, B L V; Stoimenov, Peter K; Sorensen, Christopher M; Klabunde, Kenneth J

2005-11-01

10

Transforming Research on Morphology into Teacher Practice  

Science.gov (United States)

It is difficult to transform research evidence into teacher practice; indeed it has been argued that educational research is not very useful to teachers. In this paper, we explore teacher knowledge about a relatively new area of research concerning the role morphemes play in spelling, and seek to transform their practice. We find that although…

Hurry, Jane; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter; Pretzlik, Ursula; Parker, Mary; Curno, Tamsin; Midgley, Lucinda

2005-01-01

11

Acrylonitrile-induced morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a monomer used in the synthesis of rubber, fibers and plastics. Previous studies demonstrated that ACN induces brain neoplasms (predominately astrocytomas) in rats following chronic treatment. While the mechanisms of ACN-induced glial cell carcinogenicity have not been completely elucidated, investigations by our group and others have suggested a role for the induction of oxidative stress and the resultant oxidative damage in this process. In vitro cell transformation models are useful for detecting and studying the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis. Cell transformation by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells exhibits a multistage process similar to that observed in vivo, for both non-genotoxic and genotoxic carcinogens. In the present study, the ability of ACN to induce morphological transformation and oxidative damage was examined in SHE cells. ACN induced an increase in morphological transformation at doses of 50, 62.5 and 75 microg/ml (maximum sub-toxic dose tested) following 7 days of continuous treatment. SHE cells exposed to ACN for 24 h failed to increase morphological transformation. Morphological transformation by ACN was inhibited by co-treatment with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and (-)-epigallocathechin-3 gallate (EGCG) for 7 days. Treatment of SHE cells with 75 microg/ml ACN produced a significant increase in 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine that was also inhibited by co-treatment with alpha-tocopherol or EGCG. These results support the proposal that oxidative stress and the resulting oxidative damage is involved in ACN-induced carcinogenicity. PMID:10753209

Zhang, H; Kamendulis, L M; Jiang, J; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J E

2000-04-01

12

Quantifying galactic morphological transformations in the cluster environment  

CERN Document Server

We study the effects of the cluster environment on galactic morphology by defining a dimensionless angular momentum parameter $\\lambda_{d}$, to obtain a quantitative and objective measure of galaxy type. The use of this physical parameter allows us to take the study of morphological transformations in clusters beyond the measurements of merely qualitative parameters, e.g. S/E ratios, to a more physical footing. To this end, we employ an extensive Sloan Digital Sky Survey sample, with galaxies associated with Abell galaxy clusters. The sample contains 93 relaxed Abell clusters and over 34,000 individual galaxies, which guarantees a thorough statistical coverage over a wide range of physical parameters. We find that the median $\\lambda_{d}$ value tends to decrease as we approach the cluster center, with different dependences according to the mass of the galaxies and the hosting cluster; low and intermediate mass galaxies showing a strong dependence, while massive galaxies seems to show, at all radii, low $\\lamb...

Cervantes-Sodi, B; Hernandez, X

2010-01-01

13

Texture, morphology and deformation mechanisms in ?-transformed Zircaloy-4  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphology of the ?(bcc) transformed Zircaloy-4 may be treated as a lenticular-twinned martensite. The texture is a consequence of the degeneration of the left angle 0001 right angle ?, left angle 1010 right angle ? and left angle 1011 right angle ? directions into left angle 110 right angle ? directions. The crystallographic mechanisms implied in the accommodation of the microscopic Bain strain are (1010) left angle 1120 right angle prism slip, (1012) left angle 101 1 right angle twinning and (1011) left angle 1012 right angle twinning. This degeneration explains the 'parallel plate' and 'basketweave' morphologies observed by microscopy and the texture of the ? transformed tube. The macroscopic Bain strain was calculated and agrees with the dimensional measurements. The deformation mechanisms of ? transformed Zircaloy-4 are identified from the new texture and from deformation experiments as twinning and interplatelet glide. The interplatelet glide induces a fragile character of fracture in the 'parallel plate' morphology. (orig.)

14

X-ray microscopy of human spermatozoa shows change of mitochondrial morphology after capacitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using X-ray microscopy two morphologically distinct states were observed of the human spermatozoan mitochondria: (i) compact and tightly wrapped around the axoneme, and (ii) morphologically transformed, i.e. with circular areas of high X-ray transmission, either loosely wrapped around the axoneme or distended. The spermatozoa were examined at two stages of their post-ejaculation maturation process, i.e. as present in fresh ejaculated semen and after in-vitro capacitation. X-ray microscopy allowed sample preparation that was as simple as for conventional light microscopy whilst giving high resolution (30 nm) imaging of samples in liquid media compatible with the requirements of live biological specimens. The specimens were not fixed, stained or metal coated. These features make X-ray microscopy useful in the study of cells, particularly cells in suspension. The relative frequencies of the two morphological states of the mitochondria in seminal plasma and after in-vitro capacitation were compared. In seminal plasma, almost all spermatozoa had compact and tightly wrapped mitochondria. After harvesting by swim-up technique, an increase in the morphologically transformed state had occurred. However, the greatest increase in the morphologically transformed state occurred when the sample had been incubated under capacitating conditions. In this case almost all spermatozoa had morphologically transformed mitochondria.

Vorup-Jensen, T; Hjort, T

1999-01-01

15

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without structural phase transformation are confirmed by recording selected area electron diffraction at various stages. The prepared CdS nanorods have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The importance of this phenomenon is vital for the potential application for CdS such as smart materials.

Colorado Henry

2011-01-01

16

Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron  

Science.gov (United States)

An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum transformation time appears to be more than a factor of 150. The transformation time is phenomenologically related to the overall activation energy and the cohesive energy difference of the fcc and bcc phases, which, beyond a certain combination of values, may even prevent the transformation process from occurring. Also, the morphology of the bcc product phase is remarkably sensitive to the type of boundary conditions and the choice of interatomic potential, while the influence by both the set of initial thermal velocities and the interfacial lattice incoherence only becomes apparent for specific atomic samples that transform relatively slowly. The presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries increases the spatial heterogeneity of transformation events, with the appearance of an increasing number of vacancies at the grain boundary giving rise to a larger overall transformation time. The 10 main results following from the present MD study are conveniently summarised at the end of this communication.

Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

2013-11-01

17

Pattern recognition based on morphological transforms and genetic algorithms  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposes a novel pattern recognition methodology based on morphological transforms and genetic algorithms. An entropy function is defined to demonstrate the match degree between two functions used in genetic algorithms. Based on morphological transforms and genetic algorithms, an optimal and adaptive set of structure elements as shape discrimination operators is developed by training patterns, moreover the string of variable structure elements is utilized to encode an image and construct the DNA of the image that maps arbitrary shapes into intrinsic and compact image features. Comparing the DNA string of the image with those of stored patterns, we can implement pattern recognition and classify an image. Then an optoelectronic pattern recognition architecture based on the algorithm is shown.

Wang, Ning; Liu, Liren; Wang, Bingquan; Yin, Yaozu; Yan, Xiaona

1997-03-01

18

Morphological transformation in vitro of normal human fibroblasts by chrysotile.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pathologic response of tissue to asbestos in vivo gives rise to fibromatoma, granuloma and mesothelioma. We are attempting to develop a model system in vitro using human cells in order to investigate the possible mechanisms responsible for these pathologies. Within the first 12 hr of exposure to chrysotile, the fibroblasts showed distinctive morphological changes. Cells appeared elongated with occasional vacuolated nuclei and granular cytoplasm. Cells showed no other obvious morphological cha...

Joseph, L. B.; Stephens, R. E.; Ottolenghi, A. C.; Lipetz, P. D.; Newman, H. A.

1983-01-01

19

Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

Chan Kap

2005-09-01

20

Showing Full Semantics Preservation in Model Transformation - A Comparison of Techniques  

Science.gov (United States)

Model transformation is a prime technique in modern, model-driven software design. One of the most challenging issues is to show that the semantics of the models is not affected by the transformation. So far, there is hardly any research into this issue, in particular in those cases where the source and target languages are different.

Hülsbusch, Mathias; König, Barbara; Rensink, Arend; Semenyak, Maria; Soltenborn, Christian; Wehrheim, Heike

 
 
 
 
21

A mycosis fungoides d'emblee showing morphological change in infiltrating lymphoid cells after irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 67-year-old woman was treated with electron beam irradiation for Mycosis fungoides d'emblee. Blast-like cells were remarkably increased after irradiation, which replaced mycosis cells. Morphological analysis showed that these cells were similar to those observed in cases of classic mycosis fungoides. Such a noticeable increase of blast-like cells seemed be attributable not only to the aggravation of the underlying disease but also to the involvement of electron beam irradiation. (N.K.)

22

On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmon resonances at very similar wave lengths, is much lower for the corrugated NR arrays. The activity of the NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 × 10. In contrast an over-estimated (because of their hydrophobic character) EF of 6 × 10 is obtained for the smooth NR arrays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

2011-01-01

23

Morphology of cells malignantly transformed by alpha particle irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The idea that one alpha particle (with LET approximately 100keV/micrometers) traversing a cell nucleus would kill a cell has been a concept which has been traditionally accepted by most radiation biologists. It was, therefore, difficult to see how alpha radiation could act directly on nuclear DNA to cause cancer. In experiments where mouse embryo cells (C3H 10T1/2) were irradiated with a parallel beam of 5.6 MeV alpha particles from a Tandem Van de Graaff machine, we made the surprising discovery that about 10 to 20 alpha particles through each nucleus were required to kill 2/3 of the cells (Lloyd 1979a). Earlier workers were misled because they failed to make measurements of nuclear areas of the cells as they were irradiated. We have used scanning electron microscopy, both to observe the cells at the time of irradiation and to document the change in unirradiated cellular dimensions as the cells become flattened on conventional tissue culture plates. The present paper also describes the morphological changes observed by SEM between cells which were subsequently transformed to become malignant by alpha irradiation and untransformed control cells

24

Mechanism of morphology transformation during annealing of nanostructured gold films on glass.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nanostructured, just-percolated gold films were prepared by evaporation on bare glass. Annealing of the films at temperatures close to or higher than the softening temperature of the glass substrate induces morphological transformation to discrete Au islands and gradual embedding of the formed islands in the glass. The mechanism and kinetics of these processes are studied here using a combination of in situ high-temperature optical spectroscopy; ex situ characterization of the island shape by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), atomic force microcopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and numerical simulations of transmission spectra using the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) approach. It is shown that the morphological transformation of just-percolated, 10 nm (nominal thickness) Au films evaporated on glass and annealed at 600 °C, i.e., in the vicinity of the substrate glass transition temperature (Tg = 557 °C), proceeds via three processes exhibiting different time scales: (i) fast recrystallization and dewetting, leading to formation of single-crystalline islands (minutes); the initial spectrum characteristic of a continuous Au film is transformed to that of an island film, displaying a surface plasmon (SP) absorption band. (ii) Reshaping and faceting of the single-crystalline islands accompanied by formation of circumferential glass rims around them (first few hours); the overall optical response shows a blue shift of the SP band. (iii) Gradual island embedding in the glass substrate (tens of hours), seen as a characteristic red shift of the SP band. The influence of the annealing atmosphere (air, vacuum) on the embedding process is found to be minor. Numerical modeling of the extinction cross-section corresponding to the morphological transformations during island recrystallization and embedding is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data. PMID:23440015

Karakouz, Tanya; Tesler, Alexander B; Sannomiya, Takumi; Feldman, Yishay; Vaskevich, Alexander; Rubinstein, Israel

2013-04-01

25

Transformation of Morphology and Luminosity Classes of the SDSS Galaxies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present a unified picture on the evolution of galaxy luminosity and morphology. Galaxy morphology is found to depend critically on the local environment set up by the nearest neighbor galaxy in addition to luminosity and the large scale density. When a galaxy is located farther than the virial radius from its closest neighbor, the probability for the galaxy to have an early morphological type is an increasing function only of luminosity and the local density due to the ne...

Park, Changbom; Gott Iii, J. Richard; Choi, Yun-young

2007-01-01

26

Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

2000-01-01

27

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 1013-1014 M? and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M*/M?) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

28

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2013-06-20

29

Image analysis through feature extraction by using top-hat transform-based morphological contrast operator.  

Science.gov (United States)

Image decomposition and reconstruction is an important way for image analysis. To be effective for image decomposition and reconstruction, a method using extracted features through top-hat transform-based morphological contrast operator (MCOTH) is proposed in this paper. First, the morphological contrast operator constructed using the top-hat transforms is discussed. Then, extracting the bright and dark image features in the result of MCOTH is given. Based on the extracted bright and dark image features, the original images are decomposed into multiscale complete decompositions using multiscale structuring elements. After processing the decomposed images following different application purposes, the final result image can be reconstructed from the processed decomposition images. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed image analysis method through image decomposition and reconstruction, the application of image enhancement and fusion are discussed. The experimental results show that because the proposed image decomposition and reconstruction method reasonably decomposes the original image into complete decomposition with useful image features at different scales, the useful image features could be easily used for different applications. After the useful image features are processed, the final result image could be reconstructed. Moreover, different types of images are used in the experiments of image enhancement and fusion, and the results are effective. Therefore, the proposed image decomposition and reconstruction method in this paper are effective methods for image analysis and could be widely used in different applications. PMID:23736334

Bai, Xiangzhi

2013-06-01

30

Structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays induced by excimer laser treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The structural and morphological transformations of TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) treated by excimer laser annealing (ELA) were investigated as a function of the laser fluence using parallel and tilted modes. Results showed that the crystallinity of the ELA-treated TNAs reached only about 50% relative to that of TNAs treated by furnace anneal at 400 °C for 1 h. The phase transformation starts from the top surface of the TNAs with surface damage resulting from short penetration depth and limited one-dimensional heat transport from the surface to the bottom under extremely short pulse duration (25 ns) of the excimer laser. When a tilted mode was used, the crystallinity of TNAs treated by ELA at 85° was increased to 90% relative to that by the furnace anneal. This can be attributed to the increased area of the laser energy interaction zone and better heat conduction to both ends of the TNAs. - Highlights: ? We examined the morphology and microstructure of TNAs treated by ELA. ? Crystallinity of parallel ELA-treated TNAs reached ?50% of furnace anneal. ? Tilted ELA at 85o enhanced the degree of crystallization in TNAs to 90%.

31

Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

32

The Wheat Plastochron Mutant, fushi-darake, Shows Transformation of Reproductive Spikelet Meristem into Vegetative Shoot Meristem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In wheat plants at the vegetative growth stage, the shoot apical meristem (SAM produces leaf primordia. When reproductive growth is initiated, the SAM forms an inflorescence meristem (IM that differentiates a series of spikelet meristem (SM as the branch. The SM then produces a series of floret meristem (FM as the branch. To identify the mechanisms that regulate formation of the reproductive meristems in wheat, we have investigated a leaf initiation mutant, fushi-darake (fdk which was developed by ion beam mutagenesis. The morphological traits were compared in wild type (WT and fdk mutant plants grown in the experimental field. WT plants initiated leaves from SAM at regular intervals in spiral phyllotaxy, while fdk plants had 1/2 alternate phyllotaxy with rapid leaf emergence. The fdk plants have increased numbers of nodes and leaves compared with WT plants. The time interval between successive leaf initiation events (plastochron was measured in plants grown in a growth chamber. The fdk plants clearly show the rapid leaf emergence, indicating a shortened plastochron. Each tiller in fdk plants branches at the upper part of the culm. The fine structure of organ formation in meristems of fdk plants was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM analysis indicated that fdk plants show transformation of spikelet meristems into vegetative shoot meristems. In conclusion, the fdk mutant has a heterochronic nature, i.e., both reproductive and vegetative programs were simultaneously in operation during the reproductive phase, resulting in a shortened plastochron and transformation of reproductive spikelets into vegetative shoots.

Chikako Tahira

2013-11-01

33

Morphological transformation and proliferation of rat astrocytes as induced by sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report, we demonstrate that the sulfated polysaccharide, Haishen (HS), which was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus can induce morphological transformation and proliferation of astrocytes in vitro when combined with basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). Cell morphology showed no change when induced by HS or FGF-2 alone. However, combinational treatment of HS and FGF-2 promoted transformation of normal astrocyte into a stella morphology (stellation), along with an increase in the expression and rearrangement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Further analysis of HS- and FGF-2-treated cells indicated a reduced percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, whereas the cell proliferation index (S phase) was increased. The proportion of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells increased in response to the combination of HS and FGF-2. With respect to cell cycle signaling, immunoblotting assay demonstrated an accumulation of Cyclin D1. These observations suggest that HS may play a role in astrocyte morphological transformation and proliferation, and this activation requires a synergism with FGF-2. PMID:21855606

Sheng, Xiehuang; Zhang, Nannan; Song, Shuliang; Li, Min; Liang, Hao; Zhang, Yuejie; Wang, Yunshan; Ji, Aiguo

2011-09-26

34

Morphological transformation by 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) is one of the most prevalent oxidative DNA modifications found in eukaryotic cells. Previous studies have suggested an association between OH8dG formation and carcinogenesis. However, it is unclear whether OH8dG formation results in the necessary genotoxic events for cancer development. In the present study, the formation of OH8dG and its ability to transform Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells was examined. Methylene blue, a photosensitizer that in the presence of light can generate singlet oxygen by a type II mechanism, was used to produce oxidative DNA damage (predominantly OH8dG) in SHE cells. Photoactivated methylene blue produced a dose-dependent increase in OH8dG as well as a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation in SHE cells. SHE cells transfected with DNA that contained increasing concentrations of OH8dG displayed a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation. Treatment with beta-carotene (a singlet oxygen quencher) inhibited both the formation of OH8dG and the induction of morphological transformation in photoactivated methylene blue-treated SHE cells. These results suggest that formation of OH8dG can induce morphological transformation and provide further support for a role of OH8dG formation in the carcinogenesis process. PMID:10910988

Zhang, H; Xu, Y; Kamendulis, L M; Klaunig, J E

2000-08-01

35

Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

Hunter Cynthia L

2009-02-01

36

Nuclear morphology and morphometry of B-lymphocyte transformation. Implications for follicular center cell lymphomas.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

One of the major tenets of current non-Hodgkin's lymphoma classifications is the relationship of morphologic subtypes to stages in the sequence of normal B-lymphocyte transformation occurring in the germinal follicle. To test this hypothesis, quantitative morphometric image analysis was carried out on in vivo and in vitro samples of mouse splenic lymphocytes in which transformation was induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a specific B-cell mitogen. The results were compared with a s...

Dardick, I.; Sinnott, N. M.; Hall, R.; Bajenko-carr, T. A.; Setterfield, G.

1983-01-01

37

Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

Nikoli? Radomirka

2005-01-01

38

Secular Evolution and the Morphological Transformation of Cluster and Field Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

Deep surveys conducted during the past decades have shown that galaxies in the distant universe are generally of more irregular shapes, and are disky in appearance and in their star formation rate, compared to galaxies in similar environments in the nearby universe. Given that the merger rate between z=2 and the local universe is far from adequate to account for this observed morphological transformation rate, an internal mechanism for the morphological transformation of galaxies is to be sought, whose operation can be further aided by environmental factors. The secular evolution mechanism, especially with the discovery of a collisionless dissipation mechanism for stars within the secular evolution paradigm, has provided just such a framework for understanding the morphological evolution of galaxies across the Hubble time. In this paper we will summarize the past theoretical results on the dynamical mechanisms for secular evolution, and highlight new results in the analysis of the observational data, which co...

Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiaolei; Buta, Ronald J.

2006-01-01

39

Morphological transformation and oxidative stress induced by cyanide in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanide is a well-established poison known for its rapid lethal action and toxicity. Although long-term mammalian studies examining the carcinogenic potential of cyanide have not been previously reported, cyanide was reported to be positive in Salmonella typhimurium mutagenesis assay and induced aneuploidy in Drosophila. To further evaluate the carcinogenic potential of cyanide, the ability of cyanide to induce morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells was studied. Cyanide induced a dose-dependent increase in morphological transformation in SHE cells following a 7-day continuous treatment. A significant increase in transformation was observed at potassium cyanide doses of 200 microM and greater. Transformation induced by cyanide was inhibited in a dose-related manner by vitamin E, suggesting a role of oxidative stress in the induction of morphological transformation by cyanide. Further, it was shown that 500 microM cyanide induced oxidative DNA damage in SHE cells, evidenced by the formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (50-66% increase over control). The induction of oxidative stress by cyanide involved an early and temporal inhibition of antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) as well as an increased production of reactive oxygen species (1.5- to 2.0-fold over control). PMID:12151639

Kamendulis, Lisa M; Zhang, Haizhou; Wang, Yanhong; Klaunig, James E

2002-08-01

40

Analysis of banded morphology in multiphase steels based on a discrete dislocation–transformation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the austenitic microstructural morphology on the mechanical response of a multiphase steel is analyzed by comparing two relevant configurations, namely (i) uniformly distributed grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferritic matrix and (ii) a banded morphology of the two phases. The analysis is carried out numerically using a discrete dislocation–transformation model that captures processes occurring at sub-grain length scales connected to nucleation and evolution of individual dislocations and martensitic platelets inside the austenitic grains. The simulations indicate that a microstructure composed of uniformly distributed grains of austenite is optimal in terms of strength since it delays the onset of plastic localization compared with banded microstructures

 
 
 
 
41

Texture, morphology and deformation mechanisms in {beta}-transformed Zircaloy-4  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The morphology of the {beta}(bcc) transformed Zircaloy-4 may be treated as a lenticular-twinned martensite. The texture is a consequence of the degeneration of the left angle 0001 right angle {sub {alpha}}, left angle 1010 right angle {sub {alpha}} and left angle 1011 right angle {sub {alpha}} directions into left angle 110 right angle {sub {beta}} directions. The crystallographic mechanisms implied in the accommodation of the microscopic Bain strain are (1010) left angle 1120 right angle prism slip, (1012) left angle 101 1 right angle twinning and (1011) left angle 1012 right angle twinning. This degeneration explains the `parallel plate` and `basketweave` morphologies observed by microscopy and the texture of the {beta} transformed tube. The macroscopic Bain strain was calculated and agrees with the dimensional measurements. The deformation mechanisms of {beta} transformed Zircaloy-4 are identified from the new texture and from deformation experiments as twinning and interplatelet glide. The interplatelet glide induces a fragile character of fracture in the `parallel plate` morphology. (orig.).

Ciurchea, D. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Fac. of Phys.; Pop, A.V. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Fac. of Phys.; Gheorghiu, C. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania); Furtuna, I. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania); Todica, M. [Babes-Bolyai Univ., Cluj-Napoca (Romania). Fac. of Phys.; Dinu, A. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania); Roth, M. [Inst. for Nucl. Res., Pitesti (Romania)

1996-07-01

42

Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

Lutsyk A. D.

2012-04-01

43

Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

Jing Wang

2014-10-01

44

Thermal stability of TiO 2-anatase: Impact of nanoparticles morphology on kinetic phase transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

TiO 2 is a material of great interest for many technological applications among which, as catalyst support. As this specific application requires a good thermal stability of the material, the phase transition between the two most commonly used titania polymorphs, anatase and rutile, has been extensively studied over the past decade. However not much importance has been given to the initial and final particles morphologies. In this study, anatase nanoparticles with an elongated shape were synthesized and their kinetic phase transformation was studied. The thermal treatments were conducted at temperatures ranging from 500 to 700 °C. The morphology evolution and the phase transition were characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The phase transformation kinetics is best described by the interface nucleation models. The values of the measured kinetic parameters are significantly lower than those proposed in the literature for isotropic particles, with an activation energy of Ea = 345 kJ mol -1. The influence of morphology and, as a consequence, the influence of exposed faces on anatase particles, are presented and discussed.

Perego, Céline; Revel, Renaud; Durupthy, Olivier; Cassaignon, Sophie; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

2010-06-01

45

QRS Detection by Combination of Wavelet Transform and Multi-resolution Morphological Decomposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QRS complex detecting algorithm was core of ECG auto-diagnosis method, heart rate variability analysis and deeply influences cardiac cycle division for signal compression. However, ECG signals collected by noninvasive surface electrodes were confused by several kinds of noise and its waveform variation was the main reasons for the hard realization of 100% detection accruracy. QRS complex detecting algorithms based on mixed methods were studied. This study proposed a QRS complex detecting algorithm based on wavelet transform and multi-resolution mathematical morphological decomposition (WMR algorithm. This algorithm possessed superiorities in R peak detection of the two methods. Moreover, a pre-processing method based on lifting scheme constructing multi-resolution morphological decomposition was adopted to reduce noise affection. And an efficient R peak search-back algorithm was employed to reduce the False Positives (FP and False Negatives (FN. According to simulation results in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QRS detection accuracy was over 99.8%.

Pu Zhang

2014-01-01

46

Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations  

CERN Document Server

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

2013-01-01

47

Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

48

Development of oxide dispersion strengthened steels for FBR core application. 2. Morphology improvement by martensite transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Previously manufactured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding tubes had inferior internal creep rupture strength in the circumferential hoop direction. This unexpected feature of ODS cladding tubes was substantially ascribed to the needle-like grain structure aligned with the forming direction. In this study, the grain morphology was controlled by using the martensite transformation in ODS martensitic steels to produce an equi-axial grain structure. A major improvement in the strength anisotropy was successfully achieved. The most effective yttria addition was about 1 mass% in improving the strength of the ODS martensitic steels. A simple addition of titanium was particularly effective in increasing the strength level of the ODS martensitic steels to that of ODS ferritic steels. (author)

49

A novel application for transmission of Orthogonal Embedded Images by using Morphological Transform Domain & cryptographic methods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a data-hiding technique for water marked images and secured transmission of those watermarked images to the destination . today’s lot of companies are stored their data in the images, they store data with their ownership. To achieve blind watermark extraction, it is difficult to use the detail coefficients directly as a location map to determine the data-hiding locations. Hence, we view flipping an edge pixel in binary images as shifting the edge location one pixel horizontally and vertically. Based on this we propose an morphological binary wavelet transform to track the shifted edges, which thus facilitates blind watermark extraction with support of cryptographic concepts. In existing block-based approach, in which the block size is taken as 3*3 pixels or larger,and then we insert the text into that particular blocks and they are using morphological binary wavelet transform.now wepropose an alternative approach to the above approach i.e we process an image in 2*2 pixel blocks. This gives high security when compared to existing approach.This allows flexibility in tracking the edges and also achieves low computational complexity. The two processing cases that flipping the candidates of one does not affect the flippability conditions of another are employed for orthogonal embedding, which means when ever we are embedded some text into the image the nieghbour pixels are not effected.A novel effective Backward-Forward Minimization method is proposed, which considers both back-wardly those neighboring processed embeddable candidates and forwardly those unprocessed flippable candidates that may be affected by flipping the current pixel. In this way, the total visual distortion can be minimized.

M.Venkata Kishore,

2011-05-01

50

An Improved Compound Morphological Transform Algorithm for Video P-frame Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DCT has block effect and the "mosquito noise" and become more obvious in the low transmission. It is difficult to meet the satisfaction of video transmission in narrow bandwidth and high quality requirements. Video image based on mathematical morphology inter-frame coding technique is the use of inter-frame motion compensation coding algorithm through complex morphological transformation, using the structural elements of the macro block irregular pieces for opening and closing operation, selecting and filtering the irregular pieces and then estimating and encoding the small irregular size for motion and motion vector and finding the matching block with absolute difference to achieve inter-frame prediction. The simulation can achieve relatively fine compensation to improve the coding efficiency and under the same compression ratio the video quality can be improved, the deficiencies of the DCT algorithm in image transmission are remedied to improve the effect of image transmission, to reduce the computational complexity, to improve signal noise ratio. It is of great significance in decoding and transmitting the network video.

Wang Xiao-li

2013-01-01

51

Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/{mu}m. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with {sup 12}C or {sup 28}Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/{mu}m, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. (author)

Han, Zhen-Bo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Kato, Tomohisa; Ikenaga, Mituo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center; Suzuki, Fumio; Suzuki, Masao; Furusawa, Yoshiya

1998-09-01

52

Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/?m. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/?m, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. (author)

53

Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres. ? This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. ? Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. ? The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. ? The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500–600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO106PO70EO106) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y2O3: Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu3+-doped Y2O3: Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV–vis spectroscopy.

54

Immortalization of human endothelial cells by murine sarcoma viruses, without morphologic transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amphotropic murine leukemia virus pseudotypes of murine sarcoma viruses containing the ras or mos oncogenes were constructed to permit efficient introduction of the sarcoma virus genome into early-passage human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The resulting cell lines were morphologically and phenotypically unchanged, retaining properties characteristic of differentiated endothelial cells. For example, the cells in a Kirsten sarcoma virus-modified line were found to biosynthesize and secrete von Willebrand factor in both a constitutive and regulated manner, and they contained ultrastructurally identifiable Weibel-Palade bodies, an endothelial cell-specific organelle. In contrast to the parent cultures, sarcoma virus-modified cells were able to proliferate indefinitely in culture. Examination of both Kirsten sarcoma and Moloney leukemia virus-modified lines indicated that the immortalized cells retained a diploid female karyotype after over 18 months in culture. In addition, the sarcoma virus-modified cells were able to grow independently of added endothelial cell growth factor. This growth factor autonomy does not appear to be due to autocrine production of a biologically cross-reactive growth factor. These immortal, virus-modified endothelial cells express large amounts of sarcoma virus-specific mRNA but no detectable helper virus or transforming virus activity. This technique for immortalization of primary human cells without alteration of the differentiated characteristics of the cell type is readily applied to a variety of human cell types. Moreover, the ability to separate the immortalizing and transforming activities of viral oncogenes should provide further understanding as to mechanisms of oncogene action. PMID:2826502

Faller, D V; Kourembanas, S; Ginsberg, D; Hannan, R; Collins, T; Ewenstein, B M; Pober, J S; Tantravahi, R

1988-01-01

55

Morphology of phase transformations on thermomagnetic treatment of iron-chromium-cobalt alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The calculation techniques for magnetocrystalline, magnetostatic, elastic and interphase energies are shown along with their influence on structure, morphology of iron-chromium-cobalt (26-28 % Cr; 15-20 % Co) alloys treated for a high coercivity state. Formulas for specific surface energy determining are presented. This energy is revealed to increase from 0 to 1.5x10-3 J/m2 during supersaturated solid solution precipitation. The calculation shows that magnetic field should be applied immediately before thermomagnetic treatment. A nomogram is given to determine limiting values of a l/d ratio characterizing the anisotropy of ?-phase precipitations

56

Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

57

THE 10k zCOSMOS: MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES IN THE GROUP ENVIRONMENT SINCE z ?1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z = 1 using a large well-defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with MB luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z ? 0.5 and log(M*/Msun) ? 10.2, the 'effect' of the group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving color and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to three to four times higher correcting for infall and the appearance of new groups. The rates reach values as high as 0.3-0.7 Gyr-1 in the groups (for masses around the crossing mass 1010.5 Msun), implying transformation timescales of 1.4-3 Gyr, compared with less than 0.2 Gyr-1, i.e., timescales >5 Gyr, outside of groups. All three transformation rates decrease at higher stellar masses, and must also decrease at lower masses below 1010 Msun which we cannot probe well. The rates involving color and star formation are consistently higher than those for morphology, by a factor of about 50%. Our conclusion is that the transformations that drive the evolution of the overall galaxy population since z ? 1 must occur at a rate two to four times higher in groups than outside of them.

58

Karyotypic changes with neoplastic conversion in morphologically transformed golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosomes from nine morphologically transformed (MT) cell lines (designated MT14 to MT22) of Golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays and from tumor-derived cell lines (MT14T to MT22T), obtained after injection of MT cells, were analyzed by the Giemsa banding method. MT cell lines showed a variety of numerical abnormalities. All of the MT cell lines involved trisomy of chromosomes 11 (80 to 100% of cells in each cell line) and 3 (8% of MT22 cells and 100% in other cell lines). Although the latent period for tumor growth differed greatly, eight of nine MT cell lines (MT14 to MT21) produced tumors at the site of injection. All tumor-derived cell lines involved trisomy of chromosome 3 at a 100% rate of incidence. Seven of nine tumor-derived cell lines (MT15T to MT18T, MT20T to MT22T) lost one chromosome 11 from the trisomic condition, resulting in disomy of chromosome 11. These results suggest that trisomies of chromosomes 11 and 3 may play a role in X-ray-induced neoplastic progression

59

Morphological alteration of x-ray induced partially transformed human cells by transfection with c-myc DNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the authors' studies of mechanisms of human cell neoplastic transformation, they attempted to transform a normal human fibrolast strain (GM730) by x-irradiation. The authors obtained a partially transformed cell strain (designed GM730pt) which demonstrates various aspects of the transformed phenotype such as morphological change, growth in soft agar, and focus formation. When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with rhoSV2gpt or rhoSV2neo, the frequency with which cells took of the neo/sup +/ or gpt/sup +/ marker was extremely high (10/sup -1/) as compared to HeLa cells (10/sup -4/) or normal GM730 cells (10/sup -6/). When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with the cat c-myc gene, the morphology of the cells changed dramatically following 7 days of expression. Transfection of other plasmid DNAs or oncogenes such as rhoUC8, rhoSVneo, src sis, and N-rad had little or no effect on the phenotype of M730pt cells. On the other hand, a small gel purified fragment which contains an intronderived sequence on the c-myc gene was very effective when transfected into GM730pt cells. This suggests that a small sequence located in the second intron of c-myc may have special biological significance. The authors are using the M13 cloning and sequencing method to determine more precisely the size and composition of this sequence

60

Transformation from Fluvial to Karstic Morphology - Case Study of Mid Altitude Alpine Plateau in NW Slovenia  

Science.gov (United States)

Geomorphology of Alpine area is very often related to fast processes related to tectonic events, glaciations and postglacial development. Where rocks prone to karstification are present interesting geomorphic pleasures can developed. In the area of the Dinaric Alpine karst transition zone process where the transformation from fluvial geomorphic system to the karstic geomorphic system is present is rarely preserved. In this study we are presenting results of detailed geomorphological mapping of Mežakla plateau (between 1100 and 1700 m a.s.l.) in the region of NW Slovenia. On all sides plateau is limited with deep valleys where in the Pleistocene glaciers were present. However, available evidences show that in the last glacial period plateau was not covered with ice. The plateau consists mainly of Triasic carbonates. In the south, in the stratigraphical lower part thin bedded limestone with chert is present, on the north thick bedded Dachstein limestone and dolomite is present. The whole area is dissected by NW-SE faults and thin bedded limestone is frequently folded. In the whole plateau karstic features are developed. They geomorphology differ according to underlying lithology, however differences are also the consequence of different surface development. On north part with Dachstein beds typical karstic surface with large concentric dolines is formed. On the south thin bedded limestone is covered with thick soils and shallow valleys and dolines are developed within. Some sediment collapse features are also present. They are indicating the transformation from fluvial system to the karstic system due to the drop of groundwater level. This event has probably developed after the retreat of the glacier.

Brencic, Mihael

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
61

Radial covariant transforms from FLRW to a stationary physical frame show that the physical light speed varies with cosmic time  

CERN Document Server

The assumption of a homogeneous and isotropic universe yields the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) coordinates, the basis for the standard model of the universe. For radial world lines the FLRW metric is Minkowski. Locally, the transformations of special relativity (SR) apply between physical coordinates on inertial frames which therefore also have Minkowski metrics. So near the origin we can use a radial Lorentz transform from FLRW to a stationary frame that keeps the two metrics invariant. The time varying radial differential of FLRW produces a velocity between the galactic point and a point on the stationary frame that is a function of both time and distance. This places a double constraint on the stationary frame variables. Because of these constraints a consistent limiting process to zero distance for these transforms with dt replaced by c(t)dt requires the physical light speed c(t) be proportional to the square root of the rate of change of the scale factor of the FLRW universe. In addition, si...

Fletcher, Robert C

2009-01-01

62

Evidence for Morphology and Luminosity Transformation of Galaxies at High Redshifts  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the redshift range of $0.4\\leq z\\leq1.0$ we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its n...

Hwang, Ho Seong; Park, Changbom

2009-01-01

63

Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

64

The 10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the group environment since z~1  

CERN Document Server

We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z=1 using a large well defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with M_B luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z~0.5 and log(M*/Msol)~10.2, the "effect" of group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving colour and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to 3-4 times higher correcting for infall and the ...

Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Bolzonella, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Sargent, M; Cucciati, O; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L A M; Scodeggio, M; Kampczyk, P; Peng, Y; Oesch, P; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N Z

2009-01-01

65

Malignant transformation of atypical endometrial hyperplasia after progesterone therapy showing germ-cell tumor-like differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 31-year-old woman was treated for atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH) with high-dose medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy to preserve fertility. The AEH was found by repeated cytologic and histologic examinations to have completely disappeared with the therapy, but 3 years after her last follow up she required emergency surgery to treat severe genital bleeding. The hysterectomied uterus consisted mostly of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, G3 endometrioid type. Minor AEH was present in the exophytic area, in which some glands were cystically dilated. Part of the AEH had transformed into other histologic features with germ-cell-like differentiation, demonstrated by immunohistochemical positive reaction of placental alkaline phosphatase, alpha-fetoprotein, and human chorionic gonadotrophin. Recurrent AEH had undergone malignant transformation, resulting in the development of well- and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and tumor exhibiting germ-cell-like differentiation. The patient died of a massive tumor extension 7 months after surgery. The AEH before MPA therapy and the recurrent tumors had genetically different characteristics based on evidence of a loss of heterozygosity, detected at D8S1132 (chromosomal locus, 8q22.1) in the latter but not in the former, by analysis of genetic alterations using microsatellite markers. PMID:15144406

Yasuda, Masanori; Matsui, Naruaki; Kajiwara, Hiroshi; Osamura, R Yoshiyuki; Miyamoto, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Masaru; Shinozuka, Takao; Itoh, Johbu

2004-06-01

66

Evidence for Morphology and Luminosity Transformation of Galaxies at High Redshifts  

CERN Document Server

We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). In the redshift range of $0.4\\leq z\\leq1.0$ we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor galaxy, its morphology strongly depends on the neighbor's distance and morphology: the probability for a galaxy to be an early type ($f_E$) strongly increases as it approaches an early-type neighbor, but tends to decrease as it approaches a late-type neighbor. We find that $f_E$ evolves much faster in high density regions than in low density regions, and that the morphology-density relation becomes significantly weaker at $z\\approx 1$. This may be because the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is higher in high density regi...

Hwang, Ho Seong

2009-01-01

67

Transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon and carbon in rice straw-derived biochars under different pyrolytic temperatures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Biochars are increasingly recognized as environmentally friendly and cheap remediation agents for soil pollution. The roles of silicon in biochars and interactions between silicon and carbon have been neglected in the literature to date, while the transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon in Si-rich biochars remain largely unaddressed. In this study, Si-rich biochars derived from rice straw were prepared under 150-700 °C (named RS150-RS700). The transformation and morphology of carbon and silicon in biochar particles were monitored by FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. With increasing pyrolytic temperature, silicon accumulated, and its speciation changed from amorphous to crystalline matter, while the organic matter evolved from aliphatic to aromatic. For rice straw biomass containing amorphous carbon and amorphous silicon, dehydration (aromatization of carbon and crystallization of silicon. Correspondingly, the carbon release in water significantly decreased, while the silicon release somewhat decreased and then sharply increased with pyrolytic temperature. Along with SEM-EDX images of biochars before and after water washing, we proposed a structural relationship between carbon and silicon in biochars to explain the mutual protection between carbon and silicon under different pyrolysis temperatures, which contribute to the broader understanding of biochar chemistry and structure. The silicon dissolution kinetics suggests that high Si biochars could serve as a novel slow release source of biologically available Si in low Si agricultural soils. PMID:24601595

Xiao, Xin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

2014-03-18

68

Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES  

CERN Document Server

We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

2008-01-01

69

Myelofibrotic Transformations of Polycythemia Vera and Essential Thrombocythemia are Morphologically, Biologically, and Prognostically Indistinguishable From Primary Myelofibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fraction of polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases will, in time, undergo myelofibrotic transformation. In such cases, fibrosis may mask the diagnostic histologic features of the original underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm. Thus, confidently differentiating postfibrotic PV/ET from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) histologically may not be possible. It is controversial whether post-PV/ET myelofibrosis (MF) differs clinicopathologically from PMF, or whether these entities are biologically, clinically, and prognostically indistinguishable. To answer this question, we compared multiple candidate biological, morphologic, and prognostic parameters between 19 postfibrotic ET/PV individuals and 18 PMF individuals. The postfibrotic ET/PV and PMF cases did not differ with regard to clinical outcome, cytogenetic abnormalities, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, peripheral blast count, bone marrow morphology, or grade of reticulin fibrosis. Only JAK2 allele burden, which was higher in the postfibrotic PV/ET population (P=0.011), differed between the 2 groups. Cardinal morphologic features of PMF (ie, marrow cellularity, intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis, osteosclerosis, etc.) were commonly observed in post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies, and only a minority of post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies the retained diagnostic features of the primary myeloproliferative neoplasm (panmyelosis in PV and megakaryocytic hyperplasia in ET). Our study indicates that PMF and post-PV/ET MF are clinically and biologically indistinguishable. PMID:24897074

Sangle, Nikhil; Cook, Josh; Perkins, Sherrie; Teman, Carolin J; Bahler, David; Hickman, Kimberly; Wilson, Andrew; Prchal, Josef; Salama, Mohamed E

2014-10-01

70

The biological effectiveness of radon-progeny alpha particles. IV. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells at low doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary explants of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were exposed to either low-LET 250 k Vp X rays or graded single doses of defined high-LET ? particles (90, 100, 120, 150, 180 and 200 keV/?m), simulating those produced by radon progeny, and monitored for cell inactivation and oncogenic transformation. For the ? particles the doses delivered ranged from 1 cGy to 1 Gy with an emphasis on doses less than 20 cGy, while for the X rays the doses ranged from 20 cGy to 4 Gy. The dose-response curves for cell killing by ? particles approximated an exponential function of dose, whereas the X rays produced a curve with a shoulder characteristic of linear-quadratic relationships seen for low-LET radiations. The RBE at 10% survival varied between 3.6-7.0 depending on the LET of the ? particles, with the RBEm ranging between 7-12. THe most effective ? particles were those with an LET of 120 keV/?m. All radiations produced initial increases in the frequency of morphological transformants, as a function of dose, with a rise to a maximum followed by a plateau in the response which was relatively constant at approximately 2-6 x 10-3 transformants per initial cell at risk. At higher doses the transformation frequency, expressed per initial cell at risk, had a tendency to decline to parallel the cell survival response. Both the dose at which the maximum frequency of transformants were expressed and the initial slope of the dose-response relationship differed substantially between the different radiation qualities. Maximal transformation per initial cell at risk occurred at doses as low as 1-4 cGy for the 90 and 100 keV/?m particles with the maximum occurring at higher doses (to 16 cGy) as the LET increased toward 200 keV/?m. In contrast, the maximal transformation for 250 kVp X rays was at 50 cGy. 35 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

71

Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2014-03-01

72

TRANSFORMATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

73

A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2(?2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (?-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8. PMID:25376240

Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

2014-11-20

74

Chemical and morphological transformation through hydrothermal process for LiFePO4 preparation in organic-free system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? LiFePO4 (LFP) is synthesized hydrothermally in organics-free reaction system at 160 °C. ? Samples were collected from identical autoclave at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period. ? The mechanism for chemical and morphological transformation of crystalline LFP is understood. ? LFP synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon exhibit excellent electrochemical performance. ? Reducing the particle size of the precursors will be an effective way to obtain fine LFP particles. -- Abstract: Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) was prepared by hydrothermal synthesis in an organic-free system. Samples were collected at different time spots during temperature rising and soaking period and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size analysis. Two precursors, Li3PO4 and Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O, form easily at ambient temperature. They dissolve into ions once temperature increases to 135 °C. LFP nuclei form rapidly at 135–140 °C and grow fast at 140–150 °C. The crystal morphology transforms from diamond to polygon plate at 150–160 °C. The B.E.T. specific surface area and particle size decrease as reaction time prolongs. The thickness of the platelets remains unchanged within the range of 60–100 nm for each LFP sample. The sample synthesized at 160 °C for 2 h and then coated with carbon (LFP/C-2) exhibits optimum electrochemical performances that the specific discharge capacities are 162.1, 150.8 and 136.9 mAh g?1 at 0.2 C, 1 C and 5 C, respectively. Reducing the precursors’ particle size would be an effective way to shorten the reaction time and obtain fine particles with high specific surface area and high purity

75

Thiophene accumulation in relation to morphology in roots of Tagetes patula : Effects of auxin and transformation by Agrobacterium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Roots of marigold (Tagetes patula L.) accumulate thiophenes, heterocyclic sulfurous compounds with strong biocidal activity. In detached roots cultured in vitro, the thiophene content was 5 ?mol·(g fresh weight)(-1) which is 25-times higher than in roots attached to the plant. In roots derived from tissues transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, the morphology and thiophene content varied with the bacterial strain used. Transformation stimulated the elongation of the root tips and the formation of lateral roots but lowered the thiophene level to 20-50% relative to the concentration in untransformed detached roots. A negative correlation was found between the number of laterals in a root system and the thiophene content. Extensive branching and a decrease in thiophene accumulation was evoked in untransformed roots by indole-3-acetic acid (1-10 ?mol·l(-1)) added to the medium. Within the roots, the highest thiophene concentrations were found in the tips. The results indicate that auxin directly or indirectly plays a role in the regulation of the thiophene level in root tips. PMID:24201420

Croes, A F; van den Berg, A J; Bosveld, M; Breteler, H; Wullems, G J

1989-08-01

76

Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

KamilaOglecka

2012-05-01

77

Morphologic and mitogenic responses of rabbit synovial fibroblasts to transforming growth factor beta require transforming growth factor alpha or epidermal growth factor.  

Science.gov (United States)

We tested the hypothesis that normal synovial fibroblasts might proliferate in response to transforming growth factors (TGFs), peptides that are extracted with acid-ethanol from bovine kidney or salivary gland and that cause anchorage-independent growth of normal cells. A 72-hour exposure of confluent monolayers of rabbit synovial fibroblasts in 10% fetal calf serum to partially purified TGF-beta in the presence of TGF-alpha gave a 2- to 5-fold increase in incorporation of 3H-thymidine, protein content, and cell number. Similar results were obtained with high pressure liquid chromatography-purified TGF-beta in the presence of epidermal growth factor (EGF) (a type of TGF-alpha). By itself, purified TGF-beta was not mitogenic; it depended absolutely on EGF. However, only TGF-beta along with EGF, and not EGF alone, induced a marked morphologic change: a piling up of cells into foci resembling those commonly seen in primary cultures of rheumatoid synovial cells. Mitogenic responses induced by the TGF-beta-EGF combination were prevented by all-trans-retinoic acid but not by indomethacin or dexamethasone. The data indicate that TGF-beta, a peptide extracted from normal cells, can act in concert with EGF to cause proliferation and piling up of synovial cells and raise the possibility that these factors may play a role in rheumatoid arthritis and other proliferative but nonmalignant diseases as well. PMID:6315022

Brinckerhoff, C E

1983-11-01

78

The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics  

CERN Document Server

Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

2009-01-01

79

Understanding the influence of alendronate on the morphology and phase transformation of apatitic precursor nanocrystals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that can prevent the loss of bone mass, given orally to treat postmenopuasal osteoporosis. It is not clear yet if the benefits of BPs include the possibility of affecting bone apatitic precursors transition for bone consolidation except for encouraging osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, the complexity of the in vivo system makes it difficult to isolate and study such extracellular topographical cues that trigger bone turnover response. Herein, we proposed a wet-chemical approach employing alendronate sodium (AS) as a guide of hydroxyapatite (HA) precursor growth and conversion which was initiated from the nucleantion of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in a cell membrane-mimicking surfactant micelle aqueous system. The nanocrystal clusters of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and OCP nanocryatals were readily precipitated within a relatively narrow AS concentration range (2-8 ?M). However, such low concentrations of AS seemed to stabilize the more acidic phases, and to delay the transformation into HA, to an extent which increased on increasing AS concentration. In contrast, at a slight higher concentrations (16-32 ?M), AS promoted HA precipitation after ageing for 1h. It was found that the effect of AS on the phase selectivity of apatitic precursors was concentration-dependent within a prolonged ageing time stage (0.5-168 h). The AS-assisted reactions in vitro offer an expedient way to understand the underlying implementarity between bone and BPs for bone consolidation, and to improve our understanding of benefit of BP dosages on bone turnover and trauma healing. PMID:22687488

Zhang, Guiling; Huang, Rong; Li, Zhicheng; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xia, Wei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

2012-08-01

80

Transformers  

Science.gov (United States)

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transformers, is the ninth chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Mutual inductance and basic operation; Step-up and Step-down transformers; Electrical isolation; Phasing; Winding configurations; Voltage Regulation; and finally, Special transformers and applications.. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

 
 
 
 
81

Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

2014-08-01

82

Influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers orientation relationship and variants morphology during ? ? ? phase transformation in a near ? titanium alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

ed by combination of crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) grain-scale simulation results. The results indicate that external factors (such as deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate) have a slight influence on the obeying of Burgers OR rule during ? ? ? phase transformation. However, strain rate and cooling rate have a significant effect on the morphology of precipitated ? phase.

83

Equine sarcoids: Bovine Papillomavirus type 1 transformed fibroblasts are sensitive to cisplatin and UVB induced apoptosis and show aberrant expression of p53  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bovine papillomavirus type 1 infects not only cattle but also equids and is a causative factor in the pathogenesis of commonly occurring equine sarcoid tumours. Whilst treatment of sarcoids is notoriously difficult, cisplatin has been shown to be one of the most effective treatment strategies for sarcoids. In this study we show that in equine fibroblasts, BPV-1 sensitises cells to cisplatin-induced and UVB-induced apoptosis, a known cofactor for papillomavirus associated disease, however BPV-1 transformed fibroblasts show increased clonogenic survival, which may potentially limit the therapeutic effects of repeated cisplatin treatment. Furthermore we show that BPV-1 increases p53 expression in sarcoid cell lines and p53 expression can be either nuclear or cytoplasmic. The mechanism and clinical significance of increase/abnormal p53 expression remains to be established.

Finlay Margaret

2012-12-01

84

Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

85

Interphase precipitation in vanadium-alloyed steels: Strengthening contribution and morphological variability with austenite to ferrite transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The evolution of characteristic features of interphase precipitation in steels with progressive of austenite-to-ferrite transformation is analyzed from both experimental and modeling approaches. The model developed describing the time and temperature evolution of sheet spacing and particle spacing shows good agreement with the experimental data. The interactions between the transformation and interphase-precipitated carbides are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the occurrence of fibrous carbides. It is suggested that the ease of interface motion is the main factor controlling its appearance. Finally, the local strengthening in a single ferrite grain containing different precipitation states is analyzed by nanoindentation and compared with the theoretical calculations. The evolution of strengthening induced by interphase precipitation with the microstructural parameters is then discussed

86

Cladodes, leaf-like organs in Asparagus, show the significance of co-option of pre-existing genetic regulatory circuit for morphological diversity of plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plants in the genus Asparagus have determinate leaf-like organs called cladodes in the position of leaf axils. Because of their leaf-like morphology, axillary position, and morphological variation, it has been unclear how this unusual organ has evolved and diversified. In the previous study, we have shown that cladodes in the genus Asparagus are modified axillary shoots and proposed a model that cladodes have arisen by co-option and deployment of genetic regulatory circuit (GRC) involved in leaf development. Moreover, we proposed that the alteration of the expression pattern of genes involved in establishment of adaxial/abaxial polarity has led to the morphological diversification from leaf-like to rod-like form of cladodes in the genus. Thus, these results indicated that the co-option and alteration of pre-existing GRC play an important role in acquisition and subsequent morphological diversification. Here, we present data of further expression analysis of A. asparagoides. The results suggested that only a part of the GRC involved in leaf development appears to have been co-opted into cladode development. Based on our study and several examples of the morphological diversification, we briefly discuss the importance of co-option of pre-existing GRC and its genetic modularity in the morphological diversity of plants during evolution. PMID:22836497

Nakayama, Hokuto; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

2012-08-01

87

Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift  

CERN Document Server

"Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

Cameron, E

2012-01-01

88

Induction of morphological transformation, anchorage-independent growth and plasminogen activators in non-tumorigenic human osteosarcoma cells by lead chromate.  

Science.gov (United States)

The possible carcinogenicity of insoluble chromium (VI) compound, PbCrO4, in human cells has been tested using a nontumorigenic human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS, TE 85). Electron microscopic studies show that PbCrO4 is phagocytosed by HOS cells and accumulates within the vacuoles in the cytoplasm. A number of cell lines have been isolated following multiple treatment of HOS cells with PbCrO4. These cell lines are morphologically different from HOS cells, form anchorage-independent colonies in soft agar and form quickly regressing small tumor nodules in athymic nude mice. The cellular and secreted plasminogen activator (PA) levels of 5 cell lines isolated after PbCrO4 treatment are increased up to 8 fold and up to 10 fold respectively as compared to untreated HOS controls. SDS-PAGE analysis in the presence of copolymerized substrates is consistent with increase in 55 kDa urokinase-type PA (u-PA) and 68 kDa tissue-type PA (t-PA). These results show that PbCrO4 treatment leads to stable phenotypic changes indicative of the transformation of HOS cells. PMID:1888137

Sidhu, M K; Fernandez, C; Khan, M Y; Kumar, S

1991-01-01

89

In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this work, In(OH){sub 3} and In{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH){sub 3} nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH){sub 3} from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH){sub 3} nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 {mu}m in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In{sub 2}O{sub 3} with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH){sub 3} precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

Ren Weian; Liu Ying; Mei Zongwei; Wen Xiaogang, E-mail: wenxg2001@163.com [Sichuan University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Wang Suhua [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Intelligent Machines (China)

2013-02-15

90

Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Showing Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier transform infrared imaging (FTIRI) to visualize the unsaturated lipid content in specific regions of the hippocampus in the PSAPP mouse model of AD as a function of plaque formation. Specifically, the unsaturated lipid content was imaged using the olefinic {double_bond}CH stretching mode at 3012 cm{sup -1}. The axonal, dendritic, and somatic layers of the hippocampus were examined in the mice at 13, 24, 40, and 56 weeks old. Results showed that lipid unsaturation in the axonal layer was significantly increased with normal aging in control (CNT) mice (p < 0.01) but remained low and relatively constant in PSAPP mice. Thus, these findings indicate that unsaturated lipid content is reduced in hippocampal white matter during amyloid pathogenesis and that maintaining unsaturated lipid content early in the disease may be critical in avoiding progression of the disease.

Leskovjan, A.C.; Kretlow, A.; Miller, L.M.

2010-04-01

91

Transformation-induced faulting in magnesium germanate: Nucleation of shear failure, implications for brittle failure, transformation kinetics and reaction interface morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation-induced faulting remains the leading candidate mechanism thought to produce deep-focus earthquakes. Studies of the phenomenon have concentrated on the first-order characteristics of the mechanism, i.e. the required strain-rate/temperature/pressure conditions, but many details remain poorly understood. This dissertation contains observations, measurements and calculations which further characterize and refine our understanding of the details of shear localization in transformation-induced faulting associated with the olivine-spinel transformation under stress at high pressure and temperature. Our experiments were conducted in a Griggs-style deformation apparatus, and most analyses were performed via SEM observations. We present confirmation of the analogy between anticrack formation and shear failure and dilatant brittle shear failure. The size distribution of anticracks, their nucleation sites, and the formation of shear zones at 30° to compression are now well documented. We present results from experiments which quantify the rates of bulk transformation under load and under hydrostatic conditions for areas of preexisting strain or damage. Also presented are observations of a newly-discovered class of transformation microstructure which leads to shear failure in materials with larger (˜150 mum) grain sizes. The appearance of these new microstructures is investigated as a function of loading and strain. We conclude that the thin bands of spinel phase observed in SEM images are most likely cross-sections of planar, fine-grained zones of transformation which have been localized by the transformation of high-strain, crystallographically-controlled surfaces in the deformed olivine, which allow slip on the individual bands and coalesce to lead to specimen-scale shear failure. We also report mechanical "erosion" and damage of pyroxene inclusion grain surfaces in contact with the olivine to spinel transformation. We present calculations that this phenomenon is due to stresses induced by the local volume loss, assisted by a temperature increase generated by the exothermic transformation. Also reported is a new technique using directional fractal dimension measurements to identify the statistical nature of interfaces of structures associated with anticrack formation, coalescence, and coarsening, which we then relate to microphysical processes operating to create these structures.

Riggs, Eric Andrew Mcknight

92

Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

2013-12-01

93

Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

94

A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

2014-12-01

95

Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti-12(wt.%)Mo alloy. In-situ Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress induced ...

Sun, F.; Zangh, J. Y.; Marteleur, M.; Gloriant, Thierry; Vermaut, P.; Laille?, Denis; Castany, Philippe; Curfs, C.; Jacques, P. J.; Prima, F.

2013-01-01

96

Fourier Transform Infrared Imaging Shows Reduced Unsaturated Lipid Content in the Hippocampus of a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential to brain functions such as membrane fluidity, signal transduction, and cell survival. It is also thought that low levels of unsaturated lipid in the brain may contribute to Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk or severity. However, it is not known how accumulation of unsaturated lipids is affected in different regions of the hippocampus, which is a central target of AD plaque pathology, during aging. In this study, we used Fourier Transform Infrared Imagin...

Leskovjan, Andreana C.; Kretlow, Ariane; Miller, Lisa M.

2010-01-01

97

Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passa...

C. A. Jones, B. A. Sedita, C. K. Hill, M. M. Elkind

1991-01-01

98

Morphology and Crystallography of Bainite Transformation in a Single Prior-Austenite Grain of Low-Carbon Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the difference in the microstructure development of the bainite and the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents between blocks (groups with bainitic ferrite having a similar crystal orientation), in a single prior-austenite grain, the microstructural development and morphology of bainite in one coarse grain formed in a simulated heat-affected zone of low-carbon steel were analyzed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and an electron back-scattering diffraction method. The correlation between the morphologies of bainitic ferrite and the M-A constituent was elucidated by analyzing blocks in a coarse and single prior-austenite grain. The possibility of M-A constituent formation was enhanced when the misorientation between bainite ferrite was large. Furthermore, it was found via in situ observations that bainitic ferrite units belonging to the same Bain group were formed synchronously, although they were apparently separated from each other by another Bain group.

Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yu-ichi

2013-06-01

99

Correlation of morphological transformation to sister chromatid exchanges induced by split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens on cultured Syrian hamster cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the induction of DNA damage as reflected by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation and morphological transformation in exponentially growing Syrian hamster embryo cells was determined quantitatively after split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens. With split doses of carcinogen separated by 2 to 24 hr, only N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (0.50 microgram/ml) enhanced both SCE induction and transformation when compared to single exposure. Split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine (0.20 microgram/ml), mitomycin C (50 ng/ml), or ultraviolet light (3.0 J/sq m) were less effective than single exposures, while split doses of methyl methanesulfonate (40 micrograms/ml) caused transformation frequencies similar to a single treatment and decreased SCE frequencies with time intervals greater than 4 hr. Split or single exposures of X-irradiation (200 R) resulted in similar low frequencies of transformation and SCE. Contrasting with these results, a significant potentiation of SCE occurred after split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in cultures arrested in G1 with arginine-glutamine-deficient medium or by contact inhibition compared to a single treatment. This response was attributed to the interaction of carcinogen with DNA containing unrepaired damage and demonstrates the importance of the cell cycle phase of the target cell during carcinogen exposure for the induction of SCE by split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The similarity of responses for transformation and SCE induction with split doses of carcinogens suggests that DNA lesions involved in SCE are essential for the initiation of neoplastic development

100

The effects of the structure transformations and morphology of gas bubbles on the sag of tungsten wires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sagging of tungsten wires within the wide range of temperatures was studied. The values of the sag were measured with a method according to ASTM Designation F-269-52 T. Optical metallography, SEM and transmission electron microscopy combined with microhardness measurement and internal friction technique were used to study the processes controlling the sag. The sag was found to be dependent on the way in which polygonization and recrystallization occur and on the morphological changes of gas bubbles. The processes controlling the sag are mutually related. (Auth.)

 
 
 
 
101

Acrylamide-induced cellular transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acrylamide is a monomer of polyacrylamide, whose products are used in biochemistry, the manufacture of paper, water treatment, and as a soil stabilizer. While polymeric acrylamide is nontoxic, the monomer can cause several toxic effects and has the potential for human occupational exposure. While acrylamide is not mutagenic in prokaryotic mutagenesis assays, chronic acrylamide treatment in rodents has been shown to produce tumors in both rats and mice. The mechanism for the induction of tumors by acrylamide is not known. In the present study, we examined the possibility that acrylamide might induce cellular transformation, using Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell morphological transformation as well as potential mechanisms for the cellular transformation. Results showed that treatment with 0.5 mM and higher concentrations of acrylamide continuously for 7 days induced morphological transformation. Cotreatment with acrylamide and N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a sulfhydryl group donor, resulted in the reduction of acrylamide-induced morphological transformation in SHE cells. Cotreatment with 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), a nonspecific P450 inhibitor, and acrylamide produced no change in morphological transformation when compared to acrylamide treatment only. Cotreatment with acrylamide and DL-buthionone-[S,R]-sulfoximine (BSO), a selective inhibitor of gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase, increased the percent of morphologically transformed colonies compared to acrylamide treatment alone. Acrylamide reduced GSH levels in SHE cells, and cotreatment with acrylamide and NAC prevented the acrylamide-induced reduction of GSH. BSO treatment with acrylamide enhanced the depletion of GSH. These results suggest that acrylamide itself, but not oxidative P450 metabolites of acrylamide appear to be involved in acrylamide-induced cellular transformation and that cellular thiol status (possibly GSH) is involved in acrylamide-induced morphological transformation. PMID:11812921

Park, Joungjoa; Kamendulis, Lisa M; Friedman, Marvin A; Klaunig, James E

2002-02-01

102

Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pEDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

2012-07-01

103

Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. ? Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. ? Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. ? Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 oC temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 oC is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 oC the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 1010/cm2. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

104

Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

105

The Morphological Transformation of Red-Sequence Galaxies in the Distant Cluster XMMU J1229+0151  

CERN Document Server

We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at $z=0.98$ drawn from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the WINGS cluster survey reveals that at $z\\sim1$ the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMUJ1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the lo...

Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Delaye, L; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R

2014-01-01

106

Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

Wiethoff, Christian

2010-06-21

107

Sci Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sci Show, an entertaining series of quirky YouTube videos, tackles topics ranging from âÂÂHow Do Polarized Sunglasses Workâ to âÂÂStrong Interaction: The Four Fundamental Forces of Physics.â Most episodes are less than five minutes long, but they pack a wallop of handy science info. Anyone short on time but long on big questions will benefit from the series. Episodes will be helpful to teachers and parents looking to spark enthusiasm in young minds. Viewers may want to start with recent episodes like âÂÂTodayâÂÂs Mass Extinction,â and the âÂÂWorldâÂÂs First See-Through Animalâ and âÂÂHow Do Animals Change Color?â before digging into the archives for gems like âÂÂThe Truth About Gingersâ and âÂÂThe Science of Lying.âÂÂ

108

Mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenetic analysis with Sanger and next-generation sequencing shows that, in ?rea de Conservaci?n Guanacaste, northwestern Costa Rica, the skipper butterfly named Urbanus belli (family Hesperiidae) comprises three morphologically cryptic species  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Skipper butterflies (Hesperiidae) are a relatively well-studied family of Lepidoptera. However, a combination of DNA barcodes, morphology, and natural history data has revealed several cryptic species complexes within them. Here, we investigate three DNA barcode lineages of what has been identified as Urbanus belli (Hesperiidae, Eudaminae) in Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), northwestern Costa Rica. Results Although no morphological traits appear to distinguish among the three, congruent nuclear and mitochondrial lineage patterns show that “Urbanus belli” in ACG is a complex of three sympatric species. A single strain of Wolbachia present in two of the three cryptic species indicates that Urbanus segnestami Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ01), Urbanus bernikerni Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ02), and Urbanus ehakernae Burns (formerly Urbanus belliDHJ03) may be biologically separated by Wolbachia, as well as by their genetics. Use of parallel sequencing through 454-pyrosequencing improved the utility of ITS2 as a phylogenetic marker and permitted examination of the intra- and interlineage relationships of ITS2 variants within the species complex. Interlineage, intralineage and intragenomic compensatory base pair changes were discovered in the secondary structure of ITS2. Conclusion These findings corroborate the existence of three cryptic species. Our confirmation of a novel cryptic species complex, initially suggested by DNA barcode lineages, argues for using a multi-marker approach coupled with next-generation sequencing for exploration of other suspected species complexes. PMID:25005355

2014-01-01

109

Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ?20 nm and height of ?7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere

110

Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

111

Immortalization and neoplastic transformation of fetal rat intestinal epithelial cells: morphological and cytogenetic analysis, (proto)oncogene expression and effect of gamma-interferon on cell growth.  

Science.gov (United States)

The permanent SLC-11 and -41 intestinal epithelial cells respectively immortalized by the E1A and large T oncogenes and their clonal derivatives showed a cytogenetic heterogeneity characterized by a near diploidy in SLC-11 and -12 cells and a generalized polyploidy in SLC-41 and -44 cells. Persistence of chromosome translocations and trisomy 3 were observed. The expression of the E1A oncogene in immortalized SLC-11 cells is associated with a strong repression of c-fos transcription during the exponential growth, as compared to the resting phase or to control rat fetal intestinal epithelial cells. The transcription of c-myc was also reduced in SLC-11 cells, especially in confluent cells. A complex relationship between the levels and size of the c-fos, c-myc mRNAs and the expression of the E1A oncogene was therefore observed in SLC-11 cells. Immortalized SLC-11 and -41 cells showed a remarkable growth inhibition in response to recombinant rat gamma-IFN. Neoplastic transformation by activated human Ha-ras in SLC-12T and -44 T cells confer resistance to the antigrowth effects of IFN. The combination of culture conditions using defined medium, membrane matrix (laminin, collagen, proteoglycans) and intestinal mesenchyme revealed the persistence of the undifferentiated phenotype of the E1A, large T-immortalized and Ha-ras-transformed SLC cells in vitro or in the nude mice. In association with the intestinal chick endoderm, SLC-11 cells possess some inductive properties on the differentiation of villi projections arising from the chick endoderm in vivo. In contrast, SLC-41 cells were induced to differentiate in enterocyte-like cells by the intestinal chick mesenchyme. The immortalized and Ha-ras-transformed SLC cells therefore constitute new models in the sequential analysis of the molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in the proliferation, differentiation and oncogene-mediated neoplastic transformation in gut. Further attempts in SLC cell differentiation have to be accomplished using chemical inducers for prolonged periods of time, or by transfection of intestinal epithelial cells using temperature- or glucocorticoid-inducible vectors. PMID:2148162

Emami, S; Chastre, E; Nizard, S; Di Gioia, Y; Barbu, V; Taillemite, J L; Ito, S; Gespach, C

1990-01-01

112

Evaluation of three Polymerase chain reaction tests targeting morphological transforming region II, UL-83 gene and glycoprotein O gene for the detection of Human Cytomegalovirus genome in clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients in Chennai, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most sensitive and commonly used method for the assessment of HCMV infection in the immunocompromised patients at risk from severe associated clinical manifestations. However, there is little consistency in the qualitative PCR used for different regions of HCMV genome. Therefore, the performance of three Qualitative PCR tests to detect HCMV genome in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients was evaluated. With pp65 antigenemia assay as the "gold standard", nested PCR for morphological transforming region II (mtr II and glycoprotein O (gO gene and uniplex PCR for UL 83 gene were applied on 92 consecutive clinical specimens obtained from 74 immunocompromised patients with clinically suspected HCMV disease. Virus isolation was attempted on 12 clinical specimens from six pp65 antigenemia positive patients. Based on the pp 65 antigenemia results as "gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each PCR was calculated. Results The PCR targeting mtr II region showed a higher sensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% than the other two PCRs in detecting HCMV DNA from clinical specimens obtained from different immunocompromised patient population of Chennai region, India. Conclusion The results suggests that the optimal method of detection of HCMV DNA could be achieved by PCR using primer sequences targeting mtr II region of genome of HCMV in Chennai region, India.

Therese KL

2006-03-01

113

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

114

FIELD EVAPORATION AND FIELD ION MICROSCOPY STUDY OF THE MORPHOLOGY OF PHASES PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF LOW TEMPERATURE PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS IN THE IRON-CHROMIUM SYSTEM  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The morphology of the iron-rich ? and chromium-enriched ?' phases produced in iron-chromium alloys upon aging within the low temperature miscibility gap has been characterized by field evaporation and field ion microscopy. The morphology of the phases was found to change with composition and aging temperature. At low chromium levels, the morphology of the phases consisted of isolated, roughly spherical islands of the ?' phase embedded in an ? matrix. As the chromium level increased, this ...

Miller, M.

1989-01-01

115

The impact of K{sup +} content on the structural transformations and morphological changes during the thermal treatment of ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? The acidic treatment considerably shortened the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. ? ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with higher potassium contents undergo to the structural changes at higher temperatures. ? Up to 500 °C no structural and morpholigcal changes are observed. -- Abstract: The effect of heat treatment on the structure and morphology of ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with different potassium contents was investigated. These nanorods, prepared by ion exchange, were thermally treated at 500, 800, 1000 and 1100 °C, and characterized with X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The structure and morphology of the starting sample remained preserved up to 500 °C. The first structural and morphological changes were observed when ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with different potassium contents were heated at 800 °C. The sample with the highest potassium content decomposed only partially to ?-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while the decomposition of the ?-MnO{sub 2} to ?-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was complete in the sample with the lowest potassium content. Morphologically, both samples were composed of nanorods and grains. When the temperature was increased to 1000 and 1100 °C, both the structure and morphology changed: the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods completely decomposed to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} grains. The acidic media in which the ion exchange took place shortened the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods.

Umek, Polona, E-mail: polona.umek@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence NAMASTE, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korošec, Romana Cerc [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Ašker?eva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-06-15

116

Differential morphology and image processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision. PMID:18285181

Maragos, P

1996-01-01

117

Soft morphological image resizing  

Science.gov (United States)

One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

Maltseff, Pavel A.

1997-04-01

118

The effect of Mn and Si on the morphology and kinetics of the bainite transformation in Fe-C-Ti alloys  

Science.gov (United States)

The overall kinetics of the isothermal transformation of austenite to ferrite and bainite at intermediate temperatures and the microstructure of the transformation products in Fe-C-Ti, Fe-C-Ti-Si, Fe-C-Ti-Mn, and Fe-C-Ti-Mn-Si alloys were investigated with dilatometry, quantitative metallography, and TEM. The rate of transformation of austenite is retarded and the precipitation of carbide is inhibited in Ti-containing alloys by additions of Si, Mn, or Si + Mn. In addition to bainite and degenerate ferrite plates, a large amount of granular structure consisting of martensite and retained austenite (so-called granular bainite) is observed in these alloys if the isothermal reaction time is not long enough to complete austenite decomposition. It is suggested that the inhibiting effect of Si on carbide precipitation, the segregation of carbideforming elements to prior ? grain boundaries and interphase interfaces, and the enhancing effect of Si on the segregation of these elements lead to the results obtained. The results also support the view that so-called granular bainite is a mixture of transformation products produced by the partial decomposition of austenite.

Liu, S. K.; Zhang, G. Y.

1990-06-01

119

Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype / Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneti [...] camente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhous [...] e conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

Simone, Pohl; Nei Fernandes, Lopes; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel, Braga; Rodrigo, Danielowski; Ilda Mariclei de Castro da, Silva; Jose Antonio, Peters.

120

The Transformations of Transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

Lin, Francis Y.

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

In vitro cell transformation by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transforming phenotypes gradually express during subculturing after treatment of chemical carcinogens. However, we have a few information about radiation-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated that the dynamics of expression of transforming phenotypes in X-ray induced transformants of golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells. GHE cells expressed several transforming phenotypes aster X-irradiation. Although morphological change was a transit phenotype expressed soon after X-irradiation, the only progeny of them expressed the other transforming phenotypes, such as anchorage-independent growth, immortality and tumorigenicity, during extensive subculturing in GHE cells. No transformants showed activation of any oncogenes by DNA transfection assay using NIH 3T3 cells. Numerical chromosome changes, however, may affect neoplastic progression and trisomy of chromosome 3 may play an important role in tumorigenicity. We also compared proteins of normal and transformed GHE cells with SDS-PAGE. Protein band with molecular weight of approximately 240 kDa (P240) were absent in transformed GHE cells. Thus, chromosome number and the expression of cellular proteins may be altered in radiation induced transformed cells. (author)

122

Spark plasma sintering of ?-Si3N4 ceramics with Al2O3 and Y2O3 as additives and its morphology transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure ?-Si3N4 commercial powder, having Y2O3 and Al2O3 additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 oC in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 oC and heating rate of 300 oC/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the ?-phase nucleated from the ?-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si3N4 composites combine both ?- and ?-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv(20kgf)) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si3N4 were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si3N4 particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

123

Studies on the evolution of ZnO morphologies in a thermohydrolysis technique and evaluation of their functional properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of ZnO morphologies in an in situ thermohydrolysis technique using hexamethylene tetramine is studied with and without surfactants. The photocatalytic and photoluminescence properties of these morphologically tuned ZnO morphologies are studied and the results presented. In the absence of any surfactants, the HMTA assisted in situ hydrolysis resulted in microtube and multipod morphologies. The addition of nonionic [Span-80] and cationic [CTAB] surfactants transforms the morphologies to microspheres, microdiscs and nanorods. The photoluminescence analysis shows a red luminescence in nanorods and green-indigo and blue-green emissions in microtubes and other morphologies. Photocatalytic reaction efficiency in UV light follows the order microtubes>nanorods>microdiscs>microspheres>multipods. PMID:19959283

Anas, S; Mangalaraja, R V; Ananthakumar, S

2010-03-15

124

Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids. PMID:21653588

Zamora, S; Smith, A B

2012-01-22

125

Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids. PMID:21653588

Zamora, S.; Smith, A. B.

2012-01-01

126

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

127

Beneficiated coals' char morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

Diana Vargas

2012-09-01

128

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Document Server

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

129

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

130

Laplace Transform Analytical Restructure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the Laplace transform definition is implemented without resorting to Adomian decomposition nor Homotopy perturbation methods. We show that the said transform can be simply calculated by differentiation of the original function. Various analytic consequent results are given. The simplicity and efficacy of the method are illustrated through many examples with shown Maple graphs, and transform tables are provided. Finally, a new infinite series representation related to Laplace transforms of trigonometric functions is proposed.

Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem

2013-06-01

131

Generalized transforms and convolutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

David Skoug

1997-03-01

132

A Holographic Road Show.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

1979-01-01

133

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

134

Show-Me Magazine  

Science.gov (United States)

Come along as the folks at the University of Missouri show you the history of their college days through the Show Me magazine. It's a wonderful collection of college humor published from 1946 to 1963. First-time visitors would do well to read about the magazine's colorful past, courtesy of Jerry Smith. A good place to start is the November 1920 issue (easily found when you browse by date), which contains a number of parody advertisements along with some doggerels poking good natured fun at the football team and an assortment of deans. Also, it's worth noting that visitors can scroll through issues and save them to an online "bookbag" for later use.

2008-01-01

135

Reality, ficción o show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

2002-01-01

136

Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms  

CERN Document Server

The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

Torre, Amalia

2011-01-01

137

Martensitic transformation under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermodynamics considerations of martensitic transformation under stress are considered. The equation for dM s/d? established by Patel and Cohen is discussed taking account of the grain size effect in polycrystalline materials, i.e. the orientation preference effect and the interaction between grain boundary and applied stress. A general model for the calculation of Ms temperature in the face centered cubic to body centered cubic (fcc ? bcc(bct)) transformation influenced by stress in iron based alloys is proposed. Quantitative descriptions of strain effects on nucleation rate or nucleation barrier, activation energy and morphology, as well as the effect of internal stress on autocatalytic nucleation of martensitic transformation are briefly reviewed. The modeling of martensitic transformation under stress, involving modeling of the motion of martensite/parent interface and reorientation of martensite under stress is reviewed

138

Repair of lethal, mutagenic and transforming damage induced by X-rays in golden hamster embryo cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compared the frequencies of mutation and morphological transformation in relation to the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) and sublethal damage (SLD) in X-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells. The repair of PLD induced in GHE cells by X-rays was shown to be an error-free process which reduced the frequency of mutation and morphological transformation. However, if cells were irradiated with doses divided into two halves separated by various time intervals to study repair of SLD, the frequency of mutants and morphological transformants depended upon the length of the interval between the doses. If the interval was 2 h, the frequency of mutants and transformants was lower than if the total dose were delivered in a single exposure. If the interval was 4 h, these frequencies were higher than the latter. The transformation frequencies remained high even if this interval was increased to 12 h, but the frequency of mutants decreased again. Thus, enhancement of mutant or transformant frequency by a second exposure to X-rays, 4 h after the first irradiation, correlated with recovery of DNA synthesis in the X-irradiated cell populations. Studies with synchronized cells also showed that induction of mutants and transformants was highest in cells irradiated at the DNA synthesis (S) phase. These results suggest that DNA synthesis plays a critical role in the process of X-ray-induced morphological transformation and mutagenesis

139

Obesity in show dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

Corbee, R J

2012-08-11

140

Solar Light Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last few days, the Earth has been buffeted by a geomagnetic storm caused by a major solar flare. In addition to disruptions in radio, telecommunications, and electric service, the flare may also produce a dramatic light show as it peaks tonight. Weather permitting, the aurora borealis, or northern lights, may be visible as far south as Washington, D.C. The best viewing time will be local midnight. The sun is currently at the peak of its eleven-year solar cycle, spawning flares and "coronal mass ejections" (CME), violent outbursts of gas from the sun's corona that can carry up to 10 billion tons of electrified gas traveling at speeds as high as 2000 km/s. Geomagnetic storms result when solar winds compress the magnetosphere, sometimes interfering with electric power transmission and satellites, but also creating beautiful aurorae, as many stargazers hope will occur tonight.

De Nie, Michael W.

 
 
 
 
141

The Great Cometary Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

142

Integral transformation and Darboux transformation  

CERN Document Server

We review Darboux-Crum transformation of Heun's differential equation. By rewriting an integral transformation of Heun's differential equation into a form of elliptic functions, we see that the integral representation is a generalization of Darboux-Crum transformation. We also consider conservation of monodromy with respect to the transformations.

Takemura, Kouichi

2009-01-01

143

Wavelet transform adaptive filtering  

Science.gov (United States)

An LMS adaptive filtering algorithm is presented utilizing wavelet transforms. Its performance is compared to DCT and Walsh-Hadamard transform-based adaptive filtering. The experimental analysis is performed in the case of the system identification of an unknown system or filter for stationary input signals. The results show some improvement in the weight modelling of the filter with comparable convergence rates. A new performance criteria, the diagonality factor, is introduced in order to show the specific effect of the wavelet transform on a signal. A Mean Average Difference is also utilized to compare the weight modelling performance of the various transform-based LMS adaptive filterings studied in this paper.

Dang, Laurence M.

1994-10-01

144

Galaxy Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass...

Buta, Ronald J.

2013-01-01

145

Partial Radon transforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article formally defines partial Radon transforms for functions of more than two dimensions. It shows that a generalized projection-slice theorem exists which connects planar and hyperplanar projections of a function to its Fourier transform. In addition, a general theoretical framework is provided for carrying out n-dimensional backprojection reconstruction in a multistage fashion through the use of the partial Radon transform. PMID:18282906

Liang, Z P; Munson, D R

1997-01-01

146

Directional chemical variations in diamonds showing octahedral following cuboid growth  

Science.gov (United States)

A progression from cuboid to octahedral growth has been observed in 16 natural diamonds from Yakutian kimberlites. X-ray and cathodoluminescence topography have revealed that the change in morphology of diamonds with cloudy cuboid cores may occur without mixed-habit growth but via generation of numerous octahedral apices on cuboid surfaces and subsequent gradual transformation into regular octahedral morphology. Nitrogen aggregation in both cuboid and octahedral domains of such diamonds suggests that they have had a long residence time under mantle conditions. Micro-inclusions in the cuboid domains of the diamonds testify to the nucleation and growth of cuboid cores from a hydrous-carbonatitic (oxidized) fluid. The transition from cuboid hummocky growth rich in inclusions to octahedral growth without inclusions may be linked to decreasing supersaturation in the parent fluid. Measurements of ?13C and Nppm by ion microprobe show that the chemical variations observed between inner cuboid domains and outer octahedral zones commonly have a systematic character and as such they are probably not due to purely kinetic effects. The peripheral octahedral zones are always enriched in 13C in comparison with inner cuboid ones, and the total nitrogen content decreases with the change from cuboid to octahedral growth. The octahedral outer zones show a gradual progressive increase in ?13C, with an overall change of up to 5‰ from the cuboid core (?13C usually between -8 and -6‰) to the diamond margin (?13C usually between -4 and -2‰). Decreases in ?13C of this magnitude with a gradual increase in 13C may be attributed to the Rayleigh fractionation operating on a single parent fluid of close to normal mantle ?13C composition with diamond precipitating by the reduction of carbonatitic fluid in a closed system. However, one sample shows a variation of ?13C of approximately -17 to -6‰ and therefore suggests a possible change of fluid source composition from one containing subducted crustal organic carbon to one with common mantle carbon.

Zedgenizov, D. A.; Harte, B.; Shatsky, V. S.; Politov, A. A.; Rylov, G. M.; Sobolev, N. V.

2006-01-01

147

Transforming magnets  

CERN Document Server

Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

Sun, F

2014-01-01

148

F-actin aggregates in transformed cells  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Polymerized actin has been found aggregated into distinctive patches inside transformed cells in culture. The F-actin-specific fluorescent probe, nitrobenzoxadiazole-phallacidin, labels these F-actin aggregates near the ventral cell surface of cells transformed by RNA or DNA tumor viruses, or by chemical mutagens, or spontaneously. Their appearance in all eight transformed cell types studied suggests their ubiquity and involvement in transformation morphology. Actin patches developed in norma...

1981-01-01

149

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

150

Transformation Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

Stroud, Mrs.

2010-09-01

151

Feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic image based on multiscale analysis and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new algorithm for feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic images is proposed in this paper. The approach bases on multiscale transform and mathematical morphology. First of all, the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid operator is applied to transform the mammography into different scale subband images. In addition, the detail or high frequency subimages are equalized by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) and low-pass subimages are processed by mathematical morphology. Finally, the enhanced image of feature and contrast is reconstructed from the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid coefficients modified at one or more levels by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization and mathematical morphology, respectively. The enhanced image is processed by global nonlinear operator. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is effective for feature and contrast enhancement of mammogram. The performance evaluation of the proposed algorithm is measured by contrast evaluation criterion for image, signal-noise-ratio (SNR), and contrast improvement index (CII). PMID:24416072

Wu, Shibin; Yu, Shaode; Yang, Yuhan; Xie, Yaoqin

2013-01-01

152

The involvement of chromosome 13 in the X-ray-induced in vitro transformation of mouse m5S cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformation of an immortalized but nonmalignant near-diploid mouse cell line (m5S) by X-ray irradiation was studied, and the chromosome constitutions of the morphologically transformed foci were analyzed. The frequency of transformation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Chromosome analysis revealed that 17 out of 24 transformants showed a common chromosome change, being characterized by a diminution of the C2-ter region of chromosome 13 as compared with the chromosome constitution of the parental untransformed cells. In these transformants, the diminution of 13(C2-ter) was critical in forming transformed foci, but was not sufficient to engender anchorage independence and tumorigenicity. The agar clonability and tumorigenicity were associated with the further appearance of an extra chromosomal segment seen as an abnormally banded region, probably consisting of tandem repeats of actively functioning genes. This experimental system thus revealed the progressive multistep nature of neoplastic transformation initiated by a loss of suppressive function. (author)

153

Polarization engineering through nanoengineered morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Engineering of both the polarization state and the operating frequency band can be accomplished by nanoengineering the morphology of a complex substance such that it is both anisotropic as well as periodic and/or structurally chiral. Three examples show that sculptured-thin-film technology provides opportunities for polarization engineering in specific spectral regimes through nanoengineered morphology.

Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

2007-02-01

154

Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

DR. H. B. KEKRE

2010-05-01

155

Methods of the Straightening Transformation and Analysis of Outer Contours of Objects in Medical Image Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an algorithm of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects, allowing to transform biological structures of interest, visible in medical images, from two-dimensional space of the image into two-dimensional graph, representing contours of the straightened object with its possible outer morphological changes, indicating the progress of pathological processes. The developed method is based on a sequence of geometric transformations of the analyzed objects in the image, and its operation was described in detail and illustrated by examples of transfonnation of main pancreatic ducts, appearing in X-ray images acquired by ERCP, as well as by graphs showing outer morphology of blood vessels in the fundus of the eye. The proposed method is universal, and due to the fact that the transformation preserves and exposes pathologic morphological changes, such as abnormal lateral branches, local dilatations or projections it can also be used in the recognition and analysis of other structure images acquired by various techniques of computer tomography, e.g. cerebral vessels, bile ducts, coronary vessels or fragments of gastrointestinal tract. The graphs of the structures of interest obtained as a result of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects are a starting point for the recognition of morphological changes, important for diagnosis, using syntactic methods of pattern recognition.

Marek R. Ogiela

1999-01-01

156

'Ex-Situ' Annealing and Structural Transformations in Gold Nanoparticles  

Science.gov (United States)

The atomic structure and morphology of gold nanoparticles have been studied using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The structural transformations of these particles have been probed through ex-situ annealing experiments, yielding population statistics on structure as a function of particle size and annealing temperature. The results show that for an original structurally heterogeneous particle population, there is a rise in the percentage of particles with the decahedral morphology as annealing temperature is increased. This can be correlated with a reduction in the number of icosahedral particles as a function of annealing temperature. HRTEM imaging following low temperature annealing reveals a range of modified and distorted decahedral particles, giving insight into the temperature threshold of the solid state transformation and the microstructural processes occurring.

MacArthur, K. E.; Young, N. P.; Critchell, J. W.; Kirkland, A. I.

2012-07-01

157

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

158

Animating Transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

In most introductory linear algebra courses, prominent applications of transformations or mappings are moving (rotating, reflecting, translating), resizing (contracting, expanding), changing the shape (shearing, projecting) objects in the plane. A typical problem in such courses is to write the matrix of a transformation that changes points in such prescribed ways. The goal of this demo is to help students more easily visualize such transformations on a wide class of plane objects.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2003-01-24

159

A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

Sagiv Idit

2009-01-01

160

Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

Watanabe,Shinsaku

1985-06-01

 
 
 
 
161

Visualizing Transformation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

Pedersen, Pia

162

Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

Chin-Pan Huang

2010-01-01

163

Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

Chaparro LuisF

2010-01-01

164

Controlled synthesis and characterization of EuF3 with ring-like morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthorhombic EuF3 with ring morphology has been synthesized by controlled reaction between Eu(NO3)3.6H2O and KBF4 via a simple hydrothermal route. The microstructures and morphologies of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Time-dependent studies of the reactions have been conducted to reveal the morphological evolution of the ring-like structure. The formation of ring-like structure of EuF3 may involved a phase transformation from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure and the self-assembly of arc building-blocks. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed that the morphology and size of the products had great influence on their emission intensity

165

The influence of oxidation time on the morphologies of TiO2 nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly-ordered TiO2 nanostructures have been successfully fabricated by anodic oxidation method on the surface of pure titanium and Ti film deposited on the Si substrates using 20 V of the DC voltage in 0.5% HF electrolyte. X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the transformations of morphologies and structures on the TiO2 nanostructures. The experimental results showed that the final morphologies of the nanostructures were time-dependent. The tube architectures were firstly fabricated, and with the increase of the oxidation time, the tube morphologies were ruined and the rod-like morphologies were formed. When the Ti films on the Si substrates were anodized, a new kind of porous nanostructures was formed on the surface of the Ti foils, which are different to the previous reports. The formation mechanisms of these nanostructures were also briefly discussed. PMID:24734765

Zhang, Qiang; Ma, Lisha; Xu, Xijin; Shao, Minghui; Huang, Jinzhao; Han, Leihai; Li, Wenxiao

2014-04-01

166

Nonseparable shearlet transform.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the past few years, various representation systems which sparsely approximate functions governed by anisotropic features, such as edges in images, have been proposed. Alongside the theoretical development of these systems, algorithmic realizations of the associated transforms are provided. However, one of the most common shortcomings of these frameworks is the lack of providing a unified treatment of the continuum and digital world, i.e., allowing a digital theory to be a natural digitization of the continuum theory. In this paper, we introduce a new shearlet transform associated with a nonseparable shearlet generator, which improves the directional selectivity of previous shearlet transforms. Our approach is based on a discrete framework, which allows a faithful digitization of the continuum domain directional transform based on compactly supported shearlets introduced as means to sparsely encode anisotropic singularities of multivariate data. We show numerical experiments demonstrating the potential of our new shearlet transform in 2D and 3D image processing applications. PMID:23372085

Lim, Wang-Q

2013-05-01

167

Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Valsa mali: an efficient tool for random insertion mutagenesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Valsa mali is a causal agent of apple and pear trees canker disease, which is a destructive disease that causes serious economic losses in eastern Asia, especially in China. The lack of an efficient transformation system for Valsa mali retards its investigation, which poses difficulties to control the disease. In this research, a transformation system for this pathogen was established for the first time using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT), with the optimal transformation conditions as follows: 10(6)/mL conidia suspension, cocultivation temperature 22°C, cocultivation time 72 hours, and 200? ? M acetosyringone (AS) in the inductive medium. The average transformation efficiency was 1015.00 ± 37.35 transformants per 10(6) recipient conidia. Thirty transformants were randomly selected for further confirmation and the results showed the presence of T-DNA in all hygromycin B resistant transformants and also revealed random and single gene integration with genetic stability. Compared with wild-type strain, those transformants exhibited various differences in morphology, conidia production, and conidia germination ability. In addition, pathogenicity assays revealed that 14 transformants had mitigated pathogenicity, while one had enhanced infection ability. The results suggest that ATMT of V. mali is a useful tool to gain novel insight into this economically important pathogen at molecular levels. PMID:24381526

Wang, Caixia; Guan, Xiangnan; Wang, Hanyan; Li, Guifang; Dong, Xiangli; Wang, Guoping; Li, Baohua

2013-01-01

168

Generalized field-transforming metamaterials  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, ...

Tretyakov, Sergei; Nefedov, Igor; Alitalo, Pekka

2008-01-01

169

Contact transformations for difference schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We define a class of transformations of the dependent and independent variables in an ordinary difference scheme. The transformations leave the solution set of the system invariant and reduces to a group of contact transformations in the continuous limit. We use a simple example to show that the class is not empty and that such ‘contact transformations for discrete systems’ genuinely exist. (fast track communication)

170

Repair of lethal, mutagenic and transforming damage induced by X-rays in golden hamster embryo cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The frequencies of mutation and morphological transformation in relation to the repair of potentially lethal damage (PLD) and sublethal damage (SLD) in X-irradiated golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells were compared. The repair of PLD induced in GHE cells by X-rays was shown to be an error-free process which reduced the frequency of mutation and morphological transformation. However, if cells were irradiated with doses divided into two halves separated by 2 h, the frequency of mutants and transformants was lower than if the total dose was delivered in a single exposure. If the interval was 4 h, these frequencies were higher than the latter. The transformation frequencies remained high even if this interval was increased to 12 h, but the frequency of mutants decreased again. Thus, enhancement of mutant or transformant frequency by a second exposure to X-rays, 4 h after the first irradiation, correlated with recovery of DNA synthesis in the X-irradiated cell populations. Studies with synchronized cells also showed that induction of mutants and transformants was highest in cells irradiated at the DNA synthesis (S) phase. These results suggest that DNA synthesis plays a critical role in X-ray induced morphological transformation and mutagenesis. (author)

171

Morphology and probability in image processing  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The author presents an analysis of some concepts which relate morphological attributes of digital objects to statistically meaningful measures. Some elementary transformations of binary images are described and examples of applications are drawn from the geological and image analysis domains. Some of the morphological models applicablle in astronomy are discussed. It is shown that the development of new spatially oriented computers leads to more extensive applications of image processing in the geosciences

172

Morphology Risk Assessment Summary  

...Report March 2005 1 Freshwater Morphology Risk Assessment Summary 1. Summary...and by UKTAG3. Pressures on morphology of surface waters can arise...describing and assessing surface water morphology are not well developed except...

173

Volcanology and morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Apollo 15 photographs of the southern parts of Serenitatis and Imbrium were used for a study of the morphology and distribution of wrinkle ridges. Volcanic and structural features along the south margin of Serenitatis were also studied, including the Dawes basalt cinder cones. Volcanic and structural features in crater Aitken were investigated as well. Study of crater Goclenius showed a close relationship between morphology of the impact crater and grabens which tend to parallel directions of the lunar grid. Similar trends were observed in the walls of crater Tsiolkovsky and other linear structures. Small craters of possible volcanic origin were also studied. Possible cinder cones were found associated with the Dawes basalt and in the floor of craters Aitken and Goclenius. Small pit craters were observed in the floors of these craters. Attempts were made to obtain contour maps of specific small features and to compare Orbiter and Apollo photographs to determine short term changes associated with other processes.

Bryan, W. B.

1976-01-01

174

El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

1340-13-01

175

El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

176

Transforming giants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

177

Transformation method and wave control  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai

2010-12-01

178

In-situ studies of the martensitic transformation in epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The martensitic transformation of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films on rigid substrates is examined with respect to changes of structure, microstructure, magnetic and electronic properties. For this, temperature dependent atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray, magnetization and resistivity measurements are used. The combination of these in-situ methods give a comprehensive understanding of the martensitic transformation and allows to identify differences of constrained epitaxial films compared to bulk. Experiments show the formation of a twinned, orthorhombic martensite with high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy from the austenite around room temperature. While most features are similar to a first order transformation, the transformation proceeds continuously to lower temperatures, an effect which could be explained by the constrain of the rigid substrate. The high-resolution AFM micrographs directly reveal how martensite variants grow and show the converging of variants from different nucleation origins. A crystallographic modell is presented which explains the regular, triangular morphology observed by AFM in the martensite state.

Niemann, Robert; Schultz, Ludwig; Faehler, Sebastian [IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute for Solid State Physics, Department of Physics, Dresden University of Technology (Germany); Buschbeck, Joerg; Thomas, Michael [IFW Dresden (Germany); Heczko, Oleg [IFW Dresden (Germany); Institute of Physics, Academy of Science of Czech Republic, Prague (Czech Republic)

2009-07-01

179

What Do Blood Tests Show?  

Science.gov (United States)

... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Do Blood Tests Show? Blood tests show whether the levels of different substances in your ... for children. Complete Blood Count The table below shows some normal ranges for different parts of the ...

180

Morphologic Economics  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been difficult to predict various classes of boom-and-bust economic cycles and these cyclic catastrophes systematically, because they are related to several biological phenomena. In this report, we will show that our theory on the morphogenetic process and the brain with a rhythm of about seven beats can explain several economic system cycles, because different types of economic cycles are about seven times the length of the fundamental production cycles or durable periods. We will also outline the spatial structure underlying economic systems on the basis of the fluid dynamic theory that describes subatomic systems, biological systems, human network systems, and stars.

Naitoh, Ken

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
181

Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

M.Mani Roja

2012-12-01

182

Transformation Multiphysics  

CERN Document Server

Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

183

Expression of transforming and mutational phenotypes in golden hamster embryo cells after X-irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

It is well known that the transforming phenotypes gradually express during subculturing after treatment of chemical carcinogens. However we have a few information about radiation-carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated that the dynamics of expression of transforming phenotypes in X-ray induced transformants of golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells. GHE cells expressed several transforming phenotypes after X-irradiation. Although morphological change was a transit phenotype expressed soon after X-irradiation, the only progeny of them expressed the other transforming phenotypes, such as anchorage-independent growth, immortality and tumorigenicity, during extensive subculturing in GHE cells. No transformants showed activation of any oncogenic genes by DNA transfection assay using NIH 3T3 cells. Numerical chromosome changes, however, may affect neoplastic progression and trisomy of chromosome 3 may play an important role in tumorigenicity. We also compared proteins of normal and transformed GHE cells with SDS-PAGE. Protein band with MW of approximately 240 Kd were absent in transformed GHE cells. Thus, chromosome number and the expression of cellular proteins may be altered in radiation induced transformed cells. More detail studies are undergoing. (author)

184

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

2011-12-10

185

Generalization of Conformal Transformations  

CERN Document Server

Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conform...

Garas'ko, G I

2005-01-01

186

Ganglioneuroblastic Transformation in Olfactory Neuroblastoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ganglioneuroblastic transformation in olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is an exceptionally rare phenomenon. We document the case of a patient with a poorly differentiated sinonasal malignancy that recurred following treatment with chemoradiotherapy and showed ganglioneuroblastic transformation. Although the index tumour showed neuroendocrine differentiation, it did not have the typical clinico-pathological features associated with ONB. We highlight the diagnostic difficulties in establishing an ...

Bates, Timothy; Plessis, Daniel Du; Polvikoski, Tuomo; Sloan, Philip; Mcqueen, Andrew; Meikle, David; Kelly, Charles; Robinson, Max

2012-01-01

187

Para-Lorentz transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In special relativity, events that are simultaneous in one inertial reference frame (IRF) are not so in another. 75 years ago, L I Mandelstam showed that the absolute simultaneity of events in different IRFs is achieved by using infinitely fast signals instead of light to synchronize clocks. 25 years later, F R Tangherlini showed in an independent study how special coordinates and time transform in this situation from one IRF to another. Although different IRFs enter on different footing in this case (the observer's frame being the privileged one), the Tangherlini transformations are still capable of describing the known experimental special relativity tests. (methodological notes)

188

Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers  

CERN Document Server

At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

2013-01-01

189

Improved Seismic Denoising CURVELET Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. For quality we compare visual effect of data. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

Renu Awasthi,

2012-09-01

190

Floral Transformation of Wheat  

Science.gov (United States)

A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

191

Spark plasma sintering of {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} as additives and its morphology transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure {alpha}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} commercial powder, having Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 {sup o}C in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 {sup o}C and heating rate of 300 {sup o}C/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the {beta}-phase nucleated from the {alpha}-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites combine both {alpha}- and {beta}-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv{sub (20kgf)}) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

Ceja-Cardenas, L., E-mail: leocc4@yahoo.com.m [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Lemus-Ruiz, J. [Instituto de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, UMSNH. Edif. ' U' , CU., C.P. 58000 Morelia, Mich. (Mexico); Jaramillo-Vigueras, D.; Torre, S.D. de la [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, CIITEC. Cerrada Cecati s/n Col. Sta. Catarina, C.P. 02250 Azc., D.F. (Mexico)

2010-07-09

192

Transformations Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

Different forms of communication have always had a tendency to transform interactions and everyday life in ways that have surprised people from many different backgrounds. Academics have long been interested in such dynamic transformations, and this electronic journal represents one of the responses to such processes. As their site notes, this journal is "dedicated to the exploration of ideas, issues and debates emerging out of contemporary global culture." Visitors to the site can read the complete version of every issue on the site, and they will be pleased to find such intriguing titles as "Rethinking Regionality", "Accidental Environments", and "Fleeing the City". Interested parties can also consult the site to learn about the journal's editorial board, their calls for papers, submission guidelines, and related links.

193

Clifford Algebra and Space-Time Transformations: Lorentz Transformation and Inertial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We review the Inertial transformation and Lorentz transformation under a new context, by using Clifford Algebra or Geometric Algebra. The apparent contradiction between theses two approach is simply stems from different procedures for clock synchronization associated with different choices of the coordinates used to describe the physical world. We find the physical and coordinates components of both transformations. A important result is that in the case of Inertial transformation the physical components are exactly the Galilean transformations, but the speed of light is not c. Another interesting result is due to the fact the Lorentz transformations lead directly to physical components, and this case the speed of light is c. Finally e show that both scenarios, de-synchronization Einstein theory and synchronized theory, are all mathematically equivalent by means of Clifford Algebra Transformations.

de Oliveira, R; de Campos, V H G

2013-01-01

194

Transformative learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

Nemec, Patricia B

2012-12-01

195

Planning a Successful Tech Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

Nikirk, Martin

2011-01-01

196

Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Phospholipid hydrolysis to free fatty acid and l-lyso-phospholipid by water-soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the surface of lipid membranes exhibits a poorly understood transition from a low-activity lag phase to a burst regime of rapid hydrolysis. Understanding this kinetic phenomenon may increase our insight into the function of PLA2 under physiological conditions as well as into general interfacial catalysis. In the present study we apply for the first time cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the PLA2 hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag-burst phenomenon reflects a cascade process. The PLA(2)-induced changes in lipid composition transform the morphology which in turn results in an acceleration of the rate of hydrolysis because of a strong coupling between the PLA(2) activity and the morphology of the lipid suspension.

Callisen, Thomas HØnger

1998-01-01

197

Effect of the coating morphology on the drug release from engineered drug-polymer nanocomposites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ElectroNanospray process (Nanocopoeia, Inc) transforms drugs and polymers into many nanoscale material states including powders, liquids, encapsulated particles, and coatings. This enabling technology platform allows application of polymers and drugs to the surface of medical devices such as coronary stents in a single-stage process. Modification of ElectroNanospray process parameters resulted in surface coatings with rich morphologies ranging in appearance from smooth and heterogeneous to highly porous and rough (open matrix). The traditional approach of measuring percent release over time by HPLC shows that the drug release profiles change significantly with coating morphology. In this study, we employed high resolution imaging techniques such as SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Confocal Raman Microscopy to elucidate the drug release process on these coatings in situ, indicating a correlation of release kinetics with coating morphology. PMID:19963916

Dong, Jinping; Frethem, Chris; Haugstad, Greg; Hoerr, Robert A; Foley, John D; Matuszewski, Michael J; Puskas, Judit E

2009-01-01

198

Multistep nature of X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in golden hamster embryo cells: expression of transformed phenotypes and stepwise changes in karyotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the expression of transformed phenotypes and genetic changes associated with the expression of each transformed phenotype after X-ray irradiation. Unirradiated cells grown at a constant growth rate until 8 passages (population doubling number, 15) exhibited little morphological change and ceased to divide thereafter. X-irradiated cells escaped from senescence and showed morphological alteration and anchorage independence after a population doubling number of 20. The acquisition of tumorigenicity in nude mice was observed much later (35 population doublings after irradiation). From cytogenetic analysis, all anchorage-independent clones were consistently found to have trisomy of chromosome 7. Furthermore, cells derived from tumors contained three copies of chromosome 9q in addition to the trisomy of chromosome 7. We have not detected any augmented expression of v-Ha-ras- and v-myc-related oncogenes with RNA dot-blot analysis and could not find activation of any type of oncogenes by NIH3T3 transfection experiments. Our studies demonstrated that X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation is a multistep phenomenon and that the numerical change of specific chromosomes may play an important role in the expression of each transformed phenotype. The results suggest that different endogenous oncogenes, other than the ras gene family and myc oncogene, could be responsible for the progressive nature of neoplastic transformation

199

Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

Zaluzec, N. J.

1979-01-01

200

Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs

 
 
 
 
201

Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: 'Mahalle' as an urban structure since the Ottoman period  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of 'mahalle' which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize 'mahalle' with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

?mre Özbek Eren

2012-11-01

202

Towards the control of crystal shape and morphology distributions in crystallizers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Crystal morphology is a critical determinant of the physical properties of crystalline materials. The synthesis of crystals with desired morphologies requires a framework to guide the selection of environmental conditions. The framework developed here utilizes combinatorics to generate a graph of different morphologies connected by edges describing morphology transformations. These edges collectively form a polyhedral cone containing domains of different morphologies in a crystal-state space....

Singh, Meenesh R.

2013-01-01

203

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno, Millan.

204

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-06-01

205

Using Graphs to Show Connections  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this resource is to show how graphs of GLOBE data over time show the interconnectedness of Earth's system components at the local level. Students visit a study site, where they observe and recall their existing knowledge of air, water, soil, and living things to make a list of interconnections among the four Earth system components. They make predictions about the effects of a change in a system, inferring ways these changes affect the characteristics of other related components.

The GLOBE Program, University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR)

2003-08-01

206

Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

Navacchi Oriano

2002-09-01

207

Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the ?th fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

208

Hamlet's Transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

Usher, P. D.

1997-12-01

209

Surface morphology and fracture in handpiece adjusting of a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic with coarse diamond burs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Morphology and fracture on the removed leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. ? Morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile scratches, smear areas. ? Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for the ceramic removal. ? Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs. ? Temperature-induced phase transformations were detected in leucite-reinforced glass ceramic, which might cause crack initiation. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to understand surface morphology and fracture occurring on leucite-reinforced glass ceramic surfaces adjusted with coarse diamond burs. The surface roughness was quantitatively assessed using stylus profilometry and was analyzed statistically. The surface morphology was viewed using scanning electron microscopy. Surface phase transformations were preliminarily studied using Raman spectrometry. The results show that the surface roughness did not significantly depend on either depth of cut (p > 0.05) or feed rate (p > 0.05). However, when decreasing the depth of cut and the feed rate, a tendency for brittle-to-ductile transition existed. The surface morphology consisted of microfracture, chipping, ductile removal scratches, smear areas and debris. Brittle fracture was the primary mechanism for material removal. Lateral and radial cracks due to the mechanical impact of diamond burs were the major cause of surface fracture in the leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The maximum adjusting temperatures on the adjusted surfaces were estimated based on heat transfer analysis. The Raman spectra of the adjusted and unadjusted surfaces show a strong temperature-dependence of Raman shifts near 525–529 cm?1. This indicates the occurrence of temperature-induced cubic-tetragonal phase transformations in the adjusted leucite glass ceramic surfaces. These phase transformations are considered to contribute crack initiation and propagation on the adjusted surfaces.

210

Morphology of Ion-Sputtered Surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum theory to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that ...

Makeev, Maxim; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Baraba?si, Albert-la?szlo?

2000-01-01

211

The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on two aspects of expressive affixes: their morphological/typological properties and their semantics. With regard to the former, it shows that the expressive morphology of many languages (including Bantu, West Atlantic, Walman, Sanskrit, English, Romance, Slavic, and others), has the following properties: 1) it is systematically anomalous when compared to plain morphology, or the ordinary processes of word-formation and inflection. From this, it follows that many ...

Fortin, Antonio; Maiden, Martin; Asudeh, Arshia

2011-01-01

212

Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

Joly, E.

2004-01-01

213

Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general un...

Yan, Fengli; Gao, Ting; Yan, Zhichao

2012-01-01

214

Transformational Plasmon Optics  

CERN Document Server

Transformation optics has recently attracted extensive interest, since it provides a novel design methodology for manipulating light at will. Although transformation optics in principle embraces all forms of electromagnetic phenomena on all length scales, so far, much less efforts have been devoted to near-field optical waves, such as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to the tight confinement and strong field enhancement, SPPs are widely used for various purposes at the subwavelength scale. Taking advantage of transformation optics, here we demonstrate that the confinement as well as propagation of SPPs can be managed in a prescribed manner by careful control of the dielectric material properties adjacent to a metal. Since the metal properties are completely unaltered, it provides a straightforward way for practical realizations. We show that our approach can assist to tightly bound SPPs over a broad wavelength band at uneven and curved surfaces, where SPPs would normally suffer significant scattering lo...

Liu, Yongmin; Barta, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

2010-01-01

215

Nonlocal transformation optics  

CERN Document Server

We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects, and provide a physically-incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equi-frequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

Castaldi, Giuseppe; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

2011-01-01

216

Neoplastic transformation of hamster embryo cells by heavy ions  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/?m. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/?m, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation.

Han, Z.; Suzuki, H.; Suzuki, F.; Suzuki, M.; Furusawa, Y.; Kato, T.; Ikenaga, M.

1998-11-01

217

Microcavity morphology optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.

Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

2014-09-01

218

Lorentz Transformations  

CERN Document Server

This paper describes a particularly didactic and transparent derivation of basic properties of the Lorentz group. The generators for rotations around an arbitrary axis and boosts along an arbitrary direction, as well as their commutation relations, are written as functions of the components of the unit vectors that define the axis of rotation and direction of the boost. For finite values of the the angle of rotation or the boost's velocity, collectively denoted by V, the existence of an exponential expansion for the coordinate transformation's matrix (in terms V and the generators) requires that the matrix's derivative with respect to V, be equal to the product of this matrix with the generator. This condition can only be satisfied if the transformation is additive as it is indeed the case for rotations, whereas velocities are not additive in Relativity. If it is assumed, however, that for boosts such an expansion exists, with V = V(v), v being the velocity, and if the above condition is imposed on the boost'...

Durney, Bernard R

2011-01-01

219

Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

2004-01-01

220

Quantum optics of spatial transformation media  

CERN Document Server

Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

Leonhardt, Ulf

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Morphology control of KDP crystallites  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The actual crystal morphology is synergistically determined by atomic interactions between the crystal surface, growth units and additives in the mother solution. Our present results microscopically show that the ideal crystal morphology is greatly determined by intrinsic characteristics such as the bond number, direction and strength in the crystallographic frame, while ethanol molecules in the mother solution can intensively affect the crystal size and aspect ratio of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Some quantitative analyses concerning the addition of ethanol to the KDP solution are also described

222

Inhibition of cellular transformation by berry extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies have examined and demonstrated the potential cancer chemopreventive activity of freeze-dried berries including strawberries and black raspberries. Although ellagic acid, an abundant component in these berries, has been shown to inhibit carcinogenesis both in vivo and in vitro, several studies have reported that other compounds in the berries may also contribute to the observed inhibitory effect. In the present study, freeze-dried strawberries (Fragara ananassa, FA) or black raspberries (Rubus ursinus, RU) were extracted, partitioned and chromatographed into several fractions (FA-F001, FA-F003, FA-F004, FA-F005, FA-DM, FA-ME from strawberries and RU-F001, RU-F003, RU-F004, RU-F005, RU-DM, RU-ME from black raspberries). These extracts, along with ellagic acid, were analyzed for anti-transformation activity in the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model. None of the extracts nor ellagic acid by themselves produced an increase in morphological transformation. For assessment of chemopreventive activity, SHE cells were treated with each agent and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) for 7 days. Ellagic acid, FA-ME and RU-ME fractions produced a dose-dependent decrease in transformation compared with B[a]P treatment only, while other fractions failed to induce a significant decrease. Ellagic acid, FA-ME and RU-ME were further examined using a 24 h co-treatment with B[a]P or a 6 day treatment following 24 h with B[a]P. Ellagic acid showed inhibitory ability in both protocols. FA-ME and RU-ME significantly reduced B[a]P-induced transformation only when co-treated with B[a]P for 24 h. These results suggest that a methanol extract from strawberries and black raspberries may display chemopreventive activity. The possible mechanism by which these methanol fractions (FA-ME, RU-ME) inhibited cell transformation appear to involve interference of uptake, activation, detoxification of B[a]P and/or intervention of DNA binding and DNA repair. PMID:11181460

Xue, H; Aziz, R M; Sun, N; Cassady, J M; Kamendulis, L M; Xu, Y; Stoner, G D; Klaunig, J E

2001-02-01

223

Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

Xiaodong Zheng

2010-12-01

224

Rocks and Minerals Slide Show  

Science.gov (United States)

This interactive slide show of common rocks and minerals allows students to choose from two sets of minerals and click on a thumbnail to see a larger photograph with a full description of the mineral including color, streak, hardness, cleavage/fracture, and chemical composition. Also included are its use and where it is found. The rocks are divided into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic and can be accessed in the same manner. They are described on the basis of crystal size and mineral composition as well as use.

225

Transforming vulnerability.  

Science.gov (United States)

Asian American immigrant women engaged in filial caregiving are at special risk for health problems due to complex contextual factors related to immigration, cultural traditions, and role transition. This study examines the experience of two groups of immigrant Asian American women who are caring for older parents. A total of 41 women (22 Chinese American and 19 Filipino American) were interviewed in a study based on Strauss and Corbin's grounded theory methodology. The women were determined to be loyal to their traditional culture, which included strong filial values, while adapting to a new culture. Through the struggle of meeting role expectations and coping with paradox, the women mobilized personal and family resources to transform vulnerability into strength and well-being. PMID:14596182

Jones, Patricia S; Zhang, Xinwei Esther; Meleis, Afaf I

2003-11-01

226

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

227

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

CERN Document Server

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

Sernelius, Bo E

2009-01-01

228

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type. One case of primary adenocarcinoma was included in this study, where the adjacent bladder mucosa showed CG. Evaluation of the histological features of CG, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion and differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Rau Aarathi

2009-04-01

229

Morphology of galaxies  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled...

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

230

Multiscale top-hat selection transform based infrared and visual image fusion with emphasis on extracting regions of interest  

Science.gov (United States)

To effectively combine regions of interest in original infrared and visual images, an adaptively weighted infrared and visual image fusion algorithm is developed based on the multiscale top-hat selection transform. First, the multiscale top-hat selection transform using multiscale structuring elements with increasing sizes is discussed. Second, the image regions of the original infrared and visual images at each scale are extracted by using the multiscale top-hat selection transform. Third, the final fusion regions are constructed from the extracted multiscale image regions. Finally, the final fusion regions are combined into a base image calculated from the original images to form the final fusion result. The combination of the final fusion regions uses the adaptive weight strategy, and the weights are adaptively obtained based on the importance of the extracted features. In the paper, we compare seven image fusion methods: wavelet pyramid algorithm (WP), shift invariant discrete wavelet transform algorithm (SIDWT), Laplacian pyramid algorithm (LP), morphological pyramid algorithm (MP), multiscale morphology based algorithm (MSM), center-surround top-hat transform based algorithm (CSTHT), and the proposed multiscale top-hat selection transform based algorithm. These seven methods are compared over five different publicly available image sets using three metrics of spatial frequency, mean gradient, and Q. The results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and may be useful for the applications related to the infrared and visual image fusion.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Chen, Xiaowu; Zhou, Fugen; Liu, Zhaoying; Xue, Bindang

2013-09-01

231

Morphology of galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

232

Differential regulation of symmetry genes and the evolution of floral morphologies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shifts in flower symmetry have occurred frequently during the diversification of angiosperms, and it is thought that such shifts play important roles in plant-pollinator interactions. In the model developmental system Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), the closely related genes CYCLOIDEA (CYC) and DICHOTOMA (DICH) are needed for the development of zygomorphic flowers and the determination of adaxial (dorsal) identity of floral organs, including adaxial stamen abortion and asymmetry of adaxial petals. However, it is not known whether these genes played a role in the divergence of species differing in flower morphology and pollination mode. We compared A. majus with a close relative, Mohavea confertiflora (desert ghost flower), which differs from Antirrhinum in corolla (petal) symmetry and pollination mode. In addition, Mohavea has undergone a homeotic-like transformation in stamen number relative to Antirrhinum, aborting the lateral and adaxial stamens during flower development. Here we show that the patterns of expression of CYC and DICH orthologs have shifted in concert with changes in floral morphology. Specifically, lateral stamen abortion in Mohavea is correlated with an expansion of CYC and DICH expression, and internal symmetry of Mohavea adaxial petals is correlated with a reduction in DICH expression during petal differentiation. We propose that changes in the pattern of CYC and DICH expression have contributed to the derived flower morphology of Mohavea and may reflect adaptations to a pollination strategy resulting from a mimetic relationship, linking the genetic basis for morphological evolution to the ecological context in which the morphology arose. PMID:14555758

Hileman, Lena C; Kramer, Elena M; Baum, David A

2003-10-28

233

The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

2005-01-01

234

[Transformation of Volvariella volvacea with a thermal hysteresis protein gene by particle bombardment].  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding a thermal hysteresis protein was isolated from the Swedish Arctic insect spruce budworm by RT-PCR amplification. Volvariella volvacea strain V34 was transformed with this cDNA through particle bombardment. PCR detection and Southern blotting analysis show that the thermal hysteresis protein gene is integrated into Volvariella volvacea genome. Cold stress assay reveals that transgenic Volvariella volvacea lines exhibit stronger cold tolerance than host strain. The morphological observation of transgenic Volvariella volvacea lines shows that growth rates of most Volvariella volvacea transformants are significantly slower than that of negative control strain. And hypha of most Volvariella volvacea tansformants is thinner than host strain's hypha. Transformant screening result indicates that three-round of selection procedure with first selection on PDSA solid selective medium followed by second and third selection in PDSB liquid selective medium is favorable to get genuine transformants and to eliminate false transformants. Cold tolerance assay of transgenic Volvariella volvacea F1 generation demonstrates that the progeny of transgenic Volvariella volvacea still possesses stronger cold tolerance than non-transformed host strain. This suggests that the cold tolerant characteristic of transgenic Volvariella volvacea is meiotically stable between generations. PMID:15847160

Guo, Li-qiong; Lin, Jun-fang; Xiong, Sheng; Chen, Shou-cai

2005-02-01

235

Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-11-01

236

Surface-diffusion-driven decay of high-aspect-ratio gratings: existence of morphologically related classes.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present numerical and theoretical results concerning the technologically important process of evolution of high-aspect-ratio profiles due to surface diffusion under thermal treatment. We show how a broad class of initial gratings adopt, after a short transient stage, a typical shape that can be accurately described as a curve whose curvature has only two single Fourier modes as a function of the arc-length parameter. Moreover, we introduce a set of evolution equations for the relevant parameters that accounts very accurately for both morphological and kinetic aspects of the transformation processes for these curves in a wide region in parameter space. Regarding the decay of rectangular gratings, our numerical results show the existence of geometrically related classes that asymptotically approach to the same trajectory in parameter space. Gratings belonging to the same class pass through the same sequence of morphologies before reaching the final equilibrium state. PMID:23848697

Madrid, Marcos A; Salvarezza, Roberto C; Castez, Marcos F

2013-06-01

237

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

S Canaider

2009-12-01

238

Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

239

WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

Guy Courbebaisse

2011-05-01

240

Growth and morphological transformations of Helicobacter pylori in broth media.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helicobacter pylori, a cause of peptic ulcer disease and certain types of gastric cancers, has usually been cultured on diverse agar-based media, resulting in a requirement for 2 to 4 days of growth at 37 degrees C. We have developed a novel broth medium consisting of a base medium supplemented with 2% newborn calf serum, Mg2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and 1 mg of lysed human erythrocytes per ml. This medium supports rapid growth of H. pylori, with a doubling time of about 50 min. Optimal grow...

Andersen, A. P.; Elliott, D. A.; Lawson, M.; Barland, P.; Hatcher, V. B.; Puszkin, E. G.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

2007-01-01

242

A Completely Covariant Approach to Transformation Optics  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics.

Thompson, R T; Frauendiener, J

2010-01-01

243

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

244

Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound ({sup 3}H)bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations.

Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

1990-11-01

245

On Measure Transformed Canonical Correlation Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper linear canonical correlation analysis (LCCA) is generalized by applying a structured transform to the joint probability distribution of the considered pair of random vectors, i.e., a transformation of the joint probability measure defined on their joint observation space. This framework, called measure transformed canonical correlation analysis (MTCCA), applies LCCA to the data after transformation of the joint probability measure. We show that judicious choice...

Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.

2011-01-01

246

Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles  

CERN Document Server

Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

247

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses a significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene–substrate interaction, thus is distinct from the random intrinsic morphology of freestanding graphene. The regulated extrinsic morphology of graphene sheds light on new pathways to fine tune the properties of graphene. To guide further research to explore these fertile opportunities, this paper reviews recent progress on modeling and experimental studies of the extrinsic morphology of graphene under a wide range of external regulation, including two-dimensional and one-dimensional substrate surface features and one-dimensional and zero-dimensional nanoscale scaffolds (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles)

248

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

Norby, Poul

2011-01-01

249

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO 2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb V and an equivalent amount of Ti IV is transformed to Ti III as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti IV and Nb V cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O 2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb 2O 5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

Song, Haiyan; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ørnulv B.; Arstad, Bjørnar; Norby, Poul

2011-12-01

250

Morphological changes in the Golgi complex correlate with actin cytoskeleton rearrangements.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this report we have studied the morphological changes of the Golgi complex (GC) that specifically accompany F-actin reorganizations. In starved rat RBL-2H3 tumor mast cells, the GC, that was visualized at immunofluorescence level with antibodies raised against the Golgi-resident proteins giantin, mannosidase II, or TGN-38, showed a compacted morphology with a supranuclear positioning. Concomitant to membrane ruffle formation induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and stress fiber formation induced by lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), specific GC morphological changes were observed. When cells were stimulated with EGF or PMA, the compacted GC morphology was transformed into a reticular network that was extended towards the cell periphery. When cells were incubated with LPA, the GC acquired a characteristic ring-shaped morphology. Brefeldin A (BFA) did not affect the PMA- or LPA-induced membrane ruffling and stress fiber formation, respectively, indicating that actin rearrangements occurred independent of the presence of the GC. Upon BFA removal, the presence of PMA or LPA during the recovery process induced the GC to acquire the morphological appearance described above for each agent. Moreover, the PMA- but not the LPA-induced GC rearrangements were sensitive to the actin perturbing agents cytochalasin D and jasplakinolide. When cells were preincubated with the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin or LY294002, the PMA-induced GC morphological changes were inhibited but not membrane ruffles. Finally, the PMA-induced increase in the post-Golgi transport of glycosaminoglycans to the cell surface was not altered by cytochalasin D or jasplakinolide. Altogether, these data suggest that: (1) the shape of the GC is influenced by the 3D arrangement of actin microfilaments; (2) PI3K regulates the association of the GC with actin microfilaments; and (3) actin microfilaments are not essential for the post-Golgi transport to the plasma membrane. PMID:10423274

di Campli, A; Valderrama, F; Babià, T; De Matteis, M A; Luini, A; Egea, G

1999-01-01

251

Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO{sub 2} with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450 C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N{sub 2} show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater. (orig.)

Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Weng, Lv Qian [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Shao Jun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Central South University, State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Dong, Wen Yi [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Urban and Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China)

2011-07-15

252

Liquid Metal Transformers  

CERN Document Server

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

253

Cellular neoplastic transformation induced by 916 MHz microwave radiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells. PMID:22395787

Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wang, Minglian; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

2012-08-01

254

CaCO3 crystallization and morphology control by using purified soluble protein related to shell regeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

The soluble protein related to shell regeneration (SPSR) plays an important role to repair the damaged shell. In this study, the SPSR was used as a biocatalyst to control the crystal growth and morphology during in vitro CaCO3 crystallization. Anion exchange fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) was applied to separate the SPSR constituents. Each fraction from purification of the SPSR was subjected to CaCO3 crystallization to identify the fraction's effect on controlling the CaCO3 crystal morphology. CaCO3 crystallization experiments were performed by mixing solutions of CaCl2 and purified SPSR in the presence of vaporized (NH4)2CO3. The morphology of the CaCO3 crystals was characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The synthesized CaCO3 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) to reveal the type of crystals formed. In vitro CaCO3 crystallization process showed the effect of SPSR on the morphology change of CaCO3 crystals. We identified a condition for rapid crystal growth and specific morphology of CaCO3 in the presence of SPSR. Thus, our study confirms that SPSR governs CaCO3 crystallization and influences the observed crystal morphology.

Sambudi, Nonni S.; Park, Seung Bin; Lee, Seung-Woo

2013-06-01

255

On K-transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

C. Nasim

1981-09-01

256

Adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure show subtle alterations in striatal surface morphology and frontal cortical volumes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Published structural neuroimaging studies of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE in humans have yielded somewhat inconsistent results, with several studies reporting no significant differences in brain structure between exposed subjects and controls. Here, we sought to clarify some of these discrepancies by applying methodologies that allow for the detection of subtle alterations in brain structure. Methods We applied surface-based anatomical modeling methods to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI data to examine regional changes in the shape and volume of the caudate and putamen in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure (n?=?40, including 28 exposed participants and 12 unexposed controls, age range 14 to 16 years. We also sought to determine whether changes in regional brain volumes in frontal and subcortical regions occurred in adolescents with PCE compared to control participants. Results The overall volumes of the caudate and putamen did not significantly differ between PCE participants and controls. However, we found significant (P Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure may lead to subtle and regionally specific patterns of regional dysmorphology in the striatum and volumetric changes in the frontal lobes. The localized and bidirectional nature of effects may explain in part the contradictions in the existing literature.

Roussotte Florence

2012-08-01

257

Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cl...

Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

2012-01-01

258

[In vitro transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by four chemicals].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the early passage diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were used as the source of target. Four chemicals were appraised in SHE transformation test to determine whether they were carcinogens or not. They were (1) 2-benzoyl-hydrazono-1,3-diethiolane(BHD) (technical product); (2) isoprothiolane (pure product); (3) isoprothiolane (technical product); (4) benzene-abstracts from coal smoke of coke oven (benzene-abstracts). The results showed that morphological transformation was not observed when cells were not treated or treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, BHD, pure isoprothiolane and the technical product of isoprothiolane. The highest concentration had considerable cytotoxicity. In the groups of positive control (1.0 microgram/ml 3-methyl-cholanthrene, 10.0 micrograms/ml benzo (a) pyrene) and benzene-abstracts, we could observe colonies with random or criss-cross orientation and dense piling-up of cells. According to well known positive criteria, the benzene-abstracts can induce SHE cells morphological transformation. The other three chemicals can not induce SHE cells transformation. PMID:2793154

Zhang, Z Z; Zeng, X G; Guo, J T; Sun, M L; Zhang, X L

1989-03-01

259

Morphological Evolution of Asteroids  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent ground- and space-based observations of asteroids have revealed that these bodies are far more complex than once imagined. Surprisingly low bulk densities, giant craters, unusual shapes, non-principal-axis spin states, and satellites are all challenging our understanding of how asteroids form and evolve. Since asteroids are the remnants of the planet building era, understanding their nature improves our understanding of the origin of solar systems in general. I will review some of the more puzzling aspects of asteroid morphology, including the existence of asteroid satellites, and discuss recent theoretical advances aimed at understanding our tiny neighbors. I will show that both theoretical and observational evidence is pointing increasingly to asteroids being fragile assemblages of smaller pieces, called gravitational aggregates. The consequences of such fragmented internal structure on asteroid evolution and hazard mitigation will be discussed. This work has been supported in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Contract No. NAG511722 issued through the Office of Space Science.

Richardson, D. C.

2003-08-01

260

Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
261

Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

262

Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

2014-04-24

263

Growth and morphological characterization of Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention, when in situ composites are concerned. The eutectic alloys are regarded as presenting regular morphology (lamellar and fibrous structures). Besides, when directionally solidified they show high microstructure stability at high temperatures. This work reports a morphological study of an Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloy. The solidification morphology of the alloys was studied both in the as-cast and in the directionally solidified conditions. The samples were first obtained in an arc furnace and then directionally solidified using Bridgman equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 5.0 to 30.0 mm/h. Optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in order to determine the influence of the solidification conditions on the microstructure. The results obtained indicated that the eutectic transformation temperature is near 1347.9 deg. C with formation of Al3(Nb,Cr) and Cr(Al,Nb) phases. Also, it was noted that the Cr(Al,Nb) phase undergoes a polymorphic transformation (?892.3 deg. C) forming the Al(Nb)Cr2 compound, followed by eutectoid decomposition Cr(Al,Nb) ? Al(Nb)Cr2 + Al8Cr5

264

Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

Gabhane Sushma

2009-01-01

265

Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

Stevens, S. E.; Porter, R. D.

1986-01-01

266

Mechanisms for Galaxy Transformation in the Complex Environment of SuperGroup Abell 1882  

Science.gov (United States)

We present our results from a multi-wavelength study of galaxy transformations in the outskirts of SuperGroup Abell 1882, a highly filamentary and clumpy structure caught in the early stages of coalescing into a Coma-like cluster. Our data have been drawn from MMT, GMOS, WIYN, SDSS, SARA, CFHT, GALEX, Spitzer and Chandra. Clusters grow by accretion through filaments, and these accreted galaxies undergo transformations due to environmental effects. Radial locations of these transformations in cluster outskirts can be mapped to a time sequence. In relaxed clusters, several evolutionary mechanisms take effect on similar spatial and temporal scales, thus making it almost impossible to disentangle different local and global mechanisms. A SuperGroup, on the other hand, has shallower Dark Matter potential. Here, the accreting galaxies are subjected to evolutionary mechanisms over larger time and spatial scales. This separates processes that are otherwise superimposed in rich cluster-filament interfaces. We have studied transformations in Specific Star Formation Rate, birth rate parameter, color and morphological properties of 342 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies of Abell 1882, as they make their journey through the feeding filaments into the high density core of the structure, as a function of their local galaxy density and structure-centric distance. Our results show that significant transformations in galaxies begin to occur much before the galaxies reach the X-ray gas environments of the dense groups. This indicates that ram pressure stripping is unlikely driver of early galaxy transformations in proto-clusters.

Sengupta, Aparajita; Keel, W. C.; Morrison, G. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Smith, B.

2013-01-01

267

Morphology of Nearby Galaxies  

Science.gov (United States)

Improved knowledge of the morphology of nearby galaxies has resulted from large imaging surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS; optical wavelengths), the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX; near- and far-ultraviolet wavelengths), and the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G; mid-infrared wavelengths). In this review, I summarize the basic aspects of nearby galaxy morphology and highlight the strength of the morphological survey as a means of learning more about how galaxies are structured and how they might evolve.

Buta, R. J.

2014-03-01

268

Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

2011-01-01

269

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar+) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 1018 to 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C-C and C-F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux.

Atta, Ali; Fawzy, Yasser H. A.; Bek, Alpan; Abdel-Hamid, Hassan M.; El-Oker, Mohamed M.

2013-04-01

270

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar{sup +}) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 10{sup 18} to 2 × 10{sup 18} ions/cm{sup 2}. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux.

Atta, Ali; Fawzy, Yasser H.A. [Radiation Physics Department, National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) (Egypt); Bek, Alpan, E-mail: bek@metu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Middle East Technical University (METU), Ankara (Turkey); Abdel-Hamid, Hassan M. [Diagnostic Radiology Department, Applied Medical Sciences Faculty, Jazan University (Saudi Arabia); El-Oker, Mohamed M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Cairo (Egypt)

2013-04-01

271

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar+) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 1018 to 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux

272

Morphological neural networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

273

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

Li, Teng

2011-01-01

274

Transformation of the Zagreb urban region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

Milan Ili?

2004-01-01

275

Morphology of Ion-Sputtered Surfaces  

CERN Document Server

We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum theory to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect, and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear te...

Makeev, M A; Barabási, A L; Makeev, Maxim; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barab\\'asi, Albert-L\\'aszl\\'o

2002-01-01

276

Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals. PMID:18683170

Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

2009-09-15

277

Courtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the small random deviations from perfect morphological symmetry that result during development, is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. In many species, FA seems to play a role in mate choice, perhaps because it signals an individual's genetic quality and health. However, the relationship between an individual's FA and behaviour is generally unknown: what do more asymmetric individuals do about their own asymmetry? We now show for the first time that individua...

Gross, Mart R.; Suk, Ho Young; Robertson, Cory T.

2007-01-01

278

Quantum operations, state transformations and probabilities  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In quantum operations, probabilities characterize both the degree of the success of a state transformation and, as density operator eigenvalues, the degree of mixedness of the final state. We give a unified treatment of pure?pure state transformations, covering both probabilistic and deterministic cases. We then discuss the role of majorization in describing the dynamics of mixing in quantum operations. The conditions for mixing enhancement for all initial states are derived. We show that mixing is monotonically decreasing for deterministic pure?pure transformations, and discuss the relationship between these transformations and deterministic local operations with classical communication entanglement transformations

279

Quantum operations, state transformations and probabilities  

Science.gov (United States)

In quantum operations, probabilities characterize both the degree of the success of a state transformation and, as density operator eigenvalues, the degree of mixedness of the final state. We give a unified treatment of pure-->pure state transformations, covering both probabilistic and deterministic cases. We then discuss the role of majorization in describing the dynamics of mixing in quantum operations. The conditions for mixing enhancement for all initial states are derived. We show that mixing is monotonically decreasing for deterministic pure-->pure transformations, and discuss the relationship between these transformations and deterministic local operations with classical communication entanglement transformations.

Chefles, Anthony

2002-05-01

280

Linear transformations of quantum states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper considers the most general linear transformation of a quantum state. We enumerate the conditions necessary to retain a physical interpretation of the transformed state: hermiticity, normalization and complete positivity. We show that these can be formulated in terms of an associated transformation introduced by Choi in 1975. We extend his treatment and display the mathematical argumentation in a manner closer to that used in traditional quantum physics. We contend that our approach displays the implications of the physical requirements in a simple and intuitive way. In addition, defining an arbitrary vector, we may derive a probability distribution over the spectrum of the associated transformation. This fixes the average of the eigenvalue independently of the vector chosen. The formal results are illustrated by a couple of examples

 
 
 
 
281

Detection of myocardial ischemia episode using morphological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we propose to use morphological features that are easy to identify to differentiate myocardial ischemic beats from normal beats. In general, myocardial ischemia causes alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) signal such as deviation in the ST segment. When the ST segment level deviates from a certain voltage, the beat would be diagnosing as myocardial ischemia. To emphasize on ST variations, the QRS complex of the ECG signal was first subtracted and replaced with a straight line. Five-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed to decompose the waveform into subband components and the A5 subband, which is most sensitive to the changes in the ST segment, was reconstructed for the calculation of 12 morphological features. The support vector machine (SVM) and the 10-fold cross-validation method were employed to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show high values of 95.20%, 93.29%, and, 93.63% in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, that were demonstrated to outperform the other methods in the literature. PMID:24111439

Fan, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yu; Yu, Sung-Nien; Lin, Jou-Wei

2013-01-01

282

Soluble vs insoluble hexavalent chromate. Relationship of mutation to in vitro transformation and particle uptake.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soluble CaCrO4 and insoluble PbCrO4 were tested for induction of mutation to 6-thioguanine (base-substitution, deletion, addition, and frameshift mutations) or ouabain (base-substitution mutations) resistance in Chinese hamster ovary cells and morphological transformation in C3H/10(1/2) mouse embryo cells. CaCrO4 induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity and mutation to 6-thioguanine resistance, but did not induce mutation to ouabain resistance or morphological transformation. Highly cytotoxic amounts of CaCrO4 induced conversion of 10T1/2 cells to adipocytes, but cell lines derived from such cells were not transformed. PbCrO4 was not mutagenic in either mutation assay but induced a dose-dependent, low frequency of focus formation. Cell lines established from these foci had a 3-5-fold increased saturation density, grew in soft agarose, and were tumorigenic in nude mice. Chronic exposure to CaCrO4 or PbCl2 did not induce transformation, PbCl2 was inactive even at acutely cytotoxic concentrations, and sequential treatments with CaCrO4 and PbCl2 did not induce transformation. Light and scanning electron microscopy showed progressive cytoplasmic engulfment of PbCrO4 particles and extensive vacuolization of cells in contact with the particles. No particles were observed inside of vacuoles. We suggest that internalization of PbCrO4 and the associated cellular stress response may be related to PbCrO4-induced neoplastic transformation of 10T1/2 cells. PMID:2484629

Patierno, S R; Landolph, J R

1989-01-01

283

Equilibrium morphology of the Ag(110) surface  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reports on He-atom scattering measurements performed in order to shed light on the equilibrium morphology of the bare Ag(110) surface. Measurements of the specular peak profile along and slightly off the out-of-phase scattering condition show that the proposed "hill and valley" configuration is originated by thermally induced segregation of bulk impurities. Proper cleaning procedure is described to obtain the unfaceted surface which is proven to be the equilibrium morphology of Ag(110).

Bracco, G.; Pedemonte, L.; Tatarek, R.

1996-05-01

284

Morphological filters for OCR: a performance comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article is compared the ability of several morphological operators to improve OCR performance when used as preprocessing filters. An experiment on binary and greyscale images using the Tesseract OCR engine and morphological filters acting in complex, graph and vertex spaces has thus been performed and results in a good overall performance of complex and area filters. MSE measures have also been performed to evaluate the denoising ability of these filters, which again shows the good pe...

Mennillo, Laurent; Cousty, Jean; Najman, Laurent

2012-01-01

285

An Improved Chirplet Transform and Its Application for Harmonics Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chirplet transform is the generalization form of fast Fourier transform , short-time Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It has the most flexible time frequency window and successfully used in practices. However, the chirplet transform has not inherent inverse transform, and can not overcome the signal reconstructing problem. In this paper, we proposed the improved chirplet transform (ICT and constructed the inverse ICT. Finally, by simulating the harmonic voltages, The power of the improved chirplet transform are illustrated for harmonic detection. The contours clearly showed the harmonic occurrence time and harmonic duration.

Guo-Sheng Hu

2011-07-01

286

The synaptic morphological perceptron  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

Myers, Daniel S.

2006-08-01

287

Morphological Development in Children's Writing.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors examined inflectional and derivational morphological forms within narratives written by 247 3rd and 4th graders. Results indicate that children's control of morphological structures in their writing mirrors that in their speech: inflectional morphology is largely mastered by age 9 or 10, but skills with derivational morphology continue…

Green, Laura; McCutchen, Deborah; Schwiebert, Catherine; Quinlan, Tom; Eva-Wood, Amy; Juelis, J.

2003-01-01

288

Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

RENU AWASTHI

2012-09-01

289

Gauge transformations are canonical transformations, redux  

CERN Document Server

In this short note we return to the old paper by Tai L. Chow (Eur. J. Phys. 18 (1997), 467-468) and correct its erroneous final part. We also note that the main result of that paper, that gauge transformations of mechanics are canonical transformations, was known much earlier.

Silagadze, Z K

2014-01-01

290

Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

2010-03-24

291

Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

292

The Morphological Origin of Dwarf Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

Dwarf galaxies (DGs) serve as extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. Their origin is expected to be set as the first units in CDM cosmology. Nevertheless they are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental in uences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has a?ected the evolution. Here we refer to general morphological DG types and review some general processes, most of which deplete gas-rich irregular DGs. Moreover, the variety of pecularities is brie y refered, but cannot be comprehensively analyzed because of limited paper space.

Hensler, Gerhard

2011-01-01

293

Characterization of morphological response of red cells in a sucrose solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dynamics of red cell shape changes following transfer into sucrose media having a low chloride content was studied. Based on a large number of measurements, six types of morphological response (MR), differing both in the degree of shape changes and the time course of the process, were identified. The most prominent type of response is a triphasic sequence of shape changes consisting of a fast transformation into a sphere (phase 1), followed by restoration of the discoid shape (phase 2) and final transformation into spherostomatocytes (phase 3), with individual parameters which could vary significantly. It was found that individual morphological response exhibited day to day variations, depending on the initial state of the red blood cells and the donor, but to a larger extent depended on the composition of the sucrose solution, such as concentration and type of buffers, the presence of EDTA, calcium, as well as very small amounts of extracellular hemoglobin. MR shows strong pH and ionic strength dependence. Low pH inhibited phase 1 and high pH changed dramatically the time course of the response. Increasing ionic strength inhibited all phases of MR, and at concentrations above 10-20 mM NaCl it was fully suppressed. Tris and phosphate were also inhibitory whereas HEPES, MOPS and Tricine were less effective. MR occurred also in hypertonic or hypotonic sucrose solutions, with exception of extreme hypotonicity due to volume restrictions. It is concluded that strong membrane depolarization per se is not a causal factor leading to MR, and its different phases could be regulated independently. For some types of morphological response the fast shape transformation from sphere to disc and back to sphere occurs within a 10 s time interval and could be accelerated several fold in the presence of a small amount of hemoglobin. It is suggested that MR represents a type of general cell reaction that occurs upon exposure to low ionic strength. PMID:19249232

Rudenko, Sergey V

2009-01-01

294

Effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via a hydrothermal route  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Well-dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with different morphologies were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in oleic acid, ethanol and water reaction system, and the surfactant assisted modifications effect was also comparatively studied. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of HA nanorods were discussed in detail. The results showed that the controlled experimental conditions in the systems, such as the content ratio of oleic acid/ethanol, pH value and the content ratio of Ca/P source had an significant effect on the morphology evolution of as-prepared HA nanorods. Further, the selected surfactant additives, such as cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12) also play an important role in the formation of the uniform morphology of HA nanorods. Some possible formation mechanisms of the HA nanorods in the present reaction systems is proposed.

295

Morphology and thermodynamic properties of a copolymer with an electronically conducting block: poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide).  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the synthesis and morphology of a block copolymer, poly(3-(2'-ethylhexyl)thiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3EHT-b-PEO), that conducts both electrons and ions. We show that in the melt state the P3EHT-b-PEO chains self-assemble to produce traditional nanoscale morphologies such as lamellae and gyroid. This is in contrast to a majority of previous studies on copolymers with electronically conducting blocks wherein a nanofibrillar morphology is obtained. Our approach enables estimation of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?. The segregation strength between the two blocks is controlled through the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). For the salt-free sample, the gyroid morphology, obtained in the melt state, is transformed into lamellae below the melting temperature of the P3EHT block. This is due to the "breaking out" of the crystalline phase. For the salt-containing sample, P3EHT-b-PEO has a lamellar morphology in both melt and crystalline states (confined crystallization). PMID:22839306

Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Beers, Keith M; Pople, John A; Ho, Victor; Segalman, Rachel A; Balsara, Nitash P

2012-09-12

296

Highly Porous NiTi with Isotropic Pore Morphology Fabricated by Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly porous NiTi with isotropic pore morphology has been successfully produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental Ni/Ti metallic powders. The effects of adding urea and NaCl as temporary pore fillers were investigated on pore morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and the phase transformation temperatures of specimens. These parameters were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly porous specimens were obtained with up to 83% total porosity and pore sizes between 300 and 500 ?m in diameter. Results show pore characteristics were improved from anisotropic to isotropic and pore morphology was changed from channel-like to irregular by adding pore filler powders. Furthermore, the highly porous specimens produced when using urea as a space holder, were of more uniform composition in comparison to NaCl. DSC results showed that a two-step martensitic phase transformation takes place during the cooling cycles and the austenite finish temperature ( A f) is close to human body temperature. Compression test results reveal that the compressive strength of highly porous NiTi is about 155 MPa and recoverable strain about 6% in superelasticity regime.

Hosseini, S. A.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Meshkot, M. A.

2013-02-01

297

Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase the productivity in industrial processes. Because of the predictable behavior fungal morphology showed in dependence of osmolality, a customization of morphology for process needs seems feasible.

Krull Rainer

2011-07-01

298

Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

2014-01-01

299

Generalized Tree-Based Wavelet Transform  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we propose a new wavelet transform applicable to functions defined on graphs, high dimensional data and networks. The proposed method generalizes the Haar-like transform proposed in \\cite{gavish2010mwot}, and it is similarly defined via a hierarchical tree, which is assumed to capture the geometry and structure of the input data. It is applied to the data using a multiscale filtering and decimation scheme, which can employ different wavelet filters. We propose a tree construction method which results in efficient representation of the input function in the transform domain. We show that the proposed transform is more efficient than both the 1D and 2D separable wavelet transforms in representing images. We also explore the application of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that combined with a subimage averaging scheme, it achieves denoising results which are similar to the ones obtained with the K-SVD algorithm.

Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

2010-01-01

300

Phase Transformation of Rice Husk Ash in the Synthesis of ZSM-5 without Organic Template  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phase transformation of rice husk ash in the synthesis of ZSM-5 without organic template at various crystallization times has been studied. Zeolite has been synthesized using the hydrothermal method at 175 °C with molar ratio 10Na2O : 100SiO2 : 2Al2O3 : 1800H2O with addition of silicalite-1 as seed. Solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared (IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Analysis of the results of XRD and IR spectroscopy indicated that ZSM-5 crystals started to form at 12 h of crystallization time, reaching high crystallinity after 24 h. With a crystallization time of more than 48 h, the ZSM-5 crystals had completely transformed to the more stable quartz phase. The results indicate that phase transformation had occurred, in which an amorphous phase of rice husk ash has been transformed to ZSM-5 crystal phase during the early crystallization stages and continued to transform to disordered ?-cristobalite phase and lastly quartz phase. SEM showed that the morphology of the ZSM-5 crystals was of an irregular hexagonal shape with particle size distribution around 3-7 ?m.

Didik Prasetyoko

2012-11-01

 
 
 
 
301

Berko's Test of Morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study explores and describes the evolution of the child's ability to apply morphological rules to new words by asking the child to inflect, to derive, to compound, and to analyze compound words. Nonsense words for the test were created following the rules for possible sound combinations in English. Pictures to represent the nonsense words…

Berko, Jean

302

Long term morphological modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

303

Mastocytosis: immunophenotypical features of the transformed mast cells are unique among hematopoietic cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mastocytosis is a disease of bone marrow origin histologically characterized by compact tissue infiltrates of atypical mast cells never seen in reactive states. Most patients with mastocytosis have transformed mast cells carrying an activating point mutation at codon 816 of KIT and also show an elevated serum tryptase level. In this article immunophenotypical features of mast cells are described. Based on these features, mast cells are not closely related to other myeloid cells. Using the knowledge on aberrantly expressed antigens by mast cells, the hematopathologist should be able to recognize the disease even in the presence of unusual morphologic findings or an associated hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease. PMID:24745676

Horny, Hans-Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Valent, Peter

2014-05-01

304

Transformational Leadership in Wartime.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intent of this paper is to examine three case studies of wartime transformation, analyze common factors leading to success, and suggest what kind of leadership the Army requires in its current effort to transform.

S. Eden

2004-01-01

305

On SYZ mirror transformations  

CERN Document Server

In this expository paper, we discuss how Fourier-Mukai-type transformations (SYZ mirror transformations) can be applied to provide geometric explanations for various mirror symmetry phenomena, including cases where quantum corrections do exist.

Chan, Kwokwai

2008-01-01

306

Allotropic transformations in ruthenium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The results of the investigations of the allotropic transformations in ruthenium are described. The absolute black body was simulated and monochromatic coefficients of the radiation were determined. The phase transformations were founded

307

Solid State Power Transformer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Apparatus for providing the voltage transformation functions of a conventional electrical power transformer. An AC input signal is chopped in a solid state switching converter at a frequency very much larger than the frequency of the input signal and then...

J. L. Brooks, R. I. Staab, J. C. Bowers, H. A. Nienhaus

1980-01-01

308

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Hig...

Sompong Te-chato*; Vitoon Chaipakdee

2003-01-01

309

Transformational silicon electronics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 ?m), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-?/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. PMID:24476361

Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

2014-02-25

310

Superantenna made of transformation media  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show how transformation media can make a superantenna that is either completely invisible or focuses incoming light into a needle-sharp beam. Our idea is based on representing three-dimensional space as a foliage of sheets and performing two-dimensional conformal maps on each sheet.

311

Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or material simplification. The corresponding invisibility performances of the approximate or simplified cylindrical cloaks are presented in detail.

Yan, Min Technical University of Denmark,

2008-01-01

312

Entangled symplectic wavelet transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

The symplectic wavelet transformation proposed in Opt. Lett. 31, 3432 (2006), which is related to the optical Fresnel transform in the quantum optics version, is developed into an entangled symplectic wavelet transformation (ESWT) after pointing out the contrast between the single-mode Fresnel operator and the entangled Fresnel operator. The ESWT possesses well-behaved properties and corresponds to the entangled Fresnel transform [Phys. Lett. A334, 132 (2005)].

Fan, Hong-Yi; Liu, Shu-Guang

2007-06-01

313

Shiftable multiscale transforms  

Science.gov (United States)

A type of translational invariance, referred to as shiftability, is defined for wavelet transforms. The property of shiftability is first discussed with respect to individual parameters: spatial position, orientation, and scale. The discussion then focuses on transformations that are simultaneously shiftable with respect to subsets of these parameters. It is shown that the critical sampling condition on the wavelet transforms must be relaxed to achieve shiftability. Two example transforms are implemented and applied to several signal and image processing problems.

Simoncelli, Eero P.; Freeman, William T.; Adelson, Edward H.; Heeger, David J.

1992-01-01

314

Relationship between morphological change and crystalline phase transitions of polyethylene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymers. 3. Dependence of morphological transition phenomena on the PE/PEO segmental lengths and its possible origins.  

Science.gov (United States)

By measurement of the small-angle and wide-angle X-ray scatterings and infrared and Raman spectra and thermal data, microphase separation phenomena have been investigated for a series of polyethylene-poly(ethylene oxide) diblock copolymer (PE-b-PEO) in both the heating and cooling processes and compared with the structural changes occurring inside the PE and PEO domains. The complicated morphological changes between lamella, perforated lamella, gyroid, cylinder, and sphere phases were detected for the copolymer with relatively short PE segments. The orthorhombic crystalline structure of PE was kept unchanged in the lamella-to-gyroid transition. When the PE orthorhombic phase transformed to the pseudohexagonal or rotator phase, the gyroid morphology changed to the cylinder. On the other hand, the diblock copolymer with relatively long PE segment was found to show only the lamellar morphology, in which the order-disorder structural transition between the orthorhombic and pseudohexagonal phases occurred in the PE crystal region. As a possibility, the large difference in morphological change between the copolymers with short and long PE segments has been ascribed to the difference in thermal mobility of PE segments, which is controlled by the conformation of chains and their packing mode, i.e., an extended chain or a folded chain. The extended chains may move thermally and actively along the interfacial boundary in addition to the librational motion around the chain axis, resulting in a variety of morphological changes, whereas the thermal motion of the folded chains may be suppressed because of the geometrical constraint and does not cause such a large-scale morphological change from the lamellar structure. This concept, a thermal activity and geometrical constraint, is considered to be quite important in the interpretation of complicated morphological changes observed for many crystalline-amorphous and crystalline-crystalline diblock copolymers when viewed from the molecular level. PMID:19485376

Cao, Weiyu; Tashiro, Kohji; Masunaga, Hiroyasu; Sasaki, Sono; Takata, Masaki

2009-06-25

315

Laplace transformation updated  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The traditional theory of Laplace transformation in its currently prevalent form is unsatisfactory. Its deficiencies can be traced back to a mismatch of the definition intervals of the original function and of the inverse L-transform. A new approach is outlined by which Laplace transformation becomes liberated from its inconsistencies.

Terhardt, Ernst

2005-01-01

316

Reversible integer color transform.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this correspondence, we introduce a systematic algorithm that can convert any 3 x 3 color transform into a reversible integer-to-integer transform. We also discuss the ways to improve accuracy and reduce implementation complexity. We derive the integer RGB-to-KLA, IV1 V2, YCbCr, DCT, YUV, and YIQ transforms that are optimal in accuracy. PMID:17547145

Pei, Soo-Chang; Ding, Jian-Jiun

2007-06-01

317

The Tunneling Transform  

CERN Document Server

We supplement the Lorentz transform $L(v)$ with a new "Tunneling" transform $T(v)$. Application of this new transform to elementary quantum mechanics offers a novel, intuitive insight into the nature of quantum tunneling; in particular, the so called "Klein Paradox" is discussed.

Hipple, Robert

2014-01-01

318

Ultracoherence and Canonical Transformations  

CERN Document Server

Canonical transformations are studied in the bosonic Fock space using coherent and ultracoherent vectors. The connection between the Weyl operator and the homogeneous canonical transformations (Bogoliubov transformations) is presented. The unitary ray representation of the symplectic group is defined in the bosonic Fock space by the action of the group on the ultracoherent vectors.

Kupsch, J; Kupsch, Joachim; Banerjee, Subhashish

2004-01-01

319

Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

Gavrilets, S

1998-01-01

320

Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

Bo-Young Hur

2009-11-01

 
 
 
 
321

Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation  

CERN Document Server

Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cloaking devices. Our analysis includes several examples containing different bump geometries that illustrate the proposed methodology.

Ochiai, T

2012-01-01

322

Bound state transformation walls  

CERN Document Server

In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and tha...

Andriyash, Evgeny; Jafferis, Daniel L; Moore, Gregory W

2010-01-01

323

Transformed Auto-correlation  

CERN Document Server

A transformed auto-correlation method is presented here, where a received signal is transformed based on a priori reflecting model, and then the transformed signal is cross-correlated to its original one. If the model is correct, after transformation, the reflected signal will be coherent to the transmitted signal, with zero delay. A map of transformed auto-correlation function with zero delay can be generated in a given parametric space. The significant peaks in the map may indicate the possible reflectors nearby the central transmitter. The true values of the parameters of reflectors can be estimated at the same time.

Zhou, Jianfeng

2014-01-01

324

Mineralogy, morphology and crystal-chemistry of the monazite from Catalao 1 (Goias, Brazil)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Catalao alkaline carbonatite complex hosts a number of mineral resources including monazite. This mineral is a common accessory phase in two lithological units: carbonatite and silexite. Textural evidence suggest that monazite replaced carbonates in the carbonatite and crystallized simultaneously with quartz in the silexite. Monazite was resistant to the strong laterization that affected the massif, except for the incipient transformation into gorceixite or cerianite. In both carbonatite and silexite, monazite occurs as a complex aggregate of sub-micrometric crystals, showing unusual morphological and chemical characteristics. It contains Ca, Sr, and Ba in the A-site, and shows a certain degree of hydration indicated by ATD and IV data. Structural formulae calculated on the basis of sum of cations=1 show a moderate ionic deficiency in the anionic site. Rietveld refinement indicated poor crystallinity. Notwithstanding these peculiar characteristics, cell dimensions are similar to those of standard monazite. (author)

325

Origin of Anomalous Uplift at Inside Corner Highs: the importance of transform parallel normal faulting and transverse ridge formation  

Science.gov (United States)

Inside Corner Highs (ICH's) are regions of anomalous elevation at the inside corner of ridge-transform intersections, which rise to depths of only a few hundred meters below sea level. The cause of this anomalous elevation is poorly understood, but is commonly ascribed to processes of detachment faulting and the consequent isostatic uplift at the axial valley of mid-ocean ridges. Two of the best studied examples are: Atlantis Bank on the Atlantis II transform at 57°E on the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) and Atlantis Massif on the Atlantis transform at 30°N on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Multi-beam bathymetry data show that these highs generally have a gently domed or subhorizontal, planar upper surface, that is dissected by major transform-parallel normal faults with apparent throws of up to one kilometer, which must accommodate a significant proportion of the anomalous uplift. These highs are also associated with anomalously elevated transform-parallel linear ridges (transverse ridges) implying a link between the anomalous uplift, transform-parallel faults and transform processes. Common processes at large-offset (>100 km) transform faults are trans-tension and trans-pression caused by relatively frequent changes in plate spreading direction (for example a 10° counter-clockwise change in plate motion at 20 Ma for the Atlantis II Transform). During trans-tension at slow-spreading ridges, thick cold lithosphere adjacent to the ridge-transform intersections inhibits rift propagation and the creation of a favorably oriented transform. The duration, amount and location of the trans-tension will depend on 1) the change in plate spreading direction, 2) the time over which this change occurs, 3) the length of the transform, 4) the half-spreading rate of the plates, and 5) the relative rates at which the ridges at either end of the transform propagate laterally in order to re-orient the transform fault to be parallel to spreading. We present geometrical models of the temporal evolution of large-offset transform faults, which have been affected by changes in plate spreading direction, and use these models to predict the flexural uplift and subsequent thermal subsidence history of ICH's and their associated transverse ridges. The Atlantis II Transform is a large offset (195 km / 22 Ma) transform with a distinct Y-shaped geometry transform valley, 15 km wide to the south but widening to over 30 km in the North and with a 135 km long transverse ridge to the east of the Transform from 32°35'S to 33°45'S. Magnetic data suggest that the ridge segments adjacent to the transform are spreading asymmetrically such that the transform has been growing at 3mm/yr for the past 20 Ma. The 10° counter-clockwise rotation in the plate spreading vector ~20 Ma resulted in at least 12.4 Ma of trans-tension. Different modes of rift propagation at the northern and southern ends of the transform fault generated an asymmetric pull-apart basin that evolved to produce the observed morphology of the present day transform valley.

Baines, G.; Cheadle, M.; John, B.; Kusznir, N.

2002-12-01

326

THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

327

The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 ? a2)/?2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/?2). Physically, (a1 ? a2)/?2 and (a1 + a2)/?2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form

328

The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 - a2)/?2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/?2). Physically, (a1 - a2)/?2 and (a1 + a2)/?2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form.

Xie, Chuan-Mei; Fan, Hong-Yi

2012-10-01

329

Morphological Detection of Malware  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-yves

2008-01-01

330

Evolution of Galaxy Morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A strictly empirical review is given of presently available data on the evolution of galaxy morphology. From HST observations of distant galaxies and ground-based observations of nearby ones observed at the same rest-frame wavelength it is found that late-type (Sbc-Sc) galaxies evolve more rapidly with increasing redshift than do early-type (E-Sa-Sab) galaxies. Furthermore the fraction of peculiar objects, that cannot be shoehorned into the Hubble tuning fork classification ...

Bergh, Sidney Den

2002-01-01

331

Molecular Expressions: Electricity and Magnetism - Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This java simulation illustrates the operation of a transformer. The user can change the input voltage and the number of primary and secondary windings. The simulation shows the input and output signal for the transformer. This resource is part of a larger collection on electricity and magnetism by the same authors.

Davidson, Michael

2007-10-23

332

Mixing on Rank-One Transformations  

CERN Document Server

We prove that mixing on rank-one transformations is equivalent to the spacer sequence being slice-ergodic. Slice-ergodicity, introduced in this paper, generalizes the notion of ergodic sequence to the uniform convergence of ergodic averages (as in the mean ergodic theorem) over subsequences of partial sums. We show that polynomial staircase transformations satisfy this condition and therefore are mixing.

Creutz, D; Creutz, Darren; Silva, Cesar E.

2006-01-01

333

Transformation of Iopamidol during Chlorination.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MS(n) fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/?L). PMID:25325766

Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

2014-11-01

334

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri Henry

2008-03-01

335

Transformation behavior of layered LaOCl to La(OH)3 nanostructures in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LnOCl (Ln = La, Nd, and Sm) with layered structure was transformed into Ln(OH)3 in water. The electron microscopy images of La(OH)3 showed various nanostructures such as nanoneedles, nanowires, nanoneedle chains, nanoneedle bundles, and nanochain bundles. Although the formation mechanism is not accompanied by a typical exfoliation of LaOCl into individual sheets because of no existence of true van der Waals gap between layers, this transformation proceeds in highly controlled manner to yield regular nanostructures. The nanoneedles are the fundamental building blocks for the evolution of other complex one-dimensional structures, depending on their assembly fashions. The length and number of nanoneedles constituting single bundle structure can be slightly controlled by adjusting the pH values of aqueous solutions. The shape of LaOCl precursor plays a key role in the final size, morphology, and alignment of La(OH)3 nanoneedles at room temperature

336

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

2008-03-01

337

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

338

Computer simulation of martensitic transformation under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports a computer simulation of martensitic transformation in both Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Ni-C alloys by a 2-dimensional model. The influence of the imposed stress on the mechanical behaviour, the transformation kinetics, and the microstructure are illustrated for Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The study of transformation kinetics shows the following features: (1) in case of stress-free transformation, both alloys transform in burst, the transformation will go directly to near completion once a band can overcome the energy barrier. (2) the transformation temperature range spreads monotonically as the load is increased from 0 to 500 MPa. (3) Mf is nearly the same for the different tested loading conditions. Even if the assumption of elastic accommodation is not realistic for Fe-Ni-C alloy, we can analyse the influence of the volume change associated with the transformation on the local stress level and on the behaviour of the alloy. This volume change has no notable influence at the earlier stage of the transformation. It becomes larger as the transformed fraction increases. (orig.)

339

Phase transformations in shock compacted magnetic materials  

Science.gov (United States)

Shock compaction experiments were performed on soft magnetic phases Fe 4N and Fe16N2, and hard magnetic phases Nd 2Fe14B and Sm2Fe17N3 in order to determine their thermo-mechanical stability during shock loading and explore the possibility of fabricating a textured nanocomposite magnet. Gas gun experiments performed on powders pressed in a three capsule fixture showed phase transformations occurring in Fe4N, Fe16N 2, and Nd2Fe14B, while Sm2Fe17 N3 was observed to be relatively stable. Shock compaction of FCC Fe4N resulted in a partial transformation to HCP Fe3N, consistent with previous reports of the transition occurring at a static pressure of ~3 GPa. Shock compaction of Fe16N 2 produced decomposition products ?-Fe, Fe4N, and FeN due to a combination of thermal effects associated with dynamic void collapse and plastic deformation. Decomposition of Nd-Fe-B, producing ?-Fe and amorphous Nd-Fe-B, was observed in several shock consolidated samples and is attributed to deformation associated with shock compaction, similar to decomposition reported in ball milled Nd-Fe-B. No decomposition was observed in shock compacted samples of Sm-Fe-N, which is consistent with literature reports showing decomposition occurring only in samples compacted at a pressure above ~15 GPa. Nd-Fe-B and Sm-Fe-N were shown to accommodate deformation primarily by grain size reduction, especially in large grained materials. Hard/Soft composite magnetic materials were formed by mixing single crystal particles of Nd-Fe-B with iron nanoparticles, and the alignment-by-magnetic-field technique was able to introduce significant texture into green compacts of this mixture. While problems with decomposition of the Nd2Fe14B phase prevented fabricating bulk magnets from the aligned green compacts, retention of the nanoscale morphology of the ?-Fe particles and the high alignment of the green compacts shows promise for future development of textured nanocomposite magnets through shock compaction.

Wehrenberg, Christopher

340

Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

Jianyu Lan

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
341

Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

Ahmed M.A. Haidar

2006-01-01

342

Cytotoxic and transforming effects of silica particles with different surface properties in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several crystalline and amorphous silica dusts (two quartz of natural origin, one cristobalite of natural and two of biogenic origin, three amorphous diatomite earths and one pyrogenic amorphous silica) were studied in the SHE cell transformation assay, in order to compare their cytotoxic and transforming potencies and examine the role of the structure and of the state of the surface on these effects. Some samples were modified by grinding, etching and heating with the aim of establishing relationships between single surface properties and biological responses. The results showed that some quartz and cristobalite dusts (crystalline) as well as the diatomaceous earths (amorphous), but not the pyrogenic amorphous silica, were cytotoxic and induced morphological transformation of SHE cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The ranking in cytotoxicity was different from that in transforming potency, suggesting two separate molecular mechanisms for the two effects. The cytotoxic and transforming potencies were different from one dust to another, even among the same structural silicas. The type of crystalline structure (quartz vs cristobalite) and the crystalline vs biogenic amorphous form did not correlate with cytotoxic or transforming potency of silica dusts. Comparison of cellular effects induced by original and surface modified samples revealed that several surface functionalities modulate cytotoxic and transforming potencies. The cytotoxic effects appeared to be related to the distribution and abundance of silanol groups and to the presence of trace amounts of iron on the silica surface. Silica particles with fractured surfaces and/or iron-active sites, able to generate reactive oxygen species, induced SHE cell transformation. The results show that the activity of silica at the cellular level is sensitive to the composition and structure of surface functionalities and confirm that the biological response to silica is a surface originated phenomenon. PMID:10963957

Elias, Z; Poirot, O; Danière, M C; Terzetti, F; Marande, A M; Dzwigaj, S; Pezerat, H; Fenoglio, I; Fubini, B

2000-10-01

343

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

2010-04-02

344

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10-4 Pa to 102 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

345

Controlling the morphology of membranes by excess surface charge in cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

The segregation and phase sequence of semifluorinated cat-anionic surfactant membranes at different excess surface charges was investigated by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscope (FF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal behavior of the membranes was evaluated by conductivity, rheology, and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR). The experimental results show that the cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures can form faceted vesicles and punctured lamellar phase when there is excess surface charge. The cationic and anionic fluorinated surfactants are stiff in the membranes, like phospholipids in the frozen "crystalline" or "gel" phase. For the system with excess cationic surface charge, the gel-like faceted vesicles and punctured lamellae can transform into smooth-shaped vesicles at 65 °C. However, for the system with no excess charge or with excess anionic surface charge, no phase transformation occurs even at 90 °C. A model was established to demonstrate the mechanism of the formation and transition of the aggregates with different morphologies. The segregation-crystallization mechanism works well with other cosmotropic counterions from the Hofmeister series. The observations provide a better understanding of how to control the membrane morphology of the aqueous solutions of cat-anionic surfactant mixtures. PMID:24559199

Shen, Yuwen; Ou-Yang, Zhong-can; Zhang, Yufeng; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhaohui

2014-03-18

346

Hashimoto transform for stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that Hashimoto transformation is applicable to the one dimensional stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and transforms it to the stochastic generalized heat equation with nonlocal (in space) interaction.

Neklyudov, Misha

2014-01-01

347

Quantum Optical Version of Classical Optical Transformations and Beyond  

CERN Document Server

By the newly developed technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We can not only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs i...

Fan, Hong-yi

2010-01-01

348

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF ANDROGRAPHIDEAE (ACANTHACEAE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollen morphology of Andrographis Wallich, Cystacanthus T. Anderson, Diotacanthus Bentham, Gymnostachyum Nees, Haplanthus Nees and Phlogacanthus Nees from Andrographideae (Acanthaceae) is described and illustrated. Pollen morphological variation is compared to accepted generic limits. Pollen morphology provides additional discrete character support for Andrographis, Diotacanthus, Haplanthus and Phlogacanthus being monophyletic but not for Cystacanthus and Gymnostachyum. Previous attempts to d...

Scotland, R.

1992-01-01

349

Show-through cancellation in scans of duplex printed documents.  

Science.gov (United States)

In scanning pages with double-sided printing, often the printing on the back-side shows through in the scan of the front-side because the paper is not completely opaque. This show-through is an undesirable artifact that one would like to remove. In this paper, the phenomenon of show-through is analyzed using first physical principles to obtain a simplified mathematical model. The model is linearized using suitable transformations and simplifying approximations. Based on the linearized model, an adaptive linear filtering scheme is developed for the electronic removal of show-through using scans of both sides of the document. Experimental results demonstrating the effectiveness of the method developed are presented. PMID:18249664

Sharma, G

2001-01-01

350

Complex coordinates in transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that complex coordinates used in conjunction with transformation optics offer an extra degree of freedom that allows control over not only the propagation direction of electromagnetic waves but also their amplitude. We illustrate this idea in two applications. First, we show that in an n-dimensional space one can manipulate the field amplitude for up to n different amplitude distributions in regions that are critical to the performance of the device under consideration, and thus reduce the device's sensitivity to design imperfections in these regions. Second, we expand previous work on reflectionless perfectly matched layers and show how complex coordinates and transformation optics are a natural choice for designing perfectly matched layers of arbitrary shape.

351

Complex coordinates in transformation optics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that complex coordinates used in conjunction with transformation optics offer an extra degree of freedom that allows control over not only the propagation direction of electromagnetic waves but also their amplitude. We illustrate this idea in two applications. First, we show that in an n-dimensional space one can manipulate the field amplitude for up to n different amplitude distributions in regions that are critical to the performance of the device under consideration, and thus reduce the device's sensitivity to design imperfections in these regions. Second, we expand previous work on reflectionless perfectly matched layers and show how complex coordinates and transformation optics are a natural choice for designing perfectly matched layers of arbitrary shape.

Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Cummer, Steven A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2011-12-15

352

Phase transformations in Nb-Al-Ti alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Phase relationships as well as morphological and crystallographic features in Nb-rich Nb-Al and Nb-Al-Ti alloys have been investigated. The phase boundaries involving the bcc and Nb3Al (A15 structure) were experimentally determined and several isothermal sections of the Nb-rich corner of the Nb-Al-Ti phase diagram established. The present findings show that (a) the solubility of Al in Nb is considerably less than that reported previously, (b) the high-temperature bcc phase undergoes an ordering transformation to the B2 structure, and (c) the ? phase also forms in these alloys. The sequence of decomposition of the high-temperature bcc phase during isothermal decomposition in the bcc + Nb3Al phase field has been systematically studied in these alloys. A wide variety of morphological features were found to be associated with the Nb3Al precipitates that formed in the bcc/B2 matrix during isothermal heat treatments. The lengthening kinetics of the plate-shaped Nb3Al precipitates were also studied

353

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

354

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. PMID:23518002

Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J

2013-05-15

355

Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

356

The morphology of Sersic-Pastoriza galaxies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The authors present the preliminary results of their radio-continuum and neutral hydrogen observations of Sersic-Pastoriza (S-P) galaxies. They show that the central regions contain a population of compact features thought to be young supernova remnants (SNRs) and discuss the overall morphology of the nuclei

357

Electrolytic phase transformation actuators  

Science.gov (United States)

The emerging field of materials-based actuation continues to be the focus of considerable research due to its inherent scalability and its promise to drive devices in ways that cannot be realized with conventional mechanical actuator strategies. Current approaches include electrochemically responsive conducting polymers, capacitance-driven carbon nanotubes actuators, pH responsive hydrogels, ionic polymer metal composites, electric field responsive elastomers, and field-driven electrostrictive polymers. However, simple electrochemical processes that lead to phase transformations, particularly from liquid to gas, have been virtually ignored. Although a few specialized applications have been proposed, the nature of the reactions and their implication for design, performance, and widespread applicability have not been addressed. Herein we report an electrolytic phase transformation (EPT) actuator, a device capable of producing strains surpassing 136,000% and stresses beyond 200 MPa. These performance characteristics are several orders of magnitude greater than those reported for other materials and could potentially compete with existing commercial hydraulic systems. Furthermore, unlike other materials-based systems that rely on bimorph structures to translate infinitesimally small volume changes into observable deflections, this device can direct all of its output towards linear motion. We show here that an unoptimized actuator prototype can produce volume and pressure changes close to the theoretically predicted values, with maximum stress (70 kPa) limited only by the mechanical strength of the apparatus. Expansion is very rapid and scales with applied current density. Retraction depends on the catalytic nature of the electrode, and state-of-the-art commercial fuel cell electrodes should allow rates surpassing 0.9 mL's-1.cm-2 and 370 kPa's-1.cm-2. We anticipate that this approach will provide a new direction for producing scalable, low-weight, high performance actuators that will be useful in a broad range of applications.

Cameron, Colin G.; Freund, Michael S.

2003-07-01

358

Anthropogenic transformation of city parks soils: spatial and time peculiarities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite of quasi-natural status of urban parks, these territories often have a complicated history of local landuse. Urban park territories can accumulate maximum volume of information about the ways and peculiarities of soil anthropogenic transformation due to the absence of large-scale ground works and sealing of territories. As an objects of research 2 Moscow historical forest parks - "Pokrovskoe-Streshnevo" and "Tushinskiy" were chosen. From the one hand, these parks are characterizing by sufficiently square, which are representative by abundance of areas with different land use type. On the other hand, these areas have distinction both in soil forming factors and anthropogenic activities history. For the description of anthropogenic soil cover transformation the set of landuse types schemes were created. By these schemes were characterized a more than 250 years period. A range of soil pits were described on the different land use types territories. Different physical-chemical (pH, cation exchange capacity, amount of total organic carbon and nutrient element (P2O5 & K2O), amount of carbonates, and total amount of Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, Mn & Ni), physical (particle size composition, bulk density and penetration resistance) properties were measured. The micromorphological (in thin sections) properties were described. Using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the main morphological and chemical properties of black carbon particles were disclosed in every surface horizons type. Using above-mentioned methods, we described following types of anthropogenic-transformed horizons - "postagricultural" horizons of abandoned tillage field soils, "urbic" horizons of settlements area soils, "technogenic" horizons of soils of constructed or reclaimed territories and different intergrade horizons. The presence of different type horizons with various properties marks existence of fixed land use for different periods. The whole way of anthropogenic transformation was described by historical (chronicles) text data. A whole duration of the anthropogenic effects may be subdivided into the 5 main stages: 1) The stage without significant anthropogenic pressure (up to early medieval age); 2) The stage of maximal medieval anthropogenic activities; 3) Next stage begun after sharp decrease of anthropogenic pressure and can be described as the stage of gradual growth of arable land and urban areas from latest medieval to the end of XVIII century; 4) The stage of urban areas growth and beginning of industrial and recreational effects; 5) Modern stage of recreational and aerosols pollution impacts was begun at the time of getting the "especially protected areas" status in the Soviet Union time. Time borders of the main anthropogenic transformation stages are sufficiently different as we found. Every period of anthropogenic influence transforms existing soil profiles and soil cover in general. Often these changes can be described as a formation a new complex of soil peculiarities, or new soil horizons above the old profiles, or even new soil profiles. The urbopedogenesis have sinsedimentogenic nature favorable for the evolution trends showing up. Based on the comparison of soil properties and the character of the landuse changes, three main anthropogenic transformation trends were suggested. These trends describe: i) soil transformation into the soils with anthric evidence and back evolution into the natural soil in favorable conditions; ii) transformation of soil into the urbic intergrades and Urbic Thechnosols (urbanozems in Russia); iii) transformation with forming of technogenic horizons (technosoils and technozems in Russia). Counted trends may have different mixed variants as well.

Poputnikov, Vadim; Prokofieva, Tatiana

2010-05-01

359

Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation  

CERN Document Server

This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

Tur, G

1999-01-01

360

Transformation of Kluyveromyces fragilis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

For the transformation of the yeast species Kluyveromyces fragilis, we have constructed a vector containing a bacterial kanamycin resistance (Kmr) gene, the TRP1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and an autonomously replicating sequence of Kluyveromyces lactis called KARS2 . By utilizing the method based on treatment by alkali cations and with the Kmr gene as the selective marker, a wild-type strain of K. fragilis was transformed to resistance against the antibiotic G418 . In the transformed ...

Das, S.; Kellermann, E.; Hollenberg, C. P.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there...

Wagener, Hans-ju?rgen

2005-01-01

362

Fourier and Laplace Transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This textbook presents in a unified manner the fundamentals of both continuous and discrete versions of the Fourier and Laplace transforms. These transforms play an important role in the analysis of all kinds of physical phenomena. As a link between the various applications of these transforms the authors use the theory of signals and systems, as well as the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations. The book is divided into four major parts: periodic functions and Fourier series,...

Beerends, R. J.; Morsche, H. G.; Berg, J. C.

2003-01-01

363

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. Highlights: ? Single layer Nb-substituted nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered titanates. ? Nb(V) successfully introduced into anatase and rutile solid solutions. ? Anatase obtained from reconstructed nanosheets exhibit enhanced thermal stability. ? Oxygen partial pressure influences the valence of Nb in heat-treated samples. ? Deposition of oriented thin Ti(Nb)O2 layers by spray coating was demonstrated.

364

Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

2012-04-01

365

Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60 ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ?-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described. (J.P.N.)

366

Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers  

CERN Document Server

The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

2014-01-01

367

DWARF-GREEN COCONUT FIBERS: A VERSATILE NATURAL RENEWABLE RAW BIORESOURCE. TREATMENT, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dwarf-green coconut fibers were modified by alkali treatment and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, as well as thermogravimetric (TGA, mechanical, and dielectric analyses. Changes in composition, structure, and morphology of the coconut fibers were observed after sodium hydroxide treatments due to the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and other impurities. The XRD data were in agreement with the morphological analysis, where the crystallinity fraction increased with the concentration of alkali solution and fell off above 10%. The infrared spectrometry showed the partial dissolution of hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, which was clearly identified by the band at 1736 cm-1. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a double degradation process for the untreated dwarf-green coconut fibers, while a single one was observed after the pretreatment. The tensile properties showed an increased elongation at break, modulus, and strength, and the dielectric results showed a decrease of all parameters (permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity, reflecting the reduced dipole and ion mobility associated with the loss of amorphous components.

Milena A. Esmeraldo

2010-11-01

368

[Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

2014-05-01

369

Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes

370

Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio [Life Science Laboratory, Materials Laboratories, Sony Corporation, Sony Bioinformatics Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8510 (Japan); Asami, Koji [Laboratory of Molecular Aggregation Analysis, Division of Multidisciplinary Chemistry, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)], E-mail: Yoshihito.Hayashi@jp.sony.com

2008-05-21

371

Morphologies of uranium and uranium zirconium electrodeposits  

Science.gov (United States)

Uranium and uranium-zirconium electrodeposits produced in the Fuel Cycle Facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West were examined using standard metallurgical techniques. Substantial differences in the morphologies of the two types of deposits were observed. Samples from pure uranium deposits were comprised of chains of uranium crystals with a characteristic rhomboidal shape, while the morphologies of samples from deposits containing zirconium in excess of approximately 0.5 wt% showed more polycrystalline features. Zirconium was found to be present as a second, zirconium metal phase at or very near the uranium-zirconium dendrite surfaces. Higher collection efficiencies and total deposit weights were observed for the uranium-zirconium deposits; this performance increase is likely a result of better mechanical properties exhibited by the uranium-zirconium dendrite morphology.

Totemeier, Terry C.; Mariani, Robert D.

1997-12-01

372

Wettability of porous polydimethylsiloxane surface: morphology study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods used for producing porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In the first method, PDMS films without photosensitizer was exposed to CO2-pulsed laser at room temperature, as the excitation source. In the second method applying NaCl solid particles to the external surface layer before it is cured. In this study the morphology, wettability and surface chemical characteristics have been investigated. These surfaces have been studied by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. To evaluate the surface wettability, the water drop contact angle was measured. SEM photomicrographs and ATR-FTIR spectra and water drop contact angle measurement show that the morphology of these surfaces change to a uniform porous surface and wettability decreased. Results indicated that the porosity and morphology are important factor in wettability of PDMS surface and laser irradiation cause ordering in molecular chains onto the PDMS surface and this surface is a superhydrophobic compared to the virgin PDMS surface

373

Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study  

Science.gov (United States)

River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

2014-06-01

374

Morphological Enhancement of Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms  

Science.gov (United States)

Mammography is a commonly used technique for early detection of breast cancer. In mammograms, microcalcifications show low contrast margin with the background parenchymal tissue (specifically when the background tissue type is fibroglandular) as a result, subjective analysis of these calcifications with respect to their size, shape and morphology presents a daunting challenge even for experienced radiologists. Thus the present work investigates the potential of two morphological techniques i.e., top-hat morphological processing and h-dome morphological processing for enhancement of microcalcifications embedded in variety of background tissue types including fatty, glandular and fibroglandular tissues while restoring their shape and size. The enhancement results are also compared with standard contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method. For subjective analysis, 25 synthetic images with simulated microcalcifications of various shapes and sizes are used. Objective analysis is carried out on 50 mammographic images taken from benchmark dataset (McGill University mammographic database) by computing quantitative indices like contrast improvement ratio and detail variance/background variance ratios. After rigorous experimentation on both synthetic and benchmark data set it was observed that h-dome morphological processing (with h = 60) is ideally suited for enhancement of microcalcifications while restoring their shape and size.

Jagannath, H. S.; Virmani, J.; Kumar, V.

2012-09-01

375

On the Relationship between the Macroevolutionary Trajectories of Morphological Integration and Morphological Disparity  

Science.gov (United States)

How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity–the large-scale variety of organismal designs–are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns, corresponding to more heterogeneously structured matrices of correlation among traits. Particularly, increased covariation is observed between subsets of characters from the dorsal cup and from the arms. These analyses show that morphological disparity is not dependent on the overall degree of evolutionary integration but rather on the way integration is distributed among traits. Hence, temporal changes in disparity dynamics are likely constrained by reorganizations of the modularity of the crinoid morphology and not by changes in the variability of individual traits. The differences in integration patterns explain the more stereotyped morphologies of post-Palaeozoic crinoids and, from a broader macroevolutionary perspective, call for a greater attention to the distributional heterogeneities of constraints in morphospace. PMID:23691115

Gerber, Sylvain

2013-01-01

376

On the relationship between the macroevolutionary trajectories of morphological integration and morphological disparity.  

Science.gov (United States)

How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity-the large-scale variety of organismal designs-are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns, corresponding to more heterogeneously structured matrices of correlation among traits. Particularly, increased covariation is observed between subsets of characters from the dorsal cup and from the arms. These analyses show that morphological disparity is not dependent on the overall degree of evolutionary integration but rather on the way integration is distributed among traits. Hence, temporal changes in disparity dynamics are likely constrained by reorganizations of the modularity of the crinoid morphology and not by changes in the variability of individual traits. The differences in integration patterns explain the more stereotyped morphologies of post-Palaeozoic crinoids and, from a broader macroevolutionary perspective, call for a greater attention to the distributional heterogeneities of constraints in morphospace. PMID:23691115

Gerber, Sylvain

2013-01-01

377

Conformal array design with transformation electromagnetics  

Science.gov (United States)

We apply the theory of transformation electromagnetics to source arrays and show that a complex conformal antenna array can be made to behave like a geometrically different array when surrounded with a properly designed transformation electromagnetics medium. Numerical simulations are presented to show how a nonuniform circular array can be made to radiate and receive as a uniformly spaced linear array. In this way, transformation electromagnetics provides a method by which all of the advantages of simple arrays in array processing, such as beamforming, can be retained in an array whose elements are constrained to a complex geometry.

Popa, Bogdan-Ioan; Allen, Jeffery; Cummer, Steven A.

2009-06-01

378

The Wonders of Physics Traveling Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Wonders of Physics is a live physics show designed to stimulate interest in science in people of all ages and backgrounds. The program's fast-paced presentation is supplemented by a variety of media tools. In addition, a smaller traveling show is based in Madison, WI, but does shows all over the United States and Canada.

Physics, The W.

2004-06-02

379

An identity for triplets of double Hilbert transforms, with applications to the attenuated Radon transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We consider an elementary identity for double singular integrals in the plane and show that one can apply this to deduce inversion and product formulae for the Hilbert transform and inversion formulae for the affine and weighted Radon transforms. We will be able to allow many of the previously known weights for which there is an inversion formula for the weighted Radon transform and also pose some new conditions on which weights that can be used. (paper)

380

Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

Andrea Mess

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
381

p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

382

Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity and/or recyclability of the nanostructured catalysts via control of the structure, composition of the catalytically active NPs, and/or nature of the support. These principles will aid researchers in the rational design and engineering of new types of multifunctional nanocatalysts for the achievement of green and sustainable chemical processes. Although the past decade has brought many advances, there are still challenges in the area of nanocatalysis that need to be addressed. These include loss of catalytic activity during operation due to sintering, leaching of soluble species from the nanocatalysts under harsh reaction conditions, loss of control over well-defined morphologies during the scale-up synthesis of the nanocomposites, and limited examples of enantioselective nanocatalytic systems. The future of nanocatalyst research lies in the judicious design and development of nanocomposite catalysts that are stable and resistant to sintering and leaching, and yet are highly active and enantioselective for the desired catalytic organic transformations, even after multiple runs. The successful generation of such multifunctional nanocatalysts especially in tandem, domino, or cascade reactions would provide a powerful tool for the establishment of green and sustainable technologies. PMID:23350747

Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

2013-08-20

383

The Rise and Fall of Passive Disk Galaxies: Morphological Evolution Along the Red Sequence Revealed by COSMOS  

CERN Document Server

The increasing abundance of passive "red sequence" galaxies since z=1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show that in detail the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (log Mstar < 10) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with log Mstar < 11 increases, but not as fast as red sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z~1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. We estimate that...

Bundy, K; Carollo, C M; Ellis, R S; Drory, N; Hopkins, P; Salvato, M; Leauthaud, A; Koekemoer, A M; Murray, N; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Ma, C -P; Capak, P; Pozzetti, L; Scoville, N

2009-01-01

384

Comparative study on ? energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise ? energy spectrum of 60Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for ? energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to ? energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

385

Aberrant function of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 triggers malignant transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the human Ras proteins are members of a large superfamily of Ras-related proteins, to date, only the proteins encoded by the three mammalian ras genes have been found to possess oncogenic potential. Among the known Ras-related proteins, TC21/R-Ras2 exhibits the most significant amino acid identity (55%) to Ras proteins. We have generated mutant forms of TC21 that possess amino acid substitutions analogous to those that activate Ras oncogenic potential [designated TC21(22V) and TC21(71L)] and compared the biological properties of TC21 with those of Ras proteins in NIH 3T3 and Rat-1 transformation assays. Whereas wild-type TC21 did not show any transforming potential in vitro, both TC21(22V) and TC21(71L) displayed surprisingly potent transforming activities that were comparable to the strong transforming activity of oncogenic Ras proteins. Like Ras-transformed cells, NIH 3T3 cells expressing mutant TC21 proteins formed foci of morphologically transformed cells in monolayer cultures, proliferated in low serum, formed colonies in soft agar, and developed progressive tumors in nude mice. Thus, TC21 is the first Ras-related protein to exhibit potent transforming activity equivalent to that of Ras. Furthermore, mutant TC21 proteins also stimulated constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases as well as transcriptional activation from Ras-responsive promoter elements (Ets/AP-1 and NF-kappa B). We conclude that aberrant TC21 function may trigger cellular transformation via a signal transduction pathway similar to that of oncogenic Ras and suggest that deregulated TC21 activity may contribute significantly to human oncogenesis. PMID:8196649

Graham, S M; Cox, A D; Drivas, G; Rush, M G; D'Eustachio, P; Der, C J

1994-06-01

386

Ultrasonography of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation in the spleen  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report three rare cases of sclerosing angiomatoid nodular transformation (SANT in the spleen. We compared the conventional and contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic appearance. The conventional sonographic examinations exhibited solitary lesions without common respects, while contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS revealed nodular appearance mimicking its pathologic characteristics. It suggests that CEUS can provide morphologic information for diagnosing SANT.

Jia-Ying Cao, Hui Zhang, Wen-Ping Wang

2010-08-01

387

Subtracted geometry from Harrison transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

We consider the rotating non-extremal black hole of N=2 D=4 STU supergravity carrying three magnetic charges and one electric charge. We show that its subtracted geometry is obtained by applying a specific SO(4,4) Harrison transformation on the black hole. As previously noted, the resulting subtracted geometry is a solution of the N=2 S=T=U supergravity.

Virmani, Amitabh

2012-07-01

388

Sarcomatous transformation in diaphyseal aclasis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Multiple hereditary exostosis (or diaphyseal aclasis) is a condition characterized by the development of multiple osteochondromas. The tendency for malignant transformation into chondrosarcoma is well known. Malignancy typically arises from the cartilaginous cap of the osteochondroma. Radiographs supplemented by computed tomography have an important role in the diagnosis of this condition. Magnetic resonance imaging shows the features of sarcomatous change and aids in differentiating malignancy from pseudotumours

389

Reconstructing finite radon transforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Reconstructing finite Radon transforms is equivalent to inverting incidence matrices, that is, matrices whose entries are zeroes or ones. We describe several methods of reconstructing Radon transforms on combinatorial structures which may be useful in statistical mechanics. Amongst these structures are experimental designs, translates of subsets in finite groups, nearest neighborhoods in grids, geometric lattices, matroids, and modular lattices.

Kung, Joseph P. S.

1988-09-01

390

Adaptive Wavelet Transforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

391

Transformation optics and metamaterials.  

Science.gov (United States)

Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak. PMID:20414221

Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping

2010-05-01

392

Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

2012-04-01

393

Optical source transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas. PMID:19104551

Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R

2008-12-22

394

On an integral transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

D. Naylor

1986-06-01

395

Transformation optics and metamaterials  

Science.gov (United States)

Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

2010-05-01

396

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Kacar, Yildiz Aka; Mendi, Yesim Yalcin

2013-01-01

397

Investigation of Transformer Model for TRV Calculation by EMTP  

Science.gov (United States)

Analysis of the EMTP transformer model was performed with the 4kVA two windings low voltage transformer with the current injection (CIJ) measurement method to study a transient recovery voltage (TRV) at the transformer limited fault (TLF) current interrupting condition. Tested transformer's impedance was measured by the frequency response analyzer (FRA). From FRA measurement graphs leakage inductance, stray capacitance and resistance were calculated. The EMTP transformer model was constructed with those values. The EMTP simulation was done for a current injection circuit by using transformer model. The experiment and simulation results show a reasonable agreement.

Thein, Myo Min; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Harada, Katsuhiko; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Hikita, Masayuki; Haginomori, Eiichi; Koshiduka, Tadashi