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Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  2. Morphological contrast enhancement using connected transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendiola-Santibanez, Jorge D.; Terol-Villalobos, Ivan R.

    2002-05-01

    In this work a connected approach for morphological contrast enhancement is proposed. The morphological contrast is based on the notion of toggle mappings. The notion of toggle mappings progressed in the way suggested by the Kramer and Bruckner (KB) algorithm. Since the KB algorithm uses the erosion and the dilation as patterns, some problems in this transformation are the oscillations and jumps produced when it is iterated. In our case, both transformations (erosion and dilation) were used in a separated way to built a family of filters, called morphological slope filters (MSF). This allows a better control of the output image. However, sometimes the MSF are sensible to some configurations of the blurred edge. This inconvenience can be attenuated using a connected approach of MSF. Since a connected operator does not split components of the level sets, then connected operators must act on the level of flat zones rather than on pixel level. The notion of flat zone allows the attenuation in sensibility of the MSF. The interest of the use of connected transformations in contrast enhancement is illustrated when a modified version of the KB algorithm is tested and by comparing idempotent toggles using flat zone and pixel notions.

  3. Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

    2013-10-01

    Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. PMID:23872198

  4. X-ray microscopy of human spermatozoa shows change of mitochondrial morphology after capacitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorup-Jensen, T; Hjort, T

    1999-01-01

    Using X-ray microscopy two morphologically distinct states were observed of the human spermatozoan mitochondria: (i) compact and tightly wrapped around the axoneme, and (ii) morphologically transformed, i.e. with circular areas of high X-ray transmission, either loosely wrapped around the axoneme or distended. The spermatozoa were examined at two stages of their post-ejaculation maturation process, i.e. as present in fresh ejaculated semen and after in-vitro capacitation. X-ray microscopy allowed sample preparation that was as simple as for conventional light microscopy whilst giving high resolution (30 nm) imaging of samples in liquid media compatible with the requirements of live biological specimens. The specimens were not fixed, stained or metal coated. These features make X-ray microscopy useful in the study of cells, particularly cells in suspension. The relative frequencies of the two morphological states of the mitochondria in seminal plasma and after in-vitro capacitation were compared. In seminal plasma, almost all spermatozoa had compact and tightly wrapped mitochondria. After harvesting by swim-up technique, an increase in the morphologically transformed state had occurred. However, the greatest increase in the morphologically transformed state occurred when the sample had been incubated under capacitating conditions. In this case almost all spermatozoa had morphologically transformed mitochondria.

  5. Genetic transformation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae shows a strand preference

    OpenAIRE

    Duffin, Paul M.; Seifert, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Natural transformation is the main means of horizontal genetic exchange in the obligate human pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Neisseria spp. have been shown to preferentially take up and transform their own DNA by recognizing a non-palindromic 10 or 12 nucleotide DNA uptake sequence (DUS10 or DUS12). We investigated the ability of the DUS12 to enhance single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) transformation. Given the non-palindromic nature of the DUS12, we tested whether both strands of the DUS equally en...

  6. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  7. Nucleation, kinetics and morphology of displacive phase transformations in iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suiker, A. S. J.; Thijsse, B. J.

    2013-11-01

    An extensive, systematic molecular dynamics (MD) study is performed for analysing the nucleation, kinetics and morphology characteristics of thermally-induced, displacive phase transformations from face-centred cubic (fcc) to body-centred cubic (bcc) iron. At the atomic level these transformation characteristics are influenced by a number of factors, including (i) the appearance of free surfaces, (ii) the initial presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries, (iii) the existence of point defects (i.e., atomic vacancies) near a grain boundary, (iv) the initial thermal velocities of the atoms, and (v) the specific interatomic potential used. Other MD studies that capture the overall transformation behaviour of iron well have often underestimated or ignored the influence by these factors on the transformation response, with the risk of putting the accuracy, generality and physical explanation of the MD results on loose grounds. The present research illustrates the relative contribution of each of the above factors by means of a detailed comparison study for three different interatomic potentials. The accuracy of the interatomic potentials is established by validating for the fcc and bcc phases the calculated elastic moduli, cohesive energy, vacancy formation energy and interfacial energy against experimental and ab initio data reported in the literature. The importance of calibrating material data of both the stable bcc phase and the metastable fcc phase - instead of the stable bcc phase only - is demonstrated. The numerical results call for general caution when interpreting phenomena that start close to instability points and therefore are sensitive to small disturbances; a large spread in the overall transformation time is found under different initial thermal velocities, interfacial lattice incoherence, boundary conditions (free vs. periodic), and interatomic potentials, where for completely transformed atomic systems the discrepancy between the maximum and minimum transformation time appears to be more than a factor of 150. The transformation time is phenomenologically related to the overall activation energy and the cohesive energy difference of the fcc and bcc phases, which, beyond a certain combination of values, may even prevent the transformation process from occurring. Also, the morphology of the bcc product phase is remarkably sensitive to the type of boundary conditions and the choice of interatomic potential, while the influence by both the set of initial thermal velocities and the interfacial lattice incoherence only becomes apparent for specific atomic samples that transform relatively slowly. The presence of fcc-bcc grain boundaries increases the spatial heterogeneity of transformation events, with the appearance of an increasing number of vacancies at the grain boundary giving rise to a larger overall transformation time. The 10 main results following from the present MD study are conveniently summarised at the end of this communication.

  8. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    OpenAIRE

    Chan Kap; Sun Yan; Krishnan Shankar

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG). Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD) transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by subs...

  9. Automatic line detection in document images using recursive morphological transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Bin; Chen, Su S.; Haralick, Robert M.; Phillips, Ihsin T.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper, we describe a system that detects lines of various types, e.g., solid lines and dotted lines, on document images. The main techniques are based on the recursive morphological transforms, namely the recursive opening and closing transforms. The advantages of the transforms are that they can perform binary opening and closing with any sized structuring element simultaneously in constant time per pixel, and that they offer a solution to morphological image analysis problems where the sizes of the structuring elements have to be determined after the examination of the image itself. The system is evaluated on about 1,200 totally ground-truthed IRS tax form images of different qualities. The line detection output is compared with a set of hand-drawn groundtruth lines. The statistics like the number and rate of correct detection, miss detection, and false alarm are calculated. The performance of 32 algorithms for solid line detection are compared to find the best one. The optimal algorithm tuning parameter settings could be estimated on the fly using a regression tree.

  10. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  11. Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO3) and ?-PbO2 and ?-PbO2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

  12. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  13. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-03-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces.

  14. Shift- and scale-invariant pattern recognition using morphological fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qu; Lei, Liang; Wang, Bo; Chen, Li; Zhou, Jinyun

    2010-10-01

    A shift- and scale-invariant version of morphological fringe-adjusted joint transform correlation (MFJTC) is proposed in this paper, which we call shift- and scale-invariant MFJTC (SIMFJTC). SIMFJTC is combination of MFJTC and conventional radial harmonic filter (RHF). Using computer simulation, we compare the output results of SIMFJTC with those of morphological radial harmonic correlation (MRHC) and SDF-based FPFJTC when input scene is corrupted by salt-and-pepper noise and cluttered background. Our results show that SIMFJTC has higher discriminability and displays better stability against salt-and-pepper noise and cluttered background. Moreover, scale-invariance of SIMFJTC is much stricter than MRHC and SDF-based FPFJTC.

  15. Initial endometriosis showing direct morphologic evidence of metaplasia in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenxin; Li, Ning; Wang, Jun; Ulukus, E Cagnur; Ulukus, Murat; Arici, Aydin; Liang, Sharon X

    2005-04-01

    It is believed that ovarian endometriosis may be generated by a celomic metaplastic process from existing epithelium in the ovary. However, no morphologic evidence of metaplastic process has been described. In this study, we intended to identify the earliest morphologic changes of endometriosis within the ovary to examine if evidence of metaplasia exists. Included in this study were 110 ovarian endometriosis cases and 30 benign ovaries without endometriosis but with ovarian epithelial inclusions (OEIs). Among the 110 well-established ovarian endometriosis cases, 34 cases showed areas of initial endometriosis (IE), which is defined as lesions showing direct transitions from normal-looking ovarian tissue to areas of minimal formation of endometriosis and/or to areas of full-blown endometriosis. We further divided IE into two types: type I IE was present on the ovarian surface, which was associated with ovarian surface epithelia; type II was located within the ovarian cortex, which was associated with OEIs. Sections containing IE, OEIs, and well-formed endometriosis were subject to CD10 and aromatase immunostaining. In IE lesions, the number of CD10-positive cells were significantly higher than the number of that in OEIs, but lower than that of well-formed endometriosis areas (p stromal components of the IE lesions, indicating that estrogen local production may be involved in this initial process of endometriosis. Microvessel density was higher in IE lesions than in areas of OEI (p ovarian surface epithelium or OEI to IE lesions provide direct metaplastic evidence for the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. This metaplastic process may not only involve the ovarian epithelial cells, but also stromal components. Local production of estrogen, probably in high-levels, may be related to the initial process of endometriosis, although detailed mechanisms remain to be clarified. PMID:15782073

  16. Molecular Dynamics of Coarse-grained Ionomers Showing Aggregate Morphology During Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampath, Janani; Hall, Lisa M.

    2015-03-01

    Ionomers are polymers with a small fraction of charged monomers that have a wide range of applications from dental fixtures and packaging to actuators. We consider dense melts of ionomers and counterions with no solvent. An important aspect of their performance is the aggregation of ions, since ionic aggregates act to hold polymer chains together like temporary cross-links. Because of the size scales involved, it is difficult to obtain a complete 3D microscopic picture of polymer aggregation experimentally; typically the thickness of a sample used in transmission electron microscopy is such that multiple overlapping aggregates appear together. How aggregate structure changes under strain and affects mechanical properties is even less clear. We perform molecular dynamics simulations of ionomers of various architectures, and show aggregate morphology and scattering profiles. We apply uniaxial tensile strain and observe the aggregates align, in qualitative agreement with experimental findings. We also obtain stress-strain curves and will discuss effects of degree of neutralization of the ionomers.

  17. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  18. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  19. [Research on spectrum denoising methods based on the combination of wavelet package transformation and mathematical morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Lin, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Qin-Jun; Liu, Qing-Jie; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2010-03-01

    The present study introduced the generalized morphological filter into the denoising of visible and near infrared spectra for the first time, and provided a new method for denoising the reflectance spectra by combining mathematical morphology methods with the wavelet packet transformation. The authors used vegetable spectra from USGS spectral library as the reference spectra, and obtained the noised spectra by adding noises with different signal-to-noise ratios to the referenced spectra. The results were evaluated by signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), root mean squared error (RMSE), normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) and smoothness ratio (SR) of the denoised spectra. The authors' results showed that both the thresholding on wavelet packet decomposition best bases method and the generalized morphological filter method could maintain the spectral shape and the spectral smoothness after denoising. The generalized morphological filter method can remove larger amplitude random noise whereas the continuous small amplitude random noise could not be removed well. Hence, the denoised spectra were not smooth. Nevertheless, the denoised spectra using the thresholding on the best base groups of wavelet packet decomposition method were smooth, but the larger amplitude noise could not be removed completely. The authors' method by combining the two methods has the merits of the two methods but removing their defects. The results showed that both large and small amplitude noise could be removed completely, meanwhile the normalized correlation coefficient (NCC) and smoothness ratio (SR) were improved, which indicated that the authors' method is superior to other methods in denoising visible and near infrared spectra. PMID:20496678

  20. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Nikoli? Radomirka; Miti? Nevena

    2005-01-01

    An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5) was performed. They were...

  1. Pressure-Induced Morphology-Dependent Phase Transformations of Nanostructured Tin Doxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two morphologies of nanostructured tin dioxide (SnO2) (i.e., nanobelts and nanowires) were compressed in diamond anvil cells up to 38 GPa followed by decompression. In situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were employed to monitor the structural transformations. It was found that nanostructured SnO2 behaved drastically differently than bulk material in terms of transformation pressures, phase stability regions and compressibility. These findings provide new insight into the unique pressure behaviours of nanostructured materials and have profound implications for producing controlled structures with new applications achieved by combined pressure-morphology tuning.

  2. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  3. Morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in Fe-0.15C binary alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an in situ observation method, combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction, was used to investigate the morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in a Fe-0.15C binary alloy. The nucleation at a grain boundary and inclusions, sympathetic nucleation, and impingement event of bainitic ferrite were directly shown in real time. The variant evolution during bainite transformation and misorientation between bainitic ferrites were clarified. Strong variant selection was observed during sympathetic nucleation. PMID:19588518

  4. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  5. Templated self-assembly of block copolymers and morphology transformation driven by the Rayleigh instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Nan; Sheng, Yuping; Liu, Hongxia; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

    2015-02-10

    In the current study, we investigate the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) confined in the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and the subsequent morphology transformation induced by the Rayleigh instability. PS-b-P4VP nanotubes and nanorods with various internal nanostructures are fabricated by wetting the AAO template with PS-b-P4VP/chloroform solution, and then followed by solvent evaporation. After the removal of AAO template by potassium hydroxide solution, several different solvents (chloroform, toluene, and N,N-dimethylformamide) with different qualities are used to swell and anneal those nanotubes and nanorods suspended in aqueous media. Morphology transformation from nanostructured PS-b-P4VP nanotubes or nanorods to ordered nanospheres is observed by annealing upon chloroform and toluene while the morphology remains unchanged upon N,N-dimethylformamide annealing, indicating that solvent quality is a key factor in tuning the morphology and internal structures. Kinetics study and theoretical analysis for the morphology transition from two-dimensional (2D) block copolymer (BCP) nanotubes and nanorods to three-dimensional (3D) BCP nanospheres are further performed. From the morphological evolution and the quantitative calculation, it is confirmed that this transition is induced by the Rayleigh instability. This study provides a simple but promising method, that is, solvent annealing method, for the fabrication of BCP nanospheres with ordered internal nanostructures, which may have great application in drug delivery and other nanotechnology. PMID:25578803

  6. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  7. Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Dongling, E-mail: dljiao@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Chengping; Liu, Jiangwen [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhang, Guoqing [Science and Technology on Advanced High Temperature Structural Materials Laboratory, Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2014-02-15

    The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine ?-Fe and ??-Fe{sub 4}N plus retained austenite ?, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (?-Fe + ??-Fe{sub 4}N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe{sub 4}N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the ? (austenite) and ??-Fe{sub 4}N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the ? (austenite) and the bainitic ?-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized ?-Fe + ?? + ? (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe{sub 4}N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior.

  8. Characterization of morphology and kinetics of bainite transformation in a low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainite transformation is ubiquitous in steels for pressure vessel applications in thermal and nuclear power plants. In this class of steels bainite is the dominant phase found in the microstructure, after industrial thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatment of pressure vessel component. The study of bainite transformation has been carried out using both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions. Previous studies have reported significant differences in the morphology and the type of bainite formed under these two conditions. Continuous cooling has been shown to result in a wider variety of bainite transformation products as compared with isothermal treatments. This has important implications for the technological properties of power plant components such as strength, toughness and hardenability. In the present study the cooling transformation characteristics of a new CrMo pressure vessel steel has been examined using dilatometry supplemented with TEM examination. The dilatometric data were analyzed to determine the activation energy and Avrami exponents. It was found that bainite with different morphologies formed over the cooling rates employed and were kinetically distinct. The dilatometric study along with TEM studies has shown that non-isothermal decomposition of austenite in this steel results in a complex microstructure containing an array of bainite morphologies. The bainitic ferrite plates are seen to be associated with various inter- and intra- platciated with various inter- and intra- plate constituents as the cooling rate changes. Despite this the transformation remains essentially bainitic over the range of cooling rates studied. Three different cooling rate regimes with distinctly different calculated Avrami exponents have been observed. (author)

  9. Physiological Outperformance at the Morphologically-Transformed Edge of the Cyanobacteriosponge Terpios hoshinota (Suberitidae: Hadromerida) when Confronting Opponent Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jih-Terng; Hsu, Chia-Min; Kuo, Chao-Yang; Meng, Pei-Jie; Kao, Shuh-Ji; Chen, Chaolun Allen

    2015-01-01

    Terpios hoshinota, an encrusting cyanosponge, is known as a strong substrate competitor of reef-building corals that kills encountered coral by overgrowth. Terpios outbreaks cause significant declines in living coral cover in Indo-Pacific coral reefs, with the damage usually lasting for decades. Recent studies show that there are morphological transformations at a sponge’s growth front when confronting corals. Whether these morphological transformations at coral contacts are involved with physiological outperformance (e.g., higher metabolic activity or nutritional status) over other portions of Terpios remains equivocal. In this study, we compared the indicators of photosynthetic capability and nitrogen status of a sponge-cyanobacteria association at proximal, middle, and distal portions of opponent corals. Terpios tissues in contact with corals displayed significant increases in photosynthetic oxygen production (ca. 61%), the ?13C value (ca. 4%), free proteinogenic amino acid content (ca. 85%), and Gln/Glu ratio (ca. 115%) compared to middle and distal parts of the sponge. In contrast, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), which is the indicator usually used to represent the integrity of photosystem II, of cyanobacteria photosynthesis was low (0.256~0.319) and showed an inverse trend of higher values in the distal portion of the sponge that might be due to high and variable levels of cyanobacterial phycocyanin. The inconsistent results between photosynthetic oxygen production and Fv/Fm values indicated that maximum quantum yields might not be a suitable indicator to represent the photosynthetic function of the Terpios-cyanobacteria association. Our data conclusively suggest that Terpios hoshinota competes with opponent corals not only by the morphological transformation of the sponge-cyanobacteria association but also by physiological outperformance in accumulating resources for the battle. PMID:26110525

  10. Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  11. Automatic urban road extraction on DSM data based on fuzzy ART, region growing, morphological operations and radon transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herumurti, Darlis; Uchimura, Keiichi; Koutaki, Gou; Uemura, Takumi

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, an automatic urban road extraction, as part of Intelligent Transportation research, has attracted the researchers due to the important role for the next modern transportation where urban area plays the main role within the transportation system. In this work, we propose a new combination of fuzzy ART clustering, Region growing, Morphological Operations and Radon transform (ARMOR) for automatic extraction of urban road networks from the digital surface model (DSM). The DSM data, which is based-on the elevation of surface, overcome a serious building's shadow problem as in the aerial photo image. Due to the different elevation between the road and the buildings, the thresholding technique yields a fast initial road extraction. The threshold values are obtained from Fuzzy ART clustering of the geometrical points in the histogram. The initial road is then expanded using region growing. Though most of the road regions are extracted, it contains a lot of non-road areas and the edge is still rough. A fast way to smoothing the region is by employing the morphology closing operation. Furthermore, we perform the road line filter by opening operation with a line shape structuring element, where the line orientation is obtained from the Radon Transform. Finally, the road network is constructed based-on B-Spline from the extracted road skeleton. The experimental result shows that the proposed method running faster and increases the quality and the accuracy about 10% higher than the highest result of the compared method.

  12. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  13. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ?9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3??O4) generated from F (??0.04) and L (??0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (??0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ? Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ? Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ? Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ? Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ? Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphologicalmorphological properties.

  14. Morphological transformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic 'acidic' polypeptide sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces aa 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology

  15. Effect of alloy elements on the morphology transformation of TiB2 particles in Al matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yijie; Ma, Naiheng; Wang, Haowei

    2015-03-01

    To reveal the effect of alloy element on the morphology of in situ TiB2 particles, a series of TiB2 particles with various morphology were obtained via controlling synthesis process. Si and Cu can affect the morphology transformation of TiB2 particles significantly. Si preferentially adsorbed on (101¯1), (112¯0) and (12¯13¯) planes resulting in the polyhedron morphology of TiB2. Cu adsorbed on (101¯0) preferentially leading to the minimum aspect (the ratio of the diameter and thickness). PMID:25543878

  16. Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Blaszczak, Joanna; Dipper, Stefanie; Fanselow, Gisbert; Ishihara, Shinishiro; Petrova, Svetlana; Skopeteas, Stavros; Weskott, Thomas; Zimmermann, Malte

    2007-01-01

    The guidelines for morphological annotation contain the layers that are necessary for understanding the structure of the words in the object language: morphological segmentation, glossing, and annotation of part-of-speech.

  17. Performance analysis of wavelet transforms and morphological operator-based classification of epilepsy risk levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harikumar, Rajaguru; Vijayakumar, Thangavel

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of singular value decomposition (SVD), expectation maximization (EM), and modified expectation maximization (MEM) as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals. Out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaksand spike and sharp waves, events and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym 8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. Then, the performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as performance index (PI) and quality value (QV).The performance index and quality value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

  18. Mechanically alloyed and hot pressed Ni-49.7Ti alloy showing martensitic transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ni-49.7Ti (at.%) alloy was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) and different steps of milling were investigated. An almost fully amorphous alloy was obtained after 32 h of milling. After consolidation by uniaxial hot die pressing and annealing at 1000 deg. C for 28 h, a complicated multiphase structure composed of Ni3Ti, NiTi2 and NiTi phases was formed. The ?-NiTi phase undergoes reversible thermoelastic martensitic transformation (MT) with Ms temperature as high as 172 deg. C. This phenomenon was explained by Fe and Cr solute content introducing during milling and formation of the 4H martensite structure. The structure observations performed using scanning electron microscopy allowed to conclude that the average chemical composition of individual grains was Ti--49.7, Ni--47.76, Fe--2.54 (all in at.%). The second phase between the rounded ?-NiTi grains was identified as the Ni3Ti phase and additionally, in some other places of the sample the Ni3Ti phase was also found. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of sintered samples confirmed the presence of 4H martensite within fine grains of the ?-NiTi phase

  19. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence study of some dyes in polymer microspheres showing morphology dependent resonances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisht, Prem B.; Fukuda, Kazuhiro; Hirayama, Satoshi

    1996-11-01

    Fluorescence emission spectra of N,N'-bis(2,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3,4:9,10- Perylenebis(dicarboximide) (DBPI), rhodamine 6G (R6G), and cresyl violet (CV) in spherical polymer beads of less than 20 ?m diameter show sharp ripple structures. The observed peak positions and the intervals of the structures are consistent with the calculations of the morphology dependent resonances (MDR). Observed intensities of the MDR in the fluorescence emission spectra are found to show excitation energy dependence. The fluorescence spectra have also been measured as a function of the refractive indexes of the medium and the bead. These MDR in the beads up to 4 ?m diameter do not appear to affect the fluorescence decay of the dyes, since the fluorescence lifetime remains constant irrespective of the size of the bead and the refractive index of a surrounding medium. Simulations based on the Lorentz-Mie theory for the microspheres of different refractive indexes have been used to quantify the observed effect on the basis of the available data on the homogeneous widths of the dye molecules. A fluorescence study of microcrystals of DBPI is also presented here from the point of view of comparison with fluorescence decay of dye impregnated beads. The microcrystals exhibit a size effect in the fluorescence decay which has been attributed mainly to the self-absorption effect.

  20. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened steels for FBR core application. 2. Morphology improvement by martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously manufactured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding tubes had inferior internal creep rupture strength in the circumferential hoop direction. This unexpected feature of ODS cladding tubes was substantially ascribed to the needle-like grain structure aligned with the forming direction. In this study, the grain morphology was controlled by using the martensite transformation in ODS martensitic steels to produce an equi-axial grain structure. A major improvement in the strength anisotropy was successfully achieved. The most effective yttria addition was about 1 mass% in improving the strength of the ODS martensitic steels. A simple addition of titanium was particularly effective in increasing the strength level of the ODS martensitic steels to that of ODS ferritic steels. (author)

  1. Dimensionally, morphologically, and thermally induced phase transformations in boron-nitrogen nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovskaya, V. V.; Zobelli, A.; Seifert, G.; Ivanovsk?, A. L.

    2007-08-01

    Structural, thermal, electronic, and energetic properties of cubic boron nitride (BN) nanowires are studied using the density-functional tight-binding method. The effect of the total or partial rearrangement of the cubic structure of nanowires into the hexagonal one depending on the size, morphology, and thermal treatment of the starting wire has been revealed. As distinct from the known homogeneous carbon diamond-like nanowires, stable BN nanowires are two-phase systems whose “shell” has a hexagonal structure and “core” has a cubic structure. The changes in the electronic properties of BN nanowires induced by their structural transformations are discussed. It is shown that boron-nitrogen nanowires can exhibit both semiconducting and metallic properties.

  2. AFLP analysis shows high incongruence between genetic differentiation and morphology-based taxonomy in a widely distributed tortoise.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulí?ek, Peter; Jandzik, D.; Fritz, U.; Schneider, C.; Široký, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 108, ?. 1 (2013), s. 151-160. ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism * morphological plasticity * reptiles * stabilizing selection * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  3. An Improved Compound Morphological Transform Algorithm for Video P-frame Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiao-li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available DCT has block effect and the "mosquito noise" and become more obvious in the low transmission. It is difficult to meet the satisfaction of video transmission in narrow bandwidth and high quality requirements. Video image based on mathematical morphology inter-frame coding technique is the use of inter-frame motion compensation coding algorithm through complex morphological transformation, using the structural elements of the macro block irregular pieces for opening and closing operation, selecting and filtering the irregular pieces and then estimating and encoding the small irregular size for motion and motion vector and finding the matching block with absolute difference to achieve inter-frame prediction. The simulation can achieve relatively fine compensation to improve the coding efficiency and under the same compression ratio the video quality can be improved, the deficiencies of the DCT algorithm in image transmission are remedied to improve the effect of image transmission, to reduce the computational complexity, to improve signal noise ratio. It is of great significance in decoding and transmitting the network video.

  4. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  5. Low-temperature phase and morphology transformations in noble metal nanocatalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In situ real-time x-ray diffraction was used to study temperature-induced structural changes of 1-5 nm Au, Pt, and AuPt nanocatalysts supported on silicon substrates. Synchrotron-based x-ray diffraction indicates that the as-synthesized Au and Au64Pt36 nanoparticles have a non-crystalline structure, while the Pt nanoparticles have the expected cubic structure. The nanoparticles undergo dramatic structural changes at temperatures as low as 120 deg. C. During low-temperature annealing, the Au and AuPt nanoparticles first melt and then immediately coalesce to form 4-5 nm crystalline structures. The Pt nanoparticles also aggregate but with limited intermediate melting. The detailed mechanisms of nucleation and growth, though, are quite different for the three types of nanoparticles. Most interestingly, solidification of high-density AuPt nanoparticles involves an unusual transient morphological transformation that affects only the surface of the particles. AuPt nanoparticles on silicon undergo partial phase segregation only upon annealing at extremely high temperatures (800 deg. C).

  6. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS2 on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS2 layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS2 layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS2–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS2 layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS2

  7. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; B?aszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing places particularly predisposed to accumulate annually laminated lacustrine sediments. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  9. In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanorice and microflowers: morphology transformation and optical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, In(OH)3 and In2O3 nanostructures with controllable complex morphologies were successfully synthesized through a simple hydrothermal process followed by annealing. The In(OH)3 nanostructures were synthesized using urea as the alkaline source at a relatively low temperature without any templates or surfactants. The morphology transformation of In(OH)3 from nanorice to microflowers was observed. The In(OH)3 nanorice are 180 nm in diameter and 550 nm in length, the microflowers are about 3 ?m in diameter and composed of thin nanoflakes with 4-nm thickness. In2O3 with similar morphology was formed by annealing In(OH)3 precursors. The nanostructures were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Our results suggest that a new nucleation-growth-etching-regrowth mechanism can explain the morphology transformation from nanorice to flower-like frameworks. Raman spectrum and photoluminescence (PL) properties of In2O3 were also measured, and a 3-nm blue-shift of PL spectrum was observed due to the thinness of the nanostructures.

  10. Silver birch (Betula pendula) plants with aux and rol genes show consistent changes in morphology, xylem structure and chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piispanen, Riikka; Aronen, Tuija; Chen, Xiwen; Saranpää, Pekka; Häggman, Hely

    2003-08-01

    The effects of Agrobacterium pRiA4 rol and aux genes, controlled by their endogenous promoters, on tree growth and wood anatomy and chemistry were studied in 5- and 7-year-old silver birch (Betula pendula Roth) plants. Southern hybridization confirmed the following rol and aux gene combinations: control plants (no genes transferred); plants with rolC and rolD genes; plants with rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD genes; and plants with rolA, rolB, rolC, rolD, aux1 and aux2 genes. Transgene mRNA was most abundant in phloem/cambium samples and in the developing xylem, whereas no expression was detected in leaves. Plants with rolC and rolD genes or with all the rol genes were significantly shorter and had smaller leaves and a more bushy growth habit than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Morphological observations and wood chemistry analyses revealed that plants with rol genes produced less xylem and broke bud later than control plants or plants with both aux and rol genes. Tension wood was detected in both control and transgenic plants irrespective of their gene combination, probably as a result of greenhouse cultivation. Xylem fibers were shorter in transgenic plants than in control plants, and plants with all the rol genes were characterized by shorter vessels compared with the control plants and a smaller proportional area of vessels compared with the other groups. In addition, silver birch plants with all the rol genes had approximately a 3.3% lower concentration of total acid soluble carbohydrates than control plants. We conclude that the rolC and rolD genes induced the typical "rol-phenotype," and that this was emphasized by concomitant expression of the rolA and rolB genes and alleviated by the presence of aux1 and aux2 genes. We observed consistent phenotypic effects of rol and aux genes on the morphology, anatomy and cell wall chemistry of the plants. PMID:12839726

  11. A Case Report of Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Showing Morphologic Transformation during Followup Periods

    OpenAIRE

    Kazuhiro Yoshida; Yasuharu Tokuyama; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Shinji Osada; Yuichi Sanada

    2009-01-01

    A 64-year-old man underwent MRCP for further examination of gallbladder stones and IPMN of branch-type (IPMN-Br) was pointed out. Yearly MRCP had revealed the gradual increase of the cystic components, marked dilation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), and filling defects in the MPD. After follow-up for three years, he underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Histologically, the dilated MPD and connecting dilated branch ducts were filled with nodular growth of tumor cells consisting of gastric-typ...

  12. On Nonlocal Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Forero, Santiago; Angulo, Jesus

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, nonlocal mathematical morphology operators are introduced as a natural extension of nonlocal-means in the max-plus algebra. Firstly, we show that nonlocal morphology is a particular case of adaptive morphology. Secondly, we present the necessary properties to have algebraic properties on the associated pair of transformations. Finally, we recommend a sparse version to introduce an efficient algorithm that computes these operators in reasonable computational time.

  13. Morphological alteration of x-ray induced partially transformed human cells by transfection with c-myc DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the authors' studies of mechanisms of human cell neoplastic transformation, they attempted to transform a normal human fibrolast strain (GM730) by x-irradiation. The authors obtained a partially transformed cell strain (designed GM730pt) which demonstrates various aspects of the transformed phenotype such as morphological change, growth in soft agar, and focus formation. When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with rhoSV2gpt or rhoSV2neo, the frequency with which cells took of the neo/sup +/ or gpt/sup +/ marker was extremely high (10/sup -1/) as compared to HeLa cells (10/sup -4/) or normal GM730 cells (10/sup -6/). When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with the cat c-myc gene, the morphology of the cells changed dramatically following 7 days of expression. Transfection of other plasmid DNAs or oncogenes such as rhoUC8, rhoSVneo, src sis, and N-rad had little or no effect on the phenotype of M730pt cells. On the other hand, a small gel purified fragment which contains an intronderived sequence on the c-myc gene was very effective when transfected into GM730pt cells. This suggests that a small sequence located in the second intron of c-myc may have special biological significance. The authors are using the M13 cloning and sequencing method to determine more precisely the size and composition of this sequence

  14. Screening of agents which convert 'transformed morphology' of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to 'normal morphology': identification of an active agent as herbimycin and its inhibition of intracellular src kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Y; Hori, M; Takeuchi, T; Umezawa, H

    1985-08-01

    During the course of screening of agents active in converting the transformed morphology of Rous sarcoma virus-infected rat kidney cells to the normal morphology, we identified an active substance produced by Streptomyces sp. MH237-CF8 as herbimycin. Herbimycin converted almost all cells into the normal morphology. The antibiotic was found to be an inhibitor of p60src-associated protein kinase in the cells. PMID:3930444

  15. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  16. Morphological evolution of precipitates during transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate into octacalcium phosphate in relation to role of intermediate phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yuki; Onuma, Kazuo; Kimura, Yuki; Miura, Hitoshi; Tsukamoto, Katsuo

    2011-10-01

    Nucleation of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) and its phase transformation with a decrease in solution pH were investigated at a constant temperature of 32 °C. A solution containing a mixture of CaCl 2 and KH 2PO 4 was prepared (initial pH=7.7), and a drop was sampled at a constant interval to observe the morphological evolution of the precipitates that formed in the solution. A gel-like solution structure formed immediately after mixing and contained a small amount of sea-urchin-like ACP spherulites (3-20 ?m in size). These spherulites consisted of 1.5-10-?m-long flexible needles that formed simultaneously with numerous ACP spherical particles. They first transformed into ?-tri calcium phosphate-like material (called "pseudo ?-TCP") and then into single crystals of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) without dissolution. The flexible needles in the spherulites changed into blade springs, then into flexible plates, and finally into rigid plates during the transformation. The OCP structure appeared in the pseudo ?-TCP plates and gradually substituted for the ?-TCP structure over time. The macroscopic spherulite morphology of the initial ACP remained unchanged during the phase transformation, suggesting that OCP is a pseudomorph of ACP. This feature was observed only when the ACP spherulites formed in the initial solution. Fiber-like aggregates consisting of ?-TCP single crystals nucleated around the ACP spherical particles and grew over time. They survived until the final stage of the reaction, and OCP polycrystals formed in the mixture of ?-TCP and ACP spheres. The OCP polycrystals gradually substituted for the ACP spheres without phase transformation of ?-TCP into OCP.

  17. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  18. Sunlight induced unique morphological transformation in graphene based nanohybrids: appearance of a new tetra-nanohybrid and tuning of functional property of these nanohybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Abhijit; Banerjee, Arindam

    2015-05-20

    In this study, sunlight was used for in situ preparation of gel-based various nanohybrid systems. A naturally occurring amino acid, l-phenylalanine derivative formed a hydrogel with graphene oxide (GO)/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) at physiological pH. This hydrogel was then used in the presence of silver ions and diffuse sunlight to form initially a tri-nanohybrid system consisting of six atom silver nanoclusters, nanosheets, and nanofibers. Interestingly, a time-dependent morphological transformation occurs in this nanohybrid system to form one tri-nanohybrid to another tri-nanohybrid with the appearance of a novel, nanoscopic intermediate tetra-nanohybrid system consisting of four distinctly different nanomaterials (nanofibers, nanosheets, nanospheres, and nanoparticles). UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic analyses, transmission electron microscopic, X-ray photo electron spectroscopic and MALDI-TOF mass spectral analyses with time were applied to characterise these morphological transformations in gel based nanohybrids. Time-dependent X-ray photo electron spectroscopic (XPS) analysis was used to uncover the mechanism for the transformation of silver nanoclusters to silver nanoparticles in the hydrogel matrix. Sunlight was used to trigger time-dependent structural transformation in the nanohybrid systems. Interestingly, one of these tri-nanohybrid systems (silver nanoparticles containing rGO based hydrogel) shows a catalytic property of reducing nitroarenes to aminoarenes and the catalytic efficiency can be modulated by changing the size of the silver nanoparticles with time in diffuse sunlight. The mechanism for different catalytic activities for different hybrids with varying size of silver nanoparticles has also been deciphered. PMID:25892272

  19. Detection of minelike targets in heavily cluttered environments using the MNF transform and grayscale morphological image reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Ashish; Goutsias, John I.

    1996-05-01

    We consider the problem of detecting minelike targets, imaged by means of multispectral sensors, that have been heavily corrupted by clutter. An effective detection approach needs to take into consideration the high correlation that is often present among bands in multispectral images and be robust against clutter. To this end, we here propose a two-step target detection approach. In particular, we first employ the Maximum Noise Fraction transform, in conjunction with vector-morphology, in order to reduce the effect of clutter and enhance the presence of targets. We then discuss a target detection algorithm, based on a morphological image reconstruction/marker fusion approach. We apply this algorithm to the problem of detecting minelike targets present in six-band aerial images, provided to us by the Coastal Systems Station, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Panama City, Florida. The proposed technique is relatively simple and requires only approximate knowledge of target size.

  20. Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

    2012-10-15

    The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  1. Modeling thermodynamics, kinetics, and phase transformation morphology while heat treating titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinov, Savko; Sha, Wei

    2005-09-01

    This article summarizes researchwork on computer modeling of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase transformation behavior in a number of titanium alloys, carried out in collaboration with TIMET UK. The goal is to model the microstructural evolution of the alpha/beta phases as a function of heat treatment and alloy chemistry including five major titanium alloys. The results of the research include time-temperature-transformation and continuous cooling diagrams. Experimental validation, by measurement of the kinetics of growth and dissolution of alpha and other phases, has been conducted.

  2. Effective Morphological Extraction of True Fingerprint Minutiae based on the Hit or Miss Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roli Bansal, Priti Sehgal & Punam Bedi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fingerprints are the most widely used parameter for personal identification amongst allbiometrics based personal authentication systems. As most Automatic FingerprintRecognition Systems are based on local ridge features known as minutiae, markingminutiae accurately and rejecting false ones is critically important. In this paper we proposean algorithm for extracting minutiae from a fingerprint image using the binary Hit or Misstransform (HMT of mathematical morphology. We have developed and tested structuringelements for different types of minutiae present in a fingerprint image to be used by the HMTafter preprocessing the image with morphological operators. This results in efficient minutiaedetection, thereby saving a lot of effort in the post processing stage. The algorithm is testedon a large number of images. Experimental results depict the effectiveness of the proposedtechnique.

  3. Sphere to ring morphological transformation in drying nanofluid droplets in a contact-free environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Ankur; Basu, Saptarshi

    2015-03-21

    Understanding the transients of buckling in drying colloidal suspensions is pivotal for producing new functional microstructures with tunable morphologies. Here, we report first observations and elucidate the buckling instability induced morphological transition (sphere to ring structure) in an acoustically levitated, heated nanosuspension droplet using dynamic energy balance. Droplet deformation featuring the formation of symmetric cavities is initiated by capillary pressure that is two to three orders of magnitude greater than the acoustic radiation pressure, thus indicating that the standing pressure field has no influence on the buckling front kinetics. With an increase in heat flux, the growth rate of surface cavities and their post-buckled volume increase while the buckling time period reduces, thereby altering the buckling pathway and resulting in distinct precipitate structures. However, irrespective of the heating rate, the volumetric droplet deformation exhibits a linear time dependence and the droplet vaporization is observed to deviate from the classical D(2)-law. PMID:25652122

  4. Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mariya Das; B. S. Prakasa Rao; K. Parvati

    2009-01-01

    Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perfo...

  5. Transformable core-corona nanoparticles: Simultaneous change of core morphology and corona wettability in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Kimura, Ayaka; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Suzuki, Takuma; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    We prepared transformable thermoresponsive nanoparticles with variable core softness, controlled by the nanoparticle core's glass transition temperature (Tg). The nanoparticles were prepared by the dispersion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA) and/or methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) macromonomer in a polar solvent. The shape of the nanoparticle core changed with temperature. We then prepared poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films with dispersed thermoresponsive nanoparticles, to elongate the nanoparticles through a uniaxial stretching of the films at 60°C. In this manner, the nanoparticle shape changed from spherical to rod-like morphologies, depending on the degree of film extension. Additionally, the rod-shaped nanoparticles only changed back to spheres with temperature modulation. The nanoparticle core's Tg value affected the rate of its physical transformation from rods to spheres at 37°C, with a slower rate observed for increased Tg. As the nanorod shape change was relatively minor at 37°C, we could control the shape of these transformable nanoparticles under various physiological conditions, a highly desirable feature for drug delivery applications. PMID:25200203

  6. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

  7. Adaptive order morphology edge detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanni Wang; Fei Ge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operato...

  8. Boron nitride nanotubes as nanocrucibles for morphology and phase transformations in encapsulated nanowires of the Mg-O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were filled with nanowires made of Mg-containing compounds: a metallic Mg-based material; a MgO-based phase; and a thermally and chemically unstable oxygen-rich MgO2-based phase. Crystallography of the tubes and their fillings was studied using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, electron energy loss spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. These compounds displayed markedly different behavior inside BN nanotube channels during in situ TEM electron-irradiation-induced and thermal heating. The interplay between phases, their morphology and phase transformations were observed under heating. Thus the applicability of chemically and thermally stable BN nanotubes as one-dimensional nanocrucibles for novel nanoscale metallurgy/chemistry in the practically important Mg-O system has been thoroughly documented. This opens up a pathway for BN nanotube-channel-confined reactions in other inorganic systems

  9. Association of p60src with Triton X-100-resistant cellular structure correlates with morphological transformation.

    OpenAIRE

    Hamaguchi, M.; Hanafusa, H.

    1987-01-01

    More than 70% of wild-type Rous sarcoma virus p60v-src was found to be associated with a cellular structure resistant to nonionic detergent extraction that consists primarily of cytoskeletal proteins. On the other hand, nontransforming src proteins, including cellular p60c-src, nonmyristoylated forms, and those inactive in protein kinase, were found in the fraction solubilized by the detergent extraction. p60c-src was detergent-soluble even in transformed cells, suggesting that the associatio...

  10. Approximate Bayesian Computation for astronomical model analysis: a case study in galaxy demographics and morphological transformation at high redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, E.; Pettitt, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    'Approximate Bayesian Computation' (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable - the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference [e.g. conventional Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation]. In this paper, we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high-redshift galaxies. To this end, we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe, and secondly, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of massive (Mgal > 1011 M?) galaxies (at 1.5 target sequence and self-refining MCMC kernel, is amongst the most efficient of contemporary approaches to this important statistical algorithm. We highlight as well through our chosen case study the value of careful summary statistic selection, and demonstrate two modern strategies for assessment and optimization in this regard. Ultimately, our ABC analysis of the high-redshift morphological mix returns tight constraints on the evolving merger rate in the early Universe and favours major merging (with disc survival or rapid reformation) over secular evolution as the mechanism most responsible for building up the first generation of bulges in early-type discs.

  11. Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrs. Foust

    2005-10-31

    In this webquest, fourth grade students will be learning how to transform geometric shapes. They will also learn to define transformation, translation, and reflection. Introduction You are going to become math detectives. You will try and solve what a transformation is and how you use it. When you are finished you will be able to perform many different transformations. You will be able to identify many different geometric ...

  12. Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mariya Das

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perform a proper segmentation, a property that is often fulfilled in contour detection where the boundaries of the objects are expressed as ridges. For region-based segmentation, it is possible to convert the edges of the objects into ridges by calculating an edge map of the image. Watershed is normally implemented by region growing, based on a set of markers to avoid oversegmentation.

  13. Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Devi.K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

  14. Thiophene accumulation in relation to morphology in roots of Tagetes patula : Effects of auxin and transformation by Agrobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, A F; van den Berg, A J; Bosveld, M; Breteler, H; Wullems, G J

    1989-08-01

    Roots of marigold (Tagetes patula L.) accumulate thiophenes, heterocyclic sulfurous compounds with strong biocidal activity. In detached roots cultured in vitro, the thiophene content was 5 ?mol·(g fresh weight)(-1) which is 25-times higher than in roots attached to the plant. In roots derived from tissues transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and A. rhizogenes, the morphology and thiophene content varied with the bacterial strain used. Transformation stimulated the elongation of the root tips and the formation of lateral roots but lowered the thiophene level to 20-50% relative to the concentration in untransformed detached roots. A negative correlation was found between the number of laterals in a root system and the thiophene content. Extensive branching and a decrease in thiophene accumulation was evoked in untransformed roots by indole-3-acetic acid (1-10 ?mol·l(-1)) added to the medium. Within the roots, the highest thiophene concentrations were found in the tips. The results indicate that auxin directly or indirectly plays a role in the regulation of the thiophene level in root tips. PMID:24201420

  15. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  16. Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures and morphology transformation during annealing processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire- and belt-like single-crystalline titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized by using a simple thermal annealing method, which has often been avoided for the synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures from high melting point metals such as Ti. The synthesis method requires neither high reaction temperature nor complicated reaction processes, and can be used for producing dense nanomaterials with relatively short reaction time at temperatures much lower than the melting point of titanium and titanium dioxide. Key synthesis factors including the choice of eutectic catalyst, growth temperature, and annealing time were systematically investigated. The synthesis reaction was promoted by a copper eutectic catalyst, producing long nanostructures with short reaction times. For example, it was observed that only 30 min of annealing time at 850 deg. C was enough to produce densely grown ?10 ?m long nanowires with diameters of ?100 nm, and longer reaction time brought about morphology changes from wires to belts as well as producing longer nanostructures up to ?30 ?m. The nanostructures have the crystalline rutile structure along the growth direction. Finally, our simple and effective method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures could be utilized for growing other metal oxide nanowires from high melting temperature metals.

  17. A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

    2014-12-28

    A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2(?2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (?-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8. PMID:25376240

  18. Qualitative/chiral sensing of amino acids by naked-eye fluorescence change based on morphological transformation and hierarchizing in supramolecular assemblies of pyrene-conjugated glycolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2015-06-25

    Supramolecular assemblies of fluorescent glycolipids exhibited molecular packing rearrangement as well as morphological transformation, in response to amino acid analytes. Naked-eye detectable fluorescence color changes and hydrogel formation as the result of the amplification of the molecular- and nanometer-scaled changes enabled not only qualitative analysis but also chiral sensing of a specific amino acid among 20 amino acids. PMID:26065855

  19. Analysis of cell variants showing differential susceptibilities to radiation- or chemical-induced neoplastic transformation: Differences in their responses to growth factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The induction of DNA synthesis in quiescent, density-arrested Balb/c 3T3 cells is known to be controlled by the sequential action of at least two functionally distinct sets of growth factors, so-called competence factors and progression factors. Here we examined this induction pathway in Balb/c 3T3 A31-I variants, which showed differential susceptibilities to radiation- and chemical-induced neoplastic transformation despite their similar susceptibilities to radiation- or chemical-induced cell killing and mutagenesis. DNA synthesis was acquired only with the exposure to progression factors in a highly susceptible cell variant (A31-1-13) whereas both competence factors and progression factors were required for a less susceptible cell variant (A31-I-1). The competent state constitutively produced by an autologous mechanism in the highly transformation-susceptible A31-I-13 cells suggests the existence of an endogenous promoter that acts for the expression of the transformed phenotype in an autocrine fashion when the cells have been initiated by radiation or chemical carcinogens. The growth factor requirements acting as a determining factor for susceptibilities to transformation are discussed

  20. Granuloma Annulare Mimicking Sarcoidosis: Report of Patient With Localized Granuloma Annulare Whose Skin Lesions Show 3 Clinical Morphologies and 2 Histology Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Philip R; Carlos, Casey A

    2015-07-01

    Granuloma annulare, a benign dermatosis of undetermined etiology, typically presents in a localized or generalized form. It has 3 distinctive histologic patterns: an infiltrative (interstitial) pattern, a palisading granuloma pattern, and an epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) pattern. A man whose granuloma annulare skin lesions mimicked sarcoidosis is described. His localized granuloma annulare presented with a total of 3 lesions that each had a distinctive clinical morphology: an annular lesion of individual papules, a dermal nodule, and a linear arrangement of 3 papules. Two of his lesions showed a palisading granuloma histology pattern of granuloma annulare; however, the linear papules on his posterior neck lesion demonstrated noncaseating granulomas consistent with either the epithelioid nodule histology pattern of granuloma annulare or sarcoidal granuloma compatible with sarcoidosis. A comprehensive evaluation excluded the diagnosis of systemic sarcoidosis. Using the PubMed database, an extensive literature search was performed on granuloma annulare, epithelioid nodule, sarcoidal granuloma, and sarcoidosis. The histology patterns of granuloma annulare-emphasizing the history and differentiating features of the epithelioid nodule pattern from cutaneous sarcoidosis-were reviewed. The epithelioid nodule (sarcoidal granuloma) histology pattern of granuloma annulare is uncommon and may mimic the histology changes observed in sarcoidosis skin lesions; the absence of asteroid or other giant cell inclusions and an increase in mucin deposition between the collagen bundles favor the diagnosis of granuloma annulare. In addition, the epithelioid nodule pattern of granuloma annulare can rarely also show other histologic patterns of granuloma annulare in the same biopsy specimen or concurrently present with other clinical lesions of granuloma annulare that demonstrate a palisading granuloma, or possibly an infiltrative, histology pattern. However, the presence of an isolated skin lesion demonstrating sarcoidal granulomas-even when concurrently appearing with other lesions of granuloma annulare showing either an infiltrative or a palisading granuloma histologic pattern-may prompt the clinician to evaluate and exclude the possibility of systemic sarcoidosis. PMID:25140662

  1. Understanding the influence of alendronate on the morphology and phase transformation of apatitic precursor nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guiling; Huang, Rong; Li, Zhicheng; Yang, Xianyan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Xia, Wei; Sun, Xiaoliang; Yang, Guojing; Gao, Changyou; Gou, Zhongru

    2012-08-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that can prevent the loss of bone mass, given orally to treat postmenopuasal osteoporosis. It is not clear yet if the benefits of BPs include the possibility of affecting bone apatitic precursors transition for bone consolidation except for encouraging osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, the complexity of the in vivo system makes it difficult to isolate and study such extracellular topographical cues that trigger bone turnover response. Herein, we proposed a wet-chemical approach employing alendronate sodium (AS) as a guide of hydroxyapatite (HA) precursor growth and conversion which was initiated from the nucleantion of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in a cell membrane-mimicking surfactant micelle aqueous system. The nanocrystal clusters of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and OCP nanocryatals were readily precipitated within a relatively narrow AS concentration range (2-8 ?M). However, such low concentrations of AS seemed to stabilize the more acidic phases, and to delay the transformation into HA, to an extent which increased on increasing AS concentration. In contrast, at a slight higher concentrations (16-32 ?M), AS promoted HA precipitation after ageing for 1h. It was found that the effect of AS on the phase selectivity of apatitic precursors was concentration-dependent within a prolonged ageing time stage (0.5-168 h). The AS-assisted reactions in vitro offer an expedient way to understand the underlying implementarity between bone and BPs for bone consolidation, and to improve our understanding of benefit of BP dosages on bone turnover and trauma healing. PMID:22687488

  2. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  3. Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, Annekathrin; Pallmann, Philip; Papenbrock, Jutta; Riemenschneider, Anja

    2015-01-01

    Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are interested in investigating the influence of the genetic background of canola (Brassica napus) cultivars in sulfur-limiting conditions on the resistance against Verticillium longisporum. Therefore, four commercially available B. napus cultivars were analyzed. These high-performing cultivars differ in some characteristics described in their cultivar pass, such as several agronomic traits, differences in the size of the root system, and resistance to certain pathogens, such as Phoma and Verticillium. The objectives of the study were to examine and explore the patterns of morphological, physiological and metabolic diversity in these B. napus cultivars at different sulfur concentrations and in the context of plant defense. Results indicate that the root systems are influenced differently by sulfur deficiency in the cultivars. Total root dry mass and length of root hairs differ not only among the cultivars but also vary in their reaction to sulfur limitation and pathogen attack. As a sensitive indicator of stress, several parameters of photosynthetic activity determined by PAM imaging showed a broad variability among the treatments. These results were supported by thermographic analysis. Levels of sulfur-containing metabolites also showed large variations. The data were interrelated to predict the specific behavior during sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack. Advice for farming are discussed. PMID:25699060

  4. Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

    2015-02-01

    Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

  5. Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, E

    2012-01-01

    "Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

  6. Direct characterization of phase transformations and morphologies in moving reaction zones in Al/Ni nanolaminates using dynamic transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Fast phase transformations are examined in Al/Ni reactive nanolaminates. ? Results visible only by dynamic transmission electron microscopy at ns resolution. ? NiAl forms under 15 ns after reaction front in all three stoichiometries studied. ? DTEM imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in nonequiatomic films. - Abstract: Phase transformations and transient morphologies are examined as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate across Al/Ni nanolaminate films. The rapid evolution of these phases and sub-micrometer morphological features requires nanoscale temporal and spatial resolution that is not available with traditional in situ electron microscopy. This work uses dynamic transmission electron microscopy to identify intermetallic products and phase morphologies, as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate in nanolaminate films grown with 3:2, 2:3 and 1:1 Al/Ni atomic ratios. Single-shot diffraction patterns with 15 ns temporal resolution reveal that the NiAl intermetallic forms within ?15 ns of the reaction front's arrival in all three types of films and is the only intermetallic phase to form, as the reactions self-propagate and quench very rapidly. Time-resolved imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in the Al-rich and Ni-rich foils, but not in the equiatomic films. The cellular features in the Al-rich and Ni-rich films are attributed to a cooling trajectory through a two-phase field of liquid + NiAl.ld of liquid + NiAl.

  7. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  8. Equine sarcoids: Bovine Papillomavirus type 1 transformed fibroblasts are sensitive to cisplatin and UVB induced apoptosis and show aberrant expression of p53

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finlay Margaret

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bovine papillomavirus type 1 infects not only cattle but also equids and is a causative factor in the pathogenesis of commonly occurring equine sarcoid tumours. Whilst treatment of sarcoids is notoriously difficult, cisplatin has been shown to be one of the most effective treatment strategies for sarcoids. In this study we show that in equine fibroblasts, BPV-1 sensitises cells to cisplatin-induced and UVB-induced apoptosis, a known cofactor for papillomavirus associated disease, however BPV-1 transformed fibroblasts show increased clonogenic survival, which may potentially limit the therapeutic effects of repeated cisplatin treatment. Furthermore we show that BPV-1 increases p53 expression in sarcoid cell lines and p53 expression can be either nuclear or cytoplasmic. The mechanism and clinical significance of increase/abnormal p53 expression remains to be established.

  9. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2014-03-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  11. Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

    2013-12-01

    Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

  12. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  13. Promotion of flowering and morphological alterations in Atropa belladonna transformed with a CaMV 35S-rolC chimeric gene of the Ri plasmid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurioka, Y; Suzuki, Y; Kamada, H; Harada, H

    1992-12-01

    Kanamycin-resistant plants of belladonna (Atropa belladonna) were obtained after Agrobacterium mediated transformation. When a rolC gene, which is one of the loci located on Ri plasmid of Agrobacterium rhizogenes, was co-introduced with a kanamycin resistant (NPT II) gene under control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, the rolC gene was expressed strongly in leaves, flowers, stems and roots. The transformed plants exhibited dramatic promotion of flowering, reduced apical dominance, pale and lanceolated leaves and smaller flowers. On the other hand, when native rolC gene was co-introduced with NPT II, the transgenic plants obtained did not exhibit the altered phenotypes observed in 35S-rolC transformants, and the expression level of the rolC gene was much lower than in 35S-rolC transformants. These results suggest that the morphological changes in transgenic Atropa belladonna were related to the degree of expression of the rolC gene. PMID:24201720

  14. Bio-inspired synthesis of titania with polyamine induced morphology and phase transformation at room-temperature: insight into the role of the protonated amino group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-09-14

    Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAAH), a mimic of biopolyamines, was used to induce the mineralization of titania at room-temperature, hollow spheres with a mixed phase (anatase and rutile) were obtained, and the fine anatase and rutile nanocrystals were observed mixing at the sub-10 nm scale on the hollow spheres. The structural information about the precipitated titania gained by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a distinct dependence of the polymorph and morphology of the titania precipitates on the molecular structure of the polyamines and titanium precursors. Moreover, we have observed the phase transformation from anatase to rutile in the formation process of hollow spheres, and it was suggested that the protonated amino groups on PAAH played key roles in the transformation of both polymorphs and morphologies of titania. Additionally, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), a long chain quaternary ammonium polymer, was used as another catalytic template for the synthesis of titania, which also led to a hollow structure with a mixture of anatase and TiO2-B. PMID:23838673

  15. Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

  16. Vanadate-treated baby hamster kidney fibroblasts show cytoskeleton and adhesion patterns similar to their Rous sarcoma virus-transformed counterparts.

    OpenAIRE

    Comoglio, Paolo; TARONE, Guido

    1988-01-01

    Rous sarcoma virus-transformed baby hamster kidney fibroblasts (RSV/B4-BHK) adhere to a fibronectin-coated substratum by means of dot-like adhesion sites called podosomes in view of their shape and function as cellular feet (Tarone et al.: Exp Cell Res 159:141, 1985). Podosomes concentrate tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, including pp60v-src, and appear in many cells transformed by oncogenes coding for tyrosine kinases. In this paper we used orthovanadate, an inhibitor of phosphotyrosine pho...

  17. Phase transformation and morphology tuning of ?-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal phase and morphology with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The phase changes to the mixture of ?-NaYF4 and ?-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, ?-NaYF4 disappears gradually and ?-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the morphology changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different phases and morphologies are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).

  18. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic ?'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal ?-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) ?-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from ?'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

  19. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; J. Chwiej

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  20. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pEndodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  1. Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

  2. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

    2012-03-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

  3. Fourier Transform Rheology as an innovative morphological characterization technique for the emulsion volume average radius and its distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinheimer, K; Grosso, M; Hetzel, F; Kübel, J; Wilhelm, M

    2012-08-15

    This article extends previous works on emulsion characterization via Fourier Transform Rheology. The interest here is on the effects of (i) polydispersity and (ii) high volume fraction (often associated with commercial samples) on the nonlinear rheological behavior. To analyze the effects of polydispersity on the LAOS measurements, the investigated samples were characterized with respect to their volume average radius, [R](43), and the polydispersity index of the distribution. As the nonlinear mechanical emulsion value E(0) introduced in the literature is a function of both nonlinear rheological parameters, such as I(5/3), as well as emulsion properties including the volume average radius, interfacial tension and viscosities of the matrix and dispersed phase, it is, therefore, a useful tool for emulsion characterization. In addition, the analysis of the higher harmonic ratios, I(7/5), has been demonstrated to provide information about the width of the distribution. With respect to the characterization of the high volume fraction samples, these first experiments on commercial w/o-emulsions were shown to relate nonlinear rheological properties to the droplet size and droplet size distribution of highly filled systems, demonstrating that LAOS experiments can give useful insights on the average droplet size and its distribution. PMID:22633109

  4. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  5. Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ?20 nm and height of ?7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metaics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere

  6. Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukreja, L. M.; Koslowski, B.; Steiner, R.; Plettl, A.; Ziemann, P.

    2008-09-01

    Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 Å, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ˜20 nm and height of ˜7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere.

  7. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves, Piva; João Lucas Rangel, Silva; Leandro José, Raniero; Carmen Silvia Passos, Lima; Emilia Angela Loschiavo, Arisawa; Cristiane de, Oliveira; Renata de Azevedo, Canevari; Juliana, Ferreira; Airton Abrahão, Martin.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR [...] ) is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4), adenoma (n = 4), and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4) from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining). The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02)®. Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells), central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  8. Banded-like morphology and martensitic transformation of dual-phase Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy with enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the current challenges facing producers of Ni–Mn–In alloys are the achievement of small hysteresis and good ductility. Here, we present a dual-phase (?-Ni51.8Mn31.4In16.8 and ?-Ni62.4Mn32.5In5.1) Ni52Mn32In16 alloy prepared by the zone melting liquid metal cooling directional solidification method, which simultaneously shows small hysteresis (?T < 10 K) and good ductility (6.6%). In addition, and more importantly, an inter-martensitic transition with a large magnetization jump occurs in this alloy. This is expected to further broaden the working temperature range of actuators and sensors that use this magnetic shape memory alloy. The sequence of the martensitic transformation can be shown by in situ X-ray diffraction to be austenite ? 10M ? 14M. Additionally, the second (?) phase dramatically enhances the entropy change of these structural transformations and shifts them to higher temperatures. During the directional solidification, a novel banded-like microstructure, consisting of two layers, one of the ? single phase and the other of the two phases coupled, forms at the low growth rate. A qualitative model is presented to explain the experimental observation, taking into account both the competitive nucleation and the growth of the phases. Experimental and theoretical analysis in the present work shows a linear relationship between the maximum spacing of the ? single phase layer and the growth rate

  9. Evaluation of three Polymerase chain reaction tests targeting morphological transforming region II, UL-83 gene and glycoprotein O gene for the detection of Human Cytomegalovirus genome in clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese KL

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most sensitive and commonly used method for the assessment of HCMV infection in the immunocompromised patients at risk from severe associated clinical manifestations. However, there is little consistency in the qualitative PCR used for different regions of HCMV genome. Therefore, the performance of three Qualitative PCR tests to detect HCMV genome in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients was evaluated. With pp65 antigenemia assay as the "gold standard", nested PCR for morphological transforming region II (mtr II and glycoprotein O (gO gene and uniplex PCR for UL 83 gene were applied on 92 consecutive clinical specimens obtained from 74 immunocompromised patients with clinically suspected HCMV disease. Virus isolation was attempted on 12 clinical specimens from six pp65 antigenemia positive patients. Based on the pp 65 antigenemia results as "gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each PCR was calculated. Results The PCR targeting mtr II region showed a higher sensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% than the other two PCRs in detecting HCMV DNA from clinical specimens obtained from different immunocompromised patient population of Chennai region, India. Conclusion The results suggests that the optimal method of detection of HCMV DNA could be achieved by PCR using primer sequences targeting mtr II region of genome of HCMV in Chennai region, India.

  10. Effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compound during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of a 10 T high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compounds during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation has been investigated. Results indicate that the field has split the MnBi crystal along the (0 0 1)-crystal plane during the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation process and the split MnBi crystals align and aggregate along the magnetic field direction. Along with the change of the MnBi phase morphology, the magnetic property changes greatly. Indeed, with the alignment and aggregation of the spit MnBi phases, the saturation magnetization Ms and the magnetic susceptibility ? increase, and the coercive field Hc and the remnant magnetization Mr decrease. This implies that a high magnetic field may have caused the magnetic property of the MnBi phase to transform towards soft magnetism. Above results may be attributed to the enhancement of the magnetization and the Mn1.08Bi-MnBi phase transformation in a high magnetic field.

  11. Effect of a high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compound during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xi [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); EPM-SIMAP, ENSHMG BP 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: xi@hmg.inpg.fr; Ren Zhongming [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Fautrelle, Yves [EPM-SIMAP, ENSHMG BP 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Deng Kang [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Modern Metallurgy and Materials Processing, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2009-09-15

    Effect of a 10 T high magnetic field on the morphology and magnetic properties of the MnBi compounds during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation has been investigated. Results indicate that the field has split the MnBi crystal along the (0 0 1)-crystal plane during the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation process and the split MnBi crystals align and aggregate along the magnetic field direction. Along with the change of the MnBi phase morphology, the magnetic property changes greatly. Indeed, with the alignment and aggregation of the spit MnBi phases, the saturation magnetization M{sub s} and the magnetic susceptibility {chi} increase, and the coercive field H{sub c} and the remnant magnetization M{sub r} decrease. This implies that a high magnetic field may have caused the magnetic property of the MnBi phase to transform towards soft magnetism. Above results may be attributed to the enhancement of the magnetization and the Mn{sub 1.08}Bi-MnBi phase transformation in a high magnetic field.

  12. Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhong Zou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

  13. Algorithm for brain extraction on Magnetic Resonance Images T1 using Morphological 3D Transformations / Algoritmo para la extracción de imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 usando transformaciones morfológicas en 3D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. D., Mendiola-Santibañez; I. M, Santillán Méndez; C., Paredes Orta; I. R, Terol Villalobos.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una composición de transformaciones morfológicas para la extracción del cerebro en imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 (MRI T1) en 3D. La propuesta hace uso de dos transformaciones morfológicas conexas, la nivelación inferior y una familia de filtros viscosos alternados [...] secuenciales (VASFs). Las propiedades de estos operadores- las cuales consisten en el control del proceso de reconstrucción de un marcador dentro de la imagen original-, se explotan para segmentar el cerebro de 20 volúmenes de MRI T1. Los cerebros segmentados se comparan respecto a: i) segmentaciones obtenidas a partir del algoritmo BET, el cual es popular en la comunidad científica para la segmentación del cerebro; y ii) segmentaciones manuales. Los índices calculados indican que la transformación propuesta produce buenos resultados en su desempeño. El tiempo empleado por el operador durante su ejecución es aceptable además de que la propuesta puede ser implementada en Matlab Abstract in english In this paper a 3D morphological composition of transformations for brain extraction on brain Magnetic Resonance Images T1 (MRI T1) is presented. The proposal makes use of two morphological connected transformations, the lower leveling and a family of the viscous alternating sequential filters (VASF [...] s). The properties of these operators -which consist in the control of the reconstruction process of a marker into the original image-, are exploited to segment the brain in 20 volumes of MRI T1. The segmented brains are compared with respect to: i) the segmentations obtained from BET which is popular among the scientific community for segmenting the brain; and ii) manual segmentations. The computed indices indicate that the proposed transformation produces good results during its performance. The consumed time for the algorithm during the execution is acceptable and it can be implemented in Matlab.

  14. Facile synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles inside a nanoporous carbon matrix (M/MO@C) through the morphology-preserved transformation of metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Woojeong; Kim, Hee Soo; Chun, Hyungphil; Yoo, Won Cheol

    2015-04-28

    A facile method to transform metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into metal/metal oxide@carbon (M/MO@C) composites with well-defined shapes is reported. The porosity of carbon and the particle sizes of M/MO are readily controlled by a simple two-step process that includes impregnation of the polymer precursors and a thermolysis reaction. PMID:25813137

  15. Studies on the evolution of ZnO morphologies in a thermohydrolysis technique and evaluation of their functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anas, S; Mangalaraja, R V; Ananthakumar, S

    2010-03-15

    The transformation of ZnO morphologies in an in situ thermohydrolysis technique using hexamethylene tetramine is studied with and without surfactants. The photocatalytic and photoluminescence properties of these morphologically tuned ZnO morphologies are studied and the results presented. In the absence of any surfactants, the HMTA assisted in situ hydrolysis resulted in microtube and multipod morphologies. The addition of nonionic [Span-80] and cationic [CTAB] surfactants transforms the morphologies to microspheres, microdiscs and nanorods. The photoluminescence analysis shows a red luminescence in nanorods and green-indigo and blue-green emissions in microtubes and other morphologies. Photocatalytic reaction efficiency in UV light follows the order microtubes>nanorods>microdiscs>microspheres>multipods. PMID:19959283

  16. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype / Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone, Pohl; Nei Fernandes, Lopes; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel, Braga; Rodrigo, Danielowski; Ilda Mariclei de Castro da, Silva; Jose Antonio, Peters.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneti [...] camente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhous [...] e conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

  17. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype=Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilda Mariclei de Castro da Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate no. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel, Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneticamente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção.

  18. Spark plasma sintering of ?-Si3N4 ceramics with Al2O3 and Y2O3 as additives and its morphology transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spark plasma sintering SPS technique has been used to densify pure ?-Si3N4 commercial powder, having Y2O3 and Al2O3 additions; from 0, 2.5 and 5.0 wt% to 0, 1.5 and 3 wt%, respectively. Such powder admixtures were previously spray-dried at 160 oC in such a way that powder was thoroughly homogenized. Set sintering treatment included: 0-20 min holding time and 38 MPa axial load, sintering temperature of 1500 oC and heating rate of 300 oC/min. The maximum relative density developed on studied specimens ranged from 99.4 to 99.8% and could only be attained once the ?-phase nucleated from the ?-silicon nitride matrix. Obtained Si3N4 composites combine both ?- and ?-phases. The later phase becomes evident trough the rod-like geometry, which forms throughout the presence of a liquid face. The largest hardness value developed (1588 Hv(20kgf)) on studied ceramics (3M-series - 3 min) matched close to the corresponding counterpart found in literature (1600 Hv), the former developed in much shorter sintering times. Using X-ray diffraction XRD and scanning electron microscope SEM analyses, the two major phases of Si3N4 were identified in the resultant microstructures. The morphology evolution of Si3N4 particles as occurred upon SPS-sintering is analyzed.

  19. Preparation and catalytic properties of tungsten oxides with different morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi Yunfei, E-mail: beiyf2003@yahoo.com.cn [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, 18 Xue Yuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China); Li Dadong; Nie Hong [Research Institute of Petroleum Processing, SINOPEC, 18 Xue Yuan Road, 100083 Beijing (China)

    2010-09-01

    Tungsten oxides with different morphologies including platelet-like sheets, nanobelts, and nanoparticles have been successfully prepared by changing the ions in the synthetic solution. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared analysis and N{sub 2} adsorption were employed to reveal the morphological evolution, and results show that the morphological evolution can be attributed to the alteration of coordination environment of tungstenic cations contained in the synthetic solution. Furthermore, these products have been applied into hydrodesulfurization measurement to investigate the relationship between the morphologies of tungsten oxides and their catalytic properties. It is concluded that the catalysts originating from nanobelt-like tungsten oxides have highest catalytic activity and excellent selectivity due to their scrolled character and strong metallic edges.

  20. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions. : lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

    The notion of home is a relational concept, which reflects the embedded sense of belonging to a certain space. Home is material and imagined and the concept embeds relationships between imagined ideals and specific physical spaces. Home is somewhere in particular; a place invested with meaning through lived experience and culturally defined practices. The analysis of home making processes in Maputo documents how this sense of belonging is created and the research focus on the relationship between the material, symbolic and imagined home. A house turns into a home through inhabitation which involves feelings of security (physical and legal), concepts of family and social networks, relation to neighbourhood and how objects and spaces are invested with symbolic meanings. The study argues that the Maputo peri-urban inhabitants are acting as the de facto city makers with limited, if any, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves.

  1. Digital Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Rowe

    The Digital Morphology library is a dynamic archive of information on digital morphology and high-resolution X-ray computed tomography of biological specimens. Plants and animals, both recent and fossil, are included. Skulls and skeletons of vertebrates, exoskeletons of invertebrates and hard parts of plants are all represented. Browse through the site and see spectacular imagery, animations and details on the morphology of over 200 representatives of the Earth's biota.

  2. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  3. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  4. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  5. Auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 106. (orig.)

  6. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

  7. Medical Image Segmentation by MarkerControlled Watershed and Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad El Allaoui; M'barek Nasri

    2012-01-01

    Segmentation by watershed transform is a fast, robust and widely used in image processing and analysis, but it suffers from over-segmentation. We present in this paper some improvements to this algorithm based on the mathematical morphology in order to get over this difficulty. The performance of this method isvalidated on medical images. The results obtained show the good performance of this approach.

  8. Progress report on induction of transformations in cultured epithelial cells, 8-1-78 to 5-31-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubas, J M

    1979-01-01

    During the report period the induction of morphologic transformation in both murine and human epithelial lung cultures was studied. The results of the first dose-response curve study showed a dose dependent increase in the yield of transformants versus methylcholanthrene concentration through 5 ug/ml followed by a decline in yield at 10 ug/ml. These curves are in terms of transformants per cell exposed and therefore fit with conventional wisdom, i.e., the rising arm of the curve reflects an increase in transformants with dose, while the descending arm reflects the counterbalancing effects of cytotoxicity. Attempts to repeat this curve consistently failed. By sequentially removing each of the additives, it was learned that it was necessary to have high levels of hydrocortisone present during carcinogen exposure in order to obtain successful morphologic transformation. A repeatable assay for morphologic transformation of epithelial lung cells is now established. Two human lung samples have been studied in essentially the same system. Of the three transformed human lines studied thusfar, all have grown to form colonies in soft agar, and all have formed multicellular tumor speroids. The relationship between the morphologic transformant and the cells which give rise to soft agar collonies, multicellular tumor spheroids and, hopefully, tumors is problematic. The solution awaits a clonal isolation technique for the transformants. (ERB)

  9. Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

    2011-05-01

    We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes. PMID:21350825

  10. Functional Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantha Hopkins

    The first seven labs in this course are simply a survey of skeletal morphology in vertebrate animals; this is the first lab of the course that actually applies this understanding to solving a scientific problem. Students measure isolated skeletal elements of vertebrates in order to quantify the differences among members of different locomotor groups. They're asked to formulate hypotheses based on an understanding of physics for the differences among the locomotor categories they're examining, and then they compare their data to those expectations. The activity allows students to understand how paleontologists interpret skeletal morphology to make inferences about the ecology of extinct organisms. This will enable the students to apply their knowledge of skeletal morphology to answering a scientific question. The experience also gives them an opportunity to practice the process of paleontological science, including hypothesis testing and data interpretation.

  11. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  12. Laplace Transform Analytical Restructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Laplace transform definition is implemented without resorting to Adomian decomposition nor Homotopy perturbation methods. We show that the said transform can be simply calculated by differentiation of the original function. Various analytic consequent results are given. The simplicity and efficacy of the method are illustrated through many examples with shown Maple graphs, and transform tables are provided. Finally, a new infinite series representation related to Laplace transforms of trigonometric functions is proposed.

  13. Liquid immiscibility and core-shell morphology formation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of composition on liquid immiscibility, macroscopic morphology, microstructure and phase transformation in ternary Al–Bi–Sn alloys were investigated. Three types of morphology, the core-shell type, the stochastic droplet type and uniform dispersion type, of Al–Bi–Sn particles prepared by a jet breakup process were distinguished, and the relationships between which were discussed. The phase transformation behaviors of the Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied by thermal analysis, in agreement with the microstructural observation and microanalysis. The liquid immiscibility and formation of the core-shell morphology in Al–Bi–Sn alloys are easily achieved when the composition lies in the liquid miscibility gap. The particles exhibit a high melting point Al-rich core with a low melting point Sn–Bi-rich solder shell, showing promise for application as high-density electronic packaging materials. - Highlights: • The liquid demixing, morphology and microstructure in Al–Bi–Sn alloys were studied. • Three types of morphology were classified and discussed. • The conditions for formation of the core-shell morphology were obtained. • The phase transition behaviors agree with the microstructure characterization. • The Al/Sn–Bi core-shell particles show promise for use in electronic packaging

  14. Homemade Laser Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Museum of Houston

    2011-01-01

    With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

  15. The Diane Rehm Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

  16. A Holographic Road Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  17. Film morphology and photophysics of polyfluorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, A. J.; Lane, P. A.; Mellor, H.; Martin, S. J.; Grell, M.; Giebeler, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Wohlgenannt, M.; An, C.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the interplay between photophysics and film morphology of poly(9,9-dioctyl)fluorene (PFO) using a variety of optical probes. Upon slowly warming a spin-cast PFO film from 80 to 300 K, a fraction of the sample is transformed into a different solid phase, the ? phase. Absorption and electroabsorption measurements show that the ? phase has more extended conjugation than the glassy phase. As a consequence, excited states of the ? phase are redshifted and have higher polarizability. The photoinduced absorption spectrum of a glassy PFO film is dominated by triplet excitons, whereas both polarons and triplet excitons are seen in a sample containing a fraction of the ? phase. The dependence of the photoinduced absorption and photocurrent upon the excitation wavelength shows that there is a clear link between polaron and triplet photogeneration.

  18. Martensitic transformation under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamics considerations of martensitic transformation under stress are considered. The equation for dM s/d? established by Patel and Cohen is discussed taking account of the grain size effect in polycrystalline materials, i.e. the orientation preference effect and the interaction between grain boundary and applied stress. A general model for the calculation of Ms temperature in the face centered cubic to body centered cubic (fcc ? bcc(bct)) transformation influenced by stress in iron based alloys is proposed. Quantitative descriptions of strain effects on nucleation rate or nucleation barrier, activation energy and morphology, as well as the effect of internal stress on autocatalytic nucleation of martensitic transformation are briefly reviewed. The modeling of martensitic transformation under stress, involving modeling of the motion of martensite/parent interface and reorientation of martensite under stress is reviewed

  19. A simple model for some unusual properties of martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2004-01-01

    We report a detailed numerical investigation of a recently introduced two dimensional model for square-to-rectangle martensitic transformation that explains several unusual features of the martensitic transformation. This model includes inertial effects, dissipation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains and an inhomogeneous stress field to describe the effect of lattice defects which serves as nucleation centers. Both single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation has been studied for single quench situation and thermal cycling. The final stage morphologies of single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation bear considerable similarity suggesting that the initial distribution of the defects is not important. Thermal cycling using continuous cooling and heating simulations show the existence of hysteresis in the transformation. More importantly, the rate of energy dissipated occurs in the forms of bursts with power law statistics for their amplitudes and durations which explains the result...

  20. Demonstration Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-06

    The Idaho State University Department of Physics conducts science demonstration shows at S. E. Idaho schools. Four different presentations are currently available; "Forces and Motion", "States of Matter", "Electricity and Magnetism", and "Sound and Waves". Information provided includes descriptions of the material and links to other resources.

  1. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  2. Blue Ribbon Art Show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Judy Domeny

    2002-01-01

    Describes the process of selecting judges for a Blue Ribbon Art Show (Springfield, Missouri). Used adults (teachers, custodians, professional artists, parents, and principals) chosen by the Willard South Elementary School art teacher to judge student artwork. States that nominated students received blue ribbons. (CMK)

  3. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  4. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  5. The Graphing Game Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This lesson plan assesses student interpretation of graphs utilizing cooperative learning to further students understanding. Types of graphs used are horizontal and vertical bar graphs, picture graphs, and pictographs. In the lesson students play a game called the Graphing Game Show, in which they must work as a team to answer questions about specific graphs. The lesson includes four student resource worksheets and suggestions for extension and differentiation.

  6. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ru\\u00EDz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  7. Methods of the Straightening Transformation and Analysis of Outer Contours of Objects in Medical Image Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek R. Ogiela

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an algorithm of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects, allowing to transform biological structures of interest, visible in medical images, from two-dimensional space of the image into two-dimensional graph, representing contours of the straightened object with its possible outer morphological changes, indicating the progress of pathological processes. The developed method is based on a sequence of geometric transformations of the analyzed objects in the image, and its operation was described in detail and illustrated by examples of transfonnation of main pancreatic ducts, appearing in X-ray images acquired by ERCP, as well as by graphs showing outer morphology of blood vessels in the fundus of the eye. The proposed method is universal, and due to the fact that the transformation preserves and exposes pathologic morphological changes, such as abnormal lateral branches, local dilatations or projections it can also be used in the recognition and analysis of other structure images acquired by various techniques of computer tomography, e.g. cerebral vessels, bile ducts, coronary vessels or fragments of gastrointestinal tract. The graphs of the structures of interest obtained as a result of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects are a starting point for the recognition of morphological changes, important for diagnosis, using syntactic methods of pattern recognition.

  8. Obesity in show dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2012-08-11

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  9. The involvement of chromosome 13 in the X-ray-induced in vitro transformation of mouse m5S cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformation of an immortalized but nonmalignant near-diploid mouse cell line (m5S) by X-ray irradiation was studied, and the chromosome constitutions of the morphologically transformed foci were analyzed. The frequency of transformation increased in a dose-dependent manner. Chromosome analysis revealed that 17 out of 24 transformants showed a common chromosome change, being characterized by a diminution of the C2-ter region of chromosome 13 as compared with the chromosome constitution of the parental untransformed cells. In these transformants, the diminution of 13(C2-ter) was critical in forming transformed foci, but was not sufficient to engender anchorage independence and tumorigenicity. The agar clonability and tumorigenicity were associated with the further appearance of an extra chromosomal segment seen as an abnormally banded region, probably consisting of tandem repeats of actively functioning genes. This experimental system thus revealed the progressive multistep nature of neoplastic transformation initiated by a loss of suppressive function. (author)

  10. Egg: the Arts Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    "Egg is a new TV show about people making art across America" from PBS. This accompanying Website presents excerpts from sixteen episodes of the series, with three more "hatching soon," such as Close to Home, profiling three photographers: Jeanine Pohlhaus, whose pictures document her father's struggle with mental illness; Gregory Crewdson's photos of Lee, Massachusetts; and Joseph Rodriguez's photos of Hispanics in New York City. Excerpts include video clips, gallery listings where the artists' work can be seen, and short interviews with artists. Some episodes also offer "peeps," glimpses of material not shown on TV, such as the Space episode's peep, Shooting Stars, that provides directions for astrophotography, taking photographs of star trails. Other sections of the site are airdates, for local listings; see and do usa, where vacationers can search for art events at their destinations; and egg on the arts, a discussion forum.

  11. Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis

    OpenAIRE

    Rau Aarathi; Kini Hema; Pai Radha

    2009-01-01

    Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG) are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type...

  12. Solidification and the ?/? phase transformation of steels in relation to casting defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many advanced steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast due to cracking and breakout problems in the continuous casting process especially at high casting speeds. In this study an attempt was made to obtain practical understanding of the solidification and the ??? phase transformation of various commercial steels using high-temperature laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Under rapid cooling conditions the transformation morphology showed a massive-type of transition rather than a classical diffusion-controlled transformation.

  13. Digital Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

  14. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  15. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  16. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  17. Partial Radon transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z P; Munson, D R

    1997-01-01

    This article formally defines partial Radon transforms for functions of more than two dimensions. It shows that a generalized projection-slice theorem exists which connects planar and hyperplanar projections of a function to its Fourier transform. In addition, a general theoretical framework is provided for carrying out n-dimensional backprojection reconstruction in a multistage fashion through the use of the partial Radon transform. PMID:18282906

  18. Measure Transformed Independent Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we derive a new framework for independent component analysis (ICA), called measure-transformed ICA (MTICA), that is based on applying a structured transform to the probability distribution of the observation vector, i.e., transformation of the probability measure defined on its observation space. By judicious choice of the transform we show that the separation matrix can be uniquely determined via diagonalization of several measure-transformed covariance matric...

  19. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

  20. Medical Image Segmentation by MarkerControlled Watershed and Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad El Allaoui

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation by watershed transform is a fast, robust and widely used in image processing and analysis, but it suffers from over-segmentation. We present in this paper some improvements to this algorithm based on the mathematical morphology in order to get over this difficulty. The performance of this method isvalidated on medical images. The results obtained show the good performance of this approach.

  1. Technique for roof-edge detection based on morphological method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liangen; Zhou, Fugen

    2001-09-01

    In order to monitor, analyze, evaluate our skin about its aging, its health, and it alimentary status, presently the most efficient way is to analyze the dermal images using modern digital image processing techniques. As the preprocessing of this skin analyzing system, in this paper, we propose a method for extracting the centerlines of the creases meshing over our dermis in a clinical dermal image. The method includes the following steps: first of all, Feature space transformation, this is to map the pixels in the grayscale space into feature space according to the regional energy of these pixels. Secondly, Filtering, a morphological filter is designed to remove noises and spurious minima. The amount of filtering can be manually tuned to get a different result. Thirdly, marker selection, using the Top-hat transformation based on morphological reconstruction to get a reliable set of markers. Finally, Watershed transformation, the scheme is used to extract the central axes and form a network of lines. The experiment shows that this method is an effective one for the purpose of extracting roof-edge centerlines.

  2. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  3. Transforming magnets

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, F.; He, S.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC ...

  4. Cell transformation and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

  5. General ?-transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as ? transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy processes.

  6. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  7. Morphology of the Local Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Kerscher, M

    2009-01-01

    To study the global morphology of the galaxy distribution in our local neighbourhood we calculate the Minkowski functionals for a sequence of volume limited samples within a sphere of 8Mpc centred on our galaxy. The well known strong clustering of the galaxies and the dominance of voids and coherent structures on larger scales is clearly visible in the Minkowski functionals. The morphology of the galaxy distribution changes with the limiting absolute magnitude. The samples, encompassing the more luminous galaxies, show emptier voids and more pronounced coherent structures. Indeed there is a prominent peak in the luminosity function of isolated galaxies for M_B approx -14, which at least partly explains these morphological changes. We compare with halo samples from a LambdaCDM simulation. Special care was taken to reproduce the observed local neighbourhood as well as the observed luminosity function in these mock samples. All in all the mock samples render the global morphology of the galaxy distribution quite...

  8. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  9. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

  10. Genetic transformation of Ascochyta rabiei using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Chen, Weidong

    2006-04-01

    In order to study pathogenic mechanisms of the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei, conditions for efficient transformation using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were investigated. Hygromycin B resistance (hph) was superior to geneticin resistance (nptII) for selecting transformants, and the hph gene was more efficiently expressed by the Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter than by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter CaMV35S. Co-cultivation on solid media for 72 h was optimal for generating transformants, but increasing the ratio of bacterial cells to conidia did not affect transformation efficiency. All hygromycin B-resistant transformants carried transfer-DNA (T-DNA) as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the T-DNA integrations appeared to be random and in single copy as detected by Southern hybridization. Transformants remained resistant to hygromycin B in the absence of selection. Variations in colony morphology were observed in the presence of hygromycin B under different culture conditions, and a variety of altered phenotypes including reduced virulence were observed among 550 transformants. Inverse PCR was more efficient than TAIL-PCR in identifying flanking genomic sequences from T-DNA borders, and the possible causes are discussed. This transformation technique and recovery of flanking DNA using inverse PCR will provide a useful tool for genetic studies of A. rabiei. PMID:16369840

  11. Modulating peptide amphiphile morphology by gold nanocolloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Narendra Kumar; Joshi, Khashti Ballabh; Verma, Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    We report facile synthesis and structural study of ditryptophan-based short peptide amphiphilic (sPA) constructs, which were used to synthesize gold nanostructures, in the presence of sunlight. This process occurs concurrently with morphological transformation, followed by encapsulation of gold nanostructures to afford hybrid scaffolds of interest. PMID:26068373

  12. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawen

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of a steel is often developed by solid-state transformation from austenite. The major transformation products are allotriomorphic ferrite, pearlite, Widmanstatten ferrite, bainite and martensite, differentiated by morphological features, and their nucleation and growth mechanisms. A steel often consists of several phases as a result of dynamic evolution during continuous cooling. The complexity of the calculation of all the transformations simultaneously poses a challenge. ...

  13. El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

    1340-13-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

  14. Generalized field-transforming metamaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Tretyakov, Sergei; Nefedov, Igor; Alitalo, Pekka

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, ...

  15. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    ?ermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  16. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  17. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

  18. mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN A-lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

  19. The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes

    OpenAIRE

    Fortin, Antonio; Maiden, Martin; Asudeh, Arshia

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on two aspects of expressive affixes: their morphological/typological properties and their semantics. With regard to the former, it shows that the expressive morphology of many languages (including Bantu, West Atlantic, Walman, Sanskrit, English, Romance, Slavic, and others), has the following properties: 1) it is systematically anomalous when compared to plain morphology, or the ordinary processes of word-formation and inflection. From this, it follows that many fam...

  20. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  1. Generalization of Hasimoto's transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the famous Hasimoto's transformation by showing that the dynamics of a closed unidimensional vortex filament embedded in a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature gives rise under Hasimoto's transformation to the non-linear Schrodinger equation. We also give a natural interpretation of the function \\psi introduced by Hasimoto in terms of moving frames associated to a natural complex bundle over the filament.

  2. Electron microscopic observations on the morphological and mineralogical changes in feldspar during the weathering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Plagioclase feldspar in anorthositic rocks of Suryun area Korea, occurs predominantly as labradorite and show alteration into clay minerals under a distinct alteration sequence related to the degree of weathering. Under optical microscope, the feldspar shows that the alteration process was initiated by dissolution along microcracks, cleavage and twinning planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the morphological changes in feldspar during various stages of weathering. In the initial stage, selective etching has resulted in the formation of etch pits which on increased weathering have developed into stacks or sheaf structures. This on further weathering transformed into intermixed tubular and platy structures forming halloysite and kaolinite minerals respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also shows occurrence of tubular and platey shape minerals with variable dimensions. EPMA analysis and EDS patterns exhibit consistency with the morphological and mineralogical changes during alteration process of feldspar under weathering conditions. (author)

  3. Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callisen, Thomas HØnger; Talmon, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Phospholipid hydrolysis to free fatty acid and l-lyso-phospholipid by water-soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the surface of lipid membranes exhibits a poorly understood transition from a low-activity lag phase to a burst regime of rapid hydrolysis. Understanding this kinetic phenomenon may increase our insight into the function of PLA2 under physiological conditions as well as into general interfacial catalysis. In the present study we apply for the first time cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the PLA2 hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag-burst phenomenon reflects a cascade process. The PLA(2)-induced changes in lipid composition transform the morphology which in turn results in an acceleration of the rate of hydrolysis because of a strong coupling between the PLA(2) activity and the morphology of the lipid suspension.

  4. Improvement of retinal blood vessel detection using morphological component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Javidi, Malihe; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2015-03-01

    Detection and quantitative measurement of variations in the retinal blood vessels can help diagnose several diseases including diabetic retinopathy. Intrinsic characteristics of abnormal retinal images make blood vessel detection difficult. The major problem with traditional vessel segmentation algorithms is producing false positive vessels in the presence of diabetic retinopathy lesions. To overcome this problem, a novel scheme for extracting retinal blood vessels based on morphological component analysis (MCA) algorithm is presented in this paper. MCA was developed based on sparse representation of signals. This algorithm assumes that each signal is a linear combination of several morphologically distinct components. In the proposed method, the MCA algorithm with appropriate transforms is adopted to separate vessels and lesions from each other. Afterwards, the Morlet Wavelet Transform is applied to enhance the retinal vessels. The final vessel map is obtained by adaptive thresholding. The performance of the proposed method is measured on the publicly available DRIVE and STARE datasets and compared with several state-of-the-art methods. An accuracy of 0.9523 and 0.9590 has been respectively achieved on the DRIVE and STARE datasets, which are not only greater than most methods, but are also superior to the second human observer's performance. The results show that the proposed method can achieve improved detection in abnormal retinal images and decrease false positive vessels in pathological regions compared to other methods. Also, the robustness of the method in the presence of noise is shown via experimental result. PMID:25697986

  5. Lightweight transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

    1990-05-01

    The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    OpenAIRE

    Skoumalova, Hana

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon.

  7. Long term morphological modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a ne...

  8. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  9. Physiochemical phase transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas Condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of the studies of structural and chemical transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas condensation. The effect of the morphology and agglomeration on the phase transformation reaction path in self-oxidation and in controlled reduction processes are discussed in detail. As-prepared samples show self-oxidation related to the non-core/shell morphology of the particles. Annealing of particles at 250 deg. C in reducing atmosphere leads to the oxidation of the particles showing coexistence of CoO and Co3O4 structures. This is explained by the diffusion of oxygen from the amorphous oxide surface to the bulk of the nanoparticles. Upon increasing the reaction temperature beyond 250 deg. C, reductive transformation of the samples occurs systematically, from CoO/Co3O4 to CoO to Co (HCP + FCC) and eventually to Co (FCC). We have presented X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic data to track the structural and chemical transformation paths. We found strong correlation between structural and magnetic properties. Thermodynamic stability as a function of reaction temperature on the phase/chemical transformation is also discussed.

  10. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile failure planes ("terraces") in the outer, near-surface region of the crater. We suggest that these differences are due to a reduction in tensile strength in pore-space saturated sandstone. Linking morphological characteristics to impact conditions might provide a tool to help reconstruct impact conditions in small, more strength- than gravity-dominated impact craters in nature. Findings in small-scale experiments can aid the identification of particular structures in the field, such as spallation induced uplift of strata outside of the crater margins.

  11. Microcavity morphology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2014-09-01

    High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.

  12. Transformation Golf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

  13. Rod microglia: a morphological definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel E; Morganti-Kossmann, Cristina; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Ziebell, Jenna M

    2014-01-01

    Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our group has described rod microglia aligning end-to-end with one another to form trains adjacent to neuronal processes. Confusion in the literature regarding rod microglia arises from some reports referring to the sausage-shaped cell body, while ignoring the spatial distribution of processes. Here, we systematically define the morphological characteristics of rod microglia that form after diffuse brain injury in the rat, which differ morphologically from the spurious rod microglia found in uninjured sham. Rod microglia in the diffuse-injured rat brain show a ratio of 1.79 ± 0.03 cell length:cell width at day 1 post-injury, which increases to 3.35 ± 0.05 at day 7, compared to sham (1.17 ± 0.02). The soma length:width differs only at day 7 post-injury (2.92 ± 0.07 length:width), compared to sham (2.49 ± 0.05). Further analysis indicated that rod microglia may not elongate in cell length but rather narrow in cell width, and retract planar (side) processes. These morphological characteristics serve as a tool for distinguishing rod microglia from other morphologies. The function of rod microglia remains enigmatic; based on morphology we propose origins and functions for rod microglia after acute neurological insult, which may provide biomarkers or therapeutic targets. PMID:24830807

  14. Covariant Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  15. Morphology of the Knipovich Ridge Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarayskaya, Y.; Abramova, A.; Dobrolyubova, K.; Mazarovich, A.; Moroz, E.

    2014-12-01

    Knipovich Ridge is the northernmost part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge system. It is located between Mohns and Molloy spreading centers in the Greenland Sea. The scientific team of the R/V "Akademik Nikolaj Strakhov" (Geological Institute RAS, Russia) surveyed this area in 2006, 2007, 2009 and 2010 using the deep-water multibeam echosounder RESON Seabat 7150 with working frequency 12 kHz. The total surveyed area is up to 82000 km² including 65000 km² covering rift valley and flanges of the ridge. Knipovich ridge is classified as an ultra-slow oblique spreading center with spreading rate around 1,4 cm/y. Its large-scale morphological features are reduced in number comparing to other mid-ocean ridges. Eastern flange is buried under the continental slope sediments and only the rare highest peaks rise above this cover. Western flange is fully developed and consists of several ridges prolonged parallel to the rift valley. Ridges are supplemented with individual highs. Rift valley is 20-40 km wide and 500 km long. Its depth is 3300-3700 m. Valley slopes have terraces and ledges of different amplitudes. The bottom of the valley is echeloned by 5 volcanic axial highs rising 400 - 1000 m above it. Spreading obliquity is imprinted in the ridge morphology. The global models predict a plate motion vector of 307º. The main ridge axis has general orientation of 350º. Rift valley follows this direction from the South, and on the half way to the North turns to azimuth of 2º. The detailed bathymetry shows that small-scale features orientation differs. Rift axial highs and individual flange highs are prolonged NW-SE under azimuth of 30º. This orientation is sub-perpendicular to the plate motion vector (83º) and oblique to the ridge axes (40º). The multibeam bathymetry shows no sing of transform faults or non-transform discontinuities along the Knipovich ridge rift valley. There is one strong lineation in the northern part of the ridge. It includes flange and axial highs and continues from the eastern flange through the second northern axial high to the western flange under the azimuth of 320º. It is an indication of long-term magmatic activity in this segment. Detailed bathymetry reveals small-scale features that are important for our understanding of the ridge nature.

  16. Investigation of Presence Different Surfactant on Morphologies of PbTe Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavati-Niasari M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PbTe nanostructures were prepared by a hydrothermal method on presence of different surfactant. Results show that in constant condition by changing the capping agent the morphology of as-obtained PbTe were revolutionize PbTe nanostructures show a strong photoluminescence peak at 402 nm at room temperature, also optical absorption spectrum of PbTe nanostructures exhibit an extreme blue-shift, which is attributed to the quantum confinement of charge carriers in the nanostructures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced PbTe nanostructures.

  17. Morphology of the local volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerscher, M.; Tikhonov, A.

    2010-01-01

    To study the global morphology of the galaxy distribution in our local neighbourhood we calculate the Minkowski functionals for a sequence of volume limited samples within a sphere of 8 Mpc centred on our galaxy. The well known strong clustering of the galaxies and the dominance of voids and coherent structures on larger scales is clearly visible in the Minkowski functionals. The morphology of the galaxy distribution changes with the limiting absolute magnitude. The samples, encompassing the more luminous galaxies, show emptier voids and more pronounced coherent structures. Indeed there is a prominent peak in the luminosity function of isolated galaxies for MB ? -14, which at least partly explains these morphological changes. We compare our date with halo samples from a ?CDM simulation. Special care was taken to reproduce the observed local neighbourhood as well as the observed luminosity function in these mock samples. All in all the mock samples render the global morphology of the galaxy distribution quite well. However, the detailed morphological analysis reveals that real galaxies cluster stronger, the observed voids are emptier and the structures are more pronounced compared to the mock samples from the ?CDM simulation.

  18. Analyses of the Watershed Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramzi Mahmoudi, Mohamed AKIL

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the framework of mathematical morphology, watershed transform (WT represents a key stepin image segmentation procedure. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of some existingwatershed approaches in the discrete case: WT based on flooding, WT based on path-costminimization, watershed based on topology preservation, WT based on local condition and WTbased on minimum spanning forest. For each approach, we present detailed description ofprocessing procedure followed by mathematical foundations and algorithm of reference. Recentpublications based on some approaches are also presented and discussed. Our study concludeswith a classification of different watershed transform algorithms according to solution uniqueness,topology preservation, prerequisites minima computing and linearity.

  19. Size effect upon martensitic transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A consideration is given to the size effect (grain size, particle size, film thickness) on martensitic transformations (MT) parameters in various alloys (Ti-Ni, Ti-Ni-Cu, Fe-Ni), martensite crystals morphology and microstructure, crystal structure relationships on MT, a shape memory effect as well as to possible reasons for such effects. It is shown that the size effect on MT is conditioned by variations in processes of nucleation and growth of martensite crystals, relationships among these processes in small-sized specimens as well as by the change of stresses resulting from the transformation and stress relaxation

  20. An explanation for the logarithmic connection between linear and morphological system theory

    OpenAIRE

    Burgeth, Bernhard; Weickert, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Dorst/van den Boomgaard and Maragos introduced the slope transform as the morphological eqivalent of the Fourier transform. It formed the basis of a morphological system theory that bears an almost logarithmic relation to linear system theory. This surprising logarithmic connection, however, has not been understood so far. Our article provides an explanation by revealing that morphology in essence is linear system theory in specific algebras. While linear system theory uses the standard plus-...

  1. Similarity transformations of MAPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Allan T.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

  2. Analyses of the Watershed Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Ramzi Mahmoudi, Mohamed Akil

    2011-01-01

    In the framework of mathematical morphology, watershed transform (WT) represents a key stepin image segmentation procedure. In this paper, we present a thorough analysis of some existingwatershed approaches in the discrete case: WT based on flooding, WT based on path-costminimization, watershed based on topology preservation, WT based on local condition and WTbased on minimum spanning forest. For each approach, we present detailed description ofprocessing procedure followed by mathematical fo...

  3. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  4. Magnetic Materials for Current Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Aguilera, S; Ruffieux, P

    2013-01-01

    At CERN, the circulating beam current measurement is provided by two types of transformers, the Direct Current Current Transformers (DCCT) and the Fast Beam Current Transformers (FBCT). Each type of transformer requires different magnetic characteristics regarding parameters such as permeability, coercivity and shape of the magnetization curve. Each transformer is built based on toroidal cores of a magnetic material which gives these characteristics. For example, DCCTs consist of three cores, two for the measurement of the DC component and one for the AC component. In order to study the effect of changes in these parameters on the current transformers, several interesting raw materials based on their as-cast properties were selected with the annealing process used to tune their properties for the individual needs of each transformer. First annealing tests show that the magnetization curve, and therefore the permeability, of the material can be modified, opening the possibility for building and studying a vari...

  5. Improved Seismic Denoising CURVELET Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Awasthi,

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. For quality we compare visual effect of data. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  6. Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rau Aarathi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type. One case of primary adenocarcinoma was included in this study, where the adjacent bladder mucosa showed CG. Evaluation of the histological features of CG, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion and differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

  7. Transformation Multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

  8. Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navacchi Oriano

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

  9. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  10. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  11. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  12. Learning transformed product distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Servedio, Rocco A

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning an unknown product distribution $X$ over $\\{0,1\\}^n$ using samples $f(X)$ where $f$ is a \\emph{known} transformation function. Each choice of a transformation function $f$ specifies a learning problem in this framework. Information-theoretic arguments show that for every transformation function $f$ the corresponding learning problem can be solved to accuracy $\\eps$, using $\\tilde{O}(n/\\eps^2)$ examples, by a generic algorithm whose running time may be exponential in $n.$ We show that this learning problem can be computationally intractable even for constant $\\eps$ and rather simple transformation functions. Moreover, the above sample complexity bound is nearly optimal for the general problem, as we give a simple explicit linear transformation function $f(x)=w \\cdot x$ with integer weights $w_i \\leq n$ and prove that the corresponding learning problem requires $\\Omega(n)$ samples. As our main positive result we give a highly efficient algorithm for learning a sum of independ...

  13. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention.

  14. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements. Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

  15. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  16. Morphological control of polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane (PODS) was prepared by coating glass substrates with liquid ocatdecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) followed by dipping-in a solvent. The morphology control of PODS was investigated by the post curing temperature as well as the use of different solvents. The resulting substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, and wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It is shown that both post curing temperature and extracting solvents affect the morphology of PODS. The temperature dependent morphology was investigated and is ascribed to the physiochemical properties of PODS. For the solvent-dependent morphology, it is proposed that the solvation capability of a solvent to OTS and the presence of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface are critical in the PODS morphology. This paper shows the controlling parameter and possible explanation in the crystallinity and wettability of PODS films, which may be useful to other silane-based systems.

  17. Morphological control of polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiuping; Hao, Tiange; Ke, Qingping; Wang, Wanjun; He, Tao; Li, Xue-Mei

    2011-01-01

    Polymerized n-octadecylsiloxane (PODS) was prepared by coating glass substrates with liquid ocatdecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) followed by dipping-in a solvent. The morphology control of PODS was investigated by the post curing temperature as well as the use of different solvents. The resulting substrates were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), contact angle measurements, and wide angle X-ray diffractometry (XRD). It is shown that both post curing temperature and extracting solvents affect the morphology of PODS. The temperature dependent morphology was investigated and is ascribed to the physiochemical properties of PODS. For the solvent-dependent morphology, it is proposed that the solvation capability of a solvent to OTS and the presence of a hydrophilic/hydrophobic interface are critical in the PODS morphology. This paper shows the controlling parameter and possible explanation in the crystallinity and wettability of PODS films, which may be useful to other silane-based systems.

  18. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... doctor about values on blood tests for children. Complete Blood Count The table below shows some normal ranges for different parts of the complete blood count (CBC) test. Some of the normal ranges differ ...

  19. Experimental Psoriasis Drug Shows Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental Psoriasis Drug Shows Promise Guselkumab appears more effective than standard treatment, researchers report To use the sharing features ... News) -- Preliminary trial results suggest that an experimental psoriasis drug may control the chronic skin disease better ...

  20. Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

    1990-06-01

    A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 ?m in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

  1. Renormalization and Mellin transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study renormalization in a kinetic scheme using the Hopf algebraic framework, first summarizing and recovering known results in this setting. Then we give a direct combinatorial description of renormalized amplitudes in terms of Mellin transform coefficients, featuring the universal property of rooted trees H_R. In particular, a special class of automorphisms of H_R emerges from the action of changing Mellin transforms on the Hochschild cohomology of perturbation series. Furthermore, we show how the Hopf algebra of polynomials carries a refined renormalization group property, implying its coarser form on the level of correlation functions. Application to scalar quantum field theory reveals the scaling behaviour of individual Feynman graphs.

  2. Transformation of lakes in mires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanis?aw Marek

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

  3. Isomorphism problems for transformation semigroups

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, Suzana Mendes

    2007-01-01

    Many people have studied the problem of describing all isomorphisms between transformation semigroups defined on sets and between linear transformation semigroups defined on vector spaces. In this paper, we summarise some of that work, as well as recent work showing that Baer-Levi semigroups defi ned on sets are never isomorphic to their linear analogue, despite all appearances to the contrary.

  4. Quantum optics of spatial transformation media

    OpenAIRE

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

  5. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  6. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh; Jayavel, R.

    2014-04-01

    LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV-Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  7. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  8. Transformative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2012-12-01

    The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

  9. Effects of chloride acclimation on iron oxyhydroxides and cell morphology during cultivation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huixin; Guo, Rong

    2011-01-01

    Iron oxyhydroxides as the efficient scavengers for heavy metals have been extensively investigated in iron-rich acid sulfate waters in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans, an especially important chemolithoautotroph for bioleaching and desulfurization of coal). In this study, we observed the morphology and elemental composition of cells in stationary phase and examined the dynamic variation of iron oxyhydroxides produced in cultures of A. ferrooxidans incubated in modified 9K medium initially including 0.15 M of ferrous iron, in the absence/presence of 0.2 M of chloride (NaCl/FeCl(2)). Results showed that chloride acclimation had little effect on cellular morphology and elemental uptake that was mainly related to culture medium. Furthermore, schwertmannite with the typical morphology of aggregated spheres covered by some "pincushions" was precipitated first in bacterial cultures in the favorable pH range of 2.9 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.1. Some of schwertmannite could be transformed to lozenge-shaped jarosite, due to a successively decreasing of pH values. However, the jarosite transformation represented a lag period of 5 and 4 days in the chloride-rich cultures with sulfate at a low level, compared to the cultures with sulfate at a high level, which could be attributed to the influence of sulfate requirement and chloride acclimation. PMID:21128632

  10. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  11. Nonlocal transformation optics

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Alu', Andrea; Engheta, Nader

    2011-01-01

    We show that the powerful framework of transformation optics may be exploited for engineering the nonlocal response of artificial electromagnetic materials. Relying on the form-invariant properties of coordinate-transformed Maxwell's equations in the spectral domain, we derive the general constitutive "blueprints" of transformation media yielding prescribed nonlocal field-manipulation effects, and provide a physically-incisive and powerful geometrical interpretation in terms of deformation of the equi-frequency contours. In order to illustrate the potentials of our approach, we present an example of application to a wave-splitting refraction scenario, which may be implemented via a simple class of artificial materials. Our results provide a systematic and versatile framework which may open intriguing venues in dispersion engineering of artificial materials.

  12. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  13. Synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with controllable structure and morphology and their photoluminescence property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zepeng [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingbing [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li Xianglin [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yu Shidan [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Lin [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Hou Yuanyuan [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zou Yonggang [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Yao Mingguang [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Li Quanjun [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zou Bo [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Cui Tian [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Zou Guangtian [National Laboratory of Superhard Materials, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Wang Guorui [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Material Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Liu Yichun [Centre for Advanced Optoelectronic Functional Material Research, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China)

    2007-06-27

    The controllable synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with desirable morphology and correlative structure has been carried out via the solvothermal method by simply changing the molar ratio of the reactants. The hexagonal-shaped ZnS nanosheets with a zinc-blende structure were synthesized in one step for the first time. ZnS nanorods with wurtzite structure and large ratio of length to diameter were also fabricated. We found that phase transformation is easily induced and there is a strong correlation between the morphology and structure of the ZnS nanocrystals by changing the ratio of the reactants. The photoluminescence spectra of the ZnS nanosheets and nanorods exhibit different emission bands. ZnS nanosheets show a strong emission at 534 nm while the nanorods have two emissions located at 520 and 578 nm.

  14. Synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with controllable structure and morphology and their photoluminescence property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The controllable synthesis of ZnS nanocrystals with desirable morphology and correlative structure has been carried out via the solvothermal method by simply changing the molar ratio of the reactants. The hexagonal-shaped ZnS nanosheets with a zinc-blende structure were synthesized in one step for the first time. ZnS nanorods with wurtzite structure and large ratio of length to diameter were also fabricated. We found that phase transformation is easily induced and there is a strong correlation between the morphology and structure of the ZnS nanocrystals by changing the ratio of the reactants. The photoluminescence spectra of the ZnS nanosheets and nanorods exhibit different emission bands. ZnS nanosheets show a strong emission at 534 nm while the nanorods have two emissions located at 520 and 578 nm

  15. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  16. Rocks and Minerals Slide Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    This interactive slide show of common rocks and minerals allows students to choose from two sets of minerals and click on a thumbnail to see a larger photograph with a full description of the mineral including color, streak, hardness, cleavage/fracture, and chemical composition. Also included are its use and where it is found. The rocks are divided into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic and can be accessed in the same manner. They are described on the basis of crystal size and mineral composition as well as use.

  17. Polymer Morphology and Crystallinity close to Inorganic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrissopoulou, Kiriaki; Papananou, Hellen; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Andrikopoulos, Konstantinos S.; Voyiatzis, George A.

    2015-03-01

    Polymer behavior close to surfaces or when restricted in space can be very different from that in the bulk. In this work, we investigate the morphology, crystallization and chain conformation of a hydrophilic, semi-crystalline polymer, poly(ethylene oxide), PEO, when mixed with silica, SiO2, nanoparticles in a broad range of compositions. The good dispersion of the nanoparticles was verified by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), whereas the morphology and crystallization behaviour of the hybrids were investigated with, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). A gradual decrease of polymer crystallinity with increasing nanoparticles content is observed; nevertheless, polymer crystallization exists for all silica loadings. Moreover, DSC showed two melting and crystallization transitions in hybrids with polymer content lower than 50wt%, indicating that the polymer crystallizes differently than the bulk when it is in a thin interfacial layer near the silica surface. The existence of the two transitions are also evident in the IR and Raman spectra. Partially sponsored by EU (COST Action MP0902) and by the Greek GSRT (Research Funding Program: ARISTEIA II (SMART-SURF, project No. 3393, 2013SE01380048).

  18. Lorentz Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Durney, Bernard R

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a particularly didactic and transparent derivation of basic properties of the Lorentz group. The generators for rotations around an arbitrary axis and boosts along an arbitrary direction, as well as their commutation relations, are written as functions of the components of the unit vectors that define the axis of rotation and direction of the boost. For finite values of the the angle of rotation or the boost's velocity, collectively denoted by V, the existence of an exponential expansion for the coordinate transformation's matrix (in terms V and the generators) requires that the matrix's derivative with respect to V, be equal to the product of this matrix with the generator. This condition can only be satisfied if the transformation is additive as it is indeed the case for rotations, whereas velocities are not additive in Relativity. If it is assumed, however, that for boosts such an expansion exists, with V = V(v), v being the velocity, and if the above condition is imposed on the boost'...

  19. EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND ASSESMENT OF DNA CONTENT USING FLOWCYTOMETRY ANALYSIS IN REGENERANTS DWARF NAPIERGRASS FROM EMBRYOGENIC CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiatul Umami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Callus is an excellent source for in vitro plant regeneration, but plants regenerated from callus sometimes show phenotypic and genotypic variation from the initial plants. In this study, there was no variations between regenerated plants and dwarf napiergrass as control. Research result on six morphological characters did not show differences between regenerated plants and control plants. There were not either significant differences of DNA content between control and regenerated plants. The method established by this research was a stable and efficient method that can be applied for supplying transformation materials using callus.

  20. Cellular neoplastic transformation induced by 916 MHz microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wang, Minglian; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2012-08-01

    There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells. PMID:22395787

  1. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

  2. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haiyan; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ørnulv B.; Arstad, Bjørnar; Norby, Poul

    2011-12-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO 2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb V and an equivalent amount of Ti IV is transformed to Ti III as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti IV and Nb V cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O 2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb 2O 5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

  3. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  4. [In vitro transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by four chemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z Z; Zeng, X G; Guo, J T; Sun, M L; Zhang, X L

    1989-03-01

    In this paper, the early passage diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were used as the source of target. Four chemicals were appraised in SHE transformation test to determine whether they were carcinogens or not. They were (1) 2-benzoyl-hydrazono-1,3-diethiolane(BHD) (technical product); (2) isoprothiolane (pure product); (3) isoprothiolane (technical product); (4) benzene-abstracts from coal smoke of coke oven (benzene-abstracts). The results showed that morphological transformation was not observed when cells were not treated or treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, BHD, pure isoprothiolane and the technical product of isoprothiolane. The highest concentration had considerable cytotoxicity. In the groups of positive control (1.0 microgram/ml 3-methyl-cholanthrene, 10.0 micrograms/ml benzo (a) pyrene) and benzene-abstracts, we could observe colonies with random or criss-cross orientation and dense piling-up of cells. According to well known positive criteria, the benzene-abstracts can induce SHE cells morphological transformation. The other three chemicals can not induce SHE cells transformation. PMID:2793154

  5. Extrinsic morphology of graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Teng

    2011-01-01

    Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

  6. Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

  7. Nanorod heterostructures showing photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sandeep; Jones, Marcus; Lo, Shun S; Scholes, Gregory D

    2007-09-01

    Size- and shape-dependent property modifications of semiconductor nanocrystals have been a subject of intense interest because of their potential for future engineering devices. The bandgap and related optical-property tuning of these materials are mainly governed by the nature of their band edges. In addition, fusing one type of nanocrystal over another enables further control of material properties that are dependent on the relative alignments of their energy levels. On a molecular scale, the synthesis of supramolecular compounds has inspired advances in theories for photoinduced charge transfer. Heterostructured nanocrystals potentially provide a nanoscale analog of such systems. A method for preparing heterostructured nanocrystals of complex morphologies showing photoinduced charge separation is presented. It is shown that the energy and lifetime of the charge-transfer photoluminescence band can be tuned by changing the relative alignment of band edges in CdSe/CdTe heterostructure nanorods. The long-lived charge transfer states in these type II semiconductors may make them attractive for photovoltaic applications. PMID:17705316

  8. Self-assembly in an evaporating nanofluid droplet: rapid transformation of nanorods into 3D fibre network structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H; Chen, L X; Zeng, X Q; Ren, T H; Briscoe, Wuge H

    2014-08-01

    Upon evaporation, ZnO nanorods in a nanofluid droplet undergo rapid and spontaneous chemical and morphological transformation into centimetre-long Zn(OH)2 fibres, via a mechanism very different from that for coffee rings. We show that the detailed nanostructure and micromorphology in the residual thin film depend intricately on the ambient moisture, nanofluid solvent composition and substrate surface chemistry. Upon thermal annealing, these Zn(OH)2 fibres readily undergo further chemical and morphological transformation, forming nanoporous fibres with the pore size tuneable by temperature. Our results point to a simple route for generating a self-assembled 3D structure with ultralong and nanoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 fibres/belts, and may also be of interest to the fields of evaporation controlled dynamic self-assembly, non-equilibrium crystallisation, and flow and fingering instabilities in nanofluids. PMID:24946161

  9. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  10. The ?/? phase transformation in zirconium and certain zirconium based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zirconium and zirconium based alloys transform on cooling from the high-temperature body centered cubic structure (?-phase) to the low-temperature hexagonal close packed structure (?-phase) and on heating the reverse transformation takes place. This transformation has considerable fundamental and practical interest since it is the basis of heat treatable zirconium alloys. Significant controversy has arisen regarding its nature, which has been considered either massive, bainitic or martensitic. The present work has been carried out in order to investigate the effect of continuous cooling rates and alloying additions on the kinetics and crystallography of the transformation, and on the morphology, substructure and strength of the transformation products. (author)

  11. Anaplastic Transformation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Khairy, Gamal

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies that arise from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. We describe a case for huge goiter diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma, which underwent thyroidectomy. The final histology showed anaplastic transformation. The clinical and possible etiological aspects are discussed.

  12. Application of Hadamard transform in IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)

  13. Morphological transformation in a freshwater Cyanobium sp. induced by grazers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezberová, Jitka; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 7 (2007), s. 1858-1862. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant ostatní: GAUSF(CZ) GAJU 64/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Cyanobium * anri-grazing response * Ochromonas * spinae * picocyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  14. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Harish Kumar.N; Amutha .S; Dr. Ramesh Babu .D. R

    2012-01-01

    Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper intro...

  15. In vitro transformation of rat renal cells by treatment with ferric nitrilotriacetate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakehashi C

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ferric nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA in vivo causes acute renal tubular injury and finally induces renal cell carcinoma. There is accumulating evidence that these processes involve free radicals generated by Fe-NTA. To study the mechanism of renal carcinogenesis by Fe-NTA, we attempted to induce malignant transformation of primary cultured renal cells by treatment with Fe-NTA. When primary cultured renal cells (PRC were treated continuously with Fe-NTA, all of the PRC died without transformation. On the other hand, when PRC were treated intermittently with Fe-NTA, transformed epithelial colonies were observed at 3 weeks after the first treatment. The established transformed cell line (RK523 showed drastic morphological transformation, grew in soft agar, and formed tumors when transplanted into athymic nude mice. These results indicate that the balance between cytotoxicity and mutagenecity is important for Fe-NTA induced transformation. The RK523 cell line may be a useful model for studying renal carcinogenesis in vitro.

  16. Effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of hydroxyapatite nanorods obtained via a hydrothermal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well-dispersed hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorods with different morphologies were synthesized by a hydrothermal method in oleic acid, ethanol and water reaction system, and the surfactant assisted modifications effect was also comparatively studied. The structure and morphology of samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. The effect of reaction systems and surfactant additives on the morphology evolution of HA nanorods were discussed in detail. The results showed that the controlled experimental conditions in the systems, such as the content ratio of oleic acid/ethanol, pH value and the content ratio of Ca/P source had an significant effect on the morphology evolution of as-prepared HA nanorods. Further, the selected surfactant additives, such as cetyltriethylammnonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (K12) also play an important role in the formation of the uniform morphology of HA nanorods. Some possible formation mechanisms of the HA nanorods in the present reaction systems is proposed.

  17. Transition and stability of copolymer adsorption morphologies on the surface of carbon nanotubes and implications on their dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, Asghar Habibnejad; Barati, Mohammad Reza; Simon, George P; Williams, Tim; Zhao, Xiao Ling; Stroeve, Pieter; Duan, Wen Hui

    2014-08-26

    In this study, the adsorption morphologies as well as stability and transitions of a commercial dispersant copolymer (BYK 9076) on the surface of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were studied using Fourier transform infrared and UV-vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and electron microscopy techniques. The results show that the dispersion of carbon nanotubes in ethanol does not increase continuously with increasing copolymer/CNT ratio, which is correlated with the adsorption morphologies of the copolymer on the CNT surface. At a ratio of copolymer/CNT below 0.5, the morphology is random, shifting to a hemimicelle structure at a ratio from 0.5 to 1.0 while at ratios above 1.0, a cylindrical pattern is seen. The hemimicelle morphology is able to prevent the agglomeration of CNTs when the CNT concentration increases to 8.7 mg/mL, while cylindrical morphology is more efficient and stable to provide dispersion of CNTs at higher concentrations of CNTs. PMID:25079653

  18. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povi?, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of ?z/z <= 1.2% (Molino et al., in prep.). To deal with the morphological classification of galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey (Povi? et al., in prep.), we used the galaxy Support Vector Machine code (galSVM; Huertas-Company 2008, 2009), one of the new non-parametric methods for morphological classification, specially useful when dealing with low resolution and high-redshift data. To test the accuracy of our morphological classification we used a sample of 3000 local, visually classified galaxies (Nair & Abraham 2010), moving them to conditions typical of our ALHAMBRA data (taking into account the background, redshift and magnitude distributions, etc.), and measuring their morphology using galSVM. Finally, we measured the morphology of ALHAMBRA galaxies, obtaining for each source seven morphological parameters (two concentration indexes, asymmetry, Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  19. Some Effect of Chemical Treatment by Ferric Nitrate Salts on the Structure and Morphology of Coir Fibre Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alveera Khan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows some important effects of chemical treatment on the structure and morphology of coir fibre. The objective of the present study is to optimise overall properties of coir fibre so as to use coir fibre as a reinforcing agent in thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. In the present study, coir fibre is treated with ferric nitrate salt. A thermal treatment has been done at temperature of 1000°C by using annealing method. X-ray diffraction of the treated coir fibre reveals the crystalline nature of the fibre. Change in morphology has been found in coir fibre when subjected to scanning electron microscopy. Finally, the Fourier transform and infrared spectrographs show the presence of traces of iron oxide:fibre in the prepared composite.

  20. Highly Porous NiTi with Isotropic Pore Morphology Fabricated by Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Meshkot, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Highly porous NiTi with isotropic pore morphology has been successfully produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental Ni/Ti metallic powders. The effects of adding urea and NaCl as temporary pore fillers were investigated on pore morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and the phase transformation temperatures of specimens. These parameters were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly porous specimens were obtained with up to 83% total porosity and pore sizes between 300 and 500 ?m in diameter. Results show pore characteristics were improved from anisotropic to isotropic and pore morphology was changed from channel-like to irregular by adding pore filler powders. Furthermore, the highly porous specimens produced when using urea as a space holder, were of more uniform composition in comparison to NaCl. DSC results showed that a two-step martensitic phase transformation takes place during the cooling cycles and the austenite finish temperature ( A f) is close to human body temperature. Compression test results reveal that the compressive strength of highly porous NiTi is about 155 MPa and recoverable strain about 6% in superelasticity regime.

  1. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  2. Multiparameter Generalization of the Stackel Transform, Deformations of Separation Curves and Reciprocal Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Sergyeyev, Artur

    2007-01-01

    We present a multiparameter generalization of the St\\"ackel transform, also known as the coupling-constant metamorphosis. We show that under certain conditions this transformation preserves the Liouville integrability and superintegrability. The corresponding transformation for the equations of motion proves to be nothing but a reciprocal transformation of a special form, and we investigate the properties of this reciprocal transformation. Finally, we show that the Hamiltonians of the systems possessing separation curves of apparently very different form can be related through a suitably chosen generalized St\\"ackel transform.

  3. Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Manshadi, A.; Reid, M. H.; Dippenaar, R. J.

    2010-07-01

    Different morphologies of ?+? microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single ?-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the ? to ? phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the ? phase transformed to colonies of ? at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

  4. Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different morphologies of ?+? microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single ?-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the ? to ? phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the ? phase transformed to colonies of ? at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

  5. Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Shafiq, M Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

  6. New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Adawi, A.; Awawdeh, F.

    2008-01-01

    Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the meth...

  7. Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

  8. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might provide an auspicious and reliable approach to increase the productivity in industrial processes. Because of the predictable behavior fungal morphology showed in dependence of osmolality, a customization of morphology for process needs seems feasible.

  9. Morphology control and negative thermal expansion in cubic ZrWMoO8 powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cubic ZrWMoO8 powders with rod-like aggregate and thin fasciculus-like and flower-like rod cluster morphologies have been successfully fabricated with different amounts of (NH4)2HPO4 as surfactant using a hydrothermal method. X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry were utilized to investigate the influence of the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 on the crystallization process and crystal morphology of the resulting products. The results show that the purity and the thermal expansion property of the resulting products are not influenced by the addition of (NH4)2HPO4. The cubic ZrWMoO8 powders with both rod-like aggregate and flower-like rod cluster morphologies show a positive thermal expansion property in the temperature range from room temperature to 120 C, while they show a negative thermal expansion property in the temperature range from 120 C to 700 C. The abnormal thermal expansion property of cubic ZrWMoO8 below 120 C is caused by the presence of water molecules. Investigations also show that the essence of the different morphologies of the ZrWMoO8 particles obtained is the result of the different aggregation modes of the nanorods, which act as nuclei, and the corresponding aggregation process is dominateresponding aggregation process is dominated by the addition of (NH4)2HPO4 and its amount. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  11. Color-selection criteria and rest-frame optical morphologies of 1.5 < z < 3.5 active and passive galaxies with WFC3

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, E; Oesch, P A; Bouwens, R J; Illingworth, G D; Trenti, M; Labbe, I; Magee, D

    2010-01-01

    We use the high angular resolution in the near-infrared of the WFC3 on HST to identify and characterize 1.5 10^10.5 Msun. In contrast, less massive galaxies maintain an irregular morphology in the rest-frame optical light, indicating that, at these epochs, low-mass galaxies are not dynamically settled. At the highest masses, >10^11 Msun, galaxies at 2.25 < z < 3.5 show the whole variety of morphologies, from irregular to d isk to spheroid, in roughly similar proportions. Strikingly, however, galaxies of similar high masses at 1.5 < z < 2.25 are virtually all elliptical-like spheroids. In our small sample, the fraction of star-forming galaxies at these mass scales decreases from ~60% to zero. If confirmed, this indicates that z ~ 2 is the epoch of both the morphological transformations and quenching of star-formation that results in the massive elliptical population.

  12. Morphology Tuning of Strontium Tungstate Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strontium tungstate nanocrystals in two different morphologies are successfully synthesized by controlled precipitation in aqueous and in poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. Structural characterizations are carried out by XRD and SEM. The average particle size calculated for the SrWO4 prepared in the two different solvents ranges 20-24 nm. The SEM pictures show that the surface morphologies of the SrWO4 nanoparticles in aqueous medium resemble mushroom and the SrWO4 nanoparticles in PVA medium resemble cauliflower. Investigations on the room temperature luminescent properties of the strontium tungstate nanoparticles prepared in aqueous and PVA medium shows strong emissions around 425 nm

  13. COMPARISON OF REAL AND COMPLEX-VALUED VERSIONS OF WAVELET TRANSFORM, CURVELET TRANSFORM AND RIDGELET TRANSFORM FOR MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin YASAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; medical images were denoising with multiresolution analyses using real-valued wavelet transform (RVWT, complex-valued wavelet transform (CVWT, ridgelet transform (RT, real-valued first-generation curvelet transform (RVFG CT, real-valued second-generation curvelet transform (RVSG CT, complex-valued second-generation curvelet transform (CVSG CT and results are compared. First and second-generation curvelet transformations are used for realvalued curvelet transform as two techniques. For the evaluation of the proposed system, we used 32 lung CT images. These images include 10 images with benign nodules and 22 images with malign nodules. Different types of noise like the Random noise, Gaussian noise and Salt & Pepper noise were added to these images and they are removed separately. The performances of used transforms are compared using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. Obtained results showed that complex-valued wavelet transform are suited for removal of random noise and Gaussian noise. In case of Gaussian noise in images, PSNRs of first generation curvelet transform and complex-valued wavelet transform are around 33 dB. The ridgelet transform provides high PSNR value (30.4dB for denoising of salt & pepper noise in images.

  14. Liquid Metal Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  15. Lorentz Transformation of Blackbody Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, G. W.; O'Connell, R. F.

    2013-01-01

    We present a simple calculation of the Lorentz transformation of the spectral distribution of blackbody radiation at temperature T. Here we emphasize that T is the temperature in the blackbody rest frame and does not change. We thus avoid the confused and confusing question of how temperature transforms. We show by explicit calculation that at zero temperature the spectral distribution is invariant. At finite temperature we find the well known result familiar in discussions ...

  16. Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cl...

  17. Mineralogy, morphology and crystal-chemistry of the monazite from Catalao 1 (Goias, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Catalao alkaline carbonatite complex hosts a number of mineral resources including monazite. This mineral is a common accessory phase in two lithological units: carbonatite and silexite. Textural evidence suggest that monazite replaced carbonates in the carbonatite and crystallized simultaneously with quartz in the silexite. Monazite was resistant to the strong laterization that affected the massif, except for the incipient transformation into gorceixite or cerianite. In both carbonatite and silexite, monazite occurs as a complex aggregate of sub-micrometric crystals, showing unusual morphological and chemical characteristics. It contains Ca, Sr, and Ba in the A-site, and shows a certain degree of hydration indicated by ATD and IV data. Structural formulae calculated on the basis of sum of cations=1 show a moderate ionic deficiency in the anionic site. Rietveld refinement indicated poor crystallinity. Notwithstanding these peculiar characteristics, cell dimensions are similar to those of standard monazite. (author)

  18. Large symmetric ? transformations for Hadamard transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many multiplexing instruments utilize the fast Hadamard transform (FHT) to demultiplex the signal. In the past, the HFT includes the ?1 and ?2 transformations to reorder vectors before and after a Sylvester-type Hadamard transform. Although the computational effort involved in the ?1 and the Sylvester-type Hadamard transform scales as n log2n, calculating the ?2 transformation (which only has to be done once) scales as n2. Recently Gunson (1980) has suggested a method by which the ? transformations are symmetric, that is ?2 = ?1. We have calculated a complete set of symmetric ? transformations for FHT of sizes 23 to 230. Special emphasis has been placed on the phase of the ? transformation so as to have the correct phase in the demultiplexed signal

  19. Thermal instability of DLC film surface morphology - an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheswaran, R.; Thiruvadigal, D. John; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    2012-06-01

    The surface morphology of the DLC film during thermal annealing at particular temperature above the graphitization temperature shows blistering and buckling and also delaminates from the substrate. The DLC film shows poor thermal stability at higher temperature.

  20. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  1. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeway, David; Hamblin, Michael G

    2015-01-01

    The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia's Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves-specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef. PMID:26175962

  2. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

  3. The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zuky, Ali A

    2011-01-01

    The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

  4. Transformation of the Zagreb urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ili?

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

  5. A role of Ultrabithorax in morphological differences between Drosophila species

    OpenAIRE

    Stern, David L.

    1998-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the evolution of morphology are poorly understood1,2. Distantly related taxa sometimes exhibit correlations between morphological differences and patterns of gene expression3?8, but such comparisons cannot establish how mechanisms evolve to generate diverse morphologies. Answers to these questions require resolution of the nature of developmental evolution within and between closely related species. Here I show how the detailed regulation of the Hox gene Ultrabithora...

  6. Mastocytosis: immunophenotypical features of the transformed mast cells are unique among hematopoietic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, Hans-Peter; Sotlar, Karl; Valent, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Mastocytosis is a disease of bone marrow origin histologically characterized by compact tissue infiltrates of atypical mast cells never seen in reactive states. Most patients with mastocytosis have transformed mast cells carrying an activating point mutation at codon 816 of KIT and also show an elevated serum tryptase level. In this article immunophenotypical features of mast cells are described. Based on these features, mast cells are not closely related to other myeloid cells. Using the knowledge on aberrantly expressed antigens by mast cells, the hematopathologist should be able to recognize the disease even in the presence of unusual morphologic findings or an associated hematologic non-mast cell lineage disease. PMID:24745676

  7. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; MØller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

  8. [Induction of cucumber hairy roots and effect of cytokinin 6-BA on its growth and morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, He-Ping; Qi, Ying; Zhang, Yue; Liang, Shan

    2006-05-01

    Hairy roots of Cucumis sativus L. could be incited directly from the cut edges of 10-day-old cotyledon explants after infection with the strain Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 harboring agropine-type plasmid, pRiA4b for 5 days. It was observed that the percentage of rooting cotyledon explants was more than 90 % 10 days after infection. Hairy roots could grow rapidly and highly branched on solid plant growth regulator-free MS medium. The PCR amplification of rol B genes and vir C gene showed that T-DNA of Ri plasmid of A. rhizogenes was integrated and expressed into the genome of transformed cucumber hairy roots. A bacterium-free transformed cucumber hairy root line was selected to culture on solid MS medium to examine influence of exogenous cytokinin 6-BA on growth and morphology alteration of cucumber hairy roots. The results showed that cytokinin 6-BA can influence the growth and altered the morphology of hairy roots. With increasing of 6-BA concentrations, Cucumber hairy roots become shorter and thicker and less branched. 6-BA at the concentration of 0.1 to approximately 3.0 mg/L could delay the appearance of maximum growth peak by 5 days and decreased the content of soluble protein, enhanced the activities of SOD and POD and decreased the levels of endogenous ethylene evolution in cucumber hairy roots. Our results also indicated that cytokinin 6-BA in the medium could influence growth and morphology alternation of cucumber hairy roots and delay its senescence of hairy roots by acting through ethylene. PMID:16755937

  9. Quantum Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Faraggi, Alon E.; Matone, Marco

    1998-01-01

    We show that the stationary quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation of non-relativistic 1D systems, underlying Bohmian mechanics, takes the classical form with $\\partial_q$ replaced by $\\partial_{\\hat q}$ where $d\\hat q={dq\\over \\sqrt{1-\\beta^2}}$. The $\\beta^2$ term essentially coincides with the quantum potential that, like $V-E$, turns out to be proportional to a curvature arising in projective geometry. In agreement with the recently formulated equivalence principle, these ``qu...

  10. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-?. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-? when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to 125I TGF-?: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted 35S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-? receptor. The TGF-? resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

  11. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

  12. High frequency regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathi, Krishna Mohan; Tula, Suresh; Tuteja, Narendra

    2013-06-01

    A direct somatic embryogenesis protocol was developed for four cultivars of Nicotiana species, by using leaf disc as an explant. Direct somatic embryogenesis of Nicotiana by using BAP and IAA has not been investigated so far. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis was strongly influenced by the plant growth hormones. The somatic embryos developing directly from explant tissue were noticed after 6 d of culture. Somatic embryogenesis of a high frequency (87-96%) was observed in cultures of the all four genotypes (Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiyana, N. xanthi, N. t cv petihavana). The results showed that the best medium for direct somatic embryogenesis was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2% sucrose. Subculture of somatic embryos onto hormone free MS medium resulted in their conversion into plants for all genotypes. About 95% of the regenerated somatic embryos germinated into complete plantlets. The plants showed morphological and growth characteristics similar to those of seed-derived plants. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumifacious LBA4404 plasmid pCAMBIA1301 harboring the GUS gene. The regenerated transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR analysis and histochemical GUS assay. The transformation efficiency obtained by using the Agrobacterium- mediated transformation was more than 95%. This method takes 6 wk to accomplish complete transgenic plants through direct somatic embryogenesis. The transgenic plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 98% survival in greenhouse and they showed normal morphological characteristics and were fertile. The regeneration and transformation method described herein is very simple, highly efficient and fast for the introduction of any foreign gene directly in tobacco through direct somatic embryogenesis. PMID:23518589

  13. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.A., López; M., Ceballos; G., Hernández; L., Acosta; I., Gómez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentr [...] ation is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl-/Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl)° complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110) plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111) plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane). The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag+ ion and (AgCl)° concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl-2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  14. The use of refuse heat assisted by heat transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostofizadeh, C.

    1980-08-01

    The principle of heat transformation from lower temperatures to higher temperatures is investigated. The heat transformer works like an absorption refrigerator and can increase the temperature by 30 K. A testing plant was set up, and measurements show the utility of heat transformers. The construction and mode of operation of the heat transformer are described.

  15. Learning the Morphological Diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Peyré, Gabriel; Fadili, Jalal,; Starck, Jean Luc

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a new method for image separation into a linear combination of morphological components. Sparsity in global dictionaries is used to extract the cartoon and oscillating content of the image. Complicated texture patterns are extracted by learning adapted local dictionaries that sparsify patches in the image. These global and local sparsity priors together with the data fidelity define a non-convex energy and the separation is obtained as a stationary point of this energy. ...

  16. Morphological Detection of Malware

    OpenAIRE

    Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

  17. Functional Morphology: Philosophy and Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Savarese

    Purpose of Exercise: Provide students with an appreciation of the importance of using a rigorous scientific approach to the study of functional morphology. Students are asked to intuitively interpret the function of fossil skeletal morphologies. From this they identify a variety of genuine methodologies used in functional morphology, appreciate the importance of using multiple approaches, and realize how easy it is to generate untested hypotheses of function (i.e., adaptive storytelling). Materials: Class breaks up into 4 groups of 4 students. Each is presented with a fossil or shell from an invertebrate animal. The shells provided: (1) modern Nautilus, sliced laterally to show the chamber walls; (2) Archimedes bryozoan, just the helically spiraled core of a colony; (3) fossil scaphopod; and (4) fossil gastropod with spines along the apertural lip. Only the group with the gastropod should know the phylogenic affinity of the fossil: tell this group the shell is of a gastropod. The groups with the Archimedes and the scaphopod are asked to interpret the function of the entire shell; they should not be told whether or not the entire skeleton is represented. The Nautilus group is asked to consider the function of the chamber walls. The group with the gastropod is asked to consider the function of just the spines. Procedure: 1. The groups are asked, based on their intuition, to interpret the function of their shell or structure. (5 mins) 2. Without inquiring about their specific interpretations, the groups are then asked to think about what methodologies, philosophies, or logical approaches were utilized to make functional inferences. (5 mins) 3. Each group reports back. 4. On the board generate a list of the approaches identified. These should reflect many of the formal methods recognized within the discipline. Note how interpretations are tenuous or flawed when based on merely one approach; also note mistaken functions because of wrong assumptions or misapplied methods. (10 mins) 5. Follow this with a short lecture / discussion reviewing the formal methods employed in functional morphology. The following files are uploaded as supportive teaching materials: 1. Lesson plan with the "conceptual change model" outline.

  18. Stochastic morphological evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeden, Peter E.; Lorenz, Thomas

    The inadequacy of locally defined set-valued differential equations to describe the evolution of shapes and morphological forms in biology, which are usually neither convex or nondecreasing, was recognised by J.-P. Aubin, who introduced morphological evolution equations, which are essentially nonlocally defined set-valued differential equations with the inclusion vector field also depending on the entire reachable set. This concept is extended here to the stochastic setting of set-valued Itô evolution equations in Hilbert spaces. Due to the nonanticipative nature of Itô calculus, the evolving reachable sets are nonanticipative nonempty closed random sets. The existence of solutions and their dependence on initial data are established. The latter requires the introduction of a time-oriented semi-metric in time-space variables. As a consequence the stochastic morphological evolution equations generate a deterministic nonautonomous dynamical system formulated as a two-parameter semigroup with the complication that the random subsets take values in different spaces at different time instances due to the nonanticipativity requirement. It is also shown how nucleation processes can be handled in this conceptual framework.

  19. Modeling dynamic cellular morphology in images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xing; Liu, Zhiwen; Shi, Yonggang; Li, Ning; Wang, Yalin; Joshi, Shantanu H

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a geometric method for modeling dynamic features of cells in image sequences. The morphological changes in cellular membrane boundaries are represented as sequences of parameterized contours. These sequences are analyzed as paths on a shape space equipped with an invariant metric, and matched using dynamic time warping. Experimental results show high sensitivity of the proposed dynamic features to the morphological changes observed in lymphocytes of healthy mice after undergoing skin transplantation when compared with standard representation methods and shape features. PMID:23285569

  20. Morphology Changing at Incipient Crystallization Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Takeshi; Hamai, Ryo; Fujita, Saya; Takemura, Yuka; Takamatsu, Saori; Tafu, Masamoto

    2015-04-01

    Brushite (Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (DCPD), CaHPO4·2H2O) is one of key components in calcium phosphate system due to wide attractive material not only as bioceramics but also environmental materials. Morphology of DCPD crystals is important factor when one uses its functionality with chemical reaction; because its surface crystal face, shape and size rule the chemical reactivity, responsiveness. Moreover, physical properties are also changed the morphology; such as cohesion, dispersiveness, permeability and so on. If one uses DCPD crystals as environmental renovation materials to catch the fluoride ions, their shape require 020 crystal surfaces; which usually restricts their shape as plate-like structure. After the chemical reaction, the shape of sludge is not good for handling due to their agglutinate property. Therefore searching an effective parameter and developing the method to control the morphology of DCPD crystals is required. In past, we reported that initial concentration and pH value of starting solution, prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2 and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4, changes the morphology of DCPD crystals and phase diagram of morphology of DCPD crystal depend on those parameter. The DCPD crystallization shows unique behaviour; products obtained higher initial concentration form single crystal-like structure and under lower condition, they form agglomerate crystal-like structure. These results contradict usual crystallization. Here we report that the effect of mixing process of two solutions. The morphology of DCPD crystals is changed from plate structure to petal structure by the arrangement. Our result suggests that morphology of DCPD crystals strongly depends at incipient crystallization condition and growth form is controllable by setting initial crystallization condition.

  1. Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

    2014-06-01

    River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

  2. The Influence of Ageing on Martensite Morphology in Shape Memory CuZnAl Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Kayali, N.; Özgen, S.; Adigüzel, O.

    1997-01-01

    The martensitic transformation behaviour, morphology and microstructures in copper-based shape memory alloys are strongly influenced by the post-quench heat treatments and ageing. Martensitic transformation initiates at a critical temperature and grows by the formation of martensite variants on cooling up to martensite finish temperature. These alloys are metastable at the matrix ?-phase condition, and reversibility of transformation and formation of martensite variants from the matrix are re...

  3. Galaxy Zoo: the independence of morphology and colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, Steven P; Baldry, Ivan K; Land, Kate; Lintott, Chris J; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Torki, Mehri; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Miller, Christopher J; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for 130352 objects from Galaxy Zoo. The majority of the morphology-density relation is driven by variation in morphological fraction with environment at fixed stellar mass, rather than by the environmental dependence of the stellar mass function. We conclusively show that the colour and morphology bimodalities are largely independent functions of environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments and mostly red in high-density environments. While galaxies with early-type morphology do always have higher red fractions, this is sub-dominant compared to the dependence of red fraction on stellar mass and environment. Only a small part of the colour-density relation thus results from the morphology-density relation. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morph...

  4. Semigroups of Upsilon transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    2008-01-01

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of random integral representations of Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed.

  5. Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENU AWASTHI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  6. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  7. Morphological Enhancement of Microcalcifications in Digital Mammograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannath, H. S.; Virmani, J.; Kumar, V.

    2012-09-01

    Mammography is a commonly used technique for early detection of breast cancer. In mammograms, microcalcifications show low contrast margin with the background parenchymal tissue (specifically when the background tissue type is fibroglandular) as a result, subjective analysis of these calcifications with respect to their size, shape and morphology presents a daunting challenge even for experienced radiologists. Thus the present work investigates the potential of two morphological techniques i.e., top-hat morphological processing and h-dome morphological processing for enhancement of microcalcifications embedded in variety of background tissue types including fatty, glandular and fibroglandular tissues while restoring their shape and size. The enhancement results are also compared with standard contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization method. For subjective analysis, 25 synthetic images with simulated microcalcifications of various shapes and sizes are used. Objective analysis is carried out on 50 mammographic images taken from benchmark dataset (McGill University mammographic database) by computing quantitative indices like contrast improvement ratio and detail variance/background variance ratios. After rigorous experimentation on both synthetic and benchmark data set it was observed that h-dome morphological processing (with h = 60) is ideally suited for enhancement of microcalcifications while restoring their shape and size.

  8. Synthesis and morphology control of nanocrystalline boron nitride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanocrystalline boron nitride (BN) with needle-like and hollow spherical morphology has been synthesized by nitriding of MgB2 with NH4Cl and NH4Cl-NaN3, respectively. The amount of NaN3 has an obvious effect on the size of the hollow spheres. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, and transmission electron microscopy. The possible mechanism of morphology control is also discussed

  9. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaodong Zheng; Xiaojie Wang

    2010-01-01

    Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondl...

  10. Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

    2014-01-01

    We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

  11. Effect of doping cobalt on the micro-morphology and electrochemical properties of birnessite MnO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birnessite-type MnO2 nanoparticles are synthesized by mixing KMnO4 solution directly with ethylene glycol under ambient conditions. When cobalt exists in the solution, the micro-morphology of the products transforms from conglomeration to dispersive state. The result of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) shows that the product is constructed with nanosphere in sizes of ca. 40 nm. These nanospheres are twisted by nanorods clusters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows that the products are birnessite-type. The electrochemical properties of the prepared materials are studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and galvanostatic charge–discharge test in aqueous electrolyte. The product shows a very high specific capacity of 326.4 F g?1. These results indicate that cobalt has great effects on the micro-morphology and electrochemical properties of manganese dioxide. - Highlights: ? Uniform manganese dioxide nanoparticles were prepared via a simple liquid-phase reaction method. ? The morphology of material is sphere-like which is twisted by nanorods clusters. ? Cobalt doping has enhanced capacitive performance

  12. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  13. [Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) transformed by Agrobacterium rhizogenes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiao-Ling; Bu, Huai-Yu; Hao, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Yu-Wei; Jia, Jing-Fen

    2006-01-01

    An efficient system of genetic transformation and plant regeneration via somatic embryogenesis was established in crownvetch (Coronilla varia L.) by infecting the segments of cotyledons and hypocotyls of 15d-old seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes strain 15834. Hairy roots were produced directly from the wounded surface of the explants or via calluses on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium after infection by A. rhizogenes. Transformed roots grew rapidly either on solid or liquid MS medium, and exhibited typical hairy root phenotypes. The highest transformation frequency (87.4%) was achieved by preculturing cotyledons for 2d and pre-treating the A. rhizogenes with suitable concentration of acetosyringone at logarithmic phase (OD600 = 0.8). The embryogenic calluses with 100% induction frequency were induced from hairy roots on MS medium containing 0.2mg/L 2,4-D, 0.5mg/L NAA and 0.5mg/L KT. Globular-, heart-, torpedo-, and cotyledon shaped somatic embryos were produced orderly and developed into plantlets when transferred the embryogenic calluses on MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/L KT, 0.2mg/L IBA and 300mg/L proline. The transformed plants did not show differences in morphology except abundant lateral root branches compared to the non-transformed plants. However, the contents of 3-nitropropanic acid in hairy roots and leaves of one of 5 transformed clones were 57.68% and 58.17% in roots and leaves of untransformed plants, respectively. Opine paper electrophoresis revealed the integration and expression of TR-DNA. PCR analysis confirmed that the TL-DNA including 654 bp rol B sequence was inserted into the genome of transformed hairy roots and their regenerated plants. PMID:16572849

  14. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  15. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

  16. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  17. Ethanol mediated enhancement in bacterial transformation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Arun Dev, Sharma; Jaspreet, Singh; Prabhjot Kaur, Gill.

    2007-01-15

    Full Text Available In molecular biology, transformation using E. coli as a host plays a key role in synthesizing gene libraries. The present study demonstrated a new ethanol-based method for transformation of plasmid DNA to E. coli. Ethanol at 10% concentration (v/v) showed best results. Further, as compared with trad [...] itional CaCl2 method, the transformation rate, using protocol outlined in this study, was very high, suggesting amenable for further applications.

  18. Morphological analysis of ionomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

  19. A generalized Meijer transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Debnath

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available In a series of papers [1-6], Kratzel studies a generalized version of the classical Meijer transformation with the Kernel function (stνη(q,ν+1; (stq. This transformation is referred to as GM transformation which reduces to the classical Meijer transform when q=1. He also discussed a second generalization of the Meijer transform involving the Kernel function λν(n(x which reduces to the Meijer function when n=2 and the Laplace transform when n=1. This is called the Meijer-Laplace (or ML transformation. This paper is concerned with a study of both GM and ML transforms in the distributional sense. Several properties of these transformations including inversion, uniqueness, and analyticity are discussed in some detail.

  20. Nahm transformation on the lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez-arroyo, A.; Pena, C

    1999-01-01

    The Nahm transformation is a duality mapping between self-dual Yang-Mills configurations on the torus, which exchanges the number of colours with the topological charge. We show how lattice gauge theory techniques can be used to implement it numerically. The method is presented and its precision illustrated with some applications.

  1. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  2. Cavernous transformation of the portal vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this contribution, the authors give an account of a rare case of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein that may have originated secondarily in a proliferative hematogenous disease with a polyglobulia and thrombosis in the periferal blood count as well as development of portal hypertension of a prehepatal type. The state of hyper-coagulation in a myeloproliferative disease may have lead to a chronic thrombosis of the portal vein with a subsequent malformation of the portal vein in terms of a cavernous transformation of the portal vein. The case is an interesting one because of the discrepancy between the gravity of the thrombotic complication and slightness of the symptoms in the clinical picture. The authors point out the importance of ultrasonography and computed tomography examination following the intravenous application of a water solution of a contrast medium in a morphologic diagnosing of a rare complication of a chronic thrombotic clot of the portal vein - the cavernous transformation. (authors)

  3. Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Star-shaped terpolymers of the ABC type composed of incompatible polymer components give a variety of ordered structures with mesoscopic length scales depending on their composition ratio. Their peculiar features are summarized in this report. Polymer components adopted are polyisoprene (I), polystyrene (S) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P), and many monodisperse samples of the IXSYPZ type were anionically prepared. Firstly our focus is on molecules of the I1.0S1.0Px1 type, where x1 is only a variable. The complex but systematic morphology change was displayed within the range 0.2 ? x1 ? 10, that is, their structures change from spherical plus lamellae structure for I1.0S1.0P0.2 to periodic tilings (0.4 ? x1 ? 1.9), then to lamellae-in-lamella (3.0 ? x1 ? 4.9) and lamellae-in-cylinder (7.9 ? x1 ? 10) structures with increasing x1. Here if we pay attention to the structural variation of the P domain inclusively, it transforms from sphere to cylinder, lamella and then to matrix, which is the same as that for linear polymers. Among them, several periodic Archimedean tiling patterns can be naturally formed when the relative lengths of the three chains are close to one another. Moreover, it has been found that the tiling zone is spread out widely. For example, the series I1.0S1.81.0S1.8Px2 (with 0.8 ? x2 ? 2.9) and the other series I1.0SyP2.0 (with 1.1 ? y ? 2.7) show mostly Archimedean tilings. Additionally, block copolymer/homopolymer blends with a composition of I1.0S2.7P2.5 reveal a quasicrystalline tiling with dodecagonal symmetry. Furthermore, a zinc-blende-type four-branched network structure was created just a little outside of the tiling region for a block copolymer/homopolymer blend of I1.0S2.3P0.8. When some more asymmetry in chain length is introduced, hyperbolic tiling on a gyroid membrane has successfully been constructed for the sample I1.0S1.8P3.2 and it transforms into a hierarchical cylinders-in-lamella structure with further increase in P content to I1.0S1.8P6.4. Thus, kaleidoscopic morphologies have been generated from ABC star-shaped terpolymers and their structural change has turned out to be very sensitive to relative compositions.

  4. Impact of Morphological Changes of the Medjerda River, Tunisia, on Flood Risks and Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fares, A.; Jaballah, M.; Djebbi, M.

    2009-12-01

    The main goal of this work is to improve the Medjerda’s flood prediction by taking into account the morphodynamic characteristics of the river. Previous flood management research on this river only used the morphology of the bed of the river and didn’t include in their analysis the river's surrounding floodplain topography. The current work uses both information to numerically predict the morphological changes of the river and their impact on flood occurrence. Cross section measurements were taken at several locations across the river’s bed in 1996 and 2003. These cross section data were used to develop a geometric description of the main channel bathymetry which was integrated into a Digital Elevation Model containing the surrounding area; such process requires interpolation, transformation of coordinates and integration of bathymetry. Therefore, a continuous surface of the river system was developed for 1996 and 2003 data sets. The geometric data obtained from the above described analysis were used to assess the effect of the morphodynamic evolution of the Medjerda on flood risks. HEC-RAS was used to simulate this system; its simulation results showed significant differences between flood risk levels during 1996 and 2003. Increases of water surface level in the river during 2003 for the same flow rate of 1996 resulted from the morphological changes of the river’s bed. The corresponding flood maps of the 2003 geometry are more realistic and areas with high flood risk were delineated. In conclusion, the morphological changes of the Medjerda’s bed increased flooding during last decades.

  5. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  6. Fourier transforms of UD integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrashuk, Igor

    2008-01-01

    UD integrals published by N. Usyukina and A. Davydychev in 1992-1993 are integrals corresponding to ladder-type Feynman diagrams. The results are UD functions $\\Phi^{(L)},$ where $L$ is the number of loops. They play an important role in N=4 supersymmetic Yang-Mills theory. The integrals were defined and calculated in the momentum space. In this paper the position space representation of UD functions is investigated. We show that Fourier transforms of UD functions are UD functions of space-time intervals but this correspondence is indirect. For example, the Fourier transform of the second UD integral is the second UD integral.

  7. Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    2012-01-01

    Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cloaking devices. Our analysis includes several examples containing different bump geometries that illustrate the proposed methodology.

  8. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    OpenAIRE

    C. H. Azhari; S. F. Wong

    2001-01-01

    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  9. Mixing on Rank-One Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Creutz, D; Creutz, Darren; Silva, Cesar E.

    2006-01-01

    We prove that mixing on rank-one transformations is equivalent to the spacer sequence being slice-ergodic. Slice-ergodicity, introduced in this paper, generalizes the notion of ergodic sequence to the uniform convergence of ergodic averages (as in the mean ergodic theorem) over subsequences of partial sums. We show that polynomial staircase transformations satisfy this condition and therefore are mixing.

  10. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  11. Transforming planar graph drawings while maintaining height

    OpenAIRE

    Biedl, Therese

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous styles of planar graph drawings, notably straight-line drawings, poly-line drawings, orthogonal graph drawings and visibility representations. In this note, we show that many of these drawings can be transformed from one style to another without changing the height of the drawing. We then give some applications of these transformations.

  12. Improving Organizational Effectiveness through Transformational Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Bernard M., Ed.; Avolio, Bruce J., Ed.

    This book shows how transformational leadership is expected to contribute to an organization's efforts to improve its operations and the best use of its human resources. The concepts of transactional and transformational leadership are introduced within the framework of a full-range model of leadership. This model is applied to research,…

  13. Reconstructing Deconstruction: High-Velocity Cloud Distance Through Disruption Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Peek, J. E. G.; Putman, M. E.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Heiles, Carl; Stanimirovic, Snezana

    2006-01-01

    We present Arecibo L-band Feed Array 21-cm observations of a sub-complex of HVCs at the tip of the Anti-Center Complex. These observations show morphological details that point to interaction with the ambient halo medium and differential drag within the cloud sub-complex. We develop a new technique for measuring cloud distances, which relies upon these observed morphological and kinematic characteristics, and show that it is consistent with H-alpha distances. These results a...

  14. New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Adawi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the method. The results obtained justify the advantage of this methodology. MATLAB 7 was used to carry out the computations.

  15. Generalized phase transformations of spinor fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some generalized four parameter phase transformations of a Dirac spinor are considered. It is shown that a corresponding compensating transformation of the electromagnetic field which restores the invariance of the Dirac-Maxwell equation might exist, provided some consistency conditions are satisfied by the parameters of the transformations. These transformations are used further to consider the Maxwell equations under the assumption that a Bosonization takes place. Only one of the considered cases proves to have a solution (the other cases show to be trivial) which although unphysical is obtained explicitly. (author). 10 refs

  16. Intragranular ferrite morphologies in medium carbon vanadium-microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine TTT diagram of medium carbon V-N micro-alloyed steel with emphasis on the development of intragranular ferrite morphologies. The isothermal treatment was carried out at 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C. These treatments were interrupted at different times in order to analyze the evolution of the microstructure. Metallographic evaluation was done using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that at high temperatures (? 500°C polygonal intragranulary nucleated ferrite idiomorphs, combined with grain boundary ferrite and pearlite were produced and followed by an incomplete transformation phenomenon. At intermediate temperatures (450, 500°C an interloced acicular ferrite (AF microstructure is produced, and at low temperatures (400, 350°C the sheave of parallel acicular ferrite plates, similar to bainitic sheaves but intragranularly nucleated were observed. In addition to sheaf type acicular ferrite, the grain boundary nucleated bainitic sheaves are observed. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174004

  17. Retinal Image Analysis Using Morphological Process and Clustering Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Radha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a method for the Retinal image analysis through efficient detection of exudates an d recognizes the retina to be normal or abnormal. The contrast image is enhanced by curvelet transform. Hence, morphology operators are applied to the enha nced image in order to find the retinal image ridge s. A simple thresholding method along with opening and closing operation indicates the remained ridges belonging to vessels. The clustering method is used for effective detection of exudates of eye. Experi mental result proves that the blood vessels and exudates c an be effectively detected by applying this method on the retinal images. Fundus images of the retina were co llected from a reputed eye clinic and 110 images we re trained and tested in order to extract the exudates and blood vessels. In this system we use the Proba bilistic Neural Network (PNN for training and testing the p re-processed images. The results showed the retina is normal or abnormal thereby analyzing the retinal im age efficiently. There is 98% accuracy in the detec tion of the exudates in the retina .

  18. Controlling Fiber Morphology in Simultaneous Centrifugal Spinning and Photopolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yichen; Dulaney, Austin; Ellison, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Current synthetic fiber manufacturing technologies use either solvent or heat to transform a solid preformed polymer into a liquid before applying a force to draw the liquid into fiber. While the use of solvent poses concerns regarding process safety and environmental impact, the use of heat may also lead to polymer degradation and excessive energy consumption. To address these critical challenges, here we present an alternative fiber manufacturing method that encompasses extruding a monomer solution through an orifice, drawing it using centrifugal Forcespinning and polymerizing the monomer jet into solid fiber in flight using UV initiated thiol-ene chemistry. This method not only negates the use of both heat and solvent, but also produces fibers that are highly crosslinked, mechanically robust, and thermally stable. In this process, the balance between curing kinetics, fiber flight time, and solution viscoelasticity is essential. Studies were conducted to quantitatively investigate the effect of these factors on fiber formation and morphology. An operating diagram was developed to show how the intricate interplay of these factors led to the formation of smooth fibers and other undesirable fiber defects, such as beads-on-string, fused fibers, and droplets.

  19. Thermal behavior of goethite during transformation to hematite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under non-isothermal conditions, thermal transformation kinetics of goethite was assessed from the shape of a derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curve and then verified by the correlation between the maximum decomposition degrees and thermal kinetic mechanisms. Kinetic analysis showed that this process was governed by the three-dimensional diffusion. Microstructural changes during the process were characterized by use of infrared spectra (IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Combining non-isothermal kinetic results and microstructural changes, thermal behavior of this transformation was described as followed. In the beginning, surface autodiffusion played a dominant role. With increasing temperatures, micropores were produced due to three-dimensional diffusion of hydrogen or hydroxyl groups in bulk goethite crystals and then merged into the slits because of the high water pressure inside. The morphology of hematite particles with regular texture was changed due to the recrystalyzation role, and finally spherical particles were formed. -- Graphical abstract: Thermal behavior of goethite through three-dimensional diffusion

  20. Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang,

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcode...

  1. Transformation de Fourier generalisee

    OpenAIRE

    Laumon, Gerard

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I construct a geometric transformation for generalized 1-motives which extends the Fourier-Mukai transformation for O-Modules on abelian varieties, the geometric Fourier transformation for D-Modules on vector spaces and the geometric Mellin transformation for D-Modules on tori. In particular, I construct an equivalence of triangulated categories between the derived category of quasi-coherent D-Modules on an abelian variety and the derived category of quasi-cohe...

  2. Fractional Darboux Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Humi, Mayer

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonli...

  3. Fractional Darboux Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Humi, M

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial differential equations.

  4. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  5. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Mess.

    1108-11-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own [...] work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  6. Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Haidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

  7. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ?MAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  8. Droplet free energy functional for the morphology of martensites

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M; Rao, Madan; Sengupta, Surajit

    1996-01-01

    Martensites are metastable phases, possessing a characteristic morphology, usually formed during a fast quench accross a structural transition. We attempt to understand these morphological features using a coarsegrained free energy functional {\\cal F}[\\epsilon ; \\Phi] which contains, in addition to the usual strain fields \\epsilon_{ij} (the `` order parameter'' for the transition), the ``vacancy'' field \\phi which arises due to the geometric mismatch at a parent-product interface. The relaxation of this mismatch is slow compared to typical front propagation times and hence \\phi is essentially frozen in the reference frame of the growing martensite front. Minimisation of {\\cal F} then automatically yeilds typical martensite morphologies. We demonstrate this in two dimensions for the square to rhombus transformation and obtain internally twinned martensites, which grow as thin strips, for ``hard'' martensites (e.g., Fe-based alloys) or with a `single-interface', for ``soft'' martensites (e.g., In-Tl alloys).

  9. Morphological techniques for micro calcification and mass enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of microcalcifications and masses from digital mammographic images are important to aid the detection of breast cancer. In this paper, we applied morphological techniques to extract the embedded structures from the images for subsequent analysis. A mammographic phantom was created with embedded structures such as micro nodules, nodules and fibrils. For the reprocessing techniques, intensity transformation of gray scale was applied to the image. The structures of the image were enhanced and segmented using dilation for a morphological operation with morphological closing. Next, low pass Gaussian filter was applied to the image to smooth and reduce noises. It was found that our method improved the detection of microcalcifications and masses with high Peak Signal To Noise Ratio (PSNR). (Author)

  10. Quantum Optical Version of Classical Optical Transformations and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Hong-yi

    2010-01-01

    By the newly developed technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We can not only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs i...

  11. The morphologies and masses of extremely red galaxies in the Groth Strip survey

    CERN Document Server

    Hempel, Angela; Prieto, Mercedes; Trujillo, Ignacio; Balcells, Marc; López-Sanjuan, Carlos; Abreu, David; Eliche-Moral, Carmen; Domínguez-Palmero, Lilian

    2011-01-01

    We present a new cataloge of EROs from the Groth strip and study the relation between their morphology and mass. We find 102 EROs (F814W-K=>4, K11.0 dominantly show compact morphologies, but also include a significant number of sources with a disc morphology.

  12. On some hypergeometric transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Per W.

    1999-01-01

    A method that may generate new transformations is mentioned. It is shown that the approach applies to some of the cubic transformations of 3F2, and, moreover, to a quartic and a sextic transformation of 2F1. Regions of validity are established. Many of the results are established by the aid of Maple

  13. The Tunneling Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hipple, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We supplement the Lorentz transform $L(v)$ with a new "Tunneling" transform $T(v)$. Application of this new transform to elementary quantum mechanics offers a novel, intuitive insight into the nature of quantum tunneling; in particular, the so called "Klein Paradox" is discussed.

  14. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part of the ASEM LLL Hub network 2 Survey on Workplace Learning in Asia and Europe. We will present the work of researchers on the survey as the first transformative learning space and workplace learning we discovered in the enterprises in Latvia as a second example on the transformative learning space. We will try to show, that there are some universal criteria, which makes learning process successful in those two very different learning examples.

  15. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/?L). PMID:25325766

  16. Morphological and mechanical imaging of Bacillus cereus spore formation at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Stanciu, Cristina; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bacillus are able to transform into metabolically dormant states called (endo) spores in response to nutrient deprivation and other harsh conditions. These morphologically distinct spores are fascinating constructs, amongst the most durable cells in nature, and have attracted attention owing to their relevance in food-related illnesses and bioterrorism. Observing the course of bacterial spore formation (sporulation) spatially, temporally and mechanically, from the vegetative cell to a mature spore, is critical for a better understanding of this process. Here, we present a fast and versatile strategy for monitoring both the morphological and mechanical changes of Bacillus cereus bacteria at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy. Through a strategy of imaging and nanomechanical mapping, we show the morphogenesis of the endospore and released mature endospore. Finally, we investigate individual spores to characterize their surface mechanically. The progression in elasticity coupled with a similarity of characteristic distributions between the incipient endospores and the formed spores show these distinct stages. Taken together, our data demonstrates the power of atomic force microscopy applied in microbiology for probing this important biological process at the single cell scale. PMID:25581787

  17. Synthesis, morphology, optical and photocatalytic performance of nanostructured ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girija, K. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); DRDO – BU CLS, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Thirumalairajan, S. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Avadhani, G.S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); DRDO – BU CLS, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Nanostructures of ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using facile reflux condensation process. ? The pH of the reaction mixture shows evident influence on the size and shape of the nanostructures formed. ? The nanostructures exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B and was found to be superior for higher pH value. - Abstract: Fine powders of ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were prepared via low temperature reflux condensation method by varying the pH value without using any surfactant. The pH value of reaction mixture had great influence on the morphology of final products. High crystalline single phase ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were obtained by thermal treatment at 900 °C which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological analysis revealed rod like nanostructures at lower and higher pH values of 6 and 10, while spindle like structures were obtained at pH = 8. The phase purity and presence of vibrational bands were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical absorbance spectrum showed intense absorption features in the UV spectral region. A broad blue emission peak centered at 441 nm due to donor–acceptor gallium–oxygen vacancy pair recombination appeared. The photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was higher for nanorods at pH 10.

  18. Characterization of the morphology and composition of commercial negative resists used for lithographic processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, B-E; Haug, A; Häffner, M; Blideran, M M; Fleischer, M; Peisert, H; Kern, D P; Chassé, T

    2009-04-01

    We present a spectroscopic and microscopic characterization of the chemical composition, structure, and morphology of two commercial negative resists using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, films of a novolak-based resist (ma-N 2400) and hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ) are treated under different conditions (temperature, deep ultraviolet (DUV) exposure, CHF(3) plasma). Topographic AFM images show that both heating and DUV exposure strongly affect the surface morphology of as-prepared ma-N 2400 resist films. These different treatment conditions also lead to decreasing roughnesses, which indicates structural reorganization. Furthermore, the decrease of the photoactive compound (bisazide) in the ma-N 2400 resist films, observed in FTIR spectra, suggests cross-linking of the resist after CHF(3) plasma treatment, heating, or DUV exposure. XPS measurements on different CHF(3) plasma-treated surfaces reveal that a structurally homogeneous fluorine-containing polymer is generated that is responsible for an enhanced etch resistance. FTIR measurements of HSQ films show a correlation between the degree of HSQ cross-linking and baking time. PMID:19030844

  19. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE WITH UNUSUAL MORPHOLOGIES IN THE PRESENCE OF FRUIT EXTRACTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CHENGLI, YAO; ANJIAN, XIE; YUHUA, SHEN; JINMIAO, ZHU; TENGJIAO, LI.

    2235-22-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we reported a novel green strategy for the biological synthesis of calcium carbonate crystals using water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the apple and pear. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrar [...] ed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that water-soluble polysaccharides as a soft template were easy to induce calcium carbonate with unusual morphologies (such as straw bundles-like). Based on the time-dependent growth of CaCC3 particles, possible mechanisms were proposed for the formation of straw bundle-like CaCC3 microspheres with secondary structures in the presence of water-soluble polysaccharides.

  20. Stacking of lamellae in Mg/Al hydrotalcites: Effect of metal ion concentrations on morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A hybrid nanocomposite based on the intercalation of carbonate anion has been synthesized through co-precipitation technique. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns (PXRD) showed pure layered double hydroxide (LDH) phases having crystallite size around 20 and 13 nm in 'a' and 'c' crystallographic directions, respectively. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy measurements exhibit shifting of bands with increase of divalent metal ion concentration and it further suggests the presence of carbonate anions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) exhibit the three stages of thermal degradation, which is characteristic behaviour of layered double hydroxide. CHN and energy dispersive X-ray analysis support the PXRD and spectroscopy results. The nature of charge observed through Zeta potential analyzer is positive. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) exhibits the characteristic LDH platelet morphology with the platelets stacked one above the other

  1. Development of morphology in laser dressed grinding wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes the development of faceted morphology in laser dressed grinding wheels.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used in the paper is based on locally melting a vitrified grinding wheel and measuring features such as grain size, cooling rate and melt depth as a function of laser fluence and relating these measures to the morphology shown in the microstructures presented in the paper.Findings: The findings of this course of research lead the authors to believe that a specific morphology is dependent upon cooling rate and laser fluence.Research limitations/implications: The findings show that further research is required to fully understand how certain morphologies form as a function of cooling rate and laser fluence. It should be noted that morphologies observed in laser processed grinding wheels include cellular and fully dendritic morphologies in addition to faceted vertices.Practical implications: The results imply that laser dressed grinding wheels can be used for machining different materials at different grinding speeds. The paper also shows that much development is needed to identify laser processing conditions that are appropriate for different workpiece materials.Originality/value: The paper shows that different morphologies can be used to machine workpiece materials under different conditions. The originality in the paper is focused on the formation on minute cutting points using increasing laser fluences.

  2. Craniofacial morphology in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrn, Karin; Al-Kahlili, Bashar; Huggare, Jan; Forsberg, Carl-Magnus; Marcus, Claude; Dahllöf, Göran

    2002-08-01

    Overweight and obesity are growing problems in the world today. A recent survey shows that about 30% of the adolescent and adult Swedish population is overweight or obese. The etiology is a combination of many factors, the most important of which are physical inactivity and high caloric diet. Obese children have a normal to accelerated growth rate despite low growth hormone (GH) levels. The aim of our study was to investigate whether craniofacial morphology differs between obese adolescents and normal weight adolescents. Lateral cephalograms from 39 adolescents with obesity, aged 14-16 years, were analysed and compared with lateral cephalograms from an equal number of sex- and aged-matched controls. Compared to the controls, the subjects in the obesity group showed increased mandibular length, prognathic jaws and a reduced upper anterior face height. Despite low GH levels, obese children have normal levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Since we found an advanced craniofacial growth in obese adolescents with low GH and high IGF-1 serum levels, craniofacial growth may be more dependent on free circulating LGF-1 than on the locally produced portion. PMID:12222641

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  4. Towards an ecological understanding of morphological evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinka, Alex T

    2015-06-01

    The roots of modern evo-devo can be traced back to the comparative anatomy of the 19th century. Inheriting from this tradition, the field has maintained a mechanistic approach to understanding the origins of distinct animal morphologies. While this focus has produced a valuable body of work, we argue here that a fuller understanding of why species diverge morphologically must be centered on the selective forces driving divergence, and these forces ultimately reside in the ecological context in which organisms live and reproduce. We discuss reasons why we expect many morphological novelties to evolve largely secondarily to, and often as a by-product of, primary selection on life-history traits. By shifting the focus to proximate evolutionary causes, our perspective necessarily prioritises selection experiments as a means of empirical testing. We outline experimental approaches designed to dissect the role of ecological variables in the evolution of animal development and morphology, and we show how methods and advances in fields as diverse as population genomics and ecological stoichiometry can contribute to progress in this direction. J. Exp. Zool. (Mol. Dev. Evol.) 324B: 383-392, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24890454

  5. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus surface capsid. Virus surface morphologies of different resolutions are attained by adjusting the propagation time. Therefore, the present PDE transform provides a multiresolution analysis in the surface visualization. Extensive numerical experiment and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the present PDE transform is a robust, stable, and efficient approach for biomolecular surface generation in Cartesian meshes. PMID:22582140

  6. A Hybrid Image Enhancement Technique for Noisy Dim Images Using Curvelet and Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Selvi,

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The noisy dim images degrade the image quality. The new denoising method using curvelet transform outperforms than wavelet transform. The noisy dim image is denoised with the help of curvelet transform to the dim image for avoiding the over illumination and under illumination problems. Next the dim image is enhanced using themorphological transformations. Closing by reconstruction is used to detect the background of the dim image. Finally the results are tested from noisy dim images and also compared the results with opening by reconstruction. Morphological reconstruction filter closing by reconstruction produces better result than opening by reconstruction.

  7. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

  8. Magnetite morphology and life on Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Buseck, Peter R.; Dunin-borkowski, Rafal E.; Devouard, Bertrand; Frankel, Richard B.; Mccartney, Martha R.; Midgley, Paul A.; Po?sfai, Miha?ly; Weyland, Matthew

    2001-01-01

    Nanocrystals of magnetite (Fe3O4) in a meteorite from Mars provide the strongest, albeit controversial, evidence for the former presence of extraterrestrial life. The morphological and size resemblance of the crystals from meteorite ALH84001 to crystals formed by certain terrestrial bacteria has been used in support of the biological origin of the extraterrestrial minerals. By using tomographic and holographic methods in a transmission electron microscope, we show that the three-dimensional s...

  9. Polypropylene : Morphology, defects and electrical breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Laihonen, Sari J.

    2005-01-01

    Crystal structure, morphology and crystallization kinetics of melt-crystallized polypropylene and poly(propylene-stat-ethylene) fractions with 2.7 to 11.0 mol% of ethylene were studied by differential scanning calorimeter, wide- and small-angle X-ray scattering, polarized light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and infrared spectroscopy. With increasing ethylene content the poly(propylene-stat-ethylene) fractions showed unchanged crystallinity, increased unit cell volume and consta...

  10. A transcriptome map of cellular transformation by the fos oncogene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruan Hong

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The c-fos gene was originally identified as the cellular homolog of the oncogene v-fos carried by the Finkel-Biskis-Jenkins and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine osteogenic sarcoma retroviruses. Sustained expression of fos is sufficient to induce cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Fos functions as a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex to regulate gene transcription and several differentially expressed genes have been identified in cells transformed by fos. We have extended these studies by constructing a cellular system for conditional transformation by v-fos. Using Affymetrix-based DNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes over the course of transformation and reversion in an inducible v-fos system. Results Microarray analyses of temporal gene expression during the process of v-fos mediated cellular transformation and morphological reversion revealed a remarkably dynamic transcriptome. Of the more than 8000 genes analyzed in this study, 3766 genes were categorized into 18 gene-expression patterns by using self-organizing map analysis. By combining the analysis of gene expression profiles in stably transformed cells with the analysis of sequential expression patterns during conditional transformation, we identified a relatively small cohort of genes implicated in v-fos mediated cellular transformation. Conclusion This approach defines a general conditional cell transformation system that can be used to study the endogenous transcription regulatory mechanisms involved in transformation and tumorigenesis. In addition, this study is the first reported analysis of dynamic changes in gene expression throughout experimentally controlled morphological transformation mediated by v-fos.

  11. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for non-Abelian groups is defined. A slightly relaxed definition is shown to simplify the analysis and the networks that computes the transforms. Efficient networks for computing such transforms for a class of metacyclic groups are introduced. A novel network for computing a Fourier transform for a group used in quantum error-correction is also given.

  12. In vitro studies on target cells of oncogenic adenoviruses in hamster brain. II. In vitro transformation of brain cells of hamsters at various ages by human adenovirus type 12

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohmori,Hiroyuki

    1975-10-01

    Full Text Available In vitro transformations of brain cells of hamsters of various ages were examined after the administration of human adenovirus type 12 (Ad 12 to determine the type and origin of the target cell. Hamster brain cells at all examined ages were transformed by Ad12. Although the virus was not isolated, virus specific tumor antigen was demonstrated in the transformed cells. The histological features of tumors that developed by transplantation of transformed cells closely resembled Ad12-induced brain tumors. The transformed cell focus tended to appear near the embryonic brain cell (EB cell or glioblastic cell (GB cell. The transformed cells were morphologically similar to the EB or GB cell. Some subcultured transformed cells showed a rosette-like pattern, and the surrounding space arrangement was similar to that of the ventricular wall. The incidence of brain cell transformations decreased with increased hamster age. This decreased incidence with age corresponded to the decreased numbers of EB or GB cells present in progressively older hamsters. From these results, it is concluded that the target cells of AD12 in hamster brain cell cultures are probably the EB or GB cells.

  13. Estimation of fractal dimension through morphological decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Set theory based morphological transformations have been employed to decompose a binary fractal by means of discrete structuring elements such as square, rhombus and octagon. This decomposition provides an alternative approach to estimate fractal dimensions. The fractal dimensions estimated through this morphological decomposition procedure by employing different structuring elements are considerably similar. A color-coding scheme is adapted to identify the several sizes of decomposed non-overlapping disks (DNDs) that could be fit into a fractal. This exercise facilitates to test the number-radius relationship from which the fractal dimension has been estimated for a Koch Quadric, which yield the significantly similar values of 1.67 ± 0.05 by three structuring elements. In addition to this dimension, by considering the number of DNDs of various orders (radii) and the mean diameter of disks (MDDs) of corresponding order, two topological quantities namely number ratio (RB) and mean diameter ratio (RL) are computed, employing which another type of fractal dimension is estimated as ((logRB)/(logRL)). These results are in accord with the fractal dimensions computed through number-radius relationship, and connectivity network of the Koch Quadric that is reported elsewhere

  14. Zirconium alloys: an ideal system for studying phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A wide variety of phase transformations of zirconium alloys has been reviewed in this paper. Some of the important general issues in the phase transformations research have been identified. The manner in which studies in zirconium alloys have contributed to the understanding of these issues have been discussed in this paper. The crystallography of martensitic transformations in this system has been briefly described and the observed morphological and substructural changes in the zirconium martensites have been rationalised. The influence of substructure on the strengthening contribution has also been examined. Morphological and crystallographic features of diffusional and mixed mode transformations have been studied with a view to examining whether the transformation mechanisms have characteristic imprints on these experimental observables. A brief account of the methodology of phase diagram analyses for predicting the transformation sequences has been included. The mechanism of the displacive ? transformation has been described and it has been shown that formation of ordered ? phases involve coupling of displacive and replacive ordering. The last section of this paper deals with amorphization and crystallization processes in zirconium alloys. (author)

  15. Effect of the structure of ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers on morphology and mechanical properties of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.

  16. Transformation Characteristics of Ferrite/Carbide Aggregate in Continuously Cooled, Low Carbon-Manganese Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, S. F.; Thewlis, G.

    2014-02-01

    Transformation characteristics and morphological features of ferrite/carbide aggregate (FCA) in low carbon-manganese steels have been investigated. Work shows that FCA has neither the lamellae structure of pearlite nor the lath structure of bainite and martensite. It consists of a fine dispersion of cementite particles in a smooth ferrite matrix. Carbide morphologies range from arrays of globular particles or short fibers to extended, branched, and densely interconnected fibers. Work demonstrates that FCA forms over similar cooling rate ranges to Widmanstätten ferrite. Rapid transformation of both phases occurs at temperatures between 798 K and 973 K (525 °C and 700 °C). FCA reaction is not simultaneous with Widmanstätten ferrite but occurs at temperatures intermediate between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite. Austenite carbon content calculations verify that cementite precipitation is thermodynamically possible at FCA reaction temperatures without bainite formation. The pattern of precipitation is confirmed to be discontinuous. CCT diagrams have been constructed that incorporate FCA. At low steel manganese content, Widmanstätten ferrite and bainite bay sizes are significantly reduced so that large amounts of FCA are formed over a wide range of cooling rates.

  17. The Peculiarities of Martensite Morphology in Nano- and Inhomogeneous Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monastyrsky G.E.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes certain experimental situations, in which the small volumes available for the phase transformation can dramatically affect the morphology, substructure of martensite, martensitic transformation itself. Martensitic structures in standalone nanoparticles as well as that one’s embedded in extrinsic matrix, joint nanograins and multiply connected spaces, gradient structures are given consideration. Much attention is paid to the problem of nucleation and propagation of martensitic phase through peculiar spaces having inhomogeneities and complex 3D connectivity with each other. The conclusion is made about inconsistency of the observed ultimate martensite microstructure in nanosized and inhomogeneous spaces with the current conception of the propagation of martensite-austenite boundary through the available for the transformation volumes as the interface, which sustains the invariant plane strain condition.

  18. Mathematical Morphology Applied to the Segmentation and Classification of Galaxies in Multispectral Images

    OpenAIRE

    Aptoula, Erchan; Lefèvre, Sébastien; Collet, Christophe

    2006-01-01

    The automated segmentation and classification of galaxies still constitute open problems for astronomical imaging, mainly due to their fuzzy and versatile nature, as well as to the multitude of the available channels. In this paper, a mathematical morphology based approach is explored. First, a semi-automated method for multispectral galaxy segmentation, based on the marker controlled watershed transformation is proposed. Moreover, a novel and viewpoint independent morphological feature, base...

  19. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. Whenof paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

  20. Prognostic role of cell morphology of animal tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestner, A

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to determine the prognostic role of cellular morphology in animal neoplasia. With some exceptions, cellular morphology is the single most accurate predictor of the prospective behavior of neoplasms. There is generally a positive correlation between the degree of malignancy and prognosis. The exceptions are a) morphologically malignant-appearing tumors following a benign course (e.g., canine histiocytoma, canine seminoma, equine sarcoid) and b) morphologically differentiated tumors exhibiting an unpredictable prognosis (e.g., canine pericytoma, acanthomatous epulis, myxoma, follicular thyroid cell carcinoma, etc.). Anaplasia, an important characteristic of most malignant neoplasms, may be less stable than generally assumed. Sodium butyrate may reverse it intermittently and anaplastic gliomas may loose all morphologic and cytokinetic characteristics of anaplasia following sodium butyrate exposure. Host factors, such as nerve growth factor, have similar and more lasting effects upon anaplastic cells derived from the neural crest. Such factors may act as reverse transformation agents and may represent prospective therapeutic agents for anaplastic tumors. PMID:4048772

  1. New Drug Shows Promise Against Psoriasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_153105.html New Drug Shows Promise Against Psoriasis Ixekizumab appeared to outperform standard medication in a ... HealthDay News) -- Many patients with the skin disease psoriasis showed significant improvement when taking an experimental drug ...

  2. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas Le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  3. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene/Polyoxymethylene Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Sirirat Wacharawichanant; Tanakorn Siripattanasak

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP)/polyoxymethylene (POM) blends. The PP/POM blends were prepared by melting-blend with an internal mixer. The contents of PP were used at 10%, 20%, 30%, 70%, 80% and 90% by weight. The phase morphology of the blends was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) due to the mechanical properties depended on the phase morphology. The results show the decrease of the impact strength, Young’s modulus and tens...

  4. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    CERN Document Server

    López, J M; Lopez, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the enviromental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semi-solid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological changes observed. Our numerical results are in excellent agreement with experiments carried out with the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on solid agar.

  5. An eye imaginal disc-specific transcriptional enhancer in the long terminal repeat of the tom retrotransposon is responsible for eye morphology mutations of Drosophila ananassae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasaki, T; Juni, N; Yoshida, K M

    1996-05-23

    Optic morphology (Om) mutations of Drosophila ananassae are semidominant, neomorphic and nonpleiotropic, map to at least 22 loci scattered throughout the genome, and are associated with the insertion of the tom retrotransposon. Molecular and genetic analyses have revealed that eye morphology defects of Om mutants are caused by the ectopic or excessive expression of Om genes in the eye imaginal discs of third instar larvae. It is therefore assumed that the tom element carries tissue-specific gene regulatory sequences which enhance expression of the Om genes. In the present study, we examined whether or not the long terminal repeats (LTR) of the tom element contain such an eye imaginal disc-specific enhancer, using D. melanogaster transformants containing a lacZ gene ligated to the tom LTR. Analyses of lacZ gene expression in the eye imaginal discs of third instar larvae of 18 independently established transformant lines showed that the tom LTR was capable of enhancing lacZ expression in all the transformant lines, but the degree of enhancement varied between lines. In addition, the effect of the tom LTR lacZ gene evidently changed when the tom LTR construct was relocated to different chromosomal positions. On the basis of these findings, it is hypothesized that ectopic and excessive expression of the Om genes in the eye imaginal discs is induced by an eye imaginal disc-specific enhancer present in the tom LTR, the effect of which may be subject to chromosomal position effects. PMID:8668126

  6. Morphological characteristics of “Monterufoli horse”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giorgetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monterufoli horse is a local endangered breed of the Tuscany and derives from the omonym area in province of Pisa. This horse derives from local wild and extinct equines and has Maremmano, Tolfetano and Oriental ancestors. The mean and the standard deviation of biometric characters, and the absolut and percentage frequency of morphological characteristics were calculated. The measures of the adult females were estimated by ANOVA considering three different class of age. The average sizes were: height at withers of 135.4±6.3 and 129.2±5.9, thorax circumference of 166.4±8.3 and 163.4±8.9, frontshank circumference of 17.7±1.5 and 17.5±0.9, for males and females, respectively. All the observed horses presented dark coat. Monterufoli horses showed the physical characteristics of local extinct ancestors (Selvena pony, but also the characteristics of other breeds that contributed to improve the local population. This horse, which was once used in agriculture and for light draught, is now involved for saddle use.

  7. Morphology of Mock SDSS Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Sheth, J V

    2003-01-01

    We measure the geometry, topology and morphology of the superclusters in mock SDSS catalogues prepared by Cole et al.(1998). The mock catalogues refer to $\\tau$CDM and $\\L$CDM {\\em flat} cosmological models and are populated by galaxies so that these act as biased tracers of mass, conforming with the correlation function measured using APM catalogue. We compute the Minkowski Functionals (MFs) for the cosmic density fields using SURFGEN (Sheth et al.2003) and use the available 10 realizations of $\\tau$CDM to study the effect of cosmic variance in estimation of MFs and Shapefinders, which we find to be extremely well constrained statistics. Although all the mock catalogues of alaxies have the same two-point correlation function and similar clustering amplitude, the global MFs due to $\\tau$CDM show systematically lower amplitude compared to those due to $\\L$CDM; a detectable effect due to nonzero, higher order correlation functions. The characteristic thickness (T), breadth (B) and length (L) of the supercluster...

  8. SEGMENTATION USING MULTISCALE MORPHOLOGICAL RECONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANMOZHI.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is a crucial step in the field of image processing and pattern recognition. Segmentation allows the identification of structures in an image which can be utilized for further processing. This paper proposes a technique for object segmentation from its background. We utilized both region-based and object-based segmentation capabilities to handle the object segmentation for large-scale database images in a robust and principled manner. MultiScalE Graylevel mOrphological recoNstructions (SEGON is used for segmenting an image. SEGON roughly identifies the background and object regions in the image. To further refine the boundaries of the objects mean-shift segmentation technique is applied on the SEGON processed image. Accuracy of segmentation is evaluated by computing structural similarity index (SSIM, for the image segmented with and without using SEGON. Images collected from Corel, Caltech, PASCAL, UCID and CMU-PIE databases are utilized for this work. Experimental results showed that the proposed object segmentation method outperforms the state-of-the-art image segmentation techniques.

  9. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s. PMID:24580142

  10. Bainite Morphology in Two Experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?awrynowicz Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the bainite morphology in two experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti steels using TEM, high speed dilatometry backed by thermodynamic analysis. The microstructure was investigated using metallography and TEM method. After austenitisation at 1200oC followed by bainitic reaction in upper and lower temperatures of isothetmal transformation the bainite was in the form of classical sheaves. The amont, distribution and morphology of retained austenite and bainitic ferrite depend on prior austenitisation and isothermal transformation temperatures within the bainitic range.

  11. Fourier Cosine and Sine Transform on fractal space

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Guang-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine Transforms on fractal space, considered some properties of local fractional Cosine and Sine Transforms, show applications of local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine transform to local fractional equations with local fractional derivative.

  12. Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Structuring Element Map Modification and Marker-controlled Watershed Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain medical images are generally prone to noise and also fraught with intensity heterogeneity within the tumor. Fuzzy and boundary discontinuity caused by the tumor also adversely affects the accuracy of the tumor segmentation. A method based on morphological structuring element map modification and marker-controlled watershed segmentation is proposed. Firstly, a structuring element map is constructed according to the sum of the weighted variance of the specific regions within morphological gradient image, and each value of the structuring element map represents the size of structuring element (SE. Secondly, the original image is modified by morphological opening-closing, where the size of SE are determined by the structuring element map in the corresponding pixel, such an adaptive image modification can eliminate the noise and small regular details while preserve the larger object contours without less location offsets. Finally, marker-controlled watershed transform is used to complete the tumor segmentation. Experiments show that the method ensures brain tumors are more accurately segmented.

  13. Systematic study on the influence of the morphology of ?-MoO3 in the selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of morphologically different ?-MoO3 samples were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and applied in the selective oxidation of propylene. Their catalytic performance was compared to ?-MoO3 prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and a classical synthesis route. Hydrothermal synthesis from ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM) and nitric acid at pH 1-2 led to ammonium containing molybdenum oxide phases that were completely transformed into ?-MoO3 after calcination at 550 °C. A one-step synthesis of ?-MoO3 rods was possible starting from MoO3·2H2O with acetic acid or nitric acid and from AHM with nitric acid at 180°C. Particularly, if nitric acid was used during synthesis, the rod-like morphology of the samples could be stabilized during calcination at 550°C and the following catalytic activity tests, which was beneficial for the catalytic performance in propylene oxidation. Characterization studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy showed that those samples, which retained their rod-like morphology during the activity tests, yielded the highest propylene conversion.

  14. Structural, morphological and catalytic characterization of neutral Ag salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid: Influence of preparation conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holclajtner-Antunovi?, Ivanka; Bajuk-Bogdanovi?, Danica; Popa, Alexandru; Nedi? Vasiljevi?, Bojana; Krsti?, Jugoslav; Mentus, Slavko; Uskokovi?-Markovi?, Snežana

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study is the structural and morphological characterization of the Ag3PW12O40 salts (AgWPA) of 12-tungstophosphoric acid (WPA) obtained under different preparation conditions and testing of their acid catalytic activity in dehydration of ethanol. The structure, morphology and physicochemical characteristics were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen physisorption at -196 °C, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and differential thermal (DTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is shown that the preparation process has a significant influence on the morphological properties of the obtained materials which may be explained by the supposed mechanism of the formation of nanocrystallite?s aggregates with more or less epitaxial connection. Neutral AgWPA obtained by filtration from supernatant forms porous aggregates of a symmetric dodecahedral shape, having average sizes about 2 ?m. This sample shows higher specific area in comparison with the salt obtained by evaporation due to the higher micropore volume, while mesopore volumes are the same for both salts. Thus conversion of ethanol and selectivities of the main products, ethylene and diethyl ether, are almost the same and constant for both prepared salts, while their values are changed over the reaction time for the parent WPA acid.

  15. Comparison of heat and radiation sensitivity in normal C3H-10T1/2 cells and cells transformed by radiation or the H ras oncogene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells were transformed from the normal to the malignant state using X-rays or by transfection with a plasmid containing the active H ras oncogene. Clones of cells with a transformed morphology were isolated and grown into large populations. These cells were tested and produced tumors in C/sub 3/H mice. Seven clones transformed by radiation showed a range of sensitivity to heat and X-rays that varied from greater to lesser than the heat and X-ray sensitivity in normal cells. Similar results were observed for the cells transformed by the H ras oncogene. Thus, the malignant transformation of C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells by X-rays or H ras oncogenes did not, in general result in increased thermal sensitivity, implying that the malignant phenotype is not intrinsically more heat sensitive than the normal cell. The thermal sensitivity in the various transformed cell lines was not correlated with membrane cholesterol or phospholipid content

  16. Fourier and Laplace Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Beerends, R. J.; Morsche, H. G.; Berg, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    This textbook presents in a unified manner the fundamentals of both continuous and discrete versions of the Fourier and Laplace transforms. These transforms play an important role in the analysis of all kinds of physical phenomena. As a link between the various applications of these transforms the authors use the theory of signals and systems, as well as the theory of ordinary and partial differential equations. The book is divided into four major parts: periodic functions and Fourier series,...

  17. Model Transformations with Tom

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Jean-Christophe; Crégut, Xavier; Moreau, Pierre-Etienne; Pantel, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Model Driven Engineering (MDE) advocates the use of Model Transformations (MT) in order to automate repetitive development tasks. Many different model transformation languages have been proposed with a significant tool development cost as common language elements like expressions, statements, ... must be built from scratch for each new language development tools. The Tom language is a shallow extension of Java tailored to describe and implement transformations of tree based data-structures. A...

  18. Generalized Stirling transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, mourad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangeme...

  19. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourie...

  20. Transformed sufficient dimension reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Tao; Guo, Xu; Xu, Peirong; Zhu, Lixing

    2014-01-01

    A novel general framework is proposed in this paper for dimension reduction in regression to fill the gap between linear and fully nonlinear dimension reduction. The main idea is to transform first each of the raw predictors monotonically, and then search for a low-dimensional projection in the space defined by the transformed variables. Both user-specified and data-driven transformations are suggested. In each case, the methodology is discussed first in a general manner, an...

  1. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier tran...

  2. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  3. Morphological Exploration of Shape Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Jesús; Meyer, Fernand

    The aim of this paper is to propose efficient tools for analysing shape families using morphological operators. The developments include the definition of shape statistics (mean and variance of shapes, modes of shape variation) and the interpolation/extrapolation in shape geodesic paths. The main required ingredients for the operators and the algorithms here introduced are well known in mathematical morphology such as the median set, the watershed on distance functions or the interpolation function. In addition, the projection of shapes in spaces with reduced dimensions using PCA or ISOMAP techniques permits to apply morphological interpolation techniques in shape manifolds.

  4. Parallelisation of Algorithms of Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Boukerram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools of mathematical morphology developed within the framework of the image processing, require of big capacity of data and the very high costs of execution. So today, the limits of the sequential machines are not to be any more to show, the passage in the new parallel machines of type Simd, Mimd, clusters or grids is imperative. This paper deals with problems related to the parallelisation of the algorithm of mathematical morphology and highlights the resources influencing over the computing time. This study leans on the various levels of parallelisable calculation to evaluate the awaited profits then in term of processing time. An implementation of a whole of algorithms of reference is carried out on a cluster and a simd computer.

  5. Morphology of auroral zone radio wave scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the morphology of midnight sector and morning sector auroral zone scintillation observations made over a two-year period using the Wideband satelite, which is in a sun-synchronous, low-altitude orbit. No definitive seasonal variation was found. The nighttime data showed the highest scintillation ocurrence levels, but significant amounts of morning scintillation were observed. For the most part the scintillation activity followed the general pattern of local magnetic activity. The most prominent feature in the nightime data is a localized amplitude and phase scintillation enhancement at the point where the propagation vector lies within an L shell. A geometrical effect due to a dynamic slab of sheetlike structures in the F region is hypothesized as the source of his enhancement. The data have been sorted by magnetic activity, proximity to local midnight, and season. The general features of the data are in agreement with the accepted morphology of auroral zone scintillation

  6. Majorana transformation for differential equations

    OpenAIRE

    Esposito, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    We present a method for reducing the order of ordinary differential equations satisfying a given scaling relation (Majorana scale-invariant equations). We also develop a variant of this method, aimed to reduce the degree of non-linearity of the lower-order equation. Some applications of these methods are carried out and, in particular, we show that second-order Emden-Fowler equations can be transformed into first-order Abel equations. The work presented here is a generalizat...

  7. Subtracted Geometry From Harrison Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Virmani, Amitabh

    2012-01-01

    We consider the rotating non-extremal black hole of N=2 D=4 STU supergravity carrying three magnetic charges and one electric charge. We show that its subtracted geometry is obtained by applying a specific SO(4,4) Harrison transformation on the black hole. As previously noted, the resulting subtracted geometry is a solution of the N=2 S=T=U supergravity.

  8. Subtracted geometry from Harrison transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virmani, Amitabh

    2012-07-01

    We consider the rotating non-extremal black hole of N=2 D=4 STU supergravity carrying three magnetic charges and one electric charge. We show that its subtracted geometry is obtained by applying a specific SO(4,4) Harrison transformation on the black hole. As previously noted, the resulting subtracted geometry is a solution of the N=2 S=T=U supergravity.

  9. Fourier transforms of UD integrals

    OpenAIRE

    Kondrashuk, Igor; Kotikov, Anatoly

    2008-01-01

    UD integrals published by N. Usyukina and A. Davydychev in 1992-1993 are integrals corresponding to ladder-type Feynman diagrams. The results are UD functions $\\Phi^{(L)},$ where $L$ is the number of loops. They play an important role in N=4 supersymmetic Yang-Mills theory. The integrals were defined and calculated in the momentum space. In this paper the position space representation of UD functions is investigated. We show that Fourier transforms of UD functions are UD fun...

  10. Transformation of several species of higher plants by Agrobacterium rhizogenes: sexual transmission of the transformed genotype and phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepfer, D

    1984-07-01

    The T-DNA of the Ri plasmid from Agrobacterium rhizogenes is compatible with the regeneration of whole plants from genetically transformed roots and is transmitted through meiosis to the progeny of genetically transformed plants in carrot, tobacco, and morning glory (Convolvulus arvensis). The presence of Ri T-DNA is correlated with a phenotype that in some respects is invariable from species to species and in other respects varies as a function of species, organ clone within species, or individual. The transformed phenotype concerns a variety of morphological and physiological traits, is dominantly inherited in tobacco, but does not in general appear to be deleterious. The Ri T-DNA may provide a molecular starting point for studying a number of basic phenomena in plant morphology and physiology. PMID:6744417

  11. Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, A. L.; Noguez, C.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of morphology on the optical properties of silver nanoparticles is studied. A general relationship between the surface plasmon resonances and the morphology of each nanoparticle is established. The optical response is investigated for cubes and decahedrons with different truncations. We found that polyhedral nanoparticles composed with less faces show more surface plasmon resonances than spherical-like ones. It is also observed that the vertices of the nanopart...

  12. An Efficient Morphological Salt-and-Pepper Noise Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Singh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient two stage morphological impulse noise detector is proposed in this paper. The proposed method first identifies the noise pixels by comparing the current pixel with the brightest and the darkest pixels in its working window and then in second stage morphological operations based detector is used to improve the performance of impulse noise detector. Simulation results performed on different images shows better results in terms of the qualitative and quantitative measures of the images.

  13. Morphological and functional disturbances of platelets induced by cryopreservation.

    OpenAIRE

    Baythoon, H.; Tuddenham, E. G.; Hutton, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    In vitro morphological and functional studies were carried out on platelets which had been cryopreserved in the presence of 5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Overall loss of platelets was around 50%. Those which survived freezing and reconstitution showed marked morphological deterioration, increase of procoagulant activity (PF3a) and a decrease in their aggregability and adenine nucleotide content. We conclude that if transfused, cryopreserved platelets are likely to be less effective than fres...

  14. An Efficient Morphological Salt-and-Pepper Noise Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Singh,; Umesh Ghanekar; Chakresh Kumar; Ghanendra Kumar

    2011-01-01

    An efficient two stage morphological impulse noise detector is proposed in this paper. The proposed method first identifies the noise pixels by comparing the current pixel with the brightest and the darkest pixels in its working window and then in second stage morphological operations based detector is used to improve the performance of impulse noise detector. Simulation results performed on different images shows better results in terms of the qualitative and quantitative measures of the ima...

  15. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  16. A DC Transformer Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  17. Death and transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the properties of SV40 virus-induced transformants, including the death of transformed cells at high density, can be accounted for by the following postulates: an integrated SV40 genome directly induces the initiation of aberrant host DNA synthesis as a consequence of its production of the A gene product (presumably the T-antigen). The level of A gene expression determines the extent of transformation. Normal cells deprived of serum factors enter a resting stage (G0 or R), whereas SV40-transformed cells cannot. Cells engaged in DNA synthesis are highly susceptible to nutrient deprivation and die when deprived of serum factors

  18. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Though the martensitic transformation in zirconia has been the object of a very large number of studies for the last decades, qualitative and quantitative observations of the formation and growth of relief induced by low temperature treatments has hardly ever been reported. In the first part of the study (Martensitic transformation in zirconia, Part I), we have demonstrated the excellent agreement between the atomic force microscopy quantitative observations and the outputs of the calculations derived from the phenomenological theory of martensitic transformation. The intermediate stages of transformation were nonetheless not considered. In this second part, the growth mechanisms of monoclinic phase resulting from the martensitic transformation in ceria-stabilized zirconia (10 mol% CeO2) are investigated. Surface transformation is induced by aging treatments in water vapor at 413 K. The observations are rationalized by the recent analysis proposed for the crystallographic ABC1 correspondence choice, where the ct axis transforms to the cm axis. Three growth modes are observed and interpreted in terms of transformation strains accommodation. Microcracks formation is observed, explaining grain pop-out where the crystallographic disorientation between two adjacent grains is the largest. The influence of grain boundary paths on the surface relief features is demonstrated. Overall, our results strongly support the non-existence of a critically support the non-existence of a critical grain size for low temperature transformation, confirmed by the classical thermodynamics theory applied to this particular case

  19. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data which allows to estimate the achievable total electrical length and in-band reflection coefficient for transformers consisting of up to twelve transmission line sections in the range of transformation ratios r = 1:5 to 10 and bandwidth ratios  = 2 to 20. This data is obtained using wave transmission matrix approach and experimentally verified by synthesizing a 12-section nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformer. The measured characteristics of the transformer are compared to the characteristics of a conventional tapered line transformer.

  20. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2012-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  1. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Organic electronic devices are an intense area of research. While some devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED) have matured and are found in a vast amount of consumer electronic devices, their energy producing counterpart, organic photovoltaics (OPV), are still in the process of making the transition from the laboratory into the commercial market. One of the biggest challenges in this process is upscaling the production. The object of this thesis is to investigate the morphology of OPV devices produced from pilot scale roll to roll (R2R) coaters. OPV devices still struggle with low performance, and the morphology is known to have a critical impact on the performance of a device. Several studies have tried to identify the optimal morphology of OPV devices and how to achieve it. Most work has been focused on OPVs produced by spin coating in a small laboratory scale. Devices produced by R2R coating, which works fundamentally different, have not been studied. Traditional production of OPV has required the use of toxic solvents. A new environmentally friendly approach using water based inks, made of nanoparticles, is now being tested. However, nothing is known about the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small domain size to be studied, in the nanometer regime, and the poor contrast due to the similarity of the organic materials. The physical impact of the ink and the process of coating it, was investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, hard X-ray ptychography and soft X-ray transmission imaging. Utilizing the robustness and high resolution of transmission electron microscopy, different preparations of inks were studied. Electron microscopy offers good visualization, but lacks contrast to distinguish similar organic materials, such as P3HT and PCBM, two components of the active layer. Electron diffraction yields information about the crystal structure of the samples but have a coarse spot size. X-ray scattering is a well known technique for measuring shapes, sizes, crystal structures and orientation. Both small- and wide-angle scattering were used to measure the crystallinity of the layers as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed the viability of ptychography as a characterization technique for OPVs evaluated. The ink studies showed that the nanoparticles in the active layer were disrupted. Dense parts of the nanoparticles could be observed surrounded by a bulk of less dense material. The same pattern was seen in preparations made by both coating methods. A difference, observed between the two methods was that the layer produced by R2R consisted of aggregates of particles. The particles in the spin coated samples were uniformly distributed. Furthermore, this thesis focuseds on developing, and testing, a new method for high throughput characterization of OPV devices. An advantage with R2R coating is the continuous production of layers and the possibility to change production parameters continuously during the process. It would therefore be an advantage if the characterization could also be done continuously. For this purpose a small film winder-underwinder was tested. The crystalline structure was measured using small angle X-ray scattering on three samples. The high spatial resol

  2. Investigation of the Surface Morphology and Structural Characterization of Palm Fiber Reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (PF-ABS Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrun Neher

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the aid of Injection Moulding Machine (IMM Palm fiber reinforced Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS composites (PF-ABS were prepared. Three sets of samples were prepared for three different wt% (5%, 10% and 20% of fiber contents. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR experiments were performed to study the surface morphology, microstructure (if it crystalline or noncrystalline and new bond formation after preparation of the composites. SEM pattern shows that after addition of palm fiber in PF-ABS composites the brittleness increased due to creation of voids in the composites except 10% fiber content in PF-ABS. From XRD pattern it is clear that the palm fiber, ABS and PF-ABS composites are amorphous in nature. Moreover FTIR spectrum shows that there is no new bond formed after addition of palm fiber in ABS polymeric matrix to create PF-ABS composites.

  3. Relationships between Convolution and Correlation for Fourier Transform and Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce convolution theorem for the Fourier transform (FT) of two complex functions. We show that the correlation theorem for the FT can be derived using properties of convolution. We develop this idea to derive the correlation theorem for the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT) of the two quaternion functions.

  4. The phase transformations during continuous cooling of Ti6Al7Nb alloy from the two-phase ?+? range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D?browski

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The phase transformations during continuous cooling from the two-phase ?+? range in Ti6Al7Nb alloy has been determined.Design/methodology/approach: The phase transformations during continuous cooling of investigated alloy was elaborated using an L78 R.I.T.A dilatometer of the German Linseis Company. The microstructure of investigated alloy cooled from the two-phase ?+? range was examinated by a light microscope Axiovert 200MAT. The measurements of hardness were performed with the Vickers HPO 250 apparatus.Findings: The relationship between cooling rate and microstructure morphology, hardness as well as dilatation effects has been determined.Research limitations/implications: The results will be used for the interpretation of phase transformations occurring at continuous cooling and at tempering from as-quenched state of the investigated alloy. Currently, the investigations of the kinetics phase transformation at continuous heating from as-quenched state will help to performed the Continuous-Heating-Transformation diagrams (CHT. These diagrams show the possibility of the regulation of the progress of successive (intermediate transformations at tempering and thus influence the final alloy properties, including their hardness and fracture toughness. It is expected that the determination of final mechanical properties by means of regulating the progress of successive transformations occurring during heating from the as-quenched state is possible also in the Ti6Al7Nb alloy.Practical implications: The obtained results will be applied for the optimization of the heat treatment technology and for achieving the required mechanical properties of the Ti6Al7Nb alloy.Originality/value: The obtained results, supported in the future by additional cooling curves, will be used for the development of the original, full CCT diagram of the Ti6Al7Nb alloy cooled continuously from the twophase ?+? range.

  5. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with different morphologies from melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Zhang, Bingqing; Shi, Jingying; Yang, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from melamine-formaldehyde (MR) resin using FeCl3 or supported FeCl3 as catalysts. The growth of NCNTs follows a decomposition-reconstruction mechanism, in which the polymer precursor would totally gasify during pyrolysis process and then transformed into carbon nanotubes. The morphology of the NCNTs could be adjusted via applying different catalyst supports and three kinds of carbon nanotubes with outer-diameter of 20-200 nm and morphologies of either bamboo-like or hollow interiors were obtained. Nitrogen atoms in the materials were mainly in the form of pyridinic and quaternary form while the formation of iron species strongly depended on the interaction between iron precursor and organic carbon/nitrogen sources. All MR resin derived NCNTs are efficient toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). NCNTs prepared using FeCl3 as catalyst showed the highest ORR activity with half-wave potentials of -0.17 V, which is comparable with commercial Pt/C. This is probably because of a close contact between MR resin and iron precursor could enhance the iron-ligand coordination strength and thus steadily improve the performance of the catalyst. PMID:25790324

  6. Genetic diversity analysis in rice mutants using isozyme and Morphological markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, isozyme and agromorphologic variability of radiation-induced rice mutants with different cytoplasm base was surveyed. Agromorphologic data (plant type, lodging resistance, life cycle and yielding) were transformed into binary data. This markers, along with isozyme (Peroxidases, Esterases, Catalases, Alcohol Dehydrogenases and Polyphenoloxidase) data, were considered for genetic diversity analyses in order to estimate the extent of diversity generated by ionizing radiation. Genetic Similarity between individuals was obtained based on Dice's Coefficient. The UPGMA phenogram defined three main clusters that clearly corresponded to the different cytoplasm sources. However, further discrimination between control varieties and their mutants could be obtained. Bootstrapping analysis was performed to estimate the robustness of the group in the phenogram. According to their bootstrap P value (99.6%), Basmati-370 mutant lines could be considered statistically different from their control. This analysis is suggested as an useful supporting tool for an accurate varietal validation. A Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) showed individuals dispersion around the three principal axis of variation. In general the UPGMA phenogram pattern was corroborated at MCA. Variables such as life cycle, presence of bands Est-a and Prx-m and the absence of Est-i, Prx-h and Prx-i accounted for the higher contribution to variation. The adequacy of morphological and isozyme descriptorcy of morphological and isozyme descriptors for new mutant lines validation is also discussed

  7. Synthesis of barium and strontium carbonate crystals with unusual morphologies using an organic additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Jiang, Jizhong; Bao, Zuben; Pan, Jian; Xu, Weibing; Zhou, Lili; Wu, Zhigang; Chen, Xu

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, strontium carbonate (SrCO3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3) crystals were synthesized in the presence of an organic additive-hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) using two CO2 sources. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffractometry were used to characterize the products. The results showed that the morphologies of orthorhombic strontianite SrCO3 transformed from branch-like to flower-like, and to capsicum-like at last, while the morphologies of BaCO3 change from fiber-like to branchlike, and to rod-like finally with an increase of the molar ratio HMT/Sr2+ and HMT/Ba2+ from 0.2 to 10 using ammonium carbonate as CO2 source. When using diethyl carbonate instead of ammonium carbonate as CO2 source, SrCO3 flowers aggregated by rods and BaCO3 shuttles were formed. The possible formation mechanisms of SrCO3 and BaCO3 crystals obtained in different conditions were also discussed.

  8. Efficient selection of banks of transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper show a procedure to select the most profitable transformer banks in an specific service or in new investments with emphasis in the reduction of the operational losses, the cost in useful life, and the increase of the system efficiency using techniques of artificial intelligence. The method constitutes a tool that can be used in field conditions without invasive test and with data of easy acquisition according to the state of the art. The program was developed to analyze any type of transformers or transformer bank connection? single phase, three phase transformers or two or three transformers in symmetric or asymmetric configuration for three phase and single phase services. The economic analysis is made by the Cost of Cycle Life (CCV) of the analyzed configuration. As a case the results obtained in the gas station La Calzada of the Cienfuegos municipality is presented.

  9. Conformal transformations and conformal invariance in gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Dabrowski, Mariusz P; Blaschke, David B

    2008-01-01

    Conformal transformations are frequently used tools in order to study relations between various theories of gravity and Einstein relativity. Because of that, in this paper we discuss the rules of conformal transformations for geometric quantities in general relativity. In particular, we discuss the conformal transformations of the matter energy-momentum tensor. We thoroughly discuss the latter and show the subtlety of the conservation law (i.e., the geometrical Bianchi identity) imposed in one of the conformal frames in reference to the other. The subtlety refers to the fact that conformal transformation ``creates'' an extra matter term composed of the conformal factor which enters the conservation law. In an extreme case of the flat original spacetime the matter is ``created'' due to work done by the conformal transformation to bend the spacetime which was originally flat. We also discuss how to construct the conformally invariant gravity which, in the simplest version, is a special case of the Brans-Dicke t...

  10. The Morphologies of Massive Galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, V A; Cirasuolo, M; McLure, R J; Targett, T A; Bell, E F; Croton, D J; Dekel, A; Faber, S M; Ferguson, H C; Grogin, N A; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Lai, K; Lotz, J M; McGrath, E J; Newman, J A; van der Wel, A

    2013-01-01

    We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ~200 of the most massive (M_star > 10^11 M_solar) galaxies at 12 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25-40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.

  11. Solar System Odyssey - Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a Fulldome Digital Planetarium Show. Learners go on a futuristic journey through our Solar System. They explore the inner and outer planets, then the moons: Titan, Europa, and Callisto as possible places to establish a human colony. A full-length preview of the show is available on the website, you need to scroll down about 3/4 of the page - under section on children's shows, direct link not available.

  12. Putting Words to Work: Effects of Morphological Instruction on Children’s Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara; Herrera, Becky Logan; Lotas, Sasha; Evans, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This study examined effects of a 12-week, teacher-delivered morphologically focused intervention on writing outcomes for 5th grade U.S. students. The intervention called students’ attention to the morphological structure of words drawn from the district’s science curriculum, taught morphologically related forms of those words, and provided opportunities for students to use morphologically related forms in reading and writing. Multilevel model results of posttests showed that, compared to control students (n=75), intervention students (n=95) included more morphologically complex words in their responses to a sentence-combining task, and more morphologically complex words (targeted in the intervention) in their extended written responses. In addition, students with lower pretest scores on the sentence-combining measure showed greater intervention effects on the sentence-combining measure than higher-performing peers. Taken together, these results support the use of morphological instruction in the classroom, especially for lower performing children. PMID:24306461

  13. Study on nonlocal morphological operators

    OpenAIRE

    Salembier Clairon, Philippe Jean

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies nonlocal morphological operators. Following the strategy proposed for the Nonlocal means filter, these operators are based on a local and adaptive definition of the structuring element which is specified by searching for patches in the image that are similar to the one surrounding the pixel being filtered. After presenting the basic nonlocal morphological operators using generic structuring elements, we study their robustness in the presence of noise. Then...

  14. Rod Microglia: A Morphological Definition

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Samuel E.; Morganti-kossmann, Cristina; Lifshitz, Jonathan; Ziebell, Jenna M.

    2014-01-01

    Brain microglial morphology relates to function, with ramified microglia surveying the micro-environment and amoeboid microglia engulfing debris. One subgroup of microglia, rod microglia, have been observed in a number of pathological conditions, however neither a function nor specific morphology has been defined. Historically, rod microglia have been described intermittently as cells with a sausage-shaped soma and long, thin processes, which align adjacent to neurons. More recently, our grou...

  15. On morphological color texture characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Aptoula, Erchan; Lefèvre, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the combined use of multiple structuring elements with the standard morphological texture characterization tools, namely morphological covariance and granulometry. The resulting operator is applied to both grayscale and color images in the context of texture classication. As to its extension to color texture data, it is realized by means of a weighting based reduced vector ordering in the IHLS color space, equipped with genetically optimized arguments. The classication experime...

  16. Texture transformations in Ag thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thickness-dependent texture transformation during annealing of initially (1 1 1) fiber-textured face-centered-cubic metal thin films is phenomenologically well known: sufficiently thin films retain the (1 1 1) texture, while sufficiently thick films transform to a (1 0 0) fiber texture. This transformation has been explained based on minimization of strain and interface energies, but recent work calls into question the roles of both of these driving forces. A high-throughput experimental method for the study of this texture transformation has been developed and applied to thin silver films with and without Ti adhesion layers. More than 150 individual samples spanning a range of thicknesses and interface conditions were prepared in a single deposition run. The texture evolution of these samples was characterized using X-ray diffraction as a function of time and temperature during annealing. The transformation proceeds despite the fact that the stresses are too low according to the strain/interface energy model. For films with Ti adhesion layers, the transformation kinetics and extent of transformation depend on the film thickness in a surprising way with intermediate thickness films showing initially fast transformations and stable mixed textures, while thicker films show an incubation time but transform fully. The results are consistent with reduction in defect energy (e.g. dislocations or point defects) as the driving force for secondary grain growth in an environment in which only (1 0 0) recrystallization nuclei can form. The driving force increases with film thickness so the nonmonotonic variation in transformation rate implies that the density of (1 0 0) nuclei decreases with thickness

  17. Fluorescence Assisted Selection of Transformants (FAST): Using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaardingerbroek, Ido; Beerens, Bas; Shahi, Shermineh; Rep, Martijn

    2015-03-01

    The availability of drug resistance markers for fungal transformation is often a limiting factor in both fungal genetics research and industrial applications. We describe a new technique using flow cytometry to select fungal transformants using well-known fluorescent proteins as markers for transformation. This new technique, Fluorescence-Assisted Selection of Transformants (FAST), was used for a transformation of Fusarium oxysporum with GFP as a marker targeted at a specific site on chromosome 14. The resulting strain was then transformed again with a gene replacement construct containing both RFP and a gene for drug resistance as markers. By directly comparing FAST with drug resistance selection we show that both methods yield comparable numbers of gene deletion mutants. PMID:25687933

  18. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... us a safe way to see how the sun damages our skin. In the UV photos that appear below on ... right) shows he does not have sun-damaged skin. Normal photography UV photography 4 years of age : Early sun damage starts to show. Notice the freckling across his ...

  19. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants. PMID:18327591

  20. Natural Amino Acid Based Phenolic Derivatives for Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology and Antibacterial Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with spherical and prism morphologies were formed at room temperature depend on the amino acid attached with phenolic unit. Absorption studies showed 410-420 nm surface plasmon resonance absorption for spherical nanoparticles whereas prism morphology showed three absorption peaks (382, 452 and 523 nm). The formation of spherical and prism morphology was confirmed by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial studies of both the morphologies did not show any significant differences in the inhibition of bacterial growth

  1. Natural Amino Acid Based Phenolic Derivatives for Synthesizing Silver Nanoparticles with Tunable Morphology and Antibacterial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinod Kumar, V.; Nithya, S.; Shyam, Aswin; Sai Subramanian, N. [SASTRA Univ., Tamil Nadu (India); Philip Anthony, Savarimuthu [M. Kumarasamy College of Engineering, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2013-09-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with spherical and prism morphologies were formed at room temperature depend on the amino acid attached with phenolic unit. Absorption studies showed 410-420 nm surface plasmon resonance absorption for spherical nanoparticles whereas prism morphology showed three absorption peaks (382, 452 and 523 nm). The formation of spherical and prism morphology was confirmed by scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. Antibacterial studies of both the morphologies did not show any significant differences in the inhibition of bacterial growth.

  2. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  3. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  4. Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CN{sub x} thin films as humidity sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, N. F. H; Hussain, N. S. Mohamed; Awang, R. [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Ritikos, R.; Kamal, S. A. A. [Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN{sub x}) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CN{sub x} thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH{sub 4}) gas diluted with nitrogen (N{sub 2}) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C?N triple bond. C=N and C?N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CN{sub x} thin film changed from 23.765 k? to 5.845 k? in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CN{sub x} films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device.

  5. Analysis of Texture Classification By Wavelet Transform And Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Santhanalakshmi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the task of texture image classification is analyzed by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete CurveletTransform (DCT. The wavelet and curvelet coefficients are used to describe the textures in the given image. These coefficients are obtained by the decomposition process. First, the texture image is decomposed by using DWT and DCT at multiscale. As the sub-bands in the decomposed image carries diverse information about the texture, predefined number of coefficients is selected in each sub-band image. Before selecting the coefficients, sub-band coefficients are sorted in order to account high energy coefficients. The results show that the classification accuracy of DWT based features outperforms the DCT energies. The classification accuracy of DWT is 5% higher than DCT features at 2-level decomposition with 50% of coefficients used.

  6. Complex Hilbert Transform Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannu Olkkonen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert transform is a basic tool in constructing analytical signals for a various applications such as amplitude modulation, envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, quadrature decoding, shift-invariant multi-rate signal processing and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. This work introduces a complex Hilbert transform (CHT filter, where the real and imaginary parts are a Hilbert transform pair. The CHT filtered signal is analytic, i.e. its Fourier transform is zero in negative frequency range. The CHT filter is constructed by half-sample delay operators based on the B-spline transform interpolation and decimation procedure. The CHT filter has an ideal phase response and the magnitude response is maximally flat in the frequency range 0 ? ? ? ?. The CHT filter has integer coefficients and the implementation in VLSI requires only summations and register shifts. We demonstrate the feasibility of the CHT filter in reconstruction of the sign modulated CMOS logic pulses in a fibre optic link.

  7. Matricial R-transform

    CERN Document Server

    Lenczewski, Romuald

    2011-01-01

    We study the addditon problem for strongly matricially free random variables which generalize free random variables. Using operators of Toeplitz type, we derive a linearization formula for the `matricial R-transform' related to the associated convolution. It is a linear combination of Voiculescu's R-transforms in free probability with coefficients given by internal units of the considered array of subalgebras. This allows us to view this formula as the `matricial linearization property' of the R-transform. Since strong matricial freeness unifies the main types of noncommutative independence, the matricial R-transform plays the role of a unified noncommutative analog of the logarithm of the Fourier transform for free, boolean, monotone, orthogonal, s-free and c-free independence.

  8. Helicobacter pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Rudnicka,

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available More than 50% of the world’s population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori – a Gram negative bacterium, which persists in the human stomach and duodenum, causing gastric or duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer. The majority of H. pylori cells demonstrate rod-shape morphology occurring in two subtypes: spiral and S-shaped. Both are isolated from mucus layer biopsy specimens of the stomach or from short-term cultures. However, results obtained from electron microscopy revealed that H. pylori long-term cultures not only consist of classic, spiral shaped bacteria, but also contain alternative forms of coccoid cells. Further investigations showed that coccoid forms of H. pylori may be divided into two types: viable but non-culturable coccus (VBnC and a degenerative form, coccoid stage which is probably the effect of bacterial cell death. Transformation from spiral to coccoid form is induced under stress conditions, such as the presence of antibiotics. But still there is no evidence for reversion from the coccoid state to the viable and infectious spiral form. Besides the planktonic form, H. pylori also forms homo-, and heterogenic biofilms, which may constitute a potential environmental reservoir of this bacterium. The antigenic repertoire and the immunomodulatory and infectious properties of different H. pylori forms differ greatly. The variation in those properties suggests that morphological forms of H. pylori are potentially involved in the transmission of the infection. This review presents recent findings on the variability, antigenicity and infectious properties of H. pylori morphological forms and their potential role in the transmission of the infection.

  9. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  11. Thermal structure of oceanic transform faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, M.D.; Boettcher, M.S.; Hirth, G.

    2007-01-01

    We use three-dimensional finite element simulations to investigate the temperature structure beneath oceanic transform faults. We show that using a rheology that incorporates brittle weakening of the lithosphere generates a region of enhanced mantle upwelling and elevated temperatures along the transform; the warmest temperatures and thinnest lithosphere are predicted to be near the center of the transform. Previous studies predicted that the mantle beneath oceanic transform faults is anomalously cold relative to adjacent intraplate regions, with the thickest lithosphere located at the center of the transform. These earlier studies used simplified rheologic laws to simulate the behavior of the lithosphere and underlying asthenosphere. We show that the warmer thermal structure predicted by our calculations is directly attributed to the inclusion of a more realistic brittle rheology. This temperature structure is consistent with a wide range of observations from ridge-transform environments, including the depth of seismicity, geochemical anomalies along adjacent ridge segments, and the tendency for long transforms to break into small intratransform spreading centers during changes in plate motion. ?? 2007 Geological Society of America.

  12. Voyeurismo Televisivo, Reality Shows e Brasilidade Televisiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Kilpp

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last years we watched a boom of reality shows in the media and also in the academic production specialized in this subject. It remains, however, a epistemological gap related to the aesthetic and techniques (which are related to the televisions grammars that TV uses in these programs to enunciate ethics directions to its own voyeurism, that goes far beyond reality shows, having repercussions on social imaginary of transparency and surveillance, and the redesign of public and private spaces. In this gap, the article points out the debate of Brazilian reality shows in the perspective of the televisions grammars.

  13. Tailoring vessel morphology in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Daniel Joseph

    Tissue engineering is a rapidly growing field which seeks to provide alternatives to organ transplantation in order to address the increasing need for transplantable tissues. One huge hurdle in this effort is the provision of thick tissues; this hurdle exists because currently there is no way to provide prevascularized or rapidly vascularizable scaffolds. To design thick, vascularized tissues, scaffolds are needed that can induce vessels which are similar to the microvasculature found in normal tissues. Angiogenic biomaterials are being developed to provide useful scaffolds to address this problem. In this thesis angiogenic and cell signaling and adhesion factors were incorporated into a biomimetic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogel system. The composition of these hydrogels was precisely tuned to induce the formation of differing vessel morphology. To sensitively measure induced microvascular morphology and to compare it to native microvessels in several tissues, this thesis developed an image-based tool for quantification of scale invariant and classical measures of vessel morphology. The tool displayed great utility in the comparison of native vessels and remodeling vessels in normal tissues. To utilize this tool to tune the vessel response in vivo, Flk1::myr-mCherry fluorescently labeled mice were implanted with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB) and basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) containing PEG-based hydrogels in a modified mouse corneal angiogenesis assay. Resulting vessels were imaged with confocal microscopy, analyzed with the image based tool created in this thesis to compare morphological differences between treatment groups, and used to create a linear relationship between space filling parameters and dose of growth factor release. Morphological parameters of native mouse tissue vessels were then compared to the linear fit to calculate the dose of growth factors needed to induce vessels similar in morphology to native vessels. Resulting induced vessels did match in morphology to the target vessels. Several other covalently bound signals were then analyzed in the assay and resulting morphology of vessels was compared in several studies which further highlighted the utility of the micropocket assay in conjunction with the image based tool for vessel morphological quantification. Finally, an alternative method to provide rapid vasculature to the constructs, which relied on pre-seeded hydrogels encapsulated endothelial cells was also developed and shown to allow anastamosis between induced host vessels and the implanted construct within 48 hours. These results indicate great promise in the rational design of synthetic, bioactive hydrogels, which can be used as a platform to study microvascular induction for regenerative medicine and angiogenesis research. Future applications of this research may help to develop therapeutic strategies to ameliorate human disease by replacing organs or correcting vessel morphology in the case of ischemic diseases and cancer.

  14. Neutrino scattering and flavor transformation in supernovae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, John F; Carlson, J; Friedland, Alexander; Fuller, George M; Vlasenko, Alexey

    2012-06-29

    We argue that the small fraction of neutrinos that undergo direction-changing scattering outside of the neutrinosphere could have significant influence on neutrino flavor transformation in core-collapse supernova environments. We show that the standard treatment for collective neutrino flavor transformation is adequate at late times but could be inadequate in early epochs of core-collapse supernovae, where the potentials that govern neutrino flavor evolution are affected by the scattered neutrinos. Taking account of this effect, and the way it couples to entropy and composition, will require a new approach in neutrino flavor transformation modeling. PMID:23004955

  15. Ebola Treatment Shows Promise in Monkey Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola Treatment Shows Promise in Monkey Study Antiviral drug cured animals with advanced infections, researchers say To ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug being tested on Ebola victims in Sierra Leone has proven effective in ...

  16. Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater Algae Can Infect Wounds, Study Shows Two cases appear linked to a species in U.S. lakes, but researchers ... and Texas are giving insight into a freshwater algae that can infect wounds. Reporting in the March ...

  17. Chagas Vaccine Shows Promise in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_152452.html Chagas Vaccine Shows Promise in Mice Parasitic disease is becoming more common in U.S. ... 8, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental vaccine provides mice with long-lasting protection against Chagas disease, which ...

  18. Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_150873.html Ebola Drug Shows Promise in Monkey Trial Experimental medicine ... HealthDay News) -- An investigational drug designed to stop Ebola in its tracks has shown early promise in ...

  19. Experimental Melanoma Vaccine Shows Early Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental Melanoma Vaccine Shows Early Promise Still not clear if it will prevent recurrence or lengthen survival To use ... spur an immune response in people with advanced melanoma, a preliminary study finds. The experimental vaccine was ...

  20. MAP: Microblogging Assisted Profiling of TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Xiahong; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Lifeng

    2015-01-01

    Online microblogging services that have been increasingly used by people to share and exchange information, have emerged as a promising way to profiling multimedia contents, in a sense to provide users a socialized abstraction and understanding of these contents. In this paper, we propose a microblogging profiling framework, to provide a social demonstration of TV shows. Challenges for this study lie in two folds: First, TV shows are generally offline, i.e., most of them are...

  1. Hierarchical morphological segmentation for image sequence coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salembier, P; Pardas, M

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with a hierarchical morphological segmentation algorithm for image sequence coding. Mathematical morphology is very attractive for this purpose because it efficiently deals with geometrical features such as size, shape, contrast, or connectivity that can be considered as segmentation-oriented features. The algorithm follows a top-down procedure. It first takes into account the global information and produces a coarse segmentation, that is, with a small number of regions. Then, the segmentation quality is improved by introducing regions corresponding to more local information. The algorithm, considering sequences as being functions on a 3-D space, directly segments 3-D regions. A 3-D approach is used to get a segmentation that is stable in time and to directly solve the region correspondence problem. Each segmentation stage relies on four basic steps: simplification, marker extraction, decision, and quality estimation. The simplification removes information from the sequence to make it easier to segment. Morphological filters based on partial reconstruction are proven to be very efficient for this purpose, especially in the case of sequences. The marker extraction identifies the presence of homogeneous 3-D regions. It is based on constrained flat region labeling and morphological contrast extraction. The goal of the decision is to precisely locate the contours of regions detected by the marker extraction. This decision is performed by a modified watershed algorithm. Finally, the quality estimation concentrates on the coding residue, all the information about the 3-D regions that have not been properly segmented and therefore coded. The procedure allows the introduction of the texture and contour coding schemes within the segmentation algorithm. The coding residue is transmitted to the next segmentation stage to improve the segmentation and coding quality. Finally, segmentation and coding examples are presented to show the validity and interest of the coding approach. PMID:18291957

  2. Crystal morphology evolution in film growth: A general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Danxu; Srolovitz, David J.

    2006-10-01

    Most crystal growth processes involve many competing mechanisms, all of which can affect the observed morphology evolution. This paper provides a framework for understanding growth competition and determining which mechanisms dominate the morphology under different conditions. The approach is based upon the development of a generalized growth law combined with asymptotic analysis. Next, we show how this model unifies many of the physical processes that are known to be of importance in film growth. Next, we provide a graph theoretic method for analyzing growth competition and identifying the morphology-determining processes and parameters. As an example, we apply the present approach to the case of metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of GaN. Finally, we examine how the mechanisms that control morphology evolution change as the crystal grows larger.

  3. Growth Morphologies of Wax in the Presence Kinetic Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetervak, Alexander; Hutter, Jeffrey

    2004-03-01

    Kinetic inhibitors are molecules that alter crystal growth rates and morphologies by adsorbing to growth faces. Such species are used in many commercial processes to control microsctructure, and in other cases to prevent crystallization altogether. Despite their importance, the details of their mechanisms are largely unverified. We are studying the effects of such inhibitors on the crystallization of normal alkanes from solution. We find that inhibitors drastically alter the crystal morphology. As in similar systems, we see ``burst growth,'' in which newly formed solid is able to grow faster due to lower inhibitor coverage. Our experiments show several growth morphologies as a function of conditions: a tree-like structure that in some cases forms bands, and spherulites with characteristics very similar to those seen in polymers. Here, we characterize the front morphology as a function of these conditions and compare the results to numerical models that capture the essential growth behavior.

  4. Ethnobotany, Morphology and Genotyping of Cassava Germplasm from Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Herselman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to collect and characterise Malawian cassava germplasm using ethnobotany, morphological and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP markers. Exploration of accessions with the help of indigenous knowledge was done. Ninety three accessions collected from farmers fields and commercial programs were planted and morphologically characterised at Chitedze Agricultural Research Station (Malawi. A subsample of 28 accessions was used for DNA fingerprinting. Preferences of farmers for traits in cassava varieties were diverse according to use and areas. Ethnobotany revealed wide genetic diversity in the germplasm, as did morphological characterisation, but morphological characterisation failed to uniquely differentiate all analysed accessions. AFLP markers showed narrow genetic diversity but managed to distinguish all accessions. Hence, there is need to use all three techniques at different levels to identify genetic diversity.

  5. A discrete fractional random transform

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2006-01-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  6. A General Geometric Fourier Transform Convolution Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bujack, Roxana; Scheuermann, Gerik; Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The large variety of Fourier transforms in geometric algebras inspired the straight forward definition of ``A General Geometric Fourier Transform`` in Bujack et al., Proc. of ICCA9, covering most versions in the literature. We showed which constraints are additionally necessary to obtain certain features like linearity, a scaling, or a shift theorem. In this paper we extend the former results by a convolution theorem.

  7. Transformation Acoustics in Generic Elastic Media

    OpenAIRE

    Bergamin, Luzi

    2012-01-01

    In this work a transformation acoustics scheme for generic elastic media is developed. Our approach starts form the decomposition of the elasticity tensor in terms of its eigentensors, an idea previously used by Norris. While Norris' transformation acoustics is restricted to the special class of so-called pentamode materials, we show that a similar scheme can be defined for the most general elasticity tensor. As in case of Norris' model (and in sharp contrast to transformati...

  8. Fluid flow control with transformation media

    OpenAIRE

    Urzhumov, Yaroslav A.; Smith, David R.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a new concept for the manipulation of fluid flow around three-dimensional bodies. Inspired by transformation optics, the concept is based on a mathematical idea of coordinate transformations and physically implemented with anisotropic porous media permeable to the flow of fluids. In two situations - for an impermeable object placed either in a free-flowing fluid or in a fluid-filled porous medium - we show that the object can be coated with an inhomogeneous, ani...

  9. Two-dimensional quaternion wavelet transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi; Ashino, Ryuichi; Vaillancourt, R??mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT). We express the admissibility condition in terms of the (right-sided) quaternion Fourier transform. We show that its fundamental properties, such as inner product, norm relation, and inversion formula, can be established whenever the quaternion wavelets satisfy a particular admissibility condition. We present several examples of the CQWT. As an application we derive a Heisenberg type uncertainty princ...

  10. Rooting in Km selective media as efficient in vitro selection method for sunflower genetic transformation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura Mabel, Radonic; Julián Marcos, Zimmermann; Diego, Zavallo; Nilda, López; Marisa, López Bilbao.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite of numerous publications in sunflower genetic transformation, there is no efficient or reproducible protocol with low number of escapes. The latter would indicate that the selection method is not effective. In this work we used Km as selective agent, Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain a [...] nd a vector with the nptII gene under the nos promoter and uidA gene under 35S promoter. The response of agroinfected (A) and control (C) explants during the in vitro culture was studied and in both cases in presence or absence of Km in order to assign a differential morphologic response between transformed and non-transformed plants. The characteristics analyzed were: height, colour/aspect of the plantlets, in vitro rooting and in vitro bud-flower development. Selection was applied from the third regeneration media. Among the A plantlets two were capable of rooting, being positive by PCR, whereas the C were unable to root in presence of Km. One of them gave 6 seeds and in these plants, it was determined the presence of the transgene by PCR and GUS staining. This work shows that in Km selection, colour/aspect of shoots is not useful as selection criteria whereas rooting is an effective selection method in which no escapes were obtained.

  11. Crystal growth of ? and ? glycine polymorphs and their polymorphic phase transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, K.

    2008-12-01

    The single crystals of ? and ? polymorphs of glycine were grown from aqueous solutions at ambient conditions. The metastable ?-form was crystallized from pure aqueous solution and the stable ?-form from aqueous solution in the presence of a critical concentration of a selective additive sodium chloride. Attempt to grow sizable ?-form single crystals were not successful because of their high instability. In stability terms at ambient conditions these three glycine polymorphs are like this: ?polymorphic phase transformations from ? to ? and solution-mediated phase transformation from ? to ? were confirmed by XRD. The transformation from ? to ? while heating well above the room temperature observed at around 179 °C was recorded by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) and confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The morphology of the grown polymorphs were analysed by goniometry. CHN analysis shows the non-existance of sodium chloride species in the grown ?-glycine single crystals. The optical transparancy of the ?-form was recorded by UV-vis-Near IR spectroscopy.

  12. Derivative-dependent metric transformation and physical degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem; Namba, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota

    2015-01-01

    We study metric transformations which depend on a scalar field $\\phi$ and its first derivatives and confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom does not change under such transformations, as long as they are not singular. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of a simple model in the gauge $\\phi = t$. In addition, we explicitly show that the transformation and the gauge fixing do commute in transforming the action. We then extend the analysis to more general gravitational theories and transformations in general gauges. We verify that the set of all constraints and the constraint algebra are left unchanged by such transformations and conclude that the number of degrees of freedom is not modified by a regular and invertible generic transformation among two metrics. We also discuss the implications on the recently called "hidden" constraints and on the case of a singular transformation, a.k.a. mimetic gravity.

  13. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on isothermal cure kinetics, morphology and mechanical properties of EPDM rubber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaghi, Shahin [Department of Polymer Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kalaee, Mohammadreza, E-mail: kalaee@qut.ac.ir [Polymer Engineering Group, Department of Engineering, Qom University of Technology, Qom (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mazinani, Saeedeh [Amirkabir Nanotechnology Research Institute (ANTRI), Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jowdar, Effat [Department of Polymer Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri, Ali [Department of Polymer Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharif, Alireza [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Engineering Group, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sedaghat, Navid [Department of Polymer Engineering, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer nZnO structure had strongly textured crystals with lower grain size over cZnO. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Replacing cZnO by nZnO resulted in lower cure time and higher crosslink density. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The activation energy remarkably reduced upon the decrease of ZnO particle sizes. - Abstract: The morphology, cure behavior and mechanical properties of various ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber containing zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO), were investigated comparing to those of EPDM with conventional zinc oxide (cZnO). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that nZnO had lower grain sizes with respect to cZnO. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies showed that unlike the conventional system, the formation of large size ZnO agglomerates was discouraged for nZnO filled systems. The rheological characterization showed that replacing cZnO with lower content of nZnO in the recipes resulted in lower cure time and higher crosslinking density which further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling tests. The cure kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of curing reaction was remarkably reduced upon the decrease of ZnO particle sizes. Therefore, we could interestingly show the improvement in cure characteristics particularly associated with the superior mechanical properties of nZnO-activated EDPM systems.

  14. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on isothermal cure kinetics, morphology and mechanical properties of EPDM rubber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? nZnO structure had strongly textured crystals with lower grain size over cZnO. ? Replacing cZnO by nZnO resulted in lower cure time and higher crosslink density. ? The activation energy remarkably reduced upon the decrease of ZnO particle sizes. - Abstract: The morphology, cure behavior and mechanical properties of various ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (EPDM) rubber containing zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO), were investigated comparing to those of EPDM with conventional zinc oxide (cZnO). The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that nZnO had lower grain sizes with respect to cZnO. The field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) studies showed that unlike the conventional system, the formation of large size ZnO agglomerates was discouraged for nZnO filled systems. The rheological characterization showed that replacing cZnO with lower content of nZnO in the recipes resulted in lower cure time and higher crosslinking density which further supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and swelling tests. The cure kinetic analysis showed that the activation energy of curing reaction was remarkably reduced upon the decrease of ZnO particle sizes. Therefore, we could interestingly show the improvement in cure characteristics particularly associated with the superior mechanical properties of nZnO-activated EDPM systems.

  15. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  16. Eruptive viscosity and volcano morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrestrial central volcanoes formed predominantly from lava flows were classified as shields, stratovolcanoes, and domes. Shield volcanoes tend to be large in areal extent, have convex slopes, and are characterized by their resemblance to inverted hellenic war shields. Stratovolcanoes have concave slopes, whereas domes are smaller and have gentle convex slopes near the vent that increase near the perimeter. In addition to these differences in morphology, several other variations were observed. The most important is composition: shield volcanoes tend to be basaltic, stratovolcanoes tend to be andesitic, and domes tend to be dacitic. However, important exceptions include Fuji, Pico, Mayon, Izalco, and Fuego which have stratovolcano morphologies but are composed of basaltic lavas. Similarly, Ribkwo is a Kenyan shield volcano composed of trachyte and Suswa and Kilombe are shields composed of phonolite. These exceptions indicate that eruptive conditions, rather than composition, may be the primary factors that determine volcano morphology. The objective of this study is to determine the relationships, if any, between eruptive conditions (viscosity, erupted volume, and effusion rate) and effusive volcano morphology. Moreover, it is the goal of this study to incorporate these relationships into a model to predict the eruptive conditions of extraterrestrial (Martian) volcanoes based on their morphology

  17. Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, William Y; Sanford, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services" addresses the fundamental ideology of Cloud Services and how enterprises in commercial, federal, and defense industries can transform their current information technology and management models to adopt this new method. It goes beyond the mere description of service frameworks in relation to cloud technologies and operations and provides practical path-forward solutions for identified challenges. For instance, as organizations transform their data and service models to compete in a new environment where data and services coexist with others in

  18. Information under Lorentz Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of quantum information, we investigate extensively some important classes of a general form of a two-qubit system under Lorentz transformation. It is shown Lorentz transformation causes a decay of entanglement and consequently information loses. On the other hand, it generates entangled states between systems prepared initially in a separable states. The partial entangled states are more robust under Lorentz transformation than maximally entangled states. Therefore the rate of information lose is larger for maximum entangled states compared with that for partially entangled states. (general)

  19. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  20. Solid phase transformations II

    CERN Document Server

    ?ermák, J

    2009-01-01

    This topical volume includes ten invited papers that cover selected areas of the field of solid phase transformations. The first two contributions represent a burgeoning branch; that of the computer simulation of physical phenomena. The following three articles deal with the thermodynamics of phase transformations as a basic theory for describing the phenomenology of phase changes in matter. The next paper describes the interconnections between structural stability and the electronic structure of phases. Two further articles are devoted to displacive transformations; a field where there are ma

  1. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  2. Automated quantitative analysis of 3D morphology and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in human red blood cells stored in different periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Inkyu; Yi, Faliu; Lee, Yeon H; Javidi, Bahram; Boss, Daniel; Marquet, Pierre

    2013-12-16

    Quantitative phase (QP) images of red blood cells (RBCs), which are obtained by off-axis digital holographic microscopy, can provide quantitative information about three-dimensional (3D) morphology of human RBCs and the characteristic properties such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and MCH surface density (MCHSD). In this paper, we investigate modifications of the 3D morphology and MCH in RBCs induced by the period of storage time for the purpose of classification of RBCs with different periods of storage by using off-axis digital holographic microscopy. The classification of RBCs based on the duration of storage is highly relevant because a long storage of blood before transfusion may alter the functionality of RBCs and, therefore, cause complications in patients. To analyze any changes in the 3D morphology and MCH of RBCs due to storage, we use data sets from RBC samples stored for 8, 13, 16, 23, 27, 30, 34, 37, 40, 47, and 57 days, respectively. The data sets consist of more than 3,300 blood cells in eleven classes, with more than 300 blood cells per class. The classes indicate the storage period of RBCs and are listed in chronological order. Using the RBCs donated by healthy persons, the off-axis digital holographic microscopy reconstructs several quantitative phase images of RBC samples stored for eleven different periods. We employ marker-controlled watershed transform to remove the background in the RBC quantitative phase images obtained by the off-axis digital holographic microscopy. More than 300 single RBCs are extracted from the segmented quantitative phase images for each class. Such a large number of RBC samples enable us to obtain statistical distributions of the characteristic properties of RBCs after a specific period of storage. Experimental results show that the 3D morphology of the RBCs, in contrast to MCH, is essentially related to the aging of the RBCs. PMID:24514667

  3. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  4. ShowOrHide 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    Many Mac users have hidden files located on their computers that they might not know about. ShowOrHide is a utility designed to locate invisible files and folders so that users will have more knowledge about such items. This program is compatible with computers running Mac OS X 10.5 or later.

  5. Development, management and economy of show caves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigna Arrigo A.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The problems concerning the development of show caves are here considered by taking into account different aspects of the problem. A procedure to carry out an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA has been established in the last decade and it is now currently applied. Such an assessment starts with a pre-operational phase to obtain sufficient information on the undisturbed status of a cave to be developed into a show cave. Successively a programme for its development is established with the scope to optimise the intervention on the cave at the condition that its basic environmental parameters are not irreversibly modified. The last phase of the assessment is focussed to assure a feedback through a monitoring network in order to detect any unforeseen difference or anomaly between the project and the effective situation achieved after the cave development. Some data on some of the most important show caves in the world are reported and a tentative evaluation of the economy in connection with the show caves business is eventually made.

  6. Olaparib shows promise in multiple tumor types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    A phase II study of the PARP inhibitor olaparib (AstraZeneca) for cancer patients with inherited BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations confirmed earlier results showing clinical benefit for advanced breast and ovarian cancers, and demonstrated evidence of effectiveness against pancreatic and prostate cancers. PMID:23847380

  7. Children's Art Show: An Educational Family Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakerlis, Julienne

    2007-01-01

    In a time of seemingly rampant budget cuts in the arts in school systems throughout the country, a children's art show reaps many rewards. It can strengthen family-school relationships and community ties and stimulate questions and comments about the benefits of art and its significance in the development of young children. In this photo essay of…

  8. Multi-fractal-interslipface angle curves of a morphologically simulated sand dune

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2000-01-01

    A sand dune is simulated by means of a non-linear mathematical morphological transformation of which the fractal dimensions with corresponding interslipface angles are computed. This exercise has relevance to test the Validity of the model by considering various time series sand dune data that can be retrieved from the robust satellite remote sensing sensors.

  9. Multi-fractal-interslipface angle curves of a morphologically simulated sand dune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A sand dune is simulated by means of a non-linear mathematical morphological transformation of which the fractal dimensions with corresponding interslipface angles are computed. This exercise has relevance to test the Validity of the model by considering various time series sand dune data that can be retrieved from the robust satellite remote sensing sensors.

  10. Comparative cytogenetic and morphological analysis of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae (Pisces, Characidae, Tetragonopterinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maistro Edson Luis

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytogenetic and morphological studies were carried out on nine local populations of Astyanax scabripinnis paranae. All populations exhibited 2n = 50 chromosomes as well as conspicuous differences involving karyotype morphology, number and position of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs and amount and/or locations of constitutive heterochromatin blocks. A quantitative study of the cytogenetic data showed that eight populations possessed different karyotypes. Morphological analyses based on nine measurements and two meristic parameters were effective in establishing clear identification of five populations. Comparative analysis of cytogenetic and morphological traits suggests that chromosomal changes have occurred at a more rapid rate than morphological differentiation. Despite the close morphological similarity found among some populations, chromosomal differentiation was identified in all of them, even in those presenting only small morphological differences.

  11. Influence of gel morphology on the corrosion kinetics of borosilicate glass: calcium and zirconium effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is related to the question of the long-term behaviour of the nuclear waste confinement glass. A glass alteration layer (known as the 'gel'), formed at the glass surface in contact with water, can limit the exchanges between the glass and the solution. We studied five oxide based glasses SiO2-B2O3-Na2O-CaO-ZrO2. Two series of glasses were synthesized by substituting CaO for Na2O and ZrO2 for SiO2. The leaching showed that the presence of Ca improves the reticulation of the vitreous network, inducing a decrease in the final degree of corrosion and the presence of Zr prevents the hydrolysis of silicon, which leads to a decrease of the initial dissolution rate. However, the introduction of Zr delays the drop of the alteration rate and leads to an increase in the alteration degree. In order to explain this unexpected behaviour, the gel morphology was investigated by small angle X-ray scattering. These experiments showed that the restructuring of porous network during the glass alteration process is limited by the increase of the Zr-content. Then, the restructuring of gel is at the origin of the major drop in the alteration rate observed for the low Zr-content glasses. Besides, both time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that provides an evaluation of extraneous element penetration into the gel pores and neutron scattering with index matching showed that the porosity closed during the corrosion in the glass without zirconia, but remained open in the high Zr-content glasses. These experiments, associated to simulations by a Monte Carlo method, establish a relationship between the morphologic transformations of gel and the alteration kinetics. (author)

  12. Molecular imaging: morphology and function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images are essentials for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic planning of many diseases due to their capacity to demonstrate normal and pathologic tissues and organs morphology. However conventional imaging has limitations to explore normal and pathologic function. In the last 30 years imaging, laboratory, histology and cytology in addition with advances in cell markers and immune-histochemistry allowed to distinguish cells with similar morphology but different neoplastic type, meaning an extraordinary progress. A new generation of imaging methods can go further morphology and explore normal and pathologic organic functions. During the '90 the terms molecular or functional imaging were used to label these imaging methods to explore biochemical and biological functions at molecular and cell level. The future of this new dimension of imaging will depend on the advance of many scientific disciplines and the development of current imaging techniques. (author)

  13. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  14. Transformations of High Explosives

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Creation of Scientific Grounds, Techniques and Technologies for the Transformation of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (Trotyl, TNT) into valuable Civil Products (Polymeric Materials, Dyes, Biologically Active Compounds, etc.).

  15. Broadband Transformation Optics Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that two-dimensional broadband transformation optics devices based on metamaterial designs may be built using tapered waveguides. Here we review application of this principle to broadband electromagnetic cloaking, trapped rainbow, and novel microscopy devices.

  16. Quaternions and Lorentz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, it was argued by some authors that number systems with non-commutative multiplication laws can provide a deeper physical insight into many open theoretical problems. The generalization of the Lorentz group to transformations with faster-than-light speed parameters (the so-called 'extended theory of relativity') has shown itself - apart from the real existence of tachyons - to be a useful tool in order to deal, within a purely classical (i.e. relativistic but not quantum-mechanical) frame work, with antiparticles, discrete symmetries, CPT-covariance, and so on. Therefore, it seems worthwhile looking for possible connections between non-commutative number systems and 'superluminal' Lorentz transformations. In this paper, the author reviews how Lorentz transformations (both subluminal and superluminal) have been translated in quaterion language. Besides, some considerations are made on possible, further developments of the theory, according to the suggestions by the group properties of quaternionic (generalized) Lorentz transformations (QGLT). (Auth.)

  17. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  18. Effect of air-annealing on the morphological, microstructural and optical properties of CdSe NCs grown into porous anodic alumina template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatar, F.; Hassen, M.; Smida, A.; Riahi, R.; Bel Haj Mohamed, N.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2015-07-01

    In this work, cadmium selenide nanocrystals (CdSe NCs) were embedded into porous anodic alumina (PAA) template by simple immersion in aqueous solution containing L-cysteine (Cys) functionalized CdSe NCs and water. The prepared samples were heat treated at different temperatures between 150 and 300 °C during 30 min under air. The effect of thermal treatment under air on the CdSe NCs/PAA has been shown from morphological, microstructural and optical studies. Several characterization techniques such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy were used to investigate the surface morphology and microstructural properties of CdSe nanoparticles on the PAA template as function of air-annealing temperature. XRD study shows the transformation phase of deposited CdSe nanoparticles on the PAA template from cubic structure to hexagonal structure at 300 °C. The morphology of CdSe nanorods array which are into the PAA surface were exhibited by AFM scan. Optical properties of CdSe NCs into PAA have been studied at different air-annealing temperatures using optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The results showed that the crystal quality was significantly improved with the annealing temperature increase, bringing about an enhancement in PL and a decrease in optical band gap from 2.44 to 2.2 eV exhibiting a red shift.

  19. Expanded T gamma cell populations with the morphology of large granular lymphocytes -- I. Immunological, clinical and morphological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, F; Sieber, G; Komischke, B; Schreckenberg, A; Ludwig, W D; Rühl, H

    1983-01-01

    Lymphocytes from two patients with T gamma cell proliferations displaying the morphology of large granular lymphocytes (LGL) were characterized in terms of cell marker phenotyping and immunologic functions. In both patients, the lymphocytes were positive for E-R, HuTLA, OKT5, OKT8, OKT11, OKM1, VEP13, Leu1, Leu2a, Lyt2 and Lyt3 and were negative for Tmu, Tar, SIg, BA1, BA2, EM-R, C3d-R, C3b-R, OKT6, OKT9, Leu3a, OKIa1 and TdT. In addition, investigations for T411, T811 and M522 in patient 1 yielded positive results. There were differences in the phenotype of the two patients with regard to the reactions with OKT3, OKT10 and VEP10. While, in patient 1, OKT3 was very pronounced and OKT10 and VEP10 were completely negative, OKT10 and VEP10 were very pronounced in patient 2, whereas OKT3 was positive only in a very small percentage of cells. Though the lymphocytes in both patients were potent effectors of NK and K functions (patient 2 more strongly than patient 1) and a noticeably reduced mitogen response was shown to PHA, Con A and zinc, patient 1 showed a distinct suppression of allogenic and autologous B cell response to transformation into ISC, coinciding with the clinical observation of a hypogammaglobulinemia; neither B cell suppression nor dysgammaglobulinemia was seen in patient 2. The results are discussed with regard to other comparable T gamma proliferations reported in the literature. PMID:6606087

  20. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The