WorldWideScience

Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation

    OpenAIRE

    ?akari? Jasenka

    2010-01-01

    This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

  2. Soft morphological filters and hierarchical discrete transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1994-05-01

    Discrete soft morphological filters generalize standard morphological filters on the basis of the structuring set modification. Formally soft morphological operations correspond to the set of standard morphological operations. Further development of soft morphological filters on the basis of the hierarchical description of the structuring system connects morphological operations with pyramid transformations.

  3. Morphological transformation of NGC 205?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saviane, Ivo; Monaco, Lorenzo; Hallas, Tony

    2010-04-01

    NGC 205 is a small galaxy (M/M? = 0.7 × 109; MV = -16.6) currently located 36? NW of M31. It is classified as dE because in ground-based images it appears as an elliptical body. However past investigations have revealed characteristics that are more typical of a disk galaxy: the specific frequency of globular clusters is 1.8; the large scale dynamics shows partial rotational support; there is a significant amount (106 M?) of rotating gas (molecular and atomic) and dust; the central regions harbor a fairly complex stellar population, including a 100-500 Myr old nucleus surrounded by 50- and 100-Myr old stellar associations (see references in Monaco et al. 2009; M09). Very recently, thanks to hst/acs imaging we have been able to reveal a young central ‘field’ population (M09), extending out to ~40? in radius (~160 pc). The luminosity function of the main sequence can be fitted with Saviane et al. (2004) model of continuous star formation (SF) from at least ~600 Myr ago to ~60 Myr ago. We found that 1.5 × 105 M? in stars were produced from ~300 Myr to ~60 Myr ago, with a SF rate of 7 × 10-4 M? yr-1. A continuous SF seems to support the latest simulations of NGC 205 orbit: Howley et al. (2008) found that the galaxy must be moving with a velocity 300-500 km s-1 (comparable to the escape velocity) along an almost radial orbit, and it should be approaching M31 for the first time. An episodic SF triggered by passages through M31 disk every ~300 Myr in a bound orbit (Cepa & Beckman 1988) is excluded by our data.

  4. SAR image enhancement technique based on morphological wavelet transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingwen; Lu, Gang; Lu, Hanqing

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, a morphological wavelet principle and a SAR image enhancement technique are introduced, and the image enhancement technique performance based on morphological wavelet transformation is proceeded using SAR image data. In wavelet transformation domain, an image enhancement method of 2D Butterworth filter constructed is applied, good enhancement effects are obtained, and an extraction edge and texture study of applying prewitt operator is taken. Because of morphological wavelet transformation good performance, a high efficiency in image enhancement and texture obtaining is gotten. The research results show that the SAR data with Speckle and Pepper and Salt noise is enhanced very well by nonlinear enhancement processing in morphological wavelet domain, and the ocean target characteristics is clearer, such as ship, ship tail and interalwave.

  5. The Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance: Morphology and Tectonic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandy, William L.; Michaud, François; Mortera Gutiérrez, Carlos A.; Dyment, Jérôme; Bourgois, Jacques; Royer, Jean-Yves; Calmus, Thierry; Sosson, Marc; Ortega-Ramirez, Jose

    2011-08-01

    To better define the morphotectonic elements and tectonic development of the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance, multibeam bathymetric, seafloor backscatter, multichannel seismic reflection and total field marine magnetic data were collected along the entire Rivera Transform west of 107°W during the BART and FAMEX campaigns of the N.O. L'Atalante conducted in 2002. These data show that, although the transform tectonized zone of the Rivera Transform west of 107°30'W is a single continuous morphologic basin, this basin consists of two distinct morphotectonic domains: an eastern domain which morphologically is a deep rhombochasm within which organized seafloor spreading has occurred, and a western `leaky transform' domain. These new data, in conjunction with the results of previous studies, support the idea that the Rivera-Pacific Euler pole is migrating southward towards the eastern half of the Rivera Transform, and further indicate a recent (<0.14 Ma), and most likely ongoing, clockwise reorganization of the principle transform displacement zones of the Rivera Transform west of 108°W. We propose that the Mid-Rivera-Transform Discordance owes its origin to this eastward progressing, clockwise reorganization of the transform segments that is occurring in response to recent changes in Rivera-Pacific relative plate motion.

  6. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  7. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  8. Electrocardiogram ST-Segment Morphology Delineation Method Using Orthogonal Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Differentiation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic transient ST segment events of long term ambulatory electrocardiograms is a persisting weakness in present ischaemia detection systems. Traditional ST segment level measuring is not a sufficiently precise technique due to the single point of measurement and severe noise which is often present. We developed a robust noise resistant orthogonal-transformation based delineation method, which allows tracing the shape of transient ST segment morphology changes from the entire ST segment in terms of diagnostic and morphologic feature-vector time series, and also allows further analysis. For these purposes, we developed a new Legendre Polynomials based Transformation (LPT) of ST segment. Its basis functions have similar shapes to typical transient changes of ST segment morphology categories during myocardial ischaemia (level, slope and scooping), thus providing direct insight into the types of time domain morphology changes through the LPT feature-vector space. We also generated new Karhunen and Lo ève Transformation (KLT) ST segment basis functions using a robust covariance matrix constructed from the ST segment pattern vectors derived from the Long Term ST Database (LTST DB). As for the delineation of significant transient ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes, we present a study on the representation of transient ST segment morphology categories, and an evaluation study on the classification power of the KLT- and LPT-based feature vectors to classify between ischaemic and non-ischaemic ST segment episodes of the LTST DB. Classification accuracy using the KLT and LPT feature vectors was 90% and 82%, respectively, when using the k-Nearest Neighbors (k = 3) classifier and 10-fold cross-validation. New sets of feature-vector time series for both transformations were derived for the records of the LTST DB which is freely available on the PhysioNet website and were contributed to the LTST DB. The KLT and LPT present new possibilities for human-expert diagnostics, and for automated ischaemia detection. PMID:26863140

  9. Morphological transformation in vitro of normal human fibroblasts by chrysotile.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, L. B.; Stephens, R. E.; Ottolenghi, A C; Lipetz, P D; Newman, H A

    1983-01-01

    Pathologic response of tissue to asbestos in vivo gives rise to fibromatoma, granuloma and mesothelioma. We are attempting to develop a model system in vitro using human cells in order to investigate the possible mechanisms responsible for these pathologies. Within the first 12 hr of exposure to chrysotile, the fibroblasts showed distinctive morphological changes. Cells appeared elongated with occasional vacuolated nuclei and granular cytoplasm. Cells showed no other obvious morphological cha...

  10. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-01

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities. PMID:25295697

  11. Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Kumar.N

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

  12. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  13. On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Es-Souni, M.

    2011-01-01

    We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmo...

  14. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces. (paper)

  15. Multiscale analysis of surface morphologies by curvelet and contourlet transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linfu; Zhang, Xiangchao; Zhang, Hao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min

    2015-03-01

    The surface topographies of precision components are critical to their functionalities. However, it is challenging to characterize the topographies of complex surfaces, especially for structured surfaces. The wavelet families are promising for the multiscale geometry analysis of nonstochastic surfaces. The second-generation curvelet transform provides a sparse representation and good multiscale decomposition for curve singularities. However, the contourlet expansion, composed of bases oriented along various directions in multiple scales with smaller redundancy rates, has a remarkable capability of representing borderlines. In this paper they are both adopted for the characterization of surface topographies. Different components can be extracted according to their scales and morphological characteristics; as a result, the corresponding manufacturing processes and functionalities can be analyzed specifically. Numerical experiments are given to demonstrate the capabilities of these methods in sparse representation and effective extraction of geometry features of different nonstochastic surfaces.

  16. Morphological Multiscale Stationary Wavelet Transform based Texture Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiganti Joseph Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is an important step in several computer vision applications. The segmentation of images into homogeneous and meaningful regions is a fundamental technique for image analysis. Textures occupy a vital role in a wide range of computer vision research fields; from microscopic images to images sent down to earth by satellites, from the analysis of multi-spectral scan images to outdoor scenes, all consist of texture. Although several methods have been proposed, less work has been done in developing suitable techniques for segmentation of texture images. After a careful and in-depth survey on wavelet transforms, the present study found that efficient numerical solutions in the signal processing applications can be found using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT. SWT is redundant, linear and shift invariant, that’s why it gives a better approximation than the DWT. In this paper a novel texture segmentation method based on “SWT and Textural Properties” is proposed. Multi scale SWT with Textural Properties and morphological treatment is used in the present study to detect fine edges from texture images for a fine segmentation.

  17. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  18. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-20

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  19. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 1013-1014 M? and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M*/M?) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  20. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V. F.; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a to...

  1. Image Enhancement and Background Detection Using Morphological Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikesh T. Gadare

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with enhancement of images and background detection using Mathematical Morphological [MM] theory on dark images. Due to poor lightening the background of the image is not clear. This image can be enhanced by lightening the back ground with various morphological operations. Basically, Weber’s Law Operator is used to analyze dark images which are carried out by two methods such as Image background detection by block analysis while second operator utilize opening by reconstruction to define multi background notion. Some Morphological operations such as (Erosion, Dilation, Compound operation such as Opening by reconstruction, Erosion-Dilation method and Block Analysis is used to detect the background of images. Analysis of above mention methods illustrated through the processing of images with different dark background images.

  2. The morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei in glioblastomas shows a significant relationship with survival time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Reinhold; Franz, Kea; Schlote, Wolfgang; Schneider, Berthold

    2006-09-01

    A deeper knowledge about histopathological criteria with a significant impact on the prognosis of patients with glioblastomas is worthwhile, since these patients may show a considerable difference in the time of survival. Investigation of the morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei is a promising approach, because the expression of specific molecules in these cells has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour of the tumors. In our series of patients with documented clinical course, 11 patients had a survival of at least 24 months and we compared this group with a group of 10 patients with maximum survival of 12 months. Digital microscopic image analysis was performed in paraffin sections from the primary surgical specimen. Three hundred perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei per case and 300 nuclei per case from tumor cells lying more distant from the tumor necroses ('distant zone' nuclei) were measured. The ratio for the numerical nuclear density between both types of nuclei was significantly larger in cases with short survival indicating a more pronounced nuclear density of perinecrotic nuclei in relation to the 'distant zone' nuclei in these tumors. In cases with long survival, on the contrary, perinecrotic tumor cells exhibited an only slightly larger numerical density compared with 'distant zone' nuclei. Mean values and standard deviations from parameters of nuclear shape (Fourier-amplitudes) had significantly smaller values in short-time survivors indicating a tendency towards a more circular nuclear shape with less pronounced intratumoral variation in that group. Based on the morphometric results, all cases could be correctly reclassified as short- or long-time survivors by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis. In conclusion, the results confirm significant morphological differences between tumors from patients with short and with long survival regarding morphology of both types of tumor cell nuclei. It seems likely, that histomorphometry of tumor cell nuclei could be a promising approach for the assessment of the individual prognosis of patients with glioblastomas. PMID:16865255

  3. Photoinduced macroscopic morphological transformation of an amphiphilic diarylethene assembly: reversible dynamic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Kenji; Taira, Genki; Kitai, Jun-ichiro; Hirose, Takashi; Matsuda, Kenji

    2015-02-25

    Self-assembled microstructures of an amphiphilic diarylethene featuring an alkyl chain and triethylene glycol groups showed a photoinduced reversible morphological change in water. Reversible photoisomerization of the core diarylethene gave rise to a reversible morphological transformation between colorless microspheres and colored fibers. When colorless microspheres were irradiated with UV light, colored fibers were formed, and when the colored fibers were irradiated with visible light, the spheres were restored to their original positions where the spheres originally existed. This system showed reversible morphological change through not only photoirradiation but also temperature change. These behaviors can be interpreted as a phase transition between the sphere and fiber states. The dynamic process of the phase transition was monitored by polarized optical microscopy (POM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was revealed that the formation of fibers upon UV irradiation occurred radially at the surface of the sphere and the formation of the spheres upon visible-light irradiation occurred at the middle of the fiber. The unique photoinduced mechanical motion provides useful information for the design of sophisticated photoactuators. PMID:25650962

  4. Fast Euclidean morphological operators using local distance transformation by propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisenaire, O.; Macq, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new method to compute the morphological dilation of a binary image with a circular structuring element of any given size, on a discrete lattice. The algorithm is equivalent to applying a threshold on an exact Euclidean distance map, but computations are restricted to a minimum number of pixels. The complexity of this dilation algorithm is compared to the complexity of the commonly used approximation of circular structuring elements and found to have a similar cost, while providin...

  5. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  6. Density-Wave Induced Morphological Transformation of Galaxies along the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades, secular evolution has emerged as an important new paradigm for the formation and evolution of the Hubble sequence of galaxies. A new dynamical mechanism was identified through which density waves in galaxies, in the forms of nonlinear and global spiral and bar modes, induce important collective dissipation effects previously unknown in traditional studies. These effects lead to the evolution of the basic state of the galactic disk, consistent with the gradual transformation of a typical galaxy's morphological type from a late to an early Hubble type. In this paper, we review the theoretical framework and highlight our recent result which showed that there are significant qualitative and quantitative differences between the secular evolution rates predicted by the new theory compared with those predicted by the classical approach of Lynden-Bell and Kalnajs. These differences are the outward manifestation of the dominant role played by collisionless shocks in disk galaxies hosting quasi...

  7. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shells during maturation process

    CERN Document Server

    Konevtsova, O V; Rochal, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a minimal phenomenological model for a morphological transformation in viral capsid shells. The transformation takes place during virus maturation process which renders virus infectious. The theory is illustrated on the example of the HK97 bacteriophage and viruses with similar morphological changes in the protective protein shell. The transformation is shown to be a structural phase transition driven by two order parameters. The first order parameter describes the isotropic expansion of the protein shell while the second one is responsible for the shape symmetry breaking and the resulting shell faceting. The group theory analysis and the resulting thermodynamic model make it possible to choose the parameter which discriminates between the icosahedral shell faceting often observed in viral capsids and the dodecahedral one observed in viruses of the Parvovirus family. Calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus morpholog...

  8. Morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in Fe-0.15C binary alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yuichi

    2010-01-01

    In this article, an in situ observation method, combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and electron backscattering diffraction, was used to investigate the morphological and crystallographic evolution of bainite transformation in a Fe-0.15C binary alloy. The nucleation at a grain boundary and inclusions, sympathetic nucleation, and impingement event of bainitic ferrite were directly shown in real time. The variant evolution during bainite transformation and misorientation between bainitic ferrites were clarified. Strong variant selection was observed during sympathetic nucleation. PMID:19588518

  9. Nuclear morphology and morphometry of B-lymphocyte transformation. Implications for follicular center cell lymphomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Dardick, I.; Sinnott, N. M.; Hall, R.; Bajenko-Carr, T. A.; Setterfield, G.

    1983-01-01

    One of the major tenets of current non-Hodgkin's lymphoma classifications is the relationship of morphologic subtypes to stages in the sequence of normal B-lymphocyte transformation occurring in the germinal follicle. To test this hypothesis, quantitative morphometric image analysis was carried out on in vivo and in vitro samples of mouse splenic lymphocytes in which transformation was induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a specific B-cell mitogen. The results were compared with a s...

  10. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  11. Blood Vessels Extraction in Retinal Image Using New Generation Curvelet Transform and Adaptive Weighted Morphology Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Shahbeig

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available According to many medical and biometric applications of retinal images, the automatic and accurate extraction of the retinal blood vessels is very important. In this paper, an effective method is introduced to extract the blood vessels from the background of colored images of retina. In this algorithm, by applying the equalizer function on the retinal images, the brightness of the images is considerably uniformed. Because of high ability of Curvelet transform in introducing image borders in various scale and directions, borders and, consequently the contrast of retinal images can be enhanced. Therefore, the enhanced retinal image can be prepared for the extraction of blood vessels by improving Curvelet coefficients of the retinal images, adaptively and locally. Since the blood vessels in retinal images are distributed in various directions, we use the adaptive weighted morphology operators to extract the blood vessels from retinal images. Morphology operators based on reconstruction are used to refine the appeared frills with the size of smaller than arterioles in images properly. Finally, by analyzing the connected component in the images and applying adaptive filter on the components locally, all residual frills are refined from the images. The proposed algorithm in this paper has been evaluated by the images in the DRIVE database. The results how that the blood vessels are extracted from background of the retinal images of DRIVE database with the high accuracy of 96.15%, which in turn shows the high ability of the proposed algorithm in extracting the retinal blood vessels.

  12. Chemical transformation and morphology change of nickel-silica hybrid nanostructures via nickel phyllosilicates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Chan; Lee, Hyun Ju; Bang, Jung Up; Park, Kang Hyun; Song, Hyunjoon

    2009-12-21

    Ni@SiO(2) core-shell nanoparticles were transformed to Ni particles on silica spheres via a branched nickel phyllosilicate phase by hydrothermal and hydrogen reduction reactions; the final morphology was successfully employed as an active nanocatalyst for the hydrogen transfer reaction of acetophenone. PMID:20024223

  13. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V F; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (?10% emPAI in each spot). The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase), nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase), stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit) and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein). The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome. PMID:25502569

  14. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  15. Characterization of morphology and kinetics of bainite transformation in a low alloy steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bainite transformation is ubiquitous in steels for pressure vessel applications in thermal and nuclear power plants. In this class of steels bainite is the dominant phase found in the microstructure, after industrial thermo-mechanical processing and heat treatment of pressure vessel component. The study of bainite transformation has been carried out using both isothermal and continuous cooling conditions. Previous studies have reported significant differences in the morphology and the type of bainite formed under these two conditions. Continuous cooling has been shown to result in a wider variety of bainite transformation products as compared with isothermal treatments. This has important implications for the technological properties of power plant components such as strength, toughness and hardenability. In the present study the cooling transformation characteristics of a new CrMo pressure vessel steel has been examined using dilatometry supplemented with TEM examination. The dilatometric data were analyzed to determine the activation energy and Avrami exponents. It was found that bainite with different morphologies formed over the cooling rates employed and were kinetically distinct. The dilatometric study along with TEM studies has shown that non-isothermal decomposition of austenite in this steel results in a complex microstructure containing an array of bainite morphologies. The bainitic ferrite plates are seen to be associated with various inter- and intra- plate constituents as the cooling rate changes. Despite this the transformation remains essentially bainitic over the range of cooling rates studied. Three different cooling rate regimes with distinctly different calculated Avrami exponents have been observed. (author)

  16. Sequential Anion and Cation Exchange Reactions for Complete Material Transformations of Nanoparticles with Morphological Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James M; Kletetschka, Karel; Fenton, Julie L; Read, Carlos G; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-07-20

    Ion exchange reactions of colloidal nanocrystals provide access to complex products that are synthetically challenging using traditional hot-injection methods. However, such reactions typically achieve only partial material transformations by employing either cation or anion exchange processes. It is now shown that anion and cation exchange reactions can be coupled together and applied sequentially in one integrated pathway that leads to complete material transformations of nanocrystal templates. Although the product nanocrystals do not contain any of the original constituent elements, the original morphology is retained, thereby fully decoupling morphology and composition control. The sequential anion/cation exchange process was applied to pseudo-spherical CdO nanocrystals and ZnO tetrapods, producing fully transformed and shape-controlled nanocrystals of copper and silver sulfides and selenides. Furthermore, hollow core-shell tetrapod ZnS@CdS heterostructures were readily accessible. PMID:26110653

  17. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  18. Eric Shinseki’s failure at the Department of Veterans Affairs shows the difficulty in evaluating transformational public sector executives

    OpenAIRE

    Van Wart, Montgomery

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after his election President Obama nominated former Chief of Staff of the U.S. Army, Eric Shinseki, to head the beleaguered Department of Veterans Affairs. Despite Shinseki’s reputation as a transformational leader, he largely failed to transform the Department of Veterans Affairs, and resigned in early 2014. Montgomery Van Wart writes that Shinseki’s example shows how difficult it is to be a transformational administrative leader, and the difficulties there are in evaluating them.

  19. Pannexin-1 channels show distinct morphology and no gap junction characteristics in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckmann, Anja; Grissmer, Alexander; Krause, Elmar; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-03-01

    Pannexins (Panx) are proteins with a similar membrane topology to connexins, the integral membrane protein of gap junctions. Panx1 channels are generally of major importance in a large number of system and cellular processes and their function has been thoroughly characterized. In contrast, little is known about channel structure and subcellular distribution. We therefore determine the subcellular localization of Panx1 channels in cultured cells and aim at the identification of channel morphology in vitro. Using freeze-fracture replica immunolabeling on EYFP-Panx1-overexpressing HEK 293 cells, large particles were identified in plasma membranes, which were immunogold-labeled using either GFP or Panx1 antibodies. There was no labeling or particles in the nuclear membranes of these cells, pointing to plasma membrane localization of Panx1-EYFP channels. The assembly of particles was irregular, this being in contrast to the regular pattern of gap junctions. The fact that no counterparts were identified on apposing cells, which would have been indicative of intercellular signaling, supported the idea of Panx1 channels within one membrane. Control cells (transfected with EYFP only, non-transfected) were devoid of both particles and immunogold labeling. Altogether, this study provides the first demonstration of Panx1 channel morphology and assembly in intact cells. The identification of Panx1 channels as large particles within the plasma membrane provides the knowledge required to enable recognition of Panx1 channels in tissues in future studies. Thus, these results open up new avenues for the detailed analysis of the subcellular localization of Panx1 and of its nearest neighbors such as purinergic receptors in vivo. PMID:26386583

  20. Text Detection in Video Using Haar Wavelet Transformation and Morphological Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh AnnajiKene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simple and efficient method for text detection, extraction and localization from video or static images using Haar wavelet and Morphological operator. Haar wavelet transform have its coefficients either 1 or -1 , so that the operation speed of Haar wavelet transformation is fastest among all wavelets. The sub bands contain both text edges and non-text edges however the intensity of text edges is different that of the non-text edges. Instead of using Canny operator we used Sobal operator for edge detection because Sobal operator detect more edges than Canny operator when there is text information. Morphological operators are applied to edit or smoothing out the text region. Then detected text regions are further decomposed into character level. Then using some refinement the final text region are obtained.

  1. Morphology transformation of hybrid micelles self-assembled from rod-coil block copolymer and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunhua; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping; Zhang, Xu

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid polymeric micelles self-assembled from a mixture containing poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) block copolymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared. The effect of AuNPs on the self-assembly behavior of PBLG-b-PEG was studied both experimentally by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and laser light scattering and computationally using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. It was found that, the pure PBLG-b-PEG block copolymer self-assembles into long cylindrical micelles. By introducing AuNPs to the stock block copolymer solution, the formed aggregate morphology transforms to spherical micelles. The DPD simulation results well reproduced the morphological transformations observed in the experiments. And the simulation revealed that the main reason for the aggregate morphology transformation is the breakage of ordered packing of PBLG rods in micelle core by the added nanoparticles. Moreover, from the DPD simulations, the distribution information on nanoparticles was obtained. The nanoparticles were found to prefer to locate near the core/shell interface as well as in the core center of the micelles. The combination of experimental and simulation methods lead to a comprehensive understanding of such a complex self-assembly system. PMID:22299635

  2. Kinetics and morphology of product of bainite transformations in the range of swing back

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilatometric investigations were carried out during isothermal transformation in high carbon steel in the vicinity of Ms and complementary research with quantitative analysis was made.The time-temperature-transformation diagram was drawn on the base of kinetic curves of austenite transformation at temperatures 403-523 K. Activation energies in all characteristic ranges were determined. Two separate levels of activation energy were found in the area of lower bainite - BD, which is related to the change in growth rates and nucleation rates of bainitic ferrite during advancement of the reaction. A 'butterfly' morphology has been observed in the range of lower bainite with midrib - BDM. The occurrence of this morphology entails deviation from thermodynamics law. It was found that the classical methods used to calculate activation energy would totally neglect the initial ranges of transformations at lower temperatures and the final range at upper temperatures. The application of Johnson-Mehl equation was confined as useful to describe mutually overlaying fragments of phase transitions in the range of swing back. (author)

  3. Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO2, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO2 is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe2(COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm.

  4. Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  5. p21H-ras-induced morphological transformation and increases in c-myc expression are independent of functional protein kinase C.

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Lloyd; Paterson, H. F.; Morris, J D(School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK); Hall, A; Marshall, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that efficient DNA synthesis by oncogenic p21H-ras only occurs in the presence of insulin and is absolutely dependent on functional protein kinase C. Here we show that morphological transformation induced by oncogenic p21H-ras does not require functional protein kinase C. The early phases of protein kinase C-independent morphological transformation do not require de novo protein synthesis. We have also demonstrated that the introduction of p21H-ras into qui...

  6. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  7. Subverting the Hegemony of Risk: Vulnerability and Transformation among Australian Show Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, P. A.; Danaher, Geoff; Moriarty, Beverley

    2007-01-01

    Background: Australian show people traverse extensive coastal and inland circuits in eastern and northern Australia, bringing the delights of "sideshow alley" to annual agricultural shows. The show people's mobility for most of the school year makes it difficult for their school-age children to attend "regular" schools predicated on assumptions of…

  8. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  9. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ∼9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, δ, of magnetite (Fe3−δO4) generated from F (δ∼0.04) and L (δ∼0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (δ∼0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ► Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ► Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ► Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ► Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ► Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  10. MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

  11. Automatic detection of micro-aneurysms in retinal images based on curvelet transform and morphological operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad Alipour, Shirin Hajeb; Rabbani, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major complications of diabetes that changes the blood vessels of the retina and distorts patient vision that finally in high stages can lead to blindness. Micro-aneurysms (MAs) are one of the first pathologies associated with DR. The number and the location of MAs are very important in grading of DR. Early diagnosis of micro-aneurysms (MAs) can reduce the incidence of blindness. As MAs are tiny area of blood protruding from vessels in the retina and their size is about 25 to 100 microns, automatic detection of these tiny lesions is still challenging. MAs occurring in the macula can lead to visual loss. Also the position of a lesion such as MAs relative to the macula is a useful feature for analysis and classification of different stages of DR. Because MAs are more distinguishable in fundus fluorescin angiography (FFA) compared to color fundus images, we introduce a new method based on curvelet transform and morphological operations for MAs detection in FFA images. As vessels and MAs are the bright parts of FFA image, firstly extracted vessels by curvelet transform are removed from image. Then morphological operations are applied on resulted image for detecting MAs.

  12. Retinal image analysis using curvelet transform and multistructure elements morphology by reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, Mohammad Saleh; Mahloojifar, Ali

    2011-05-01

    Retinal images can be used in several applications, such as ocular fundus operations as well as human recognition. Also, they play important roles in detection of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Intrinsic characteristics of retinal images make the blood vessel detection process difficult. Here, we proposed a new algorithm to detect the retinal blood vessels effectively. Due to the high ability of the curvelet transform in representing the edges, modification of curvelet transform coefficients to enhance the retinal image edges better prepares the image for the segmentation part. The directionality feature of the multistructure elements method makes it an effective tool in edge detection. Hence, morphology operators using multistructure elements are applied to the enhanced image in order to find the retinal image ridges. Afterward, morphological operators by reconstruction eliminate the ridges not belonging to the vessel tree while trying to preserve the thin vessels unchanged. In order to increase the efficiency of the morphological operators by reconstruction, they were applied using multistructure elements. A simple thresholding method along with connected components analysis (CCA) indicates the remained ridges belonging to vessels. In order to utilize CCA more efficiently, we locally applied the CCA and length filtering instead of considering the whole image. Experimental results on a known database, DRIVE, and achieving to more than 94% accuracy in about 50 s for blood vessel detection, proved that the blood vessels can be effectively detected by applying our method on the retinal images. PMID:21147592

  13. Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

  14. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  15. Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

  16. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1′). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1′ to water vapour (1′′). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  17. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-28

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 ?m) showed a power conversion efficiency (?) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (? = 6.1%). PMID:25923133

  18. Morphological and crystallographic transformation from immature to mature coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruwatari, Kazuko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Ozaki, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2011-08-01

    Morphology and crystallographic orientations of coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae, at the various growth stages were investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) stereo-photogrammetry to understand the developments of two different coccolith units, namely V and R units. SEM observation indicates that the immature coccolith units at the earliest stage were not perfectly fixed on the organic base plates and several units were often lacked. The all units showed platy morphology and often lay parallel to the organic base plate. Their crystal orientations were close to that of the mature R units. With further growth, the platy morphology changes to a trapezoid to anvil-shape for both units, resulting in the interlocking structure of VR units. Morphological analyses present that the edges of the platy crystals parallel to the organic base plate were estimated as , and their inner/upper surfaces were estimated as {10 14}. As they interlocked further, R units inclined more outward to develop the inner tube elements with {10 1 4} and then each unit develops differently distal and proximal shield elements, which are respectively estimated as {10 14} in the distal view and {2 1 10} planes in the proximal view. Based on the above results, the formation of different coccolith units and their growth were discussed. PMID:21258835

  19. Mycalamide A Shows Cytotoxic Properties and Prevents EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation through Inhibition of Nuclear Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Stonik, Valentin A.; Honecker, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Mycalamide A, a marine natural compound previously isolated from sponges, is known as a protein synthesis inhibitor with potent antitumor activity. However, the ability of this compound to prevent malignant transformation of cells has never been examined before. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of mycalamide A from ascidian Polysincraton sp. as well as investigation of its cancer preventive properties. In murine JB6 Cl41 P+ cells, mycalamide A inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation, and induced apoptosis at subnanomolar or nanomolar concentrations. The compound inhibited transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-?B, a potential mechanism of its cancer preventive properties. Induction of phosphorylation of the kinases MAPK p38, JNK, and ERK was also observed at high concentrations of mycalamide A. The drug shows promising potential for both cancer-prevention and cytotoxic therapy and should be further developed. PMID:22822368

  20. Hearts of dystonia musculorum mice display normal morphological and histological features but show signs of cardiac stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Justin G; Bhanot, Kunal; Kothary, Rashmi; Boudreau-Larivière, Céline

    2010-01-01

    Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt) mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency leads to structural defects in cardiac muscle. Desmin intermediate filament, microfilament, and microtubule subcellular organization appeared normal in dt hearts. Nevertheless, increased transcript levels of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF, 66%) beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC, 95%) and decreased levels of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump isoform 2A (SERCA2a, 26%), all signs of cardiac muscle stress, were noted in dt hearts. Hearts from two-week old dt mice were assessed for the presence of morphological and histological alterations. Heart to body weight ratios as well as left ventricular wall thickness and left chamber volume measurements were similar between dt and wild-type control mice. Hearts from dt mice also displayed no signs of fibrosis or calcification. Taken together, our data provide new insights into the intricate structure of the sarcomere by situating dystonin in cardiac muscle fibers and suggest that dystonin does not significantly influence the structural organization of cardiac muscle fibers during early postnatal development. PMID:20209123

  1. Morphology transformation of Cu2O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu2O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu2O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H2O2. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu2O samples and the addition of H2O2 also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu2O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu2O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H2O2. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn2+ doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn4+ doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu2O)

  2. Range disjunctions, speciation, and morphological transformation rates in the liverwort genus Leptoscyphus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Nicolas; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2009-03-01

    Bryophytes and angiosperms exhibit similar intercontinental disjunct distributions that have traditionally been explained by continental drift. Such disjunct distributions are, however, typically observed at the species level in bryophytes, whereas they occur at much higher taxonomic level in angiosperms. The corollary of this observation is that morphological evolution in bryophytes is exceedingly slow. These hypotheses can now be explicitly tested with the advent of molecular dating. In this article, we show that the trans-Atlantic disjunctions observed in the mostly tropical liverwort genus Leptoscyphus date back to 5.5 Myr, thus largely postdating the opening of the South Atlantic. The temporal calibration of the phylogeny allows us to estimate for the first time the absolute timing of morphological evolution in bryophytes. The time frame necessary for shifts to occur between character states was estimated on average at ca. 4.05+/-1.86 Myr. As opposed to the traditional view that bryophyte evolution has been triggered by episodic shifts in habitat conditions, our analyses furthermore suggest that morphological and molecular divergence gradually accumulated in the genus, which contrasts with the rapid diversification documented in some tropical trees. PMID:19154356

  3. AFLP analysis shows high incongruence between genetic differentiation and morphology-based taxonomy in a widely distributed tortoise.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulí?ek, Peter; Jandzik, D.; Fritz, U.; Schneider, C.; Široký, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 108, ?. 1 (2013), s. 151-160. ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism * morphological plasticity * reptiles * stabilizing selection * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  4. Application of the Hough transform for the automatic determination of soot aggregate morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Igor; Thomson, Kevin; Migliorini, Francesca; Sloan, James J

    2012-02-10

    We report a new method for automated identification and measurement of primary particles within soot aggregates as well as the sizes of the aggregates and discuss its application to high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the aggregates. The image processing algorithm is based on an optimized Hough transform, applied to the external border of the aggregate. This achieves a significant data reduction by decomposing the particle border into fragments, which are assumed to be spheres in the present application, consistent with the known morphology of soot aggregates. Unlike traditional techniques, which are ultimately reliant on manual (human) measurement of a small sample of primary particles from a subset of aggregates, this method gives a direct measurement of the sizes of the aggregates and the size distributions of the primary particles of which they are composed. The current version of the algorithm allows processing of high-resolution TEM images by a conventional laptop computer at a rate of 1-2 ms per aggregate. The results were validated by comparison with manual image processing, and excellent agreement was found. PMID:22330294

  5. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenenko, Natalia D.; Semina, Elena N. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskii, Vladimir I. [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 prosp. Ak. Lavrentieva, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Golub, Alexandre S., E-mail: golub@ineos.ac.ru [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-15

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS{sub 2} on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS{sub 2} layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS{sub 2} layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS{sub 2}–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS{sub 2} layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS{sub 2} monolayers.

  6. Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS2 on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS2 layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS2 layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS2–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS2 layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS2 monolayers

  7. Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Detailed surveys of the transform margin morphology in the Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Lundsten, E.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H.; Gwiazda, R.; Herguera, J.; McGann, M. L.; Edwards, B. D.; Hinojosa, A.; Mejia Mercado, B.; Sanchez, A.; Conlin, D.; Thompson, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) conducted detailed surveys of the seafloor morphology at nine representative sections of the North American - Pacific Plate boundary on the floor of the Gulf of California during a two-ship expedition in March and April 2012. One of the objectives of this program was to better understand how the fault is manifested on the seafloor and whether any secondary deformation adjacent to the fault can be observed. An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) provided detailed bathymetry of the seafloor, and a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) allowed ground-truth observations and sampling of the surveyed area. The AUV surveys provide high-resolution multibeam bathymetry with a vertical precision of 0.15 m, horizontal resolution of 1.0 and 2-10 kHz CHIRP seismic reflection profiles. Each of the surveys covered ~ 14 km2 areas and were spread out over 400 m, between water depths of 350 and 2800 m and separated by three seafloor spreading centers. The bathymetry shows the morphology of these fault zones in unprecedented detail. The maps allowed the active fault trace to be located so that it could be inspected and the seafloor sampled during ROV dives. The bathymetry from a representative survey on the southern side of the Guaymas Basin shows an obvious NW-SE lineation, only a few meters wide, formed by distinct scarps and/or troughs on the seafloor, and inferred to be the trace of the active fault. CHIRP profiles show offsets in reflecting horizons extend to the modern seafloor, further supporting the concept that these lineations are the trace of the active fault. This survey is unique in that an extensive section of the seafloor and near subsurface contains a wave-like fabric that only occurs on the North American side of the fault, with crests that run ~ E-W, characteristically ~ 3 m in amplitude and ~ 100 in wavelength. Ultimately, whether this fabric is a result of a depositional process or structural deformation associated with the regional tectonics is unclear. However, this was the only morphology observed that suggests secondary deformation.

  9. Quenching and morphological transformation in semi-analytic models and CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ryan; Pandya, Viraj; Somerville, Rachel S.; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N.; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-08-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies since z ˜ 3 by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and GAMA (Galaxy and Mass Assembly) surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disc instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sérsic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the specific star formation rate-Sérsic index plane and study the build-up of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star-forming discs declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star-forming spheroids and quiescent discs are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied. Our model is qualitatively successful at reproducing the evolution of the two `main' populations (star-forming discs and quiescent spheroids), and approximately reproduces the relative fractions of all four types, but predicts a stronger decline in star-forming spheroids, and increase in quiescent discs, than is seen in the observations. A model with an additional channel for bulge growth via disc instabilities agrees better overall with the observations than a model in which bulges can grow only through mergers. We also examine the relative importance of these different physical drivers of transformation (major and minor mergers and disc instabilities).

  10. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  11. A method for automatic infrared point target detection in a sea background based on morphology and wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Peizhi; Shi, Zelin; Yu, Haibin; Wu, Xiaojun

    2003-09-01

    A method is developed for the detection and segmentation of spot targets at sea surface. Firstly, the Sea-Sky-Division-Line (SSDL), close to the horizon, is detected by wavelet-transform to mark out the Target Recognition Region (TPR), which can reduce the target searching range. A Row average grayscale substraction (RAGS) operation is employed to correct the blur caused by the non-linearity distribution of the temperature field. To repress the clutter in the background and increase the SNR of the image, a morphology Top-Hat filter is utilized. Then, the image is opening by selecting a proper structuring element to acquire a few potential target points. Through searching the maximal intensity and determining a threshold, most of the false alarms can be eliminated and the doubtful targets can be segmented. When the SSDL is visible, the real point-target can be retained according to the TPR and the false target can be discarded. Under the conditions of invisibility of SSDL for it is outsdie of the image or it is obscure due to the weather, the segmented target is the real target. The experiment result shows that the method can effectively detect and segment infrared point target in complex sea background.

  12. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; B?aszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing places particularly predisposed to accumulate annually laminated lacustrine sediments. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  13. Transformation from Fluvial to Karstic Morphology - Case Study of Mid Altitude Alpine Plateau in NW Slovenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, Mihael

    2010-05-01

    Geomorphology of Alpine area is very often related to fast processes related to tectonic events, glaciations and postglacial development. Where rocks prone to karstification are present interesting geomorphic pleasures can developed. In the area of the Dinaric Alpine karst transition zone process where the transformation from fluvial geomorphic system to the karstic geomorphic system is present is rarely preserved. In this study we are presenting results of detailed geomorphological mapping of Mežakla plateau (between 1100 and 1700 m a.s.l.) in the region of NW Slovenia. On all sides plateau is limited with deep valleys where in the Pleistocene glaciers were present. However, available evidences show that in the last glacial period plateau was not covered with ice. The plateau consists mainly of Triasic carbonates. In the south, in the stratigraphical lower part thin bedded limestone with chert is present, on the north thick bedded Dachstein limestone and dolomite is present. The whole area is dissected by NW-SE faults and thin bedded limestone is frequently folded. In the whole plateau karstic features are developed. They geomorphology differ according to underlying lithology, however differences are also the consequence of different surface development. On north part with Dachstein beds typical karstic surface with large concentric dolines is formed. On the south thin bedded limestone is covered with thick soils and shallow valleys and dolines are developed within. Some sediment collapse features are also present. They are indicating the transformation from fluvial system to the karstic system due to the drop of groundwater level. This event has probably developed after the retreat of the glacier.

  14. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  15. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, R.; Sharma, S.P. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, A., E-mail: amelia.almeida@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Cangueiro, L.T. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emídio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  16. Morphological taphonomic transformations of fossil bones in continental environments, and repercussions of their chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Jalvo, Yolanda; Sánchez Chillón, B.; Andrews, Peter; Fernández López, Sixto Rafael; Alcalá Martínez, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of structural or surface modifications of vertebrate bone remains in continental palaeoenvironments that may have repercussions on their chemical composition. Both before and after burial, a different set of physical, chemical and biological agencies may produce modifications of the bone morphological structure and/or bone chemical composition. Several of these morphological modifications are diagnostic of particular agents, which o...

  17. The 10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the group environment since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Bolzonella, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Sargent, M; Cucciati, O; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L A M; Scodeggio, M; Kampczyk, P; Peng, Y; Oesch, P; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N Z

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z=1 using a large well defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with M_B luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z~0.5 and log(M*/Msol)~10.2, the "effect" of group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving colour and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to 3-4 times higher correcting for infall and the ...

  18. Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

  19. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  20. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  1. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdalila, A’wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  2. Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

    2012-10-15

    The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  3. Hearts of Dystonia musculorum Mice Display Normal Morphological and Histological Features but Show Signs of Cardiac Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Boyer, Justin G.; Bhanot, Kunal; Kothary, Rashmi; Boudreau-Larivière, Céline

    2010-01-01

    Dystonin is a giant cytoskeletal protein belonging to the plakin protein family and is believed to crosslink the major filament systems in contractile cells. Previous work has demonstrated skeletal muscle defects in dystonin-deficient dystonia musculorum (dt) mice. In this study, we show that the dystonin muscle isoform is localized at the Z-disc, the H zone, the sarcolemma and intercalated discs in cardiac tissue. Based on this localization pattern, we tested whether dystonin-deficiency lead...

  4. Horizon's patient-centered medical home program shows practices need much more than payment changes to transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Urvashi B; Rathjen, Carl; Rubin, Elizabeth

    2012-09-01

    Skyrocketing costs and the uneven quality of patient care challenge the US health care system. Some health insurance companies are exploring patient-centered medical homes as a way to change incentives and transform the health care delivery system by increasing primary care providers' accountability for care coordination and outcomes. Horizon Healthcare Services, Inc., New Jersey's oldest and largest health insurance company, developed medical home programs that include financial incentives with essential support tools. Our experience in implementing and evaluating various approaches indicates that medical homes require intensive and targeted patient care coordination supported by committed primary care leadership, as well as new payment structures that include a monthly care coordination fee and outcome-based payments. Our experience also indicates that considerable nonmonetary support-such as an education program for population care coordinators, a medical home guide that offers effective ways to transform a practice into a medical home, and useful data sharing-are needed to improve the quality of care and reduce costs. PMID:22949451

  5. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    CERN Document Server

    Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

  6. Schema as an architectural design operator: the case of the transformation of the morphological model

    OpenAIRE

    Raynaud, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    The study of architectural design bridges various approaches focusing on design sciences, cognitive psychology and architecturology. Architecturology aims to describe the full range of changes that appear during the design process. We are able to describe, by means of scales, the operations by which an architect gives size to the building. This modelling seems adequate when the morphological model is not adulterated during the design process (as in some projects of Jørn Utzon or Alvar Aalto)....

  7. Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bock, Lars Nicolai

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi.......Artiklen diskuterer ordet "transformation" med udgangspunkt i dels hvorledes ordet bruges i arkitektfaglig terminologi og dels med fokus på ordets potentielle indhold og egnethed i samme teminologi....

  8. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  9. Transformable core-corona nanoparticles: Simultaneous change of core morphology and corona wettability in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Kimura, Ayaka; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Suzuki, Takuma; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    We prepared transformable thermoresponsive nanoparticles with variable core softness, controlled by the nanoparticle core's glass transition temperature (Tg). The nanoparticles were prepared by the dispersion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA) and/or methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) macromonomer in a polar solvent. The shape of the nanoparticle core changed with temperature. We then prepared poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films with dispersed thermoresponsive nanoparticles, to elongate the nanoparticles through a uniaxial stretching of the films at 60°C. In this manner, the nanoparticle shape changed from spherical to rod-like morphologies, depending on the degree of film extension. Additionally, the rod-shaped nanoparticles only changed back to spheres with temperature modulation. The nanoparticle core's Tg value affected the rate of its physical transformation from rods to spheres at 37°C, with a slower rate observed for increased Tg. As the nanorod shape change was relatively minor at 37°C, we could control the shape of these transformable nanoparticles under various physiological conditions, a highly desirable feature for drug delivery applications. PMID:25200203

  10. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

  11. A ridgelet transform method for constraining tectonic models via abyssal-hill morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Nathan J.; Clayton, Robert W.

    2007-03-01

    Abyssal-hill shape and orientation are related to the direction and spreading rate of paleo-spreading centers. Therefore analyzing abyssal-hill shape and trend is useful for constraining tectonic models of regions devoid of magnetic reversal anomalies. Detecting systematic changes of abyssal-hill shapes or trends, due to changes in spreading rate or direction, is not straightforward, which makes it difficult to determine appropriate regions over which to average abyssal-hill parameters. Often, however, detecting these systematic changes, where they occur, and the scale over which they occur, is of primary importance for tectonic reconstructions. We present a new method of abyssal-hill analysis that is based on the ridgelet transform, a relative of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. Our method is capable of locally estimating the width, azimuth, and root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude of abyssal-hill fabric and highlights changes in these parameters across a survey area, making it possible to identify regions created with a constant spreading rate and direction. We use three multibeam swaths, one crossing the Osbourn Trough in the southwest Pacific Basin, one crossing the East Pacific Rise, and one crossing the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to demonstrate the utility and performance of our method.

  12. Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamala Devi.K

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

  13. Electron irradiation induced buckling, morphological transformation, and inverse Ostwald ripening in nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anshika; Kumari, Reetu; Kumar, Vinay; Krishnia, Lucky; Naqvi, Zainab; Panwar, Amrish K.; Bhatta, Umananda M.; Ghosh, Arnab; Satyam, P. V.; Tyagi, Pawan K.

    2016-01-01

    The present study aims to deduce the in-situ response of iron carbide (Fe3C) nanorod filled inside carbon nanotube (CNT) under electron irradiation. Electron irradiation on Fe3C filled-CNT at both high and room temperature (RT) has been performed inside transmission electron microscope. At high temperature (HT), it has been found that ?-Fe atoms in lattice of Fe3C nanorod accumulate first and then form the cluster. These clusters follow the inverse Ostwald ripening whereas if e-irradiation is performed at RT then only the morphological changes in both carbon nanotube as well as nanorod are observed. Compression generated either by electron beam heating or by shrinkage of CNT walls is observed to be a decisive factor.

  14. Transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon and carbon in rice straw-derived biochars under different pyrolytic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xin; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2014-03-18

    Biochars are increasingly recognized as environmentally friendly and cheap remediation agents for soil pollution. The roles of silicon in biochars and interactions between silicon and carbon have been neglected in the literature to date, while the transformation, morphology, and dissolution of silicon in Si-rich biochars remain largely unaddressed. In this study, Si-rich biochars derived from rice straw were prepared under 150-700 °C (named RS150-RS700). The transformation and morphology of carbon and silicon in biochar particles were monitored by FTIR, XRD, and SEM-EDX. With increasing pyrolytic temperature, silicon accumulated, and its speciation changed from amorphous to crystalline matter, while the organic matter evolved from aliphatic to aromatic. For rice straw biomass containing amorphous carbon and amorphous silicon, dehydration (silicic acid polymerize, resulting in a closer integration of carbon and silicon. At medium pyrolysis temperatures (250-350 °C), an intense cracking of carbon components occurred, and, thus, the silicon located in the inside tissue was exposed. At high pyrolysis temperatures (500-700 °C), the biochar became condensed due to the aromatization of carbon and crystallization of silicon. Correspondingly, the carbon release in water significantly decreased, while the silicon release somewhat decreased and then sharply increased with pyrolytic temperature. Along with SEM-EDX images of biochars before and after water washing, we proposed a structural relationship between carbon and silicon in biochars to explain the mutual protection between carbon and silicon under different pyrolysis temperatures, which contribute to the broader understanding of biochar chemistry and structure. The silicon dissolution kinetics suggests that high Si biochars could serve as a novel slow release source of biologically available Si in low Si agricultural soils. PMID:24601595

  15. Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KamilaOglecka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

  16. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  17. Morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures by Sn doping for enhanced photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xiaolong, E-mail: sps_dengxl@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhang, Qiang, E-mail: wsqrq@126.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Zhou, E., E-mail: 1297524677@qq.com [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ji, Changjian, E-mail: 171600621@qq.com [Qilu Normal University, Jinan, 250200, Shandong Province (China); Huang, Jinzhao, E-mail: ss_huangjinzhao@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Shao, Minghui, E-mail: ss_shaomh@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Ding, Meng, E-mail: sps_dingm@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China); Xu, Xijin, E-mail: sps_xuxj@ujn.edu.cn [School of Physics and Technology, University of Jinan, 336 Nanxin Zhuang West Road, Jinan, 250022, Shandong Province (China)

    2015-11-15

    Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures have been successfully synthesized through a facile one-pot solvothermal method by copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·3H{sub 2}O) and ethylene glycol (EG) combining with different Sn ion sources as initial reagents. Their surfaces and size distributions of Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were significantly affected by Sn doping. The photocatalytic properties of as-synthesized Cu{sub 2}O samples were evaluated by monitoring the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under visible light irradiation with or without the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The results illustrated that Sn doping strongly enhanced the photocatalytic abilities of as-obtained Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O samples and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} also had an important impact on the photocatalytic degradation process. - Graphical abstract: The morphology transformation of Cu{sub 2}O was observed by Sn doping via a facile one-pot solvothermal method. The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Sn-doped Cu{sub 2}O sub-microstructures were successfully fabricated by a facile one-pot solvothermal method. • The morphology was changed from hierarchically cubic to spherical sub-microstructure by Sn doping. • The photocatalytic activity was strongly enhanced by Sn doping and the addition of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • The photodegradation rate of SC-1 (Sn{sup 2+} doping) is faster than SC-2 (Sn{sup 4+} doping) and SC-0 (undoped Cu{sub 2}O)

  18. Interphase precipitation in vanadium-alloyed steels: Strengthening contribution and morphological variability with austenite to ferrite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of characteristic features of interphase precipitation in steels with progressive of austenite-to-ferrite transformation is analyzed from both experimental and modeling approaches. The model developed describing the time and temperature evolution of sheet spacing and particle spacing shows good agreement with the experimental data. The interactions between the transformation and interphase-precipitated carbides are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the occurrence of fibrous carbides. It is suggested that the ease of interface motion is the main factor controlling its appearance. Finally, the local strengthening in a single ferrite grain containing different precipitation states is analyzed by nanoindentation and compared with the theoretical calculations. The evolution of strengthening induced by interphase precipitation with the microstructural parameters is then discussed

  19. Mitochondrial sequences of Seriatopora corals show little agreement with morphology and reveal the duplication of a tRNA gene near the control region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, J.-F.; Licuanan, W. Y.; Nakano, Y.; Payri, C.; Cruaud, C.; Tillier, S.

    2008-12-01

    The taxonomy of corals of the genus Seriatopora has not previously been studied using molecular sequence markers. As a first step toward a re-evaluation of species boundaries in this genus, mitochondrial sequence variability was analyzed in 51 samples collected from Okinawa, New Caledonia, and the Philippines. Four clusters of sequences were detected that showed little concordance with species currently recognized on a morphological basis. The most likely explanation is that the skeletal characters used for species identification are highly variable (polymorphic or phenotypically plastic); alternative explanations include introgression/hybridization, or deep coalescence and the retention of ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. In all individuals sequenced, two copies of trnW were found on either side of the atp8 gene near the putative D-loop, a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement that may have arisen from a duplication of the trnW-atp8 region followed by a deletion of one atp8.

  20. Adaptive order morphology edge detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanni Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operator and the general order morphology transformation. The conclusion is that our model is feasible for edge detection of the gray image and the satellite remote sensing images.

  1. Transformed yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) overexpressing rice Tau class glutathione S-transferase (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) shows enhanced resistance to hexavalent chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ankita; Indoliya, Yuvraj; Tiwari, Madhu; Tiwari, Poonam; Srivastava, Dipali; Verma, Pankaj kumar; Verma, Shikha; Gautam, Neelam; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2014-08-01

    Extensive use of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in leather tanning, stainless-steel production, wood preservatives and electroplating industries has resulted in widespread environmental pollution and poses a serious threat to human health. A plant's response to Cr(VI) stress results in growth inhibition and toxicity leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems. In a previous study, we observed that a large number of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes were up-regulated under Cr(VI) stress in rice. In this study, two rice root-specific Tau class GST genes (OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41) were introduced into yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe). Transformed yeast cells overexpressing OsGSTU30 and OsGSTU41 had normal growth, but had much higher levels of GST activities and showed enhanced resistance to Cr(VI) as compared to control cells (transformed with empty vector). Also, a higher accumulation of chromium was found in the transformed yeast cells as compared to the control cells. Manipulation of glutathione biosynthesis by exogenous application of buthionine sulfoximine abolishes the protective effect of OsGSTs against Cr(VI) stress. These results suggest that Tau class OsGSTs play a significant role in detoxification of Cr(VI), probably by chelating and sequestrating glutathione-Cr(VI) complexes into vacuoles. PMID:24968244

  2. Adaptive order morphology edge detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanni Wang; Fei Ge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operato...

  3. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nfujita@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  5. The effect of HNO3 on morphology, phase transformation, and luminescence properties of LaPO4:Eu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruisen; Lv, Meng; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    LaPO4:Eu3+ powders with different morphologies were hydrothermally constructed by adjusting the amount of HNO3 without using a catalyst, surfactant, or template. The as-prepared products were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study revealed that the amount of HNO3 played a crucial role in the morphology of the final products. The XRD results indicated that the as-prepared samples were in the monoclinic phase when 3 mL of HNO3 was used. The HR-TEM micrographs and SAED results demonstrated that the prepared nanorods were single and crystalline in nature with HNO3, and that they grew preferentially along the [0 1 2] direction. The emission spectra showed that the LaPO4:Eu3+ samples had the strongest emission intensity when prepared with HNO3.

  6. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, R. G.

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant ...

  7. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, thrombocytopenia, aberrant cell cycle progression, and premature centromere division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Yu, R; Melmed, S

    2001-11-01

    Tumorigenic pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a mammalian homolog of Xenopus securin that inhibits chromatid separation, is overexpressed in many human tumor types, and mediates transcriptional activation. Loss of yeast securin Pds1p or Drosophila securin pimples is lethal. Here we show that mice lacking PTTG (PTTG -/-) are, surprisingly, viable and fertile; but they have testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, and thrombocytopenia. PTTG -/- mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibited aberrant cell cycle progression with prolonged G2-M phase and binucleated and multinucleated nuclei with increased aneuploidy. PTTG -/- mouse embryo fibroblast metaphases contained quadriradial, triradial, and chromosome breaks, as well as premature centromere division. The results show that PTTG functions to maintain chromosome stability, cell cycle progression, and appropriate cell division. Moreover, mammalian sister chromatid separation, an important transition in the cell cycle, is likely regulated by mechanisms in addition to securin. PMID:11682618

  8. Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the near future. Three main areas of erosion were identified, where the river has cut real gorges, up to over 4m depths. These findings where correlated with geological, morphological and land use data in a complex vulnerability approach, incorporated in a Geographical Information System. The results obtained could be very useful for local authorities when developing risk mitigation programs.

  9. Universality of striped morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E; Jacobi, M Nilsson

    2010-09-24

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energetically favored and therefore they arise universally as ground states to potentials whose Hankel transforms have nontrivial minima. PMID:21230804

  10. Chicken gga-miR-181a targets MYBL1 and shows an inhibitory effect on proliferation of Marek's disease virus-transformed lymphoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ling; Li, Xin; Zhao, Chunfang; Han, Bo; Qu, Lujiang; Song, Jiuzhou; Liu, Changjun; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a lymphoproliferative neoplastic disease of chickens and is characterized by MD lymphoma in multiple visceral organs of chicken. It causes great damage to poultry health. Recently, miRNA has been reported to be involved in Marek's disease lymphomagenesis. Our previous study showed that gga-miR-181a was downregulated in MDV-induced lymphoma, and its target gene, v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 1 (MYBL1), was predicted. In this study, the interaction between gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 was further verified by detecting protein expression levels of MYBL1 after transfecting miR-181a mimic into MD lymphoma cell line, MSB1. The result showed that protein level of MYBL1 was lower in gga-miR-181a mimic transfecting group than that in the negative control group at 96 h post transfection, which indicated that MYBL1 was a target gene of gga-miR-181a. Additionally, we found that the expression of MYBL1 was higher in MDV-infected samples than that in non-infected controls, which agreed with the proposition that miRNA showed a negatively correlated expression pattern with its target gene. We observed the inhibitory effect of gga-miR-181a on MSB1 cell proliferation. Collectively, the aberrant expression of gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 in MD lymphoma suggested that they might be involved in MD tumor transformation and played important roles. PMID:26500265

  11. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

    2014-12-01

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

  12. Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

  13. Morphology and Crystallography of Bainite Transformation in a Single Prior-Austenite Grain of Low-Carbon Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yu-ichi

    2013-06-01

    To elucidate the difference in the microstructure development of the bainite and the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents between blocks (groups with bainitic ferrite having a similar crystal orientation), in a single prior-austenite grain, the microstructural development and morphology of bainite in one coarse grain formed in a simulated heat-affected zone of low-carbon steel were analyzed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and an electron back-scattering diffraction method. The correlation between the morphologies of bainitic ferrite and the M-A constituent was elucidated by analyzing blocks in a coarse and single prior-austenite grain. The possibility of M-A constituent formation was enhanced when the misorientation between bainite ferrite was large. Furthermore, it was found via in situ observations that bainitic ferrite units belonging to the same Bain group were formed synchronously, although they were apparently separated from each other by another Bain group.

  14. Phase transformation and morphology tuning of ?-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal phase and morphology with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The phase changes to the mixture of ?-NaYF4 and ?-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, ?-NaYF4 disappears gradually and ?-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the morphology changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different phases and morphologies are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).

  15. Correlation of morphological transformation to sister chromatid exchanges induced by split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens on cultured Syrian hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the induction of DNA damage as reflected by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation and morphological transformation in exponentially growing Syrian hamster embryo cells was determined quantitatively after split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens. With split doses of carcinogen separated by 2 to 24 hr, only N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (0.50 microgram/ml) enhanced both SCE induction and transformation when compared to single exposure. Split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine (0.20 microgram/ml), mitomycin C (50 ng/ml), or ultraviolet light (3.0 J/sq m) were less effective than single exposures, while split doses of methyl methanesulfonate (40 micrograms/ml) caused transformation frequencies similar to a single treatment and decreased SCE frequencies with time intervals greater than 4 hr. Split or single exposures of X-irradiation (200 R) resulted in similar low frequencies of transformation and SCE. Contrasting with these results, a significant potentiation of SCE occurred after split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in cultures arrested in G1 with arginine-glutamine-deficient medium or by contact inhibition compared to a single treatment. This response was attributed to the interaction of carcinogen with DNA containing unrepaired damage and demonstrates the importance of the cell cycle phase of the target cell during carcinogen exposure for the induction of SCE by split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The similarity of responses for transformation and SCE induction with split doses of carcinogens suggests that DNA lesions involved in SCE are essential for the initiation of neoplastic development

  16. Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite transformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics

  17. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  18. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; K. Janeczko; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  19. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

  20. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic ?'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal ?-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) ?-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from ?'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h

  1. A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498-499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron-ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of iron aggregates in the striatum. Our data show that our 498-499InsTC mouse models recapitulate early pathological and clinical traits of the human neuroferritinopathy, thus providing a valuable model for the study of the disease. Finally, we propose a mechanistic model of lipofuscine formation that can account for the etiopathogenesis of human neuroferritinopathy. PMID:25447222

  2. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazder, Azdiar A., E-mail: azdiar@uow.edu.au [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th. [School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Mitchell, David R.G. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); Pereloma, Elena V. [Electron Microscopy Centre, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2500 (Australia); School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results.

  3. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results

  4. Effect of multiple irradiation with low doses of gamma-rays on morphological transformation and growth ability of human embryo cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured expression of transformed phenotypes in human embryo (HE) cells repeatedly irradiated with a dose of 7.5 cGy per week throughout the life span of these cells in vitro. Irradiation was repeated until the cells had accumulated 195 cGy when the cells had reached the equivalent of their 26th passage and samples of cells at several passages were assayed for cell survival by colony formation, for mutation at hypoxanthin guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus and for transformation by focus formation. The lifespan (mean population doublings) of multiple irradiated cultures with a total dose of 97.5 cGy was slightly, but significantly, prolonged over that of controls. Although transformed foci were not observed with cells until cells had accumulated 97.5 cGy, it increased with increasing accumulated dose. No cells, however, showed unlimited life span in vitro and also expressed tumorigenicity. (author)

  5. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  6. Morphological Hit-Or Transform Based Approach for Building Damage Estimation from Vhr Airborne Imagery in 2011 Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parape, C. D. K.; Chinthaka, H.; Premachandra, N.; Tamura, M.; Sugiura, M.

    2012-08-01

    The very high resolution (VHR) airborne images offer the opportunity to recognize features such as road, vegetation, buildings and other kind of infrastructures. The advantage of remote sensing and its applications made it possible to extract damaged, undamaged building and vulnerability assessment of wide urban areas due to a natural disaster. In this paper, we focus on an automatic building detection method which is helpful to optimizing, recognizing, rescuing, recovery and management tasks in the event of a disaster. Objective of this study is to develop techniques for tsunami damaged building extraction, based on very high resolution (VHR) airborne images acquired before and after the 2011 East coastline of Japan among Tohoku area and to carry out a damage assessment of building and vulnerable area mapping. This paper presents a methodology and results of evaluating damaged buildings detection algorithm using an object recognition task based on Mathematical Morphological (MM) operators for Very High Resolution (VHR) remotely sensed airborne images. The proposed approach involves several advanced morphological operators among which an adaptive hit-or-miss transform with varying size and shape of the structuring elements. VHR airborne images consisting of pre and post 2011 Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and Tsunami site of the Ishinomaki, Miyagi area in Japan were used. The extracted results of building were compared with ground truth data giving 76% and 88% in accuracy before and after the Tsunami event.

  7. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The SEM images in the EDTA-treated groups had the highest number of open tubules. Erosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  8. Two bisthienylethene-Ir(iii) complexes showing acid/base-induced structural transformation and on-off luminescence switching in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Hu, Jiong-Sheng; Li, Min-Qiang; Gong, Dan-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Ward, Michael D

    2015-12-28

    Complexes [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdtiH)](PF6)·2CHCl3 (1-H) and [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdti)] (1) were synthesized by the reaction of bisthienylethene pbdtiH and an [Ir(dfppy)2Cl]2 dimer under neutral and basic conditions, respectively. Thus, the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit is coordinated by pbdtiH in 1-H, and by pbdti(-) in 1, which are confirmed by their crystal structures. The structures of 1-H and 1 could be interconverted in solution, upon alternately adding NEt3 and TFA, thus resulting in reversible luminescence switching between the on-state of 1-H and the off-state of 1 at room temperature. In addition, both 1-H and 1 show solid-state luminescence, with a broad emission at 534 nm and 525 nm, respectively. The free pbdtiH ligand shows photochromic behavior in CH2Cl2 solution. However, no photochromism has been observed in 1-H and 1, indicating that the coordination of the pbdtiH/pbdti(-) ligand to the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit could suppress their photochromic behaviors. PMID:26586364

  9. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves, Piva; João Lucas Rangel, Silva; Leandro José, Raniero; Carmen Silvia Passos, Lima; Emilia Angela Loschiavo, Arisawa; Cristiane de, Oliveira; Renata de Azevedo, Canevari; Juliana, Ferreira; Airton Abrahão, Martin.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR [...] ) is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4), adenoma (n = 4), and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4) from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining). The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02)®. Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells), central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  10. Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

  11. Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, T.J. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Aeby-Gautier, E. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France)]. E-mail: Elisabeth.Gautier@mines.inpl-nancy.fr; Denis, S. [Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Materiaux Metalliques, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, Nancy Cedex F-54042 (France)

    2006-06-15

    Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite sformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics.

  12. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, R G

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant Universe, highlighting work from the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Recent studies show quite clearly that the Hubble system does not provide a useful framework for describing the appearance of galaxies at redshifts z >1.5. I argue that as a result of this work the Hubble system needs to be replaced by a system that is more objective, more physically meaningful, and which is applicable across a wider range of redshifts.

  13. Astronomical image representation by the curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J. L.; Donoho, D. L.; Candès, E. J.

    2003-02-01

    We outline digital implementations of two newly developed multiscale representation systems, namely, the ridgelet and curvelet transforms. We apply these digital transforms to the problem of restoring an image from noisy data and compare our results with those obtained via well established methods based on the thresholding of wavelet coefficients. We show that the curvelet transform allows us also to well enhance elongated features contained in the data. Finally, we describe the Morphological Component Analysis, which consists in separating features in an image which do not present the same morphological characteristics. A range of examples illustrates the results.

  14. Banded-like morphology and martensitic transformation of dual-phase Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy with enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the current challenges facing producers of Ni–Mn–In alloys are the achievement of small hysteresis and good ductility. Here, we present a dual-phase (?-Ni51.8Mn31.4In16.8 and ?-Ni62.4Mn32.5In5.1) Ni52Mn32In16 alloy prepared by the zone melting liquid metal cooling directional solidification method, which simultaneously shows small hysteresis (?T < 10 K) and good ductility (6.6%). In addition, and more importantly, an inter-martensitic transition with a large magnetization jump occurs in this alloy. This is expected to further broaden the working temperature range of actuators and sensors that use this magnetic shape memory alloy. The sequence of the martensitic transformation can be shown by in situ X-ray diffraction to be austenite ? 10M ? 14M. Additionally, the second (?) phase dramatically enhances the entropy change of these structural transformations and shifts them to higher temperatures. During the directional solidification, a novel banded-like microstructure, consisting of two layers, one of the ? single phase and the other of the two phases coupled, forms at the low growth rate. A qualitative model is presented to explain the experimental observation, taking into account both the competitive nucleation and the growth of the phases. Experimental and theoretical analysis in the present work shows a linear relationship between the maximum spacing of the ? single phase layer and the growth rate

  15. Effects of isothermal heat treatment on nanostructured bainite morphology and microstructures in laser cladded coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yanbing; Feng, Kai; Lu, Fenggui; Zhang, Ke; Li, Zhuguo; Hosseini, Seyed Reza Elmi; Wang, Min

    2015-12-01

    Laser cladding and subsequent isothermal heat treatments have been used to fabricate nanostructured bainitic coatings. XRD has been used to determine the kinetics of bainitic transformation process. OM, SEM and TEM have been used to characterize the morphology and microstructures at different stages of transformation. The results showed that at the initial stage of bainitic transformation, the bainite sheaves are short and thin at a relatively low transformation temperature. The fully transformed bainitic microstructure obtained at a relatively high temperature present a textured morphology. The chaotic growth orientations of the sheaves and the island like of the retained austenite have been observed at the low transformation temperature. A simple model has been established to describe the microstructures and the bainite sheaves growth evolutions during the isothermal holding at the different transformed temperatures. The morphology and distribution of the bainite in the coatings were analyzed by using the nucleation and growth rate of bainitic transformation theories, which is consisted with the experiment results.

  16. Evaluation of three Polymerase chain reaction tests targeting morphological transforming region II, UL-83 gene and glycoprotein O gene for the detection of Human Cytomegalovirus genome in clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients in Chennai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therese KL

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the most sensitive and commonly used method for the assessment of HCMV infection in the immunocompromised patients at risk from severe associated clinical manifestations. However, there is little consistency in the qualitative PCR used for different regions of HCMV genome. Therefore, the performance of three Qualitative PCR tests to detect HCMV genome in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients was evaluated. With pp65 antigenemia assay as the "gold standard", nested PCR for morphological transforming region II (mtr II and glycoprotein O (gO gene and uniplex PCR for UL 83 gene were applied on 92 consecutive clinical specimens obtained from 74 immunocompromised patients with clinically suspected HCMV disease. Virus isolation was attempted on 12 clinical specimens from six pp65 antigenemia positive patients. Based on the pp 65 antigenemia results as "gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each PCR was calculated. Results The PCR targeting mtr II region showed a higher sensitivity (100% and negative predictive value (100% than the other two PCRs in detecting HCMV DNA from clinical specimens obtained from different immunocompromised patient population of Chennai region, India. Conclusion The results suggests that the optimal method of detection of HCMV DNA could be achieved by PCR using primer sequences targeting mtr II region of genome of HCMV in Chennai region, India.

  17. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  18. Dendrochronological records of the floodplain morphology transformation of Desná river valley in the last 150 years, The Hrubý Jeseník Mts., Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrádek, Mojmír

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 15, ?. 3 (2007), s. 2-15. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300860601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : floodplain morphology * palaeochannels * historical floods * tree ring reductions * abrupt growth release * exposed root s Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  19. Facile synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles inside a nanoporous carbon matrix (M/MO@C) through the morphology-preserved transformation of metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Woojeong; Kim, Hee Soo; Chun, Hyungphil; Yoo, Won Cheol

    2015-04-28

    A facile method to transform metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into metal/metal oxide@carbon (M/MO@C) composites with well-defined shapes is reported. The porosity of carbon and the particle sizes of M/MO are readily controlled by a simple two-step process that includes impregnation of the polymer precursors and a thermolysis reaction. PMID:25813137

  20. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision. PMID:18285181

  1. Soft morphological image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1997-04-01

    One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

  2. Algorithm for brain extraction on Magnetic Resonance Images T1 using Morphological 3D Transformations / Algoritmo para la extracción de imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 usando transformaciones morfológicas en 3D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. D., Mendiola-Santibañez; I. M, Santillán Méndez; C., Paredes Orta; I. R, Terol Villalobos.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una composición de transformaciones morfológicas para la extracción del cerebro en imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 (MRI T1) en 3D. La propuesta hace uso de dos transformaciones morfológicas conexas, la nivelación inferior y una familia de filtros viscosos alternados [...] secuenciales (VASFs). Las propiedades de estos operadores- las cuales consisten en el control del proceso de reconstrucción de un marcador dentro de la imagen original-, se explotan para segmentar el cerebro de 20 volúmenes de MRI T1. Los cerebros segmentados se comparan respecto a: i) segmentaciones obtenidas a partir del algoritmo BET, el cual es popular en la comunidad científica para la segmentación del cerebro; y ii) segmentaciones manuales. Los índices calculados indican que la transformación propuesta produce buenos resultados en su desempeño. El tiempo empleado por el operador durante su ejecución es aceptable además de que la propuesta puede ser implementada en Matlab Abstract in english In this paper a 3D morphological composition of transformations for brain extraction on brain Magnetic Resonance Images T1 (MRI T1) is presented. The proposal makes use of two morphological connected transformations, the lower leveling and a family of the viscous alternating sequential filters (VASF [...] s). The properties of these operators -which consist in the control of the reconstruction process of a marker into the original image-, are exploited to segment the brain in 20 volumes of MRI T1. The segmented brains are compared with respect to: i) the segmentations obtained from BET which is popular among the scientific community for segmenting the brain; and ii) manual segmentations. The computed indices indicate that the proposed transformation produces good results during its performance. The consumed time for the algorithm during the execution is acceptable and it can be implemented in Matlab.

  3. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and possibly even DNA molecules. Light-concentrating devices, such as the optical black hole, can be used for efficient solar light collection in photovoltaic elements for renewable energy. With the dramatic advances in micro- and nanofabrication methods, we are presented with the opportunity to control light in a way that was not possible with the materials provided to us by nature. In an artificial pattern of sub-wavelength elements, the propagation of electromagnetic energy can be defined by an equivalent spatial and spectral dispersion of effective dielectric and magnetic properties. These synthetic structures, which can be fabricated with a desired spatial distribution of effective permittivity epsilon(r) and permeability ?(r), offer a unique potential to guide and control the flow of electromagnetic energy in such an engineered optical space. No longer are we constrained by the electromagnetic response of natural materials and their chemical compounds. Instead, we can tailor the shape and size of the structural units of the metamaterials, or tune their composition and morphology to provide new functionality.

  4. The chromosome 16q-linked autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA): A newly identified degenerative ataxia in Japan showing peculiar morphological changes of the Purkinje cell: The 50th Anniversary of Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kinya; Mizusawa, Hidehiro

    2010-10-01

    The chromosome 16q22.1-linked autosomal-dominant cerebellar ataxia (16q-ADCA) is a form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) common in Japan. It is clinically characterized by late-onset purely cerebellar ataxia. The neuropathologic hallmark of 16q-ADCA is degeneration of Purkinje cells accompanied by an eosinophilic structure which we named "halo-like amorphous materials". By immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, the structure has been so far found to contain two components: the somatic sprouts from the Purkinje cells and presynaptic terminals of unknown origin. As far as we are aware, this peculiar morphological change of Purkinje cells has not been previously described. Further investigations may disclose unique pathological processes in SCA. PMID:20667009

  5. Dispersibility, stabilization, and chemical stability of ultrathin tellurium nanowires in acetone: morphology change, crystallization, and transformation into TeO2 in different solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wen-Jie; Yu, Shu-Hong; Qian, Hai-Sheng; Wan, Yong

    2007-03-13

    The dispersibility and stabilization of freshly synthesized ultrathin tellurium nanowires with diameters of 4-9 nm using poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) as a capping agent can be well controlled through an easy acetone-addition process. Ultrathin Te nanowires synthesized by a hydrothermal method using PVP as a capping agent will aggregate in a water/acetone system, and their aggregation state strongly relies on the volume of water and acetone in this mixed solution. This phenomenon is due to the different solubility of PVP in water and acetone, which has significant influence on the dispersibility and stabilization of the nanowires. The results also demonstrate that the freshly prepared Te nanowires are not stable after being stored for a prolonged time in contact with air, ethanol, and water. Ultrathin Te nanowires can be oxidized easily with various final morphologies, which are core-shell structures in contact with air, amorphous nanoparticles and nanoplatelets in ethanol, and large square flakes in water. The entire conversion process from crystalline Te nanowires to amorphous TeO2 nanoparticles or single-crystal paratellurite (TeO2) at room temperature was carefully studied, implying that tellurium nanowires synthesized by other chemical methods and other nanomaterials after synthesis could also not be stable, and their storage methods require special attention. PMID:17295530

  6. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions. : lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

    The notion of home is a relational concept, which reflects the embedded sense of belonging to a certain space. Home is material and imagined and the concept embeds relationships between imagined ideals and specific physical spaces. Home is somewhere in particular; a place invested with meaning through lived experience and culturally defined practices. The analysis of home making processes in Maputo documents how this sense of belonging is created and the research focus on the relationship between the material, symbolic and imagined home. A house turns into a home through inhabitation which involves feelings of security (physical and legal), concepts of family and social networks, relation to neighbourhood and how objects and spaces are invested with symbolic meanings. The study argues that the Maputo peri-urban inhabitants are acting as the de facto city makers with limited, if any, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves.

  7. The transformation behaviour of the beta phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram has been developed for the ?-phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes. The results show that the morphology and/or physical state of the ?-phase in pressure tubes has a significant effect on the transformation behaviour compared with a bulk Zr-19 wt%Nb alloy. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  8. Morphology Map of Bainites in 2% Si Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, H.; Oka, M.

    1995-01-01

    A metallographic study of isothermal transformation products formed at the early stage of transformation was made in silicon alloyed high-carbon steels (C wt%=0.6, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4) in the temperature range between 700 and 200 °C. Observations are summarized as a "morphology map" showing the formation temperature-carbon content fields of isothermal transformation products. In all steels investigated, the proeutectoid ferrite, upper bainite and lower bainite are formed at temperatures below th...

  9. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thraves, P; Salehi, Z; Dritschilo, A.; Rhim, J S

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when...

  10. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNB?LG?N, Güven; KOCAMAN, Ça?r?

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  11. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ørnulv B.; Arstad, Bjørnar; Norby, Poul

    2011-01-01

    during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly...... are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb...

  12. Universality of striped morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energe...

  13. In situ x-ray diffraction of an arc weld showing the phase transformations of Ti and Fe as a function of position in the weld performed at a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron x-ray source provides a unique opportunity to observe open-quotes in-situclose quotes processes. The formation of the open-quotes short-livedclose quotes intermediate species, Ta2C, during the combustion synthesis of TaC, has been observed and reported by monitoring the Bragg diffraction peaks of the reactants and products. Similarly, the synthesis of the ferroelectric material, BaTiO3, and subsequent phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal have also been investigated. These experiments would not have been possible without the high incident x-ray flux available at a synchrotron source. The physical and mechanical properties of a weld join are highly independent upon the thermal history of the weld. Factors such as grain size, which increases with annealing, influence the tensile strength of the weld. This work presents the results of an investigation of the phase changes in two materials, titanium and stainless steel, which occur during the welding process. 4 refs., 3 figs

  14. Generalized transforms and convolutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Skoug

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

  15. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  16. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  17. Progress report on induction of transformations in cultured epithelial cells, 8-1-78 to 5-31-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubas, J M

    1979-01-01

    During the report period the induction of morphologic transformation in both murine and human epithelial lung cultures was studied. The results of the first dose-response curve study showed a dose dependent increase in the yield of transformants versus methylcholanthrene concentration through 5 ug/ml followed by a decline in yield at 10 ug/ml. These curves are in terms of transformants per cell exposed and therefore fit with conventional wisdom, i.e., the rising arm of the curve reflects an increase in transformants with dose, while the descending arm reflects the counterbalancing effects of cytotoxicity. Attempts to repeat this curve consistently failed. By sequentially removing each of the additives, it was learned that it was necessary to have high levels of hydrocortisone present during carcinogen exposure in order to obtain successful morphologic transformation. A repeatable assay for morphologic transformation of epithelial lung cells is now established. Two human lung samples have been studied in essentially the same system. Of the three transformed human lines studied thusfar, all have grown to form colonies in soft agar, and all have formed multicellular tumor speroids. The relationship between the morphologic transformant and the cells which give rise to soft agar collonies, multicellular tumor spheroids and, hopefully, tumors is problematic. The solution awaits a clonal isolation technique for the transformants. (ERB)

  18. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Amalia

    2011-07-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  19. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  20. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Torre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  1. Performance analysis of morphological component analysis (MCA) method for mammograms using some statistical features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardezi, Syed Jamal Safdar; Faye, Ibrahima; Kamel, Nidal; Eltoukhy, Mohamed Meselhy; Hussain, Muhammad

    2014-10-01

    Early detection of breast cancer helps reducing the mortality rates. Mammography is very useful tool in breast cancer detection. But it is very difficult to separate different morphological features in mammographic images. In this study, Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) method is used to extract different morphological aspects of mammographic images by effectively preserving the morphological characteristics of regions. MCA decomposes the mammogram into piecewise smooth part and the texture part using the Local Discrete Cosine Transform (LDCT) and Curvelet Transform via wrapping (CURVwrap). In this study, simple comparison in performance has been done using some statistical features for the original image versus the piecewise smooth part obtained from the MCA decomposition. The results show that MCA suppresses the structural noises and blood vessels from the mammogram and enhances the performance for mass detection.

  2. Effect of Boron on the Isothermal Bainite Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Taejin; De Cooman, Bruno Charles

    2013-04-01

    The role of Boron on the isothermal bainitic transformation in low-C, lean-alloyed steel was investigated. B clearly affected both the transformation kinetics and the morphology of isothermally transformed bainite. The effect of B was more noticeable in the high-temperature range of the bainitic transformation. The microstructure of bainite formed at 773 K (500 °C) consisted of a bainitic ferrite matrix and the martensite/austenite constituent. While the martensite/austenite constituent had an elongated morphology in B-free steel, the martensite/austenite constituents in the B-added steel had a granular morphology. Two types of bainite unit nucleation were considered: the initial nuclei and the nuclei formed on previously formed units. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that the initial bainitic ferrite nuclei were formed at austenite grain boundaries with a Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) crystallographic orientation relationship with respect to one of the neighboring austenite grains, revealing the importance of interfacial energy reduction in the nucleation stage. The nuclei of the bainite transformation in the B-added steel were confined to the austenite grain interior, and the bainitic ferrite nuclei had crystallographic orientations limited to K-S variants within the same Bain variant. The characteristic bainite microstructure in B-added steel is due to the inhibition of the bainitic ferrite nucleation at austenite grain boundaries.

  3. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  4. General ?-transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan; Thorbjørnsen, Steen

    In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as ? transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID......(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy processes....

  5. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting op...... analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians....

  6. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compa...

  7. Galaxy Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Buta, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or...

  8. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Torre

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when consideri...

  9. A simple model for some unusual properties of martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2004-01-01

    We report a detailed numerical investigation of a recently introduced two dimensional model for square-to-rectangle martensitic transformation that explains several unusual features of the martensitic transformation. This model includes inertial effects, dissipation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains and an inhomogeneous stress field to describe the effect of lattice defects which serves as nucleation centers. Both single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation has been studied for single quench situation and thermal cycling. The final stage morphologies of single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation bear considerable similarity suggesting that the initial distribution of the defects is not important. Thermal cycling using continuous cooling and heating simulations show the existence of hysteresis in the transformation. More importantly, the rate of energy dissipated occurs in the forms of bursts with power law statistics for their amplitudes and durations which explains the result...

  10. Show Me the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  11. Violence and TV Shows

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Yrd. Doç. Dr. ?inasi

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to discuss theories on theviolent effects of TV shows on viewers, especiallyon children. Therefore, this study includes a briefdiscussion of definitions of violence, discussionof violence theories, main results of researcheson televised violence, measuring TV violence,perception of televised violence, individualdifferences and reactions to TV violence,aggressiveness and preferences for TV violence.

  12. Specification of individual adult motor neuron morphologies by combinatorial transcription factor codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enriquez, Jonathan; Venkatasubramanian, Lalanti; Baek, Myungin; Peterson, Meredith; Aghayeva, Ulkar; Mann, Richard S

    2015-05-20

    How the highly stereotyped morphologies of individual neurons are genetically specified is not well understood. We identify six transcription factors (TFs) expressed in a combinatorial manner in seven post-mitotic adult leg motor neurons (MNs) that are derived from a single neuroblast in Drosophila. Unlike TFs expressed in mitotically active neuroblasts, these TFs do not regulate each other's expression. Removing the activity of a single TF resulted in specific morphological defects, including muscle targeting and dendritic arborization, and in a highly specific walking defect in adult flies. In contrast, when the expression of multiple TFs was modified, nearly complete transformations in MN morphologies were generated. These results show that the morphological characteristics of a single neuron are dictated by a combinatorial code of morphology TFs (mTFs). mTFs function at a previously unidentified regulatory tier downstream of factors acting in the NB but independently of factors that act in terminally differentiated neurons. PMID:25959734

  13. Morphology Dependent Photocatalytic Activity of ?-MoO3 Nanostructures Towards Mutagenic Acridine Orange Dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The morphological evolutions of orthorhombic molybdenum oxide nanostructures with high crystalline nature have been successfully synthesized by combining low-temperature sol-gel and annealing processes. Strong influence of gelation temperature is a factor facilitated to control the material morphology. Morphological transformations like nanospheres, nanoplatelets, mixtures of hexagonal platelets, and one-dimensional nanobars were obtained. The possible morphological formation mechanism has been proposed as a self-assemble process of nucleation and a mechanism for particle growth by Ostwald ripening. The as-prepared nanostructures were recognized as photocatalysts for the degradation of Acridine Orange under Ultra Violet light. The obtained mixed morphology (hexagonal nanoplatelets and nanobars) showed a high photocatalytic property to degrade mutagenic Acridine Orange dye. Moreover, they could be easily recycled without changing the photocatalytic activity due to their 1-Dimensional and 2-Dimensional nanostructure property. PMID:26369043

  14. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  15. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our ...

  16. Cell transformation and mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

  17. MorphoCol: an ontology-based knowledgebase for the characterisation of clinically significant bacterial colony morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, A M; Pereira, Maria Olívia; Lourenço, Anália

    2015-01-01

    Background One of the major concerns of the biomedical community is the increasing prevalence of antimicrobial resistant microorganisms. Recent findings show that the diversification of colony morphology may be indicative of the expression of virulence factors and increased resistance to antibiotic therapeutics. To transform these findings, and upcoming results, into a valuable clinical decision making tool, colony morphology characterisation should be standardised. Notably, it is importa...

  18. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  19. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  20. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  1. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

  2. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  3. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  4. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2005-01-01

    Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den.......Seminaroplæg fra forskere. Faglige seminarer på KA, forår 2005. Belyser transformation af det danske landskab fysisk som holdningsmæssigt, samt hvordan phd-arbejdets egen proces håndterer den....

  5. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment? PMID:22094611

  6. Laplace transform

    CERN Document Server

    Bellman, Richard

    1984-01-01

    The classical theory of the Laplace Transform can open many new avenues when viewed from a modern, semi-classical point of view. In this book, the author re-examines the Laplace Transform and presents a study of many of the applications to differential equations, differential-difference equations and the renewal equation.

  7. 'Ex-Situ' Annealing and Structural Transformations in Gold Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atomic structure and morphology of gold nanoparticles have been studied using High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). The structural transformations of these particles have been probed through ex-situ annealing experiments, yielding population statistics on structure as a function of particle size and annealing temperature. The results show that for an original structurally heterogeneous particle population, there is a rise in the percentage of particles with the decahedral morphology as annealing temperature is increased. This can be correlated with a reduction in the number of icosahedral particles as a function of annealing temperature. HRTEM imaging following low temperature annealing reveals a range of modified and distorted decahedral particles, giving insight into the temperature threshold of the solid state transformation and the microstructural processes occurring.

  8. Ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation and morphological changes in response to the tumour promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate in primary human tumour cells, established and transformed cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rance, A J; Thönnes, M; Issinger, O G

    1985-01-01

    The phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 in fibroblasts, primary human tumour cells, established and SV40-transformed human cell lines was compared after the addition of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). In fibroblasts and primary tumour cell cultures, stimulation of S6 phosphorylati...

  9. Morphological Filtering Algorithm for Restoring Images Contaminated by Impulse Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Domingo Mendiola-Santibañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology to restore gray scale images with pixels polluted by random impulsive noise is presented. Noise is discovered using a criterion based on the white top-hat by reconstruction. Pixels detected as corrupted are restored using an iterative morphological algorithm built with extensive and antiex- tensive morphological transformations. The proposal is compared with the rank ordered mean filter (ROM and other morphological transformations reported in the current literature.

  10. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  11. Filament identification through mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FILFINDER. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FILFINDER identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far-infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where data are available. There is a suggestive but noisy correlation between typical filament brightness and literature values of the star formation rates for clouds in the Gould Belt.

  12. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    ’Landskabets transformation’ præsenterer en kritisk undersøgelse af forholdet mellem landskabsplanlægning/ landskabsarkitektur, nuværende paradigmer for planlægning, politik og samfund og generativ praksis. Mere specifikt udfolder afhandlingen på den baggrund et planlægnings- og designparadigme, ...

  13. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  14. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  15. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    ?ermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  16. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  17. mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN A-lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

  18. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

  19. Psychoanalytic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    The author describes how Bion took Freud's conception of dreams as a form of thought and used it as the basis of his theory of transformations. Bion developed an expanded theory of 'dream thought', understood as a process of selection and transformation of sensory and emotional experiences. In this theory, the work of analysis is in turn conceived as a process not only of deciphering symbols, of revealing already existing unconscious meanings, but also of symbol production--of a process for generating thoughts and conferring meaning on experiences that have never been conscious and never been repressed because they have never been 'thought'. Analysis, in its specific operational sense, becomes a system of transformation whereby unconscious somatopsychic processes acquire the conditions for representability and become capable of translation into thoughts, words and interpretations. The rules of transformation applied by the patient in his representations and those applied by the analyst in his interpretations have the same importance for the analytic process as those described by Freud for the process of dreaming. The author discusses the broad categories of transformation adduced by Bion (rigid motion, projective, and in hallucinosis) and introduces some further distinctions within them. PMID:18055372

  20. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawen

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of a steel is often developed by solid-state transformation from austenite. The major transformation products are allotriomorphic ferrite, pearlite, Widmanstatten ferrite, bainite and martensite, differentiated by morphological features, and their nucleation and growth mechanisms. A steel often consists of several phases as a result of dynamic evolution during continuous cooling. The complexity of the calculation of all the transformations simultaneously poses a challenge. ...

  1. Soft morphological filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Lasse; Astola, Jaakko T.; Neuvo, Yrjo A.

    1991-07-01

    New morphological operations, called soft morphological operations, are introduced. They maintain most of the properties of standard morphological operations, yet give improved performance under certain conditions. The main difference to standard morphological operations is that soft morphological operations are less sensitive to additive noise and to small variations in the shape of the objects to be filtered.

  2. Transformation Multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

  3. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart......Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic...... design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of...

  4. Immiscible blend morphology after shear and elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Gibson L.; Trifkovic, Milana; Hedegaard, Aaron; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the role of shear and extensional strain on immiscible blend morphology, namely domain size, orientation, and co-continuity. The domain size reduces with surface tension similar to what is observed with isolated droplets. The domain size is shown to increase with shear strain due to coalescence. Hence the best mixing is found with low shear strains, i.e. low rates of shear and short durations of time. Extensional strain (extrusion draw ratio DR) reduces phase width and thickness with a DR-0.5 dependence, suggesting the transformation to a fibrilar morphology. The critical draw ratio for morphology transformation is approximately 7, in agreement with observations by Grace for droplet breakup in elongation. Fibrilar morphology is also consistent with a large increase in strain-to-break in the drawn film and with observed creep and optical scattering behavior.

  5. Sustainable transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nicolai Bo

    This paper is about sustainable transformation with a particular focus on listed buildings. It is based on the notion that sustainability is not just a question of energy conditions, but also about the building being robust. Robust architecture means that the building can be maintained and rebuilt...... different theoretical lenses. It is proposed that three parameters concerning the ꞌtransformabilityꞌ of the building can contribute to a more nuanced understanding of sustainable transformation: technical aspects, programmatic requirements and narrative value. It is proposed that the concept of ꞌsustainable...

  6. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  7. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

  8. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  9. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

  10. Generalization of Conformal Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Garas'ko, G I

    2005-01-01

    Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conform...

  11. ADE Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  12. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  13. Laser-induced chemical transformation of PATP adsorbed on Ag nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-A study of the effects from surface morphology of substrate and surface coverage of PATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Fang; Liu, Guo-Kun

    2015-03-01

    The laser induced transformation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) to p,p?-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) has attracted intensive interest recently, in which localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) assisted photocatalysis has been demonstrated to play an important role. In this paper, we systematically investigate the factors that influence the reaction for further understanding the mechanism using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The laser-induced formation of DMAB was found to depend on the surface coverage of PATP, the aggregation state of NPs, and the laser power. The disappearance of DMAB Raman signal at very low concentration of Ag NPs reveals that DMAB may only be formed between the neighboring NPs that can provide a suitable distance for the interaction between adsorbed PATP molecules.

  14. High-pressure reactively sputtered HfO2: Composition, morphology, and optical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mártil de la Plaza, Ignacio; González Díaz, Germán; Lucía Mulas, María Luisa; San Andres Serrano, Enrique

    2007-01-01

    Hafnium oxide films were deposited by high pressure reactive sputtering using different deposition pressures and times. The composition, morphology, and optical properties of the films, together with the sputtering process growth kinetics were investigated using heavy ion elastic recoil detection analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible-near infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The films showed a monoclinic polycrystalli...

  15. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  16. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  17. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  18. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency ...... achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate the implications of this understanding....

  19. XML Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felician ALECU

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available XSLT style sheets are designed to transform the XML documents into something else. The two most popular parsers of the moment are the Document Object Model (DOM and the Simple API for XML (SAX. DOM is an official recommendation of the W3C (available at http://www.w3.org/TR/REC-DOM-Level-1, while SAX is a de facto standard. A good parser should be fast, space efficient, rich in functionality and easy to use.

  20. Floral Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sujata; Loar, Star; Steber, Camille; Zale, Janice

    A method is described for the floral transformation of wheat using a protocol similar to the floral dip of Arabidopsis. This method does not employ tissue culture of dissected embryos, but instead pre-anthesis spikes with clipped florets at the early, mid to late uninucleate microspore stage are dipped in Agrobacterium infiltration media harboring a vector carrying anthocyanin reporters and the NPTII selectable marker. T1 seeds are examined for color changes induced in the embryo by the anthocyanin reporters. Putatively transformed seeds are germinated and the seedlings are screened for the presence of the NPTII gene based on resistance to paromomycin spray and assayed with NPTII ELISAs. Genomic DNA of putative transformants is digested and analyzed on Southern blots for copy number to determine whether the T-DNA has integrated into the nucleus and to show the number of insertions. The non-optimized transformation efficiencies range from 0.3 to 0.6% (number of transformants/number of florets dipped) but the efficiencies are higher in terms of the number of transformants produced/number of seeds set ranging from 0.9 to 10%. Research is underway to maximize seed set and optimize the protocol by testing different Agrobacterium strains, visual reporters, vectors, and surfactants.

  1. El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

  2. Improved Seismic Denoising CURVELET Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Awasthi,

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR. Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. For quality we compare visual effect of data. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  3. Synthesis of Morphology―controlled Niobium Oxide Nanorods Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHAI Qing-Li, LIU Lei, PAN Hao, CHEN Jie, YU Ang, XU Mei-Gui, TU Luo, ZHOU Xing-Fu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Morphology―controlled niobium oxide nanorods array were successfully prepared in a mixed NH4F and H2O2 solution by using niobium powder as the starting materials via hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of niobium oxide film were characterized by X―ray diffraction patterns(XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The reaction time and hydrothermal temperature and concentration of NH4F, which affect the final composition and morphology of niobium oxide films, were also investigated in details. The results show that niobium oxide crystal have a strong anisotropy growth in the presence of NH4F and H2O2, which guides the oriented growth of hexagonal nanorods array on the niobium powder surface. The concentration of NH4F play great roles in the formation of the final products, the morphological of niobium oxide film is transformed from polyhedron granule to circular nanorods array and aggregated nanoparticles with the increase of NH4F concentration. Niobium oxide nanorods arrays can be obtained at Nb substrate after hythermal reaction at 150¡䟦or 10h with adding 0.5g NH4F. A formation mechanism is also proposed.

  4. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  5. Hamlet's Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  6. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  7. Gauge Transformations as Spacetime Symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg has shown that massless fields of helicity ±1(vector fields) do not transform homogeneously under Unitary Lorentz Transformations (LT). We calculate explicitly the inhomogeneous term. We show that imposing strict invariance of the Lagrangian under LT for an iteracting Dirac field requires the fermion field to transform with a space-time (and photon creation and annihilation operators) dependent phase and dictates the interaction terms as those arising from the conventional gauge principle.

  8. Transformational Leadership Meets Follower Motives

    OpenAIRE

    Amann, Dorena

    2014-01-01

    The thesis combines transformational leadership theory with implicit motive theory. It demonstrates conceptual connections of distinct transformational leadership styles and the needs for affiliation, power, and achievement. Furthermore, it shows that a fit between transformational leadership styles and followers’ implicit motive dispositions increases work-related outcomes. Thus, the thesis provides insight into the mechanisms of effective leadership and has practical implications for the r...

  9. Transformation of primary human hepatocytes in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Mauro; Rastellini, Cristiana; Wang, Xiaofu; Corsello, Tiziana; Eltorky, Mahmoud A; Vento, Renza; Cicalese, Luca

    2016-03-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer. Currently, there is limited knowledge of neoplastic transformation of hepatocytes in HCC. In clinical practice, the high rate of HCC local recurrence suggests the presence of different hepatocyte populations within the liver and particularly in the tumor proximity. The present study investigated primary human hepatocyte cultures obtained from liver specimens of patients affected by cirrhosis and HCC, their proliferation and transformation. Liver samples were obtained from seven HCC cirrhotic patients and from three patients with normal liver (NL). Immediately after surgery, cell outgrowth and primary cultures were obtained from the HCC lesion, the cirrhotic tissue proximal (CP, 1-3 cm) and distal (CD, >5 cm) to the margin of the neoplastic lesion, or from NL. Cells were kept in culture for 16 weeks. Morphologic analyses were performed and proliferation rate of the different cell populations compared over time. Glypican-3, Heppar1, Arginase1 and CD-44 positivity were tested. The degree of invasiveness of cells acquiring neoplastic characteristics was studied with a transwell migration assay. We observed that HCC cells maintained their morphology and unmodified neoplastic characteristics when cultured. Cells isolated from CP, showed a progressive morphologic transformation in HCC-like cells accompanied by modification of markers expression with signs of invasiveness. Absence of HCC contamination in the CP isolates was confirmed. In CD samples some of these characteristics were present and at significantly lower levels. With the present study, we are the first to have identified and describe the existence of human hepatocytes near the cancerous lesion that can transform in HCC in vitro. PMID:26717856

  10. Renormalization and Mellin transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Kreimer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    We study renormalization in a kinetic scheme using the Hopf algebraic framework, first summarizing and recovering known results in this setting. Then we give a direct combinatorial description of renormalized amplitudes in terms of Mellin transform coefficients, featuring the universal property of rooted trees H_R. In particular, a special class of automorphisms of H_R emerges from the action of changing Mellin transforms on the Hochschild cohomology of perturbation series. Furthermore, we show how the Hopf algebra of polynomials carries a refined renormalization group property, implying its coarser form on the level of correlation functions. Application to scalar quantum field theory reveals the scaling behaviour of individual Feynman graphs.

  11. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M [Birck Nanotechnology Center School of ECE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2011-01-31

    We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Transforming Public Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarro, Dora

    Among processes towards democratisation, it has been asserted that alternative radio has a central role in the citizen making of the poor. However, it is important to analyse in detail what possibilities an alternative or citizens' radio has to strengthen ideas of citizenship and transform the...... municipal elections and the district's participatory budget. In addition, I show how the public uses the radio to channel their claims. I also identify the factors that prevent the radio from fully empowering the public and transforming public space into a more critical and democratic one....

  14. Helicity transformation and pseudospin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many-particle helicity transformation is found to satisfy general conditions imposed on transformation to pseudo space-spin degrees of freedom in heavy nuclei. Both mean-field and many-particle estimates are presented to show that the nucleons in the helicity-transformed representation are bound by a strongly nonlocal potential with an effectively reduced spin-orbit interaction strength. Since the helicity and chirality transformations are closely related and coincide in the ultrarelativistic limit, pseudospin symmetry in heavy nuclei seems to be connected to chiral symmetry of high energy hadrons

  15. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an...... ethnographic data from over 400 reflection logs from around 100 students based on 120 hours of classes (same course repeated 4 times). Reflection logs were completed for each module of four hours. The main data sources are participant observation by a researcher and student reflection logs. The content of the...... understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: (i) Bordieu’s theory of practice is used to analyze student understandings of themselves and others...

  16. Transformation of lakes in mires

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis?aw Marek

    1992-01-01

    It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

  17. Transformation optics in orthogonal coordinates

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, HuanYang

    2008-01-01

    The author proposes the methodology of transformation optics in orthogonal coordinates to obtain the material parameters of the transformation media from the mapping in orthogonal coordinates. Several examples are given to show the applications of such a methodology by using the full-wave simulations.

  18. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  19. Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: "Mahalle" as an urban structure since the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Eren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of “mahalle” which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize “mahalle” with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

  20. Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: 'Mahalle' as an urban structure since the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?mre Özbek Eren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of 'mahalle' which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize 'mahalle' with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

  1. The Internal Ultraviolet-to-Optical Color Dispersion: Quantifying the Morphological K-Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Dickinson, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Giavalisco, Mauro; Dickinson, Mark; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative measure of the internal color dispersion within galaxies, which quantifies differences in morphology as a function of wavelength. We apply this statistic to a local galaxy sample with archival images at 1500 and 2500 Angstroms from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, and ground-based B-band observations to investigate how the color dispersion relates to global galaxy properties. The intenal color dispersion generally correlates with transformations in galaxy morphology as a function of wavelength, i.e., it quantifies the morphological K-correction. Mid-type spiral galaxies exhibit the highest dispersion in their internal colors, which stems from differences in the bulge, disk, and spiral-arm components. Irregulars and late-type spirals show moderate internal color dispersion, which implies that young stars generally dominate the colors. Ellipticals, lenticulars, and early-type spirals generally have low or negligible internal color dispersion, which indicates that the stars contributi...

  2. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Ay; Keyan Zahedi

    2013-01-01

    The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent's behaviour, or ho...

  3. Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as formability and strength. However, the difficulty of predicting the material behaviour is one of the major drawbacks of these steels. In order to model this behaviour it is of great importance to be able to characterize the morphology, crystallography and the amount of different types of martensite. The...

  4. Computing Prosodic Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraz, George Anton

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

  5. Controlled synthesis of BiVO4 with multiple morphologies via an ethylenediamine-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized via a simple ethylenediamine (EN) assisted hydrothermal route. One of the mixed crystal phase with spherical and porous morphology showed excellent photocatalytic activity and about 90% Rhodamine B was degraded after 140 min visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Ethylenediamine mainly acts as alkaline source to adjust pH values of precursor. • BiVO4 with spherical morphology has excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, BiVO4 particles with different crystal structures and morphologies including hexahedral, spherical porous and hyperbranched ones were fabricated in the presence of ethylenediamine by hydrothermal process. The as-fabricated samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the morphology and crystal structure of BiVO4 particles could be well controlled by only changing the ethylenediamine content in the deionized water solution. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. It was shown that BiVO4 sample with spherical porous morphology and mixed crystal phase exhibited the best photocatalytic performance after optimizing the ethylenediamine content. The best degradation ratio of Rhodamine B could reach about 87% after 140 min visible-light irradiation

  6. Microcavity morphology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2014-09-01

    High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Photocatalytic transformation of acesulfame: Transformation products identification and embryotoxicity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Adela Jing; Schmitz, Oliver J; Stephan, Susanne; Lenzen, Claudia; Yue, Patrick Ying-Kit; Li, Kaibin; Li, Huashou; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners have been recognized as emerging contaminants due to their wide application, environmental persistence and ubiquitous occurrence. Among them, acesulfame has attracted much attention. After being discharged into the environment, acesulfame undergoes photolysis naturally. However, acesulfame photodegradation behavior and identity of its transformation products, critical to understanding acesulfame's environmental impact, have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study aimed to fill this knowledge gap by a laboratory simulation study in examining acesulfame transformation products and pathways under UV-C photolysis in the presence of TiO2. Photodegradation products of acesulfame were isolated and analyzed using the LC-IM-QTOF-MS coupled with LC Ion Trap MS in the MS(n) mode. Our results show six new transformation products that have not been previously identified. The molecular structures and transformation pathways were proposed. Further embryotoxicity tests showed that acesulfame transformation products at the low g L(-1) level produced significant adverse effects in tail detachment, heart rate, hatching rate and survival rate during fish embryo development. The identification of additional transformation products with proposed transformation pathways of acesulfame, the increased toxicity of acesulfame after photolysis, and the fact that the accumulation of acesulfame transformation products is increasingly likely make acesulfame contamination even more important. Water resource control agencies need to consider legislation regarding acesulfame and other artificial sweeteners, while further studies are carried out, in order to protect the safety of this most vital resource. PMID:26630044

  8. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  9. The formation of graben morphology in the Dead Sea Fault, and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Katsman, Regina

    2015-09-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF) is a 1000 km long continental transform. It forms a narrow and elongated valley with uplifted shoulders showing an east-west asymmetry, which is not common in other continental transforms. This topography may have strongly affected the course of human history. Several papers addressed the geomorphology of the DSF, but there is still no consensus with respect to the dominant mechanism of its formation. Our thermomechanical modeling demonstrates that existence of a transform prior to the rifting predefined high strain softening on the faults in the strong upper crust and created a precursor weak zone localizing deformations in the subsequent transtensional period. Together with a slow rate of extension over the Arabian plate, they controlled a narrow asymmetric morphology of the fault. This rift pattern was enhanced by a fast deposition of evaporites from the Sedom Lagoon, which occupied the rift depression for a short time period.

  10. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is re...

  11. Transforming floundering into success

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We show how logic programs with "delays" can be transformed to programs without delays in a way which preserves information concerning floundering (also known as deadlock). This allows a declarative (model-theoretic), bottom-up or goal independent approach to be used for analysis and debugging of properties related to floundering. We rely on some previously introduced restrictions on delay primitives and a key observation which allows properties such as groundness to be anal...

  12. Bound state transformation walls

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyash, Evgeny; Denef, Frederik; Daniel L. Jafferis; Moore, Gregory W.

    2010-01-01

    In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We...

  13. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed

  14. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

  15. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  16. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, KÃ¥re

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built that...

  17. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  18. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  19. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume...

  20. Morphological transformation in a freshwater Cyanobium sp. induced by grazers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezberová, Jitka; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 7 (2007), s. 1858-1862. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant ostatní: GAUSF(CZ) GAJU 64/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Cyanobium * anri-grazing response * Ochromonas * spinae * picocyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  1. Comparison of malignant transformation of cells vitro induced by high LET and low LET radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To compare the characteristics of malignant transformation of the adult Wistar rat lung fibroblast cell line (WAL-F1) in vitro induced by high LET (238Pu alpha particles, 5.25 MeV) and low LET (X-rays 180 kV) radiations. Methods: A model of cell transformation in vitro was used; the changes of morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cell induced by two types of radiations were observed; the carcinogenesis of transformed cells in vivo was studied. Results: The results showed that the morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cells were basically similar. However, there were some differences between biological effects of cell transformation induced by these radiation types: (1) The model of cell surviving curve for alpha particles was a single hit and single target model with a D0 value of 0.172 Gy, while that for X-rays was a single hit and multi-target model with a D0 value of 1.66 Gy; (2) the iso-effect dose of proliferative ability, chromosome aberration rate, and colony-forming rate for X-rays were 10 times higher than these for alpha particles; (3) the latent period of cell transformation for alpha particles was delayed about 4-5 passages as compared with that for X-rays; and (4) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for alpha particles versus X-rays was approximately 6.0 at an alpha dose of 0.5 Gy. Conclusion: The results suggest that the high LET radiation showed higher carcinogenic effect in vitro on cells than low LET radiation did

  2. Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bohemen, S. M. C.; Sietsma, J.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2006-10-01

    The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain boundaries, whereas at lower temperatures so-called bainitic ? plates nucleate both at grain boundaries and intragranularly. This morphological transition with decreasing temperature is associated with a change in transformation mechanism. The combined results of EPMA, OM and dilatometry show that the growth of these bainitic ? plates is partitionless, and not accompanied by a volume change. Subsequently, a post-transformation redistribution of Fe takes place, which causes a dilatation that can be modelled based on the diffusion of Fe and the interface-area density. This mechanism as well as the formed microstructure are similar to bainite in steel, and therefore we chose to denote this transformation product as bainitic ? . In addition, the AFM observations on bainitic ? plates show an invariant plane strain surface relief with tilt angles that are consistent with the Burgers’ transformation model based on shear. In contrast, the AFM results show that the formation of primary ? is accompanied by an irregular dip on a free surface, which is in agreement with the volume decrease measured using dilatometry. Furthermore, the EPMA results show that primary ? is formed by a partitioning transformation. The change in transformation mechanism with decreasing temperature is supported by the observed trend in both the dilatation and the volume fraction ? as a function of temperature.

  3. Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain boundaries, whereas at lower temperatures so-called bainitic ? plates nucleate both at grain boundaries and intragranularly. This morphological transition with decreasing temperature is associated with a change in transformation mechanism. The combined results of EPMA, OM and dilatometry show that the growth of these bainitic ? plates is partitionless, and not accompanied by a volume change. Subsequently, a post-transformation redistribution of Fe takes place, which causes a dilatation that can be modelled based on the diffusion of Fe and the interface-area density. This mechanism as well as the formed microstructure are similar to bainite in steel, and therefore we chose to denote this transformation product as bainitic ?. In addition, the AFM observations on bainitic ? plates show an invariant plane strain surface relief with tilt angles that are consistent with the Burgers' transformation model based on shear. In contrast, the AFM results show that the formation of primary ? is accompanied by an irregular dip on a free surface, which is in agreement with the volume decrease measured using dilatometry. Furthermore, the EPMA results show that primary ? is formed by a partitioning transformation. The change in transformation mechanism with decreasing temperature is supported by the observed trend in both the dilatation and the volume fraction ? as a function of temperature

  4. Comparative Analysis of Rice Transformation Using Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhyzobium leguminosarum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syamsidah Rahmawati

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to study the effectiveness of Rhizobium transformation system compared to the most widely used Agrobacterium mediated transformation system on three rice cultivars, Ciherang (Indica, Nipponbare (Japonica, and Rojolele (Javanica. Six day old calli induced from immature embryos were inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv trifolii ANU845 and Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA288 that harbored with vector pCAMBIA 5106. This plasmid contained a minimum set of transfer machinery genes and had a gusplus and an hptII gene driven by 35S CaMV promoter in the T-DNA. The results showed that the transformation frequencies (number of PCR positive plants per number of calli inoculated ranging from 0 to 12.05 % depend on the genotype and transfer agent used. The highest transformation frequency (12.05% was obtained in Ciherang transformed with R. leguminosarum. Most of the transgenic rice obtainedby Rhizobium transformation were normal in morphology and fertile similar to those obtained by Agrobacterium transformation. Integration, expression and inheritance of transgenes were demonstrated by molecular and genetic analysis in T0 and T1 generations.Key words : Rhizobium leguminosarum, immature embryos, Agrobacterium tumefaciens

  5. Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

  6. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Pereira Bueno, Millan.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  7. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  8. Novel multiform morphologies of hydroxyapatite: Synthesis and growth mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, I. Reeta; Sonia, S.; Viji, S.; Mangalaraj, D.; Viswanathan, C.; Ponpandian, N.

    2016-01-01

    Morphological evolution of materials becomes a prodigious challenge due to their key role in defining their functional properties and desired applications. Herein, we report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) microstructures with multiform morphologies, such as spheres, cubes, hexagonal rods and nested bundles constructed from their respective nanoscale building blocks via a simple cost effective hydro/solvothermal method. A possible formation mechanism of diverse morphologies of HAp has been presented. Structural analysis based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirms the purity of the HAp microstructures. The multiform morphologies of HAp were corroborated by using Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM).

  9. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Ay

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent’s behaviour, or how an embodied agent can maximise the exploitation of its morphology within its environment. In this work we derive two concepts of measuring morphological computation, and we discuss their relation to the Information Bottleneck Method. The first concepts asks how much the world contributes to the overall behaviour and the second concept asks how much the agent’s action contributes to a behaviour. Various measures are derived from the concepts and validated in two experiments that highlight their strengths and weaknesses.

  10. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Current model transformation languages are supported by dedicated editors, often closely coupled to a single execution engine. We introduce Transparent Model Transformation, a paradigm enabling modelers to specify transformations using a familiar tool: their model editor. We also present VMTL, the first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible model transformation tool sharing the model editor’s benefits, transparently.

  11. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described Xm Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  12. THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT

    OpenAIRE

    Rechea Alberola, Manuel; Basset Salom, Luisa

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to carry out the computations are shown and some new results are presented

  13. Application of Hadamard transform in IMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)

  14. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Ullate, D [Departamento de Fisica Teorica II, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kamran, N [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, McGill University Montreal, QC, H3A 2K6 (Canada); Milson, R, E-mail: david.gomez-ullate@fis.ucm.e, E-mail: nkamran@math.mcgill.c, E-mail: rmilson@dal.c [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2010-10-29

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described X{sub m} Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  15. Investigation of Presence Different Surfactant on Morphologies of PbTe Nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavati-Niasari M.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available PbTe nanostructures were prepared by a hydrothermal method on presence of different surfactant. Results show that in constant condition by changing the capping agent the morphology of as-obtained PbTe were revolutionize PbTe nanostructures show a strong photoluminescence peak at 402 nm at room temperature, also optical absorption spectrum of PbTe nanostructures exhibit an extreme blue-shift, which is attributed to the quantum confinement of charge carriers in the nanostructures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced PbTe nanostructures.

  16. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  17. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frischer, M.E.; Thurmond, J.M.; Paul, J.H. (Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg (USA))

    1990-11-01

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} and 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} to 1.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound ({sup 3}H)bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations.

  18. Other Infrared (IR) Transform Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1981-10-01

    Profiting from the example of Fourier transform spectroscopy, a number of possible other transform spectroscopies, such as Hadamard, Walsh, and Laplace transforms, have been investigated. A number of other transforms show spectroscopic promise in the IR. (1) CHIRP. Here a tunable laser is coupled via a beamsplitter to a spatially extended sample and a heterodyne detector. The audio frequency output of the latter after chirp transformation yields a range resolved signal useful for remote measurements or nonuniform sample measurements. (2) KRAMERS-KRONIG. This transform, for which a simplified fast calculating procedure has evolved in the Fourier domain, interconverts refraction and absorption spectra. Refractive index spectra offer advantages for tunable laser work, can be used for absorption spectrum correction, and can be conveniently obtained by asymmetric FT-IR. (3) ABSORBANCE NONLINEARITY. Particle size or shape, thickness, or concentration distributions within an inhomogeneous sample can be calculated from line shape distortions produced by the energy nonlinearity of the absorption process. Other transforms of potential ability, such as the Hankel, the equiabsorbance, and two dimensional Fourier transforms, will be briefly mentioned.

  19. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  20. Liquid Metal Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  1. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET

  2. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  3. Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

  4. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs actualization in the "free management space". PMID:3933232

  5. Morphological evolution through complex domains of fitness.

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas, K J

    1994-01-01

    Computer simulated phenotypic walks through multi-dimensional fitness-landscapes indicate that (i) the number of phenotypes capable of reconciling conflicting morphological requirements increases in proportion to the number of manifold functional obligations an organism must perform to grow, survive, and reproduce, and (ii) walks over multi-task fitness-landscapes require fewer but larger phenotypic transformations than those through single-task landscapes. These results were determined by (i...

  6. On K-transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nasim

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

  7. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  8. Finite field dependent mixed BRST transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joglekar and Mandal have generalized the usual Bechhi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) transformation by allowing infinitesimal BRST parameter finite and field dependent. Such a generalized BRST transformation (so-called FFBRST transformation) is also the symmetry of the effective action but not of the generating functional of the theory. We generalize the mixed BRST (sum of totally anti-commuting BRST and anti-BRST) symmetry transformation in same manner. We show that such a generalized mixed BRST transformation is the symmetry of the effective action as well as of the generating functional. We show our result by considering several explicit examples. (author)

  9. Curvelet transform with adaptive tiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzouqi, Hasan; AlRegib, Ghassan

    2012-03-01

    The curvelet transform is a recently introduced non-adaptive multi-scale transform that have gained popularity in the image processing field. In this paper, we study the effect of customized tiling of frequency content in the curvelet transform. Specifically, we investigate the effect of the size of the coarsest level and its relationship to denoising performance. Based on the observed behavior, we introduce an algorithm to automatically choose the optimal number of decompositions. Its performance shows a clear advantage, in denoising applications, when compared to default curvelet decomposition. We also examine how denoising is affected by varying the number of divisions per scale.

  10. Metric approach to transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudo, Richard A.; O'Brien, James G.

    2009-09-01

    The conventional method for calculating the dielectric tensor for metamaterial relies on finding a transformation from the physical space containing the medium to a virtual electromagnetic space. Such a transformation exists if, and only if, the space is flat, which greatly restricts the way in which we are able to manipulate light. Furthermore, the transformation medium must not alter the temporal coordinate. Here, we show an alternate method for calculating the dielectric tensor that stems from the light ray trajectory equation derived from the metric. Thus, the process of defining an explicit transformation is circumvented entirely. We show that this method reproduces the correct results for the cylindrical cloaking device, and we use it to derive the material parameters of a device that gives rise to a curved space in which light rays follow closed Keplerian orbits.

  11. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  12. Quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ?q replaced by ?q with dq = dq/?1-?2(q), where ?2(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures ?W and ?Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (?q2 + ?W)? = 0

  13. Morphology and speech technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lüngen, Harald; Pampel, Martina; Drexel, Guido; Gibbon, Dafydd; Althoff, Frederek; Schillo, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a morphological component in a speech recognition architecture for German dealing with the recognition of compounds from their individual constituents. The specification of our morphological model allows for variation in functionality, e.g. the reconstruction of split compounds, of lexicalised, and of non-lexicalised (unknown) compounds.An implementation and evaluation results for split compounds are presented.

  14. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Haiyan; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ørnulv B.; Arstad, Bjørnar; Norby, Poul

    2011-12-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO 2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb V and an equivalent amount of Ti IV is transformed to Ti III as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti IV and Nb V cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O 2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb 2O 5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

  15. The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

  16. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  17. Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and surface morphology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nitin Sankar; Mamilla Nagarjun Reddy; R Krishna Prasad

    2016-02-01

    The various properties and surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix were studied to determine their usefulness in various applications. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical breakdown strength of CNT/polymer composites were 0.35MPa, 1.2MPa and 8.1 kV, respectively. The thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for the material having 4.28 wt% CNT were 0.225 W m−1 K−1 and 2.329, respectively. The CNT/polymer composites are promising functional composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties. The scanning electron microscope analysis of surface morphology of PDMS/CNT composite showed that the rough surface texture on nanocomposite has large surface area with circular pores. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups present in polymer nanocomposite.

  18. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  19. COMPARISON OF REAL AND COMPLEX-VALUED VERSIONS OF WAVELET TRANSFORM, CURVELET TRANSFORM AND RIDGELET TRANSFORM FOR MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin YASAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; medical images were denoising with multiresolution analyses using real-valued wavelet transform (RVWT, complex-valued wavelet transform (CVWT, ridgelet transform (RT, real-valued first-generation curvelet transform (RVFG CT, real-valued second-generation curvelet transform (RVSG CT, complex-valued second-generation curvelet transform (CVSG CT and results are compared. First and second-generation curvelet transformations are used for realvalued curvelet transform as two techniques. For the evaluation of the proposed system, we used 32 lung CT images. These images include 10 images with benign nodules and 22 images with malign nodules. Different types of noise like the Random noise, Gaussian noise and Salt & Pepper noise were added to these images and they are removed separately. The performances of used transforms are compared using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. Obtained results showed that complex-valued wavelet transform are suited for removal of random noise and Gaussian noise. In case of Gaussian noise in images, PSNRs of first generation curvelet transform and complex-valued wavelet transform are around 33 dB. The ridgelet transform provides high PSNR value (30.4dB for denoising of salt & pepper noise in images.

  20. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up. Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Auroral Morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn

    OpenAIRE

    Grodent, Denis

    2015-01-01

    We review the principal differences and similarities of the morphologies of Jupiter and Saturn's auroral emissions. We then show some examples of UV images that are expected to be acquired with Cassini UVIS at Saturn and Juno UVS at Jupiter.

  2. Morphology development during polymer blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on the morphologies of incompatible polymer blends analysed by several techniques (SEM and particle counter after separation). These result show, in the concentration zone just below the inversion phase, the simultaneous presence in the blend of nodular and fibrillar structures. A global interpretation of the phenomena allows us to propose a new relation using the Tomokita notion of fiber stability to predict the phase inversion region. (orig.)

  3. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory foll...

  4. Dynamic Upsilon Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Maejima, Makoto

    Upsilon transformations satisfying certain regularity conditions are shown to generate semigroups of such transformations. This is based on a general commutativity property of the Upsilon transformations, and uses log infinite divisibility. The existence of stochastic integral representations of...... Upsilon transformations and of the generated semigroups is also discussed....

  5. Deviationless geodetic transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sütti Juraj

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In a geodetic transformation of two networks (old, new, coordinate deviations come into being at the identical points and the transformated coordinates have to be corrected. A new deviationless method of Helmert and affine transformation is presented in which the definitive coordinates of the transformated points are determined directly using a Gauss-Markoff model.

  6. Canonical transformations in crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The space representations of linear canonical transformations were studied by Moshinsky and Quesne in 1972. For a few decades, the bilinear hamiltonian remained as the only exactly solvable representative for such problems. In this work we show that the Mello-Moshinsky equations can be solved exactly for a class of problems with discrete symmetry, leading to exact propagators for Wannier-Stark ladders in one and two dimensional crystals. We give a detailed study for a particle in a triangular lattice under the influence of a time-dependent electric field. A more general set of Mello-Moshinsky equations for arbitrary lattices is presented.

  7. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  8. The Funk transform as a Penrose transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

    1999-01-01

    The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

  9. The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ali Al-Zuky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

  10. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  11. PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION IN BREAST CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Zhandarova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available 80 case histories of patients with breast cancer were analyzed. During the preoperative examination with objective and instrumental examination methods used the malignant process was suspected but no morphological verification was received. Physical examination revealed 75% cases of cancer. Roentgenologic evidence of malignant tumor was found in 43.5% women. Ultrasound examination of mammary glands showed that 57.7% of patients had cancer symptoms. Despite the repeated puncture aspiration biopsy, preoperative morphological examination proved to be negative. The reasons of morphological verification failure are connected with technical difficulties and morphological features of tumor structure. Negative malignant process verification necessitated the diagnostic partial mastectomy. To achieve ablasticity ofexcisional biopsyit is necessary to keep 2 cm from the tumor. Staged morphological diagnosis verifies the diagnosis in all patients, allowing to choose the adequate extentof surgical procedures.

  12. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  13. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Weng, Lv Qian [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Shao Jun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Central South University, State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Dong, Wen Yi [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Urban and Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China)

    2011-07-15

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO{sub 2} with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450 C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N{sub 2} show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater. (orig.)

  14. Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally

  15. Linear transformations of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers the most general linear transformation of a quantum state. We enumerate the conditions necessary to retain a physical interpretation of the transformed state: hermiticity, normalization and complete positivity. We show that these can be formulated in terms of an associated transformation introduced by Choi in 1975. We extend his treatment and display the mathematical argumentation in a manner closer to that used in traditional quantum physics. We contend that our approach displays the implications of the physical requirements in a simple and intuitive way. In addition, defining an arbitrary vector, we may derive a probability distribution over the spectrum of the associated transformation. This fixes the average of the eigenvalue independently of the vector chosen. The formal results are illustrated by a couple of examples

  16. BAINITE : OVERALL TRANSFORMATION KINETICS

    OpenAIRE

    Bhadeshia, H.

    1982-01-01

    New experimental results on the overall transformation kinetics of the bainite reaction (in three different steels) are interpreted in terms of recent work on the transformation mechanism of bainite. The analysis is shown to be consistent with (a) a linear dependence of the activation energy for isothermal nucleation, on the transformation free energy change, (b) the sub-unit mechanism of bainitic transformation, (c) the variation of nucleation rate with the degree of transformation, (d) hard...

  17. On discrete cosine transform

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality ...

  18. Application of transformation optics to electromagnetic cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Ginis, V; Danckaert, J; Soukoulis, C M; Veretennicoff, I

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the potential of transformation optics for the design of novel electromagnetic cavities. First, we determine the dispersion relation of bounded modes in a device performing an arbitrary radial coordinate transformation and we discuss a number of such cavity structures. Subsequently, we generalize our study to media that implement azimuthal transformations and we show that such transformations can manipulate the azimuthal mode number. Finally, we discuss how the combination of radial and azimuthal coordinate transformations allows for perfect confinement of subwavelength modes inside a cavity consisting of right-handed materials only.

  19. Image denoising using orthonormal finite ridgelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh N.; Vetterli, Martin

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the image denoising problem using a newly proposed digital image transform: the finite rigdelet transform (FRIT). The transform is invertible, non-redundant and achieved via fast algorithms. Furthermore this transform can be designed to be orthonormal thus indicating its potential in many other image processing applications. We then propose various improvements on the initial design of the FRIT in order to make it to have better energy compaction and to reduce the border effect. Experimental results show that the new transform outperforms wavelets in denoising images with linear discontinuities.

  20. Transformation of the Zagreb urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ili?

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

  1. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  2. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net. PMID:18252452

  3. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

  4. Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

    2014-03-01

    The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

  5. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  6. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabhane Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

  7. Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Young Hur; Zhao Weimin; Wang Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu) and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase) under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied....

  8. Efficiency of Deterministic Entanglement Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, R; Ji, Z; Ying, M; Duan, Runyao; Feng, Yuan; Ji, Zhengfeng; Ying, Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    We prove that a sufficiently many copies of a bipartite entangled pure state always can be transformed into some copies of another one with certainty by local quantum operations and classical communication. The efficiency of such a transformation is characterized by deterministic entanglement exchange rate, and it is proved to be always positive and bounded from top by the infimum of the ratios of Renyi's entropies of source state and target state. A careful analysis shows that the deterministic entanglement exchange rate cannot be increased even in the presence of catalysts. As an application, we show that there can be two incomparable states with deterministic entanglement exchange rate strictly exceeding one.

  9. Approximate quantum Fourier transform and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Barenco, A; Suominen, K A; Torma, P; Barenco, Adriano; Ekert, Artur; Suominen, Kalle Antti; Torma, Paivi

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the advantages of using the approximate quantum Fourier transform (AQFT) in algorithms which involve periodicity estimations. We analyse quantum networks performing AQFT in the presence of decoherence and show that extensive approximations can be made before the accuracy of AQFT (as compared with regular quantum Fourier transform) is compromised. We show that for some computations an approximation may imply a better performance.

  10. Trastuzumab resistance induces EMT to transform HER2+ PTEN? to a triple negative breast cancer that requires unique treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Joseph P.; Korkaya, Hasan; Ouzounova, Maria D.; Jiang, Hui; Conley, Sarah J.; Newman, Bryan W.; Sun, Lichao; Connarn, Jamie N.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Zhang, Ning; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2015-01-01

    Although trastuzumab is an effective treatment in early stage HER2+ breast cancer the majority of advanced HER2+ breast cancers develop trastuzumab resistance, especially in the 40% of breast cancers with loss of PTEN. However, HER2+ breast cancer patients continue to receive trastuzumab regardless PTEN status and the consequence of therapy in these patients is unknown. We demonstrate that continued use of trastuzumab in HER2+ cells with loss of PTEN induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and transform HER2+ to a triple negative breast cancer. These transformed cells exhibited mesenchymal morphology and gene expression markers, while parent HER2+ cells showed epithelial morphology and markers. The transformed cells exhibited loss of dependence on ERBB family signaling (such as HER2, HER3, HER4, BTC, HRG, EGF) and reduced estrogen and progesterone receptors. Continued use of trastuzumab in HER2+ PTEN? cells increased the frequency of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and metastasis potential. Strikingly, parental HER2+ cells and transformed resistant cells respond to treatment differently. Transformed resistant cells were sensitive to chemical probe (sulforaphane) through inhibition of IL-6/STAT3/NF-?B positive feedback loop whereas parental HER2+ cells did not respond. This data suggests that trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ PTEN? breast cancer induces EMT and subtype switching, which requires unique treatment options. PMID:26522776

  11. On discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  12. Morphological evolution of Si nanowires upon lithiation: a first-principles multiscale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ekin D; Wang, Wei L; Zhao, Kejie; Vlassak, Joost J; Suo, Zhigang; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2013-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for high-capacity Li-ion batteries. Recent experiments show that lithiation of crystalline silicon nanowires leads to highly anisotropic morphologies. This has been interpreted as due to anisotropy in equilibrium interface energies, but this interpretation does not capture the dynamic, nonequilibrium nature of the lithiation process. Here, we provide a comprehensive explanation of experimentally observed morphological changes, based on first-principles multiscale simulations. We identify reaction paths and associated structural transformations for Li insertion into the Si {110} and {111} surfaces and calculate the relevant energy barriers from density functional theory methods. We then perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for nanowires with surfaces of different orientations, which reproduce to a remarkable degree the experimentally observed profiles and the relative reaction front rates. PMID:23541144

  13. Identification of Transform Coding Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliasacchi, Marco; Visentini-Scarzanella, Marco; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Tubaro, Stefano

    2016-03-01

    Transform coding is routinely used for lossy compression of discrete sources with memory. The input signal is divided into N -dimensional vectors, which are transformed by means of a linear mapping. Then, transform coefficients are quantized and entropy coded. In this paper, we consider the problem of identifying the transform matrix as well as the quantization step sizes. First, we study the case in which the only available information is a set of P transform decoded vectors. We formulate the problem in terms of finding the lattice with the largest determinant that contains all observed vectors. We propose an algorithm that is able to find the optimal solution and we formally study its convergence properties. Three potential realms of application are considered as example scenarios for the proposed theory: 1) parameter retrieval in the presence of a chain of two transform coders; 2) image tampering identification; and 3) parameter estimation for predictive coders. We show that, despite their differences, all three scenarios can be tackled by applying the same fundamental methodology. Experiments on both the synthetic data and the real images validate the proposed approach. PMID:26685239

  14. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

    2010-03-24

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  15. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  16. Morphology of Ion-Sputtered Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Makeev, M A; Barabási, A L; Makeev, Maxim; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barab\\'asi, Albert-L\\'aszl\\'o

    2002-01-01

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum theory to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect, and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear te...

  17. Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENU AWASTHI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

  18. Impact of External Environmental Turbulence on Enterprise Transformation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Lei; Wang Wenping; Yu Chunjie

    2013-01-01

    This study establishes a simulation model of enterprise transformation to study the impact of external environmental turbulence on enterprise transformation strategy. The result shows that the optimal degree of enterprise transformation declines as the level of external environmental turbulence rises. Further analysis indicates the reason of this result: First, with higher degree of transformation, enterprises could get more new capabilities that match the extern...

  19. The Bianchi-Darboux transform of L-isothermic surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Musso, E.; Nicolodi, L.

    2000-01-01

    We study an analogue of the classical Bianchi-Darboux transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in Laguerre geometry, the Bianchi-Darboux transformation. We show how to construct the Bianchi-Darboux transforms of an L-isothermic surface by solving an integrable linear differential system. We then establish a permutability theorem for iterated Bianchi-Darboux transforms.

  20. A morphological lexicon for the Persian language

    OpenAIRE

    Sagot, Benoît; Walther, Géraldine

    2010-01-01

    We introduce PerLex, a large-coverage and freely-available morphological lexicon for the Persian language. We describe the main features of the Persian morphology, and the way we have represented it within the Alexina formalism, on which PerLex is based. We focus on the methodology we used for constructing lexical entries from various sources, as well as the problems related to typographic normalisation. The resulting lexicon shows a satisfying coverage on a reference corpus and should theref...

  1. Morphology, development, and evolution of fetal membranes and placentation in squamate reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Daniel G; Flemming, Alexander F

    2009-09-15

    Current studies on fetal membranes of reptiles are providing insight into three major historical transformations: evolution of the amniote egg, evolution of viviparity, and evolution of placentotrophy. Squamates (lizards and snakes) are ideal for such studies because their fetal membranes sustain embryos in oviparous species and contribute to placentas in viviparous species. Ultrastructure of the fetal membranes in oviparous corn snakes (Pituophis guttatus) shows that the chorioallantois is specialized for gas exchange and the omphalopleure, for water absorption. Transmission and scanning electron microscopic studies of viviparous thamnophine snakes (Thamnophis, Storeria) have revealed morphological specializations for gas exchange and absorption in the intra-uterine environment that represent modifications of features found in oviparous species. Thus, fetal membranes in oviparous species show morphological differentiation for distinct functions that have been recruited and enhanced under viviparous conditions. The ultimate in specialization of fetal membranes is found in viviparous skinks of South America (Mabuya) and Africa (Trachylepis, Eumecia), in which placentotrophy accounts for nearly all of the nutrients for development. Ongoing research on these lizards has revealed morphological specializations of the chorioallantoic placenta through which nutrient transfer is accomplished. In addition, African Trachylepis show an invasive form of implantation, in which uterine epithelium is replaced by invading chorionic cells. Ongoing analysis of these lizards shows how integration of multiple lines of evidence can provide insight into the evolution of developmental and reproductive specializations once thought to be confined to eutherian mammals. PMID:18683170

  2. Transforms and Applications Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

  3. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  4. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  5. Transforms, algorithms and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the sum of a trigonometric series. The main purpose of these notes is to give a brief overview of some Fourier-related transforms, namely: continuous Fourier transform, Fourier series, discrete Fouri...

  6. Amplified Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell, David

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calcula...

  7. Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new implementation of the Ridgelet transform based on discrete analytical 2-D lines: the discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated discrete Radon transform. The innovative step of the DART is the construction of discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a DART adapted to a sp...

  8. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for n...

  9. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  10. The Dead Sea transform fault system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girdler, R. W.

    1990-08-01

    A new map showing the major features of the Dead Sea transform fault system based on seismicity, satellite imagery, geological maps and bathymetric charts is presented. Special attention is given to the possible northward continuation of the transform system beneath the Mediterranean Sea near Ed Damur, south of Beirut. The map shows the Dead Sea transform system to be a series of offset, overlapping, left-lateral transform faults with a rhombochasm between each pair. The system has similarities with the equatorial fracture zones in the Atlantic Ocean. Throughout, the Dead Sea transform system is considered in its regional setting, i.e. as extending from the Red Sea spreading centre in the south to the Eurasian collision zone in the north. It is suggested that it may intersect the latter somewhere east of Cyprus making that area the northernmost termination of the Dead Sea transform system.

  11. Holomorphic transforms with application to affine processes

    CERN Document Server

    Belomestny, D; Schoenmakers, J

    2008-01-01

    In a rather general setting of It\\^o-L\\'evy processes we study a class of transforms (Fourier for example) of the state variable of a process which are holomorphic in some disc around time zero in the complex plane. We show that such transforms are related to a system of analytic vectors for the generator of the process, and we state conditions which allow for holomorphic extension of these transforms into a strip which contains the positive real axis. Based on these extensions we develop a functional series expansion of these transforms in terms of the constituents of the generator. As application, we show that for multidimensional affine It\\^o-L\\'evy processes with state dependent jump part the Fourier transform is holomorphic in a time strip under some stationarity conditions, and give log-affine series representations for the transform.

  12. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  13. The Tunneling Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hipple, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We supplement the Lorentz transform $L(v)$ with a new "Tunneling" transform $T(v)$. Application of this new transform to elementary quantum mechanics offers a novel, intuitive insight into the nature of quantum tunneling; in particular, the so called "Klein Paradox" is discussed.

  14. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  15. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  16. Morphology of diesel soot residuals from supercooled water droplets and ice crystals: implications for optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnato, Barbara V.; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processes often transform their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at ?20 and ?40 °C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness ?0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ?0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness ?0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ?63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  17. Diabetic retinopathy grading by digital curvelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeb Mohammad Alipour, Shirin; Rabbani, Hossein; Akhlaghi, Mohammad Reza

    2012-01-01

    One of the major complications of diabetes is diabetic retinopathy. As manual analysis and diagnosis of large amount of images are time consuming, automatic detection and grading of diabetic retinopathy are desired. In this paper, we use fundus fluorescein angiography and color fundus images simultaneously, extract 6 features employing curvelet transform, and feed them to support vector machine in order to determine diabetic retinopathy severity stages. These features are area of blood vessels, area, regularity of foveal avascular zone, and the number of micro-aneurisms therein, total number of micro-aneurisms, and area of exudates. In order to extract exudates and vessels, we respectively modify curvelet coefficients of color fundus images and angiograms. The end points of extracted vessels in predefined region of interest based on optic disk are connected together to segment foveal avascular zone region. To extract micro-aneurisms from angiogram, first extracted vessels are subtracted from original image, and after removing detected background by morphological operators and enhancing bright small pixels, micro-aneurisms are detected. 70 patients were involved in this study to classify diabetic retinopathy into 3 groups, that is, (1) no diabetic retinopathy, (2) mild/moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy, (3) severe nonproliferative/proliferative diabetic retinopathy, and our simulations show that the proposed system has sensitivity and specificity of 100% for grading. PMID:23056148

  18. Digital image colorization based on distance transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagodzinski, Przemyslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    Colorization is a term introduced by W. Markle1 to describe a computerized process for adding color to black and white pictures, movies or TV programs. The task involves replacing a scalar value stored at each pixel of the gray scale image by a vector in a three dimensional color space with luminance, saturation and hue or simply RGB. Since different colors may carry the same luminance value but vary in hue and/or saturation, the problem of colorization has no inherently "correct" solution. Due to these ambiguities, human interaction usually plays a large role. In this paper we present a novel colorization method that takes advantage of the morphological distance transformation, changes of neighboring pixel intensities and gradients to propagate the color within the gray scale image. The proposed method frees the user of segmenting the image, as color is provided simply by scribbles which are next automatically propagated within the image. The effectiveness of the algorithm allows the user to work interactively and to obtain the desired results promptly after providing the color scribbles. In the paper we show that the proposed method allows for high quality colorization results for still images.

  19. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or...... material simplification. The corresponding invisibility performances of the approximate or simplified cylindrical cloaks are presented in detail....

  20. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Ullate, David; Milson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described $X_m$ Laguerre polynomials in terms of a state-adding Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape-invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  1. Appell transformation and symmetry transformations for the paraxial wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A.

    2011-07-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is the natural continuation of that developed in a previous paper, where the Appell transformation, well known in the theory of the heat equation, has been interpreted in relation to the paraxial (free) propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry as connecting solutions of the pertinent paraxial wave equation, which are generated by Fourier or Hankel pairs of functions. Indeed, here we will reformulate in optical terms the result proved by Leutwiler relative to the n-dimensional heat equation. Accordingly, we will show that the optical Appell transformation is essentially—in the sense clarified in the text—the only symmetry transformation for the paraxial wave equation.

  2. Appell transformation and symmetry transformations for the paraxial wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis presented in this paper is the natural continuation of that developed in a previous paper, where the Appell transformation, well known in the theory of the heat equation, has been interpreted in relation to the paraxial (free) propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry as connecting solutions of the pertinent paraxial wave equation, which are generated by Fourier or Hankel pairs of functions. Indeed, here we will reformulate in optical terms the result proved by Leutwiler relative to the n-dimensional heat equation. Accordingly, we will show that the optical Appell transformation is essentially—in the sense clarified in the text—the only symmetry transformation for the paraxial wave equation

  3. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some of the more conspicuous auroral features are described as they appear in the ISIS-2 scanning photometer data, using the results of improved programs for transforming the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and for producing latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times. Special attention is given to the diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete auroras. When looked at globally and on an essentially instantaneous basis, the large scale patterns, or 'morphology' of auroras take on a certain simplicity. These patterns deserve to be studied in their own right, independently of their relation to substorm dynamics, because they probably indicate the existence of a rather limited number of distinct magnetospheric configurations or states which produce these patterns. (Auth.)

  4. BLOOD VESSELS EXTRACTION USING MATHEMATICAL MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Khdhair El Abbadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The retinal vasculature is composed of the arteries and veins with their tributaries which are visible within the retinal image. The segmentation and measurement of the retinal vasculature is of primary interest in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of systemic and ophthalmologic conditions. The accurate segmentation of the retinal blood vessels is often an essential prerequisite step in the identification of retinal anatomy and pathology. In this study, we present an automated approach for blood vessels extraction using mathematical morphology. Two main steps are involved: enhancement operation is applied to the original retinal image in order to remove the noise and increase contrast of retinal blood vessels and morphology operations are employed to extract retinal blood vessels. This operation of segmentation is applied to binary image of top-hat transformation. The result was compared with other algorithms and give better results.

  5. Fuzzy logic and mathematical morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, T.-Q.

    2000-01-01

    In this report we investigate the general theory of grey-scale morphology within the framework of complete lattices and fuzzy logic. This includes grey-scale granulometries, hit-or-miss operators for grey-scale images, rank operators, and connected operators. We also show that the Matheron's representation theory does not hold for general grey-scale images and we present some results related to the representation theory. Besides these, in this report, we put forward a new approach to fuzzy m...

  6. Mammographic image enhancement using wavelet transform and homomorphic filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Majidi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mammography is the most effective method for the early diagnosis of breast cancer diseases. As mammographic images contain low signal to noise ratio and low contrast, it becomes too difficult for radiologists to analyze mammogram. To deal with the above stated problems, it is very important to enhance the mammographic images using image processing methods. This paper introduces a new image enhancement approach for mammographic images which uses the modified mathematical morphology, wavelet transform and homomorphic filter to suppress the noise of images. For performance evaluation of the proposed method, contrast improvement index (CII and edge preservation index (EPI are adopted. Experimental results on mammographic images from Pejvak Digital Imaging Center (PDIC show that the proposed algorithm improves the two indexes, thereby achieving the goal of enhancing mammographic images.

  7. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  8. Morphology of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium metal is being used as nuclear fuel for Indian Research Reactors. During production of U metal various intermediate compounds of uranium are being processed. Physical, chemical properties of these compounds are important in overall processing rate and conversion determination. As no systematic data on morphology of these compounds were available, study was conducted to record the morphology of various U-compounds which are important in production of ceramic and metallic U-fuel for reactors. Most important intermediates were found to be ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxide (UO3/UO2). Morphology of these powders controls their flowability required for further material movement through different equipment, surface area required for chemical reactivity of powder, carryover losses occurred during gas solid counter current reaction and tap density required for effective capacity determination. ADU particle basically consists of primary platelets of 250-500 nm width and of 500-1000 nm length. These primary platelets form primary agglomerates. These agglomerates look like woollen balls or balls or cauliflower and primary agglomerates are also connected with each other to form secondary agglomerates. The basic morphology of ADU is maintained in UO3 even after calcination at high temperature. Pores are generated at the surface of platelet of UO3 due to release of gaseous reaction products during calcination. As temperature increases more pores are generated and sintering also starts. Specific surface area of UO3, produced by the calcination of ammonium di-urinate is generally a function of two competing processes: generation of surface area due to generation of pores because of the evolution of gaseous products (NH3, H2O vapour) and the loss of surfaces due to sintering. As a results surface area increases with calcination temperature due to generation of pores and then reduces. It has also been observed that morphology of the compounds are very much processing path dependent. In the process, parametric effects on morphology also has been studied. Present paper describes these observations with an idea to have larger participations in this multidisciplinary research and to be able to become morphology designer. (author)

  9. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for non-Abelian groups is defined. A slightly relaxed definition is shown to simplify the analysis and the networks that computes the transforms. Efficient networks for computing such transforms for a class of metacyclic groups are introduced. A novel network for computing a Fourier transform for a group used in quantum error-correction is also given.

  10. A multiscale perspective on the kinetics of solid state transformations with application to bainite formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claas Hüter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We give an excerpt of recent developments in the experimentally benchmarked modeling of bainite formation in the press hardening process. As the press hardening process poses a heavily multi-parameter dependent modeling challenge, we focus on three main branches which complement each other. We emphasise the combination of basic sharp interface and phase field models with pragmatically adapted multi phase field models and experimentally parametrized implementations of the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami model. In the basic thermodynamic modeling part, we review fundamental aspects of displacive and diffusional-displacive transformations to predict dominant transformation morphologies. These results provide a link to multi-phase-field implementations which allow to simulate isothermal bainitic transformations, supported by available material data from thermodynamic databases. Excellent agreement with experiments, e.g. scanning electron microscopy for the transformed bainite in the high-carbon steel 100Cr6 shows the value of these model implementations. The further connection to Johnson-Mehl-Avrami models offers to extend the understanding to transformation plasticity for the press hardening steel 22MnB5.

  11. Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades

    CERN Document Server

    Shafiq, M Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

  12. Finite BRST transformations for the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this Letter we analyse the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson (BLG) theory in N=1 superspace. Furthermore, we will construct the BRST transformations for this theory. These BRST transformations will be integrated out to obtain the finite field dependent version of BRST (FFBRST) transformations. We will also analyse the effect of the FFBRST transformations on the effective action. We will thus show that the FFBRST transformations can be used to relate generating functionals of the BLG theory in two different gauges

  13. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ?MAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  14. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/?L). PMID:25325766

  15. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part of the ASEM LLL Hub network 2 Survey on Workplace Learning in Asia and Europe. We will present the work of researchers on the survey as the first transformative learning space and workplace learning we discovered in the enterprises in Latvia as a second example on the transformative learning space. We will try to show, that there are some universal criteria, which makes learning process successful in those two very different learning examples.

  16. Highly Porous NiTi with Isotropic Pore Morphology Fabricated by Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Meshkot, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Highly porous NiTi with isotropic pore morphology has been successfully produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental Ni/Ti metallic powders. The effects of adding urea and NaCl as temporary pore fillers were investigated on pore morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and the phase transformation temperatures of specimens. These parameters were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly porous specimens were obtained with up to 83% total porosity and pore sizes between 300 and 500 ?m in diameter. Results show pore characteristics were improved from anisotropic to isotropic and pore morphology was changed from channel-like to irregular by adding pore filler powders. Furthermore, the highly porous specimens produced when using urea as a space holder, were of more uniform composition in comparison to NaCl. DSC results showed that a two-step martensitic phase transformation takes place during the cooling cycles and the austenite finish temperature ( A f) is close to human body temperature. Compression test results reveal that the compressive strength of highly porous NiTi is about 155 MPa and recoverable strain about 6% in superelasticity regime.

  17. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments.

  18. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments

  19. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

  20. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  1. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  2. Toroidal SQUID with ferromagnetic core superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnetic cores have been used for the secondary of a superconducting flux transformer in connection with a toroidal SQUID. Circuit analysis predicts an easier matching of the transformer for large inductances of the primary. Experimental data show a general agreement with the circuit analysis and a comparatively small increase in noise due to the metallic core

  3. Noncommutative versions of some classical birational transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Michel Van den; Presotto, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we generalize some classical birational transformations to the non-commutative case. In particular we show that 3-dimensional quadratic Sklyanin algebras (non-commutative projective planes) and 3-dimensional cubic Sklyanin algebras (non-commutative quadrics) have the same function field. In the same vein we construct and analogue of the Cremona transform for non-commutative projective planes.

  4. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.A., López; M., Ceballos; G., Hernández; L., Acosta; I., Gómez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentr [...] ation is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl-/Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl)° complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110) plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111) plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane). The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag+ ion and (AgCl)° concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl-2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  5. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentration is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl ° /Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl ± complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110 plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111 plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane. The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag + ion and (AgCl ± concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl ° 2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  6. Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Haidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

  7. Nonsynchronous Noncommensurate Impedance Transformers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Kim, K

    2012-01-01

    which allows to estimate the achievable total electrical length and in-band reflection coefficient for transformers consisting of up to twelve transmission line sections in the range of transformation ratios r = 1:5 to 10 and bandwidth ratios  = 2 to 20. This data is obtained using wave transmission......Nonsynchronous noncommensurate impedance transformers consist of a combination of two types of transmission lines: transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the impedance of the source, and transmission lines with a characteristic impedance equal to the load. The practical...... advantage of such transformers is that they can be constructed using sections of transmission lines with a limited variety of characteristic impedances. These transformers also provide comparatively compact size in applications where a wide transformation ratio is required. This paper presents the data...

  8. The Hough transform estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Goldenshluger, A; Goldenshluger, Alexander; Zeevi, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    This article pursues a statistical study of the Hough transform, the celebrated computer vision algorithm used to detect the presence of lines in a noisy image. We first study asymptotic properties of the Hough transform estimator, whose objective is to find the line that ``best'' fits a set of planar points. In particular, we establish strong consistency and rates of convergence, and characterize the limiting distribution of the Hough transform estimator. While the convergence rates are seen to be slower than those found in some standard regression methods, the Hough transform estimator is shown to be more robust as measured by its breakdown point. We next study the Hough transform in the context of the problem of detecting multiple lines. This is addressed via the framework of excess mass functionals and modality testing. Throughout, several numerical examples help illustrate various properties of the estimator. Relations between the Hough transform and more mainstream statistical paradigms and methods are ...

  9. ALHAMBRA survey: morphological classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povi?, M.; Huertas-Company, M.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Aguerri, J. A. López; Husillos, C.; Molino, A.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.

    2015-03-01

    The Advanced Large Homogeneous Area Medium Band Redshift Astronomical (ALHAMBRA) survey is a photometric survey designed to study systematically cosmic evolution and cosmic variance (Moles et al. 2008). It employs 20 continuous medium-band filters (3500 - 9700 Å), plus JHK near-infrared (NIR) bands, which enable measurements of photometric redshifts with good accuracy. ALHAMBRA covers > 4 deg2 in eight discontinuous regions (~ 0.5 deg2 per region), of theseseven fields overlap with other extragalactic, multiwavelength surveys (DEEP2, SDSS, COSMOS, HDF-N, Groth, ELAIS-N1). We detect > 600.000 sources, reaching the depth of R(AB) ~ 25.0, and photometric accuracy of 2-4% (Husillos et al., in prep.). Photometric redshifts are measured using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift (BPZ) code (Benítez et al. 2000), reaching one of the best accuracies up to date of ?z/z Gini, M20 moment of light, smoothness, and elongation), probability if the source belongs to early- or late-type, and its error. Comparing ALHAMBRA morph COSMOS/ACS morphology (obtained with the same method) we expect to have qualitative separation in two main morphological types for ~ 20.000 sources in 8 ALHAMBRA fields. For early-type galaxies we expect to recover ~ 70% and 30-40% up to magnitudes 20.0 and 21.5, respectively, having the contamination of late-types of < 7%. For late-type galaxies, we expect to recover ~ 70%, 60 - 70%, and ~ 30% of sources up to magnitudes 22.0, 22.5, and 23.0, respectively, having the contamination of early-types of <= 10%. These data will be used to study the evolution of active and non-active galaxies respect to morphology and morphological properties of galaxies in groups and clusters.

  10. Soft morphological filters: a robust morphological filtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Lasse; Astola, Jaakko T.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce new morphological filters, called soft morphological filters. They maintain most of the desirable properties of standard morphological operations yet are less sensitive to additive noise and to small variations in the shapes of the objects to be filtered. The main difference from standard morphological filters is that maximum and minimum operations are replaced by more general weighted-order statistics. This results in the loss of some algebraic properties but improved performance under noisy conditions.

  11. Mandibular torus morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellevold, B J

    1980-11-01

    The morphology of the mandibular torus was examined, and comparisons were made between a Medieval Norse skeletal population from Greenland and a 14th to 17th century Greenland Eskimo skeletal series. Three parameters were analyzed: degree of development (on a 4-point scale), position and length, and surface morphology according to the number of knobs, or lobuli. It was found that the Eskimos have a high frequency of weakly developed tori and no cases of the extreme development, while over 20% of the Norsemen had tori in the "extreme" category. The Norse torus was generally found to be longer than that of the Eskimos, and both groups exhibited a slight asymmetry between the sides, the torus on the left side tending to be longer and more forward in position than the right. A great difference was found in surface morphology. The Norse torus is in general very irregular, while the Eskimo torus is rather smooth. These differences are believed to be genetically determined. PMID:7468791

  12. Stochastic morphological evolution equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeden, Peter E.; Lorenz, Thomas

    The inadequacy of locally defined set-valued differential equations to describe the evolution of shapes and morphological forms in biology, which are usually neither convex or nondecreasing, was recognised by J.-P. Aubin, who introduced morphological evolution equations, which are essentially nonlocally defined set-valued differential equations with the inclusion vector field also depending on the entire reachable set. This concept is extended here to the stochastic setting of set-valued Itô evolution equations in Hilbert spaces. Due to the nonanticipative nature of Itô calculus, the evolving reachable sets are nonanticipative nonempty closed random sets. The existence of solutions and their dependence on initial data are established. The latter requires the introduction of a time-oriented semi-metric in time-space variables. As a consequence the stochastic morphological evolution equations generate a deterministic nonautonomous dynamical system formulated as a two-parameter semigroup with the complication that the random subsets take values in different spaces at different time instances due to the nonanticipativity requirement. It is also shown how nucleation processes can be handled in this conceptual framework.

  13. Reusable model transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sagar; Moha, Naouel; Mahé, Vincent; Barais, Olivier; Baudry, Benoit; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Model transformations written for an input metamodel may often apply to other metamodels that share similar concepts. For example, a transformation written to refactor Java models can be applicable to refactoring UML class diagrams as both languages share concepts such as classes, methods, attributes, and inheritance. Deriving motivation from this example, we present an approach to make model transformations reusable such that they function correctly across several similar metamodels. Our app...

  14. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  15. Scale invariant feature transform

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is an image descriptor for image-based matching developed by David Lowe (1999,2004). This descriptor as well as related image descriptors are used for a large number of purposes in computer vision related to point matching between different views of a 3-D scene and view-based object recognition. The SIFT descriptor is invariant to translations, rotations and scaling transformations in the image domain and robust to moderate perspective transformations ...

  16. The Hough transform estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenshluger, Alexander; Zeevi, Assaf

    2005-01-01

    This article pursues a statistical study of the Hough transform, the celebrated computer vision algorithm used to detect the presence of lines in a noisy image. We first study asymptotic properties of the Hough transform estimator, whose objective is to find the line that ``best'' fits a set of planar points. In particular, we establish strong consistency and rates of convergence, and characterize the limiting distribution of the Hough transform estimator. While the converge...

  17. Generalized Stirling transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mourad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangeme...

  18. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there...

  19. The Object Databases Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tavac

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the transformation of a relationaldatabase to an object database. It suggests a new so-lution based on database and model-driven engineeringintegration. In the first part it is discussed in generalissues of relational database transformation into objectone, some problematic areas are identified. Subsequently,depending on detailed analyze of the database reverse en-gineering processes, the whole process is defined as a se-quence of models and transformation among them b...

  20. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  1. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  2. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  3. A DC Transformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  4. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  5. Phase transformation and diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kale, G B; Dey, G K

    2008-01-01

    Given that the basic purpose of all research in materials science and technology is to tailor the properties of materials to suit specific applications, phase transformations are the natural key to the fine-tuning of the structural, mechanical and corrosion properties. A basic understanding of the kinetics and mechanisms of phase transformation is therefore of vital importance. Apart from a few cases involving crystallographic martensitic transformations, all phase transformations are mediated by diffusion. Thus, proper control and understanding of the process of diffusion during nucleation, g

  6. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng; Qiu, Weimin; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha; Bunger, Cody

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by...

  7. Quantum Optical Version of Classical Optical Transformations and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Hong-yi

    2010-01-01

    By the newly developed technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We can not only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs i...

  8. Hashimoto transform for stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation

    OpenAIRE

    Neklyudov, Misha

    2014-01-01

    We show that Hashimoto transformation is applicable to the one dimensional stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and transforms it to the stochastic generalized heat equation with nonlocal (in space) interaction.

  9. Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qiong; Yang, Siyang; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2012-03-01

    This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high-order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high-order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high-order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high-order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two-dimensional and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and a standard approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, that is, surface area, surface-enclosed volume, solvation free energy, and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform-based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second-order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform-based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus surface capsid. Virus surface morphologies of different resolutions are attained by adjusting the propagation time. Therefore, the present PDE transform provides a multiresolution analysis in the surface visualization. Extensive numerical experiment and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the present PDE transform is a robust, stable, and efficient approach for biomolecular surface generation in Cartesian meshes. PMID:22582140

  10. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas Le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  11. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  12. Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

  13. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovri Henry

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  14. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  15. A relation connecting scale transformation, Galilean transformation and Baecklund transformation for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the two-parameter manifold of Baecklund transformations known for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be generated from one Baecklund transformation with specified parameters by use of scale transformation and Galilean transformation. (orig.)

  16. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  17. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

  18. Mineralogy, morphology and crystal-chemistry of the monazite from Catalao 1 (Goias, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Catalao alkaline carbonatite complex hosts a number of mineral resources including monazite. This mineral is a common accessory phase in two lithological units: carbonatite and silexite. Textural evidence suggest that monazite replaced carbonates in the carbonatite and crystallized simultaneously with quartz in the silexite. Monazite was resistant to the strong laterization that affected the massif, except for the incipient transformation into gorceixite or cerianite. In both carbonatite and silexite, monazite occurs as a complex aggregate of sub-micrometric crystals, showing unusual morphological and chemical characteristics. It contains Ca, Sr, and Ba in the A-site, and shows a certain degree of hydration indicated by ATD and IV data. Structural formulae calculated on the basis of sum of cations=1 show a moderate ionic deficiency in the anionic site. Rietveld refinement indicated poor crystallinity. Notwithstanding these peculiar characteristics, cell dimensions are similar to those of standard monazite. (author)

  19. Size- and morphology-controllable synthesis of MIL-96 (Al) by hydrolysis and coordination modulation of dual aluminium source and ligand systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Liu, Yunqi; Dai, Fangna; Zhao, Jinchong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, an efficient method to fabricate Al-based metal organic framework (Al-MOF) MIL-96 crystals with controllable size and morphology, by mixing other forms of reactants to replace the coordination modulators or capping agents, is presented. The size and morphology of the MIL-96 crystals can be selectively varied by simply altering the ratio of dual reactants via their hydrolysis reaction. All the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen sorption. Then based on the BFDH theory, a mechanism for the impact of hydrolysis of reactants on the crystal size and morphology is presented and discussed. We also evaluated the performance of these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2, and they all show enhanced adsorption properties compared with the bulk material, displaying high adsorption capacities on CO2 at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. PMID:26309045

  20. Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Hur

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

  1. Phase Transformations in Nb-Al-Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, E. S. K.; Subramanian, P. R.; Dimiduk, D. M.

    1996-06-01

    Phase relationships as well as morphological and crystallographic features in Nb-rich Nb-Al and Nb-Al-Ti alloys have been investigated. The phase boundaries involving the bcc and Nb3Al (A15 structure) were experimentally determined and several isothermal sections of the Nb-rich corner of the Nb-AI-Ti phase diagram established. The present findings show that (a) the solubility of Al in Nb is considerably less than that reported previously, (b) the high-temperature bcc phase undergoes an ordering transformation to the B2 structure, and (c) the ? phase also forms in these alloys. The sequence of decomposition of the high-temperature bcc phase during isothermal decomposition in the bcc + Nb3Al phase field has been systematically studied in these alloys. A wide variety of morphological features were found to be associated with the Nb3Al precipitates that formed in the bcc/B2 matrix during isothermal heat treatments. The lengthening kinetics of the plate-shaped Nb3Al precipitates were also studied.

  2. Phase transformations in Nb-Al-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase relationships as well as morphological and crystallographic features in Nb-rich Nb-Al and Nb-Al-Ti alloys have been investigated. The phase boundaries involving the bcc and Nb3Al (A15 structure) were experimentally determined and several isothermal sections of the Nb-rich corner of the Nb-Al-Ti phase diagram established. The present findings show that (a) the solubility of Al in Nb is considerably less than that reported previously, (b) the high-temperature bcc phase undergoes an ordering transformation to the B2 structure, and (c) the ω phase also forms in these alloys. The sequence of decomposition of the high-temperature bcc phase during isothermal decomposition in the bcc + Nb3Al phase field has been systematically studied in these alloys. A wide variety of morphological features were found to be associated with the Nb3Al precipitates that formed in the bcc/B2 matrix during isothermal heat treatments. The lengthening kinetics of the plate-shaped Nb3Al precipitates were also studied

  3. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and rel...

  4. Performance of summation invariants of projective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhir, Nasereh; Ali, Jamaludin Md

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the classification of two dimension objects under the projective transformation group, interested group in computer vision, is presented. Results between the proposed invariants with previous invariant features are compared to show the performance of the method.

  5. THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

  6. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    The scope of the project is to investigate the possibillities of - and the barriers for a transformation of technical infrastructure conserning energy, water and waste. It focus on urban ecology as a transformation strategy. The theoretical background of the project is theories about infrastructure...

  7. Transformation of technical infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev

    1998-01-01

    article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply.......article about the need of new planning forums in order to initiate transformations with in management of large technical systems for energy, waste and water supply....

  8. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  9. Transformation optics and metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C T; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak. PMID:20414221

  10. The unhomogeneous Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unhomogeneous Bogolyubov transformations are proposed for any fermonic and bosonic systems. In this case the unhomogeneous terms of transformation is Grassmann variables and c11-number functions accordingly for fermonic and bosonic systems. The correlation functions of unhomogeneous terms will depend on properties of systems

  11. On General Moeller Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a study on the general Moeller transformation and emphatically introduce its differential form. In this paper, a definition of acceleration is given in spacetime language and the inertial reference frame is also settled. With a discussion of the geodesic equations of motion, the differential form of the general Moeller transformation at arbitrary direction is presented.

  12. Adaptive Wavelet Transforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

  13. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  14. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10-4 Pa to 102 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  15. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  16. Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chng, Leng Leng; Erathodiyil, Nandanan; Ying, Jackie Y

    2013-08-20

    The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity and/or recyclability of the nanostructured catalysts via control of the structure, composition of the catalytically active NPs, and/or nature of the support. These principles will aid researchers in the rational design and engineering of new types of multifunctional nanocatalysts for the achievement of green and sustainable chemical processes. Although the past decade has brought many advances, there are still challenges in the area of nanocatalysis that need to be addressed. These include loss of catalytic activity during operation due to sintering, leaching of soluble species from the nanocatalysts under harsh reaction conditions, loss of control over well-defined morphologies during the scale-up synthesis of the nanocomposites, and limited examples of enantioselective nanocatalytic systems. The future of nanocatalyst research lies in the judicious design and development of nanocomposite catalysts that are stable and resistant to sintering and leaching, and yet are highly active and enantioselective for the desired catalytic organic transformations, even after multiple runs. The successful generation of such multifunctional nanocatalysts especially in tandem, domino, or cascade reactions would provide a powerful tool for the establishment of green and sustainable technologies. PMID:23350747

  17. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas

  18. Morphology of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical basis for the morphological classification of spiral galaxies is presented from the point of view of the density wave theory. Specifically, emphasis is placed on the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure for regular grand designs in galaxies. The modal approach is adopted which also naturally covers the large scale structure in galaxies with less regular spiral structure. The dynamical mechanisms for the formation and the maintenance of spiral structure of diverse shapes is placed in a unified framework. Various dilemmmas and issues are discussed in some detail

  19. Noether symmetries and duality transformations in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Paliathanasis, Andronikos

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the relation between local transformations generated by Noether (point) symmetries and discrete transformations for a class of minisuperspace cosmological models. Moreover as far as concerns the scale-factor duality of the dilaton field, we show that it is related to the existence of a Noether symmetry for the field equations. In particular, the same point symmetry exists for the Brans-Dicke- scalar field with linear potential for $\\omega_{BD}=1$ . Furthermore, in the context of the O'Hanlon theory for $f\\left( R\\right) $-gravity, it is possible to show how a duality transformation in the minisuperspace can be used to relate different gravitational models.

  20. Grain Nucleation and Growth During Phase Transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offerman, S. E.; van Dijk, N. H.; Sietsma, J.; Grigull, S.; Lauridsen, E. M.; Margulies, L.; Poulsen, H. F.; Rekveldt, M. Th.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials are largely determined by the kinetics of the phase transformations during the production process. Progress in x-ray diffraction instrumentation at synchrotron sources has created an opportunity to study the transformation kinetics at the level of individual grains. Our measurements show that the activation energy for grain nucleation is at least two orders of magnitude smaller than that predicted by thermodynamic models. The observed growth curves of the newly formed grains confirm the parabolic growth model but also show three fundamentally different types of growth. Insight into the grain nucleation and growth mechanisms during phase transformations contributes to the development of materials with optimal mechanical properties.

  1. Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayes Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72 of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72 are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values, and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18 lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

  2. Controlling the morphology of membranes by excess surface charge in cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yuwen; Ou-Yang, Zhong-can; Zhang, Yufeng; Hao, Jingcheng; Liu, Zhaohui

    2014-03-18

    The segregation and phase sequence of semifluorinated cat-anionic surfactant membranes at different excess surface charges was investigated by freeze-fracture transmission electron microscope (FF-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The thermal behavior of the membranes was evaluated by conductivity, rheology, and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance ((2)H NMR). The experimental results show that the cat-anionic fluorinated surfactant mixtures can form faceted vesicles and punctured lamellar phase when there is excess surface charge. The cationic and anionic fluorinated surfactants are stiff in the membranes, like phospholipids in the frozen "crystalline" or "gel" phase. For the system with excess cationic surface charge, the gel-like faceted vesicles and punctured lamellae can transform into smooth-shaped vesicles at 65 °C. However, for the system with no excess charge or with excess anionic surface charge, no phase transformation occurs even at 90 °C. A model was established to demonstrate the mechanism of the formation and transition of the aggregates with different morphologies. The segregation-crystallization mechanism works well with other cosmotropic counterions from the Hofmeister series. The observations provide a better understanding of how to control the membrane morphology of the aqueous solutions of cat-anionic surfactant mixtures. PMID:24559199

  3. An efficient method to modulate the structure, morphology and properties of WO3 through niobium doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nb-doped WO3 micro- and nanostructures have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. • Nb doping in WO3 structure results in phase transformation and morphology evolution. • Band gap increases from 2.72 to 2.78 eV after 0–5 at% Nb doping in WO3 structure. • A balance between defect oxygen and absorbed oxygen results in steady-state photocurrent at 2 at% niobium doping. - Abstract: Doped tungsten oxide has been reported to provide enhanced photocatalytic and photoelectronic properties in catalyst and smart window applications. Here Nb-doped WO3 was synthesized to investigate the effect of doping on composition, structure and optical properties. It is shown that niobium ion implantation in WO3 structure results in the morphological evolution from nanosheet into nanoparticle. 5 at% niobium ion doping induces the phase transformation from monoclinic ?-WO3 to monoclinic ?-WO3. UV–vis spectrum shows that niobium implantation results in the increase of the band gap and the shift of absorption edge. Photoelectric measurement indicates that photocurrent increases firstly and then decreases under UV irradiation. The results reported in this study will be useful in formulating optimum doping process to enhance desired photoelectric properties

  4. The quantum fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nga; Somma, Rolando

    2014-03-01

    The Fourier transform (FT) is ubiquitous in signal processing, as it can be used to filter noise. The digital version, often named the discrete Fourier transform, when formulated on a basis of quantum states, is the quantum Fourier transform (QFT). The efficiency in the implementation of the QFT is the main reason for several quantum speedups, including the one for factoring and the one in phase estimation at the Heisenberg limit. The fractional FT (frFT) is a generalization of the FT. The frFT has recently gained attention in signal analysis as it can filter noise in scenarios where the FT is not useful. Quantum frFTs (QfrFTs), however, have never been proposed, constructed, or applied. In this work we propose a QfrFT and show that a good approximation of this transformation can be implemented on a quantum computer with exponentially less resources than those required for its conventional implementation. We then analyze some problems in signal analysis for which our defined QfrFT is useful.

  5. Clifford (Geometric) Algebra Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    While the Clifford (geometric) algebra Fourier Transform (CFT) is global, we introduce here the local Clifford (geometric) algebra (GA) wavelet concept. We show how for $n=2,3 (\\mod 4)$ continuous $Cl_n$-valued admissible wavelets can be constructed using the similitude group $SIM(n)$. We strictly aim for real geometric interpretation, and replace the imaginary unit $i \\in \\C$ therefore with a GA blade squaring to $-1$. Consequences due to non-commutativity arise. We express the admissibility...

  6. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

  7. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  8. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

  9. Morphological heterogeneity in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubei, K; Rose, P E; Hill, F G

    1984-01-01

    Considerable heterogeneity of lymphoblast morphology in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been observed. One case showed unusual monocytic features and emphasised the need for marker studies in the accurate definition of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia phenotypes. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is rare but may have been previously underestimated by morphological misinterpretation. Further information is required to determine if the different morphological features of this...

  10. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gavrilets

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable i...

  11. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the enviromental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semi-solid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological ...

  12. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  13. Approaches to Automated Morphological Classification of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Avi

    1994-01-01

    There is an obvious need for automated classification of galaxies, as the number of observed galaxies increases very fast. We examine several approaches to this problem, utilising {\\em Artificial Neural Networks} (ANNs). We quote results from a recent study which show that ANNs can classsify galaxies morphologically as well as humans can.

  14. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  15. Roentgeno-morphological correlations in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the clinical and X-ray data on 2.107 cases of morphologically-confirmed lung cancer showed a relationship between roentgenologic and histologic patterns of both central and peripheral forms of the lesion. Main roentgenologic symptoms versus histologic pattern of both forms of lung cancer are discussed

  16. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  17. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØnderby, SØren Kaae; SØnderby, Casper Kaae

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input images without deteriorating performance. The down-sampling in RNN-SPN can be thought of as adaptive down-sampling that minimizes the information loss in the regions of interest. We attribute the superior performance of the RNN-SPN to the fact that it can attend to a sequence of regions of interest.

  18. Correlation of bacterial mutagenicity and hamster cell transformation with tumorigenicity induced by 2,4-toluenediamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienta, R J; Shah, M J; Lebherz, W B; Andrews, A W

    1977-07-01

    In the presence of rat liver microsome enzymes, 2,4-toluenediamine (TDA) was mutagenic for several tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium. TDA induced morphological transformation in an in vitro carcinogenesis system using secondary culture target cells prepared from cryopreserved primary Syrian hamster embryo cells. These results now correlate bacterial mutagenicity and in vitro morphological transformation with the reported tumorigenicity of this compound. PMID:196749

  19. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to achieve three distinct material responses with a singe metamaterial unit cell. We show the power of our design by experimentally demonstrating a cloak of ten wavelengths in diameter at microwave frequencies. In addition to these specific examples, we seek a general method to simulate transformation optics devices containing metamaterial inclusions. In Chapter 5, we examine the discrete-approximation, and we apply it to the design of an electromagnetic cloak. We show that the point-dipole description of metamaterial elements allows us to correct for some aberrations that appear when the limits of homogenization are violated. Finally, we examine so-called ``complementary metamaterials'' and their utility in transformation optics devices. Complementary metamaterials exchange the void and metallized regions of conventional metamaterial elements, and thereby offer a dual response to the electromagnetic field. This duality is attractive because it provides a straightforward method of creating broadband, highly-anisotropic magnetics. We analyze these elements and show that they may be incorporated into our discrete-dipole model. However, we show that the unique characteristics of complementary elements limit their functionality when used as effective materials.

  20. Comparative study on ? energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise ? energy spectrum of 60Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for ? energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to ? energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

  1. Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende Camila

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

  2. A Selective CPS Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Riechstein

    2001-01-01

    The CPS transformation makes all functions continuation-passing, uniformly. Not all functions, however, need continuations: they only do if their evaluation includes computational effects. In this paper we focus on control operations, in particular "call with current continuation" and "throw". We...... characterize this involvement as a control effect and we present a selective CPS transformation that makes functions and expressions continuation-passing if they have a control effect, and that leaves the rest of the program in direct style. We formalize this selective CPS transformation with an operational...

  3. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  4. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  5. Information under Lorentz Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of quantum information, we investigate extensively some important classes of a general form of a two-qubit system under Lorentz transformation. It is shown Lorentz transformation causes a decay of entanglement and consequently information loses. On the other hand, it generates entangled states between systems prepared initially in a separable states. The partial entangled states are more robust under Lorentz transformation than maximally entangled states. Therefore the rate of information lose is larger for maximum entangled states compared with that for partially entangled states. (general)

  6. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  7. Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, William Y; Sanford, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services" addresses the fundamental ideology of Cloud Services and how enterprises in commercial, federal, and defense industries can transform their current information technology and management models to adopt this new method. It goes beyond the mere description of service frameworks in relation to cloud technologies and operations and provides practical path-forward solutions for identified challenges. For instance, as organizations transform their data and service models to compete in a new environment where data and services coexist with others in

  8. Transformation elastodynamics and cloaking for flexural waves

    CERN Document Server

    Colquitt, D J; Gei, M; Movchan, A B; Movchan, N V; Jones, I S

    2014-01-01

    The paper addresses an important issue of cloaking transformations for fourth-order partial differential equations representing flexural waves in thin elastic plates. It is shown that, in contrast with the Helmholtz equation, the general form of the partial differential equation is not invariant with respect to the cloaking transformation. The significant result of this paper is the analysis of the transformed equation and its interpretation in the framework of the linear theory of pre-stressed plates. The paper provides a formal framework for transformation elastodynamics as applied to elastic plates. Furthermore, an algorithm is proposed for designing a square cloak for flexural waves, which employs a regularised push-out transformation. Illustrative numerical examples show high accuracy and efficiency of the proposed cloaking algorithm. In particular, a physical configuration involving a perturbation of an interference pattern generated by two coherent sources is presented. It is demonstrated that the pert...

  9. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mess

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  10. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  11. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Mess.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own [...] work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  12. Analysis of Texture Classification By Wavelet Transform And Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Santhanalakshmi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the task of texture image classification is analyzed by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT and Discrete CurveletTransform (DCT. The wavelet and curvelet coefficients are used to describe the textures in the given image. These coefficients are obtained by the decomposition process. First, the texture image is decomposed by using DWT and DCT at multiscale. As the sub-bands in the decomposed image carries diverse information about the texture, predefined number of coefficients is selected in each sub-band image. Before selecting the coefficients, sub-band coefficients are sorted in order to account high energy coefficients. The results show that the classification accuracy of DWT based features outperforms the DCT energies. The classification accuracy of DWT is 5% higher than DCT features at 2-level decomposition with 50% of coefficients used.

  13. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  14. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  15. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  16. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  17. The HCP To BCC Phase Transformation in Ti Characterized by Nanosecond Electron Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; King, W; Colvin, J; Ziegler, A; Browning, N; Kleinschmidt, H; Bostanjoglo, O

    2005-06-21

    The general class of martensitic phase transformations occurs by a rapid lattice-distortive mechanism, where kinetics and morphology of the transformation are dominated by the strain energy. Since transformation is diffusionless, phase fronts propagate through a crystal with great speed that can approach the speed of sound. We have observed a particular example of this class of phase transformation, the hexagonal close packed (HCP) to body centered cubic (BCC) transformation in titanium that is driven by a rapid increase in temperature. We have used a novel nanosecond electron microscope (the dynamic transmission electron microscope, DTEM) to acquire diffraction and imaging information on the transformation, which is driven in-situ by nanosecond laser irradiation. Using nanosecond exposure times that are possible in the DTEM, data can be collected about the transient events in these fast transformations. We have identified the phase transformation with diffraction patterns and correlated the time of the phase transformation with calculated conditions in the sample.

  18. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  19. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  20. Study of Structural Morphology of Hemp Fiber from the Micro to the Nanoscale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Sain, Mohini; Oksman, Kristiina

    2007-03-01

    The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers. Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and 100 nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. The chemical analysis showed that selective chemical treatments increased the ?-cellulose content of hemp nanofibers from 75 to 94%. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments. It was also observed that the hemp nanofibers had an increased crystallinity of 71 from 57% of untreated hemp fibers.

  1. Entanglement-assisted transformation is asymptotically equivalent to multiple-copy transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that two ways of manipulating quantum entanglement - namely, entanglement-assisted local transformation [D. Jonathan and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3566 (1999)] and multiple-copy transformation [S. Bandyopadhyay, V. Roychowdhury, and U. Sen, Phys. Rev. A 65, 052315 (2002)]--are equivalent in the sense that they can asymptotically simulate each other's ability to implement a desired transformation from a given source state to another given target state with the same optimal success probability. As a consequence, this yields a feasible method to evaluate the optimal conversion probability of an entanglement-assisted transformation

  2. Relationships between Convolution and Correlation for Fourier Transform and Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce convolution theorem for the Fourier transform (FT) of two complex functions. We show that the correlation theorem for the FT can be derived using properties of convolution. We develop this idea to derive the correlation theorem for the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT) of the two quaternion functions.

  3. Quaternions and Lorentz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, it was argued by some authors that number systems with non-commutative multiplication laws can provide a deeper physical insight into many open theoretical problems. The generalization of the Lorentz group to transformations with faster-than-light speed parameters (the so-called 'extended theory of relativity') has shown itself - apart from the real existence of tachyons - to be a useful tool in order to deal, within a purely classical (i.e. relativistic but not quantum-mechanical) frame work, with antiparticles, discrete symmetries, CPT-covariance, and so on. Therefore, it seems worthwhile looking for possible connections between non-commutative number systems and 'superluminal' Lorentz transformations. In this paper, the author reviews how Lorentz transformations (both subluminal and superluminal) have been translated in quaterion language. Besides, some considerations are made on possible, further developments of the theory, according to the suggestions by the group properties of quaternionic (generalized) Lorentz transformations (QGLT). (Auth.)

  4. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  5. Crazy Qubit Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, L; Hardy, Lucien; Song, David D.

    2001-01-01

    We generalise our previous results of universal linear manipulations [Phys. Rev. A63, 032304 (2001)] to investigate three types of nonlinear qubit transformations using measurement and quantum based schemes. Firstly, nonlinear rotations are studied. We rotate different parts of a Bloch sphere in opposite directions about the z-axis. The second transformation is a map which sends a qubit to its orthogonal state (which we define as ORTHOG). We consider the case when the ORTHOG is applied to only a partial area of a Bloch sphere. We also study nonlinear general transformation, i.e. (theta,phi)->(theta-alpha,phi), again, applied only to part of the Bloch sphere. In order to achieve these three operations, we consider different measurement preparations and derive the optimal average (instead of universal) quantum unitary transformations. We also introduce a simple method for a qubit measurement and its application to other cases.

  6. Transformer design tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  7. Finite BMS transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Barnich, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    The action of finite BMS and Weyl transformations on the gravitational data at null infinity is worked out in three and four dimensions in the case of an arbitrary conformal factor for the boundary metric induced on Scri.

  8. Transformations of High Explosives

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Creation of Scientific Grounds, Techniques and Technologies for the Transformation of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (Trotyl, TNT) into valuable Civil Products (Polymeric Materials, Dyes, Biologically Active Compounds, etc.).

  9. Broadband Transformation Optics Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Igor I. Smolyaninov; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that two-dimensional broadband transformation optics devices based on metamaterial designs may be built using tapered waveguides. Here we review application of this principle to broadband electromagnetic cloaking, trapped rainbow, and novel microscopy devices.

  10. Broadband Transformation Optics Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that two-dimensional broadband transformation optics devices based on metamaterial designs may be built using tapered waveguides. Here we review application of this principle to broadband electromagnetic cloaking, trapped rainbow, and novel microscopy devices.

  11. Hierarchical similarity transformations between Gaussian mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigas, George; Nikou, Christophoros; Goletsis, Yorgos; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a method to estimate the density of a data space represented by a geometric transformation of an initial Gaussian mixture model. The geometric transformation is hierarchical, and it is decomposed into two steps. At first, the initial model is assumed to undergo a global similarity transformation modeled by translation, rotation, and scaling of the model components. Then, to increase the degrees of freedom of the model and allow it to capture fine data structures, each individual mixture component may be transformed by another, local similarity transformation, whose parameters are distinct for each component of the mixture. In addition, to constrain the order of magnitude of the local transformation (LT) with respect to the global transformation (GT), zero-mean Gaussian priors are imposed onto the local parameters. The estimation of both GT and LT parameters is obtained through the expectation maximization framework. Experiments on artificial data are conducted to evaluate the proposed model, with varying data dimensionality, number of model components, and transformation parameters. In addition, the method is evaluated using real data from a speech recognition task. The obtained results show a high model accuracy and demonstrate the potential application of the proposed method to similar classification problems. PMID:24808615

  12. A model for distribution transformers replacement economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total owning cost of transformers is usually calculated as a present value at time of purchase, using well-defined parameters that take into account specific actual and forecasted financial data including the projected cost of losses over the expected life of the unit. Improvements in transformer efficiency, especially in the last decade, have resulted in changes in evaluation parameters used in such calculations. It is not uncommon to see that the capitalized cost of transformer losses reaches 1.5 times the invoiced price of a transformer. It is therefore of interest to examine the economics of replacing an older transformer by a more efficient unit, rather than refurbishing the older unit. An example of a 50-kVA transformer originally installed in 1974 is used. The analysis shows that if the unit is installed, it is not economical to remove it for replacement with a new unit; but if the transformer is not in service the opposite applies. A computer program running with Lotus 123 is available that aids in these transformer replacement economics calculations. The program also allows sensitivity analyses and comparisons of present worth to changeout and/or refurbishment cost. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  14. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  15. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOOCHAKI, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  16. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    A Koochaki; KOUHSARI, S. M.; GHANAVATI, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  17. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  18. Fourier transform wavemeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, M.-L.; Stâhlberg, B.; Kyrö, E.; Veijola, T.; Kauppinen, J.

    1987-07-01

    We describe a scanning Michelson interferometer and utilization of fast Fourier transformation in laser wavelength determination. The Fourier transformation method is demonstrated to be particularly powerful in cw multimode (diode) laser investigations and in cw single-mode laser long-term frequency stability measurements. An uncertainty less than 10-7 can be concluded from comparisons of a two-mode polarization stabilized 543-nm He-Ne laser with an iodine stabilized 633-nm He-Ne laser.

  19. Selection of Transformed Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  20. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Meant to serve an "entertaining textbook," this book belongs to a rare genre. It is written for all students and practitioners who deal with Fourier transformation. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are covered, and particular emphasis is placed on window functions. Many illustrations and easy-to-solve exercises make the book especially accessible, and its humorous style will add to the pleasure of learning from it.