WorldWideScience

Sample records for showing morphologic transformation

  1. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  2. Soft morphological filters and hierarchical discrete transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1994-05-01

    Discrete soft morphological filters generalize standard morphological filters on the basis of the structuring set modification. Formally soft morphological operations correspond to the set of standard morphological operations. Further development of soft morphological filters on the basis of the hierarchical description of the structuring system connects morphological operations with pyramid transformations.

  3. Water phenomenon: Urban morphology transformation

    OpenAIRE

    ?akari? Jasenka

    2010-01-01

    This research paper deals with the mutual dependence of water phenomenon and urban morphology. Water is a basic subject matter of many analyses, and it is considered a principal existential and vital generator of the formation, sustainability and transformation of different types of cities. The water relevant facts are here presented from the aspect of elementary criteria of generative factors of typification of cities and relationship between urban landscapes and water. By integrating ...

  4. SAR image enhancement technique based on morphological wavelet transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jingwen; Lu, Gang; Lu, Hanqing

    2001-09-01

    In this paper, a morphological wavelet principle and a SAR image enhancement technique are introduced, and the image enhancement technique performance based on morphological wavelet transformation is proceeded using SAR image data. In wavelet transformation domain, an image enhancement method of 2D Butterworth filter constructed is applied, good enhancement effects are obtained, and an extraction edge and texture study of applying prewitt operator is taken. Because of morphological wavelet transformation good performance, a high efficiency in image enhancement and texture obtaining is gotten. The research results show that the SAR data with Speckle and Pepper and Salt noise is enhanced very well by nonlinear enhancement processing in morphological wavelet domain, and the ocean target characteristics is clearer, such as ship, ship tail and interalwave.

  5. Real-Time Optical Hough Transform and Morphological Inspection Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jeffrey Scott

    A real-time optical Hough transform inspection processor is described and applied to the industrial case study of the inspection of cigarette packages. The inspections are performed in real-time using a color Epson liquid crystal television as the input spatial light modulator. A new selective, real-time edge-enhancement technique is used to enhance edges only at the selected orientations which will Hough transform to peaks (this maximizes the signal to noise ratio in the Hough transform output). Several slices of the Hough transform are generated in parallel with a new computer generated hologram utilizing 1D modulated error diffusion. We benchmark our Hough transform processor with the inspection of 100 sample cigarette packages. Correct classification of all the packages (with defects that we intended to inspect for) was attained. We also discuss the confidence with which we can apply our laboratory sample set results to the industrial installation of our inspection processor. Extensions of the Hough transform are also described which generalize the Hough space to recognize shapes other than straight lines (e.g. circles, ellipses). We propose a new high speed acousto-optic architecture to implement these generalized Hough transforms. We also describe how the exact position of input lines can be extracted from Hough transform peak data. Typically, only the contour on which an input line resides is extracted from Hough data. Digital simulations illustrating both generalized Hough transformations and determination of input line position from Hough data are presented. Basic morphological transformations and their real-time optical implementation are discussed. We describe how morphological transformations are useful in inspection and show digital simulations and optical results of an inspection application (string detection in chopped tobacco) where morphological transformations are used.

  6. Texture, morphology and deformation mechanisms in ?-transformed Zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology of the ?(bcc) transformed Zircaloy-4 may be treated as a lenticular-twinned martensite. The texture is a consequence of the degeneration of the left angle 0001 right angle ?, left angle 1010 right angle ? and left angle 1011 right angle ? directions into left angle 110 right angle ? directions. The crystallographic mechanisms implied in the accommodation of the microscopic Bain strain are (1010) left angle 1120 right angle prism slip, (1012) left angle 101 1 right angle twinning and (1011) left angle 1012 right angle twinning. This degeneration explains the 'parallel plate' and 'basketweave' morphologies observed by microscopy and the texture of the ? transformed tube. The macroscopic Bain strain was calculated and agrees with the dimensional measurements. The deformation mechanisms of ? transformed Zircaloy-4 are identified from the new texture and from deformation experiments as twinning and interplatelet glide. The interplatelet glide induces a fragile character of fracture in the 'parallel plate' morphology. (orig.)

  7. Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

  8. Morphological transformations of Dwarf Galaxies in the Local Group

    CERN Document Server

    Carraro, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    In the Local Group there are three main types of dwarf galaxies: Dwarf Irregulars, Dwarf Spheroidals, and Dwarf Ellipticals. Intermediate/transitional types are present as well. This contribution reviews the idea that the present day variety of dwarf galaxy morphologies in the Local Group might reveal the existence of a transformation chain of events, of which any particular dwarf galaxy represents a manifestation of a particular stage. In other words, all dwarf galaxies that now are part of the Local Group would have formed identically in the early universe, but then evolved differently because of morphological transformations induced by dynamical processes like galaxy harassment, ram pressure stripping, photo-evaporation, and so forth. We start describing the population of dwarf galaxies and their spatial distribution in the LG. Then, we describe those phenomena that can alter the morphology of a dwarf galaxies, essentially by removing, partially or completely, their gas content. Lastly, we discuss morpholo...

  9. Morphological transformation in vitro of normal human fibroblasts by chrysotile.

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph, L. B.; Stephens, R. E.; Ottolenghi, A C; Lipetz, P D; Newman, H A

    1983-01-01

    Pathologic response of tissue to asbestos in vivo gives rise to fibromatoma, granuloma and mesothelioma. We are attempting to develop a model system in vitro using human cells in order to investigate the possible mechanisms responsible for these pathologies. Within the first 12 hr of exposure to chrysotile, the fibroblasts showed distinctive morphological changes. Cells appeared elongated with occasional vacuolated nuclei and granular cytoplasm. Cells showed no other obvious morphological cha...

  10. Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2014-11-01

    Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities. PMID:25295697

  11. On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Solterbeck, C.-H.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Es-Souni, M.

    2011-01-01

    We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmo...

  12. Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Kap

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

  13. Morphological Multiscale Stationary Wavelet Transform based Texture Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosiganti Joseph Prakash

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Image segmentation is an important step in several computer vision applications. The segmentation of images into homogeneous and meaningful regions is a fundamental technique for image analysis. Textures occupy a vital role in a wide range of computer vision research fields; from microscopic images to images sent down to earth by satellites, from the analysis of multi-spectral scan images to outdoor scenes, all consist of texture. Although several methods have been proposed, less work has been done in developing suitable techniques for segmentation of texture images. After a careful and in-depth survey on wavelet transforms, the present study found that efficient numerical solutions in the signal processing applications can be found using Stationary Wavelet Transform (SWT. SWT is redundant, linear and shift invariant, that’s why it gives a better approximation than the DWT. In this paper a novel texture segmentation method based on “SWT and Textural Properties” is proposed. Multi scale SWT with Textural Properties and morphological treatment is used in the present study to detect fine edges from texture images for a fine segmentation.

  14. An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns

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    Stephenson Steven L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

  15. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-06-20

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  16. GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 1013-1014 M? and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M*/M?) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

  17. Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V. F.; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a to...

  18. The morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei in glioblastomas shows a significant relationship with survival time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafe, Reinhold; Franz, Kea; Schlote, Wolfgang; Schneider, Berthold

    2006-09-01

    A deeper knowledge about histopathological criteria with a significant impact on the prognosis of patients with glioblastomas is worthwhile, since these patients may show a considerable difference in the time of survival. Investigation of the morphology of perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei is a promising approach, because the expression of specific molecules in these cells has been associated with a more aggressive behaviour of the tumors. In our series of patients with documented clinical course, 11 patients had a survival of at least 24 months and we compared this group with a group of 10 patients with maximum survival of 12 months. Digital microscopic image analysis was performed in paraffin sections from the primary surgical specimen. Three hundred perinecrotic tumor cell nuclei per case and 300 nuclei per case from tumor cells lying more distant from the tumor necroses ('distant zone' nuclei) were measured. The ratio for the numerical nuclear density between both types of nuclei was significantly larger in cases with short survival indicating a more pronounced nuclear density of perinecrotic nuclei in relation to the 'distant zone' nuclei in these tumors. In cases with long survival, on the contrary, perinecrotic tumor cells exhibited an only slightly larger numerical density compared with 'distant zone' nuclei. Mean values and standard deviations from parameters of nuclear shape (Fourier-amplitudes) had significantly smaller values in short-time survivors indicating a tendency towards a more circular nuclear shape with less pronounced intratumoral variation in that group. Based on the morphometric results, all cases could be correctly reclassified as short- or long-time survivors by means of cross-validated discriminant analysis. In conclusion, the results confirm significant morphological differences between tumors from patients with short and with long survival regarding morphology of both types of tumor cell nuclei. It seems likely, that histomorphometry of tumor cell nuclei could be a promising approach for the assessment of the individual prognosis of patients with glioblastomas. PMID:16865255

  19. Photoinduced macroscopic morphological transformation of an amphiphilic diarylethene assembly: reversible dynamic motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Kenji; Taira, Genki; Kitai, Jun-ichiro; Hirose, Takashi; Matsuda, Kenji

    2015-02-25

    Self-assembled microstructures of an amphiphilic diarylethene featuring an alkyl chain and triethylene glycol groups showed a photoinduced reversible morphological change in water. Reversible photoisomerization of the core diarylethene gave rise to a reversible morphological transformation between colorless microspheres and colored fibers. When colorless microspheres were irradiated with UV light, colored fibers were formed, and when the colored fibers were irradiated with visible light, the spheres were restored to their original positions where the spheres originally existed. This system showed reversible morphological change through not only photoirradiation but also temperature change. These behaviors can be interpreted as a phase transition between the sphere and fiber states. The dynamic process of the phase transition was monitored by polarized optical microscopy (POM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). It was revealed that the formation of fibers upon UV irradiation occurred radially at the surface of the sphere and the formation of the spheres upon visible-light irradiation occurred at the middle of the fiber. The unique photoinduced mechanical motion provides useful information for the design of sophisticated photoactuators. PMID:25650962

  20. Fast Euclidean morphological operators using local distance transformation by propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Cuisenaire, O.; Macq, B

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new method to compute the morphological dilation of a binary image with a circular structuring element of any given size, on a discrete lattice. The algorithm is equivalent to applying a threshold on an exact Euclidean distance map, but computations are restricted to a minimum number of pixels. The complexity of this dilation algorithm is compared to the complexity of the commonly used approximation of circular structuring elements and found to have a similar cost, while providin...

  1. Surface morphological study of the transformation strain of martensites and bainites in copper alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformation strain associated with martensites and bainites has been determined by surface relief measurements with an atomic force microscope. To this end, morphological data of transformation products have been combined with data on their crystallographic orientations, which have been determined by the electron back-scatter diffraction technique. The results have shown that the transformation strain of bainites has a comparable value to that of martensites in the same alloy. The orientation relationship between the transformation products and the parent crystal has also been determined. The relationship for bainites as well as martensites was consistent with the prediction of the phenomenological theory for the transformation. It was concluded that the transformation mechanism of bainites involves lattice shearing in a manner similar to that of the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  2. Density-Wave Induced Morphological Transformation of Galaxies along the Hubble Sequence

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiaolei

    2010-01-01

    In the past two decades, secular evolution has emerged as an important new paradigm for the formation and evolution of the Hubble sequence of galaxies. A new dynamical mechanism was identified through which density waves in galaxies, in the forms of nonlinear and global spiral and bar modes, induce important collective dissipation effects previously unknown in traditional studies. These effects lead to the evolution of the basic state of the galactic disk, consistent with the gradual transformation of a typical galaxy's morphological type from a late to an early Hubble type. In this paper, we review the theoretical framework and highlight our recent result which showed that there are significant qualitative and quantitative differences between the secular evolution rates predicted by the new theory compared with those predicted by the classical approach of Lynden-Bell and Kalnajs. These differences are the outward manifestation of the dominant role played by collisionless shocks in disk galaxies hosting quasi...

  3. Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

    2010-04-01

    The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

  4. Theory of morphological transformation of viral capsid shells during maturation process

    CERN Document Server

    Konevtsova, O V; Rochal, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the frame of the Landau-Ginzburg formalism we propose a minimal phenomenological model for a morphological transformation in viral capsid shells. The transformation takes place during virus maturation process which renders virus infectious. The theory is illustrated on the example of the HK97 bacteriophage and viruses with similar morphological changes in the protective protein shell. The transformation is shown to be a structural phase transition driven by two order parameters. The first order parameter describes the isotropic expansion of the protein shell while the second one is responsible for the shape symmetry breaking and the resulting shell faceting. The group theory analysis and the resulting thermodynamic model make it possible to choose the parameter which discriminates between the icosahedral shell faceting often observed in viral capsids and the dodecahedral one observed in viruses of the Parvovirus family. Calculated phase diagram illustrates the discontinuous character of the virus morpholog...

  5. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  6. Cellular responses during morphological transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA knockout mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V F; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

    2014-01-01

    FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (?10% emPAI in each spot). The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase), nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase), stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit) and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein). The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome. PMID:25502569

  7. Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoli? Radomirka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

  8. Sequential Anion and Cation Exchange Reactions for Complete Material Transformations of Nanoparticles with Morphological Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James M; Kletetschka, Karel; Fenton, Julie L; Read, Carlos G; Schaak, Raymond E

    2015-07-20

    Ion exchange reactions of colloidal nanocrystals provide access to complex products that are synthetically challenging using traditional hot-injection methods. However, such reactions typically achieve only partial material transformations by employing either cation or anion exchange processes. It is now shown that anion and cation exchange reactions can be coupled together and applied sequentially in one integrated pathway that leads to complete material transformations of nanocrystal templates. Although the product nanocrystals do not contain any of the original constituent elements, the original morphology is retained, thereby fully decoupling morphology and composition control. The sequential anion/cation exchange process was applied to pseudo-spherical CdO nanocrystals and ZnO tetrapods, producing fully transformed and shape-controlled nanocrystals of copper and silver sulfides and selenides. Furthermore, hollow core-shell tetrapod ZnS@CdS heterostructures were readily accessible. PMID:26110653

  9. Acinic cell carcinoma of minor salivary gland showing features of high-grade transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadivel Ilayaraja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC of salivary gland is a relatively infrequent tumor. Though known for its low-grade behavior, its unpredictable element of recurrence and malignancy should never be ignored. Case Report: A male patient with complaints of pain and swelling in the left jaw region since a year was operated based on the computed tomography (CT and incisional biopsy report. Histopathology (routine staining, special staining, immunostaining and electron microscopy of the excised specimen revealed it to be a variant of AciCC from minor salivary gland. Discussion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of AciCC showing propensity for high-grade transformation (HGT, arising from minor salivary gland, being reported. The rarity of such variants and the importance of various investigative techniques in the diagnosis of such cases are discussed.

  10. Influence of morphological transformation on luminescence properties of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Dondapati, Hareesh; Holloway, Terence; Cao, Wei; Kar, Arik; Patra, Amitava; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2010-09-01

    Low dimensional europium (Eu3+)-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) lanthanide nanostructures are synthesized by an effective and simple coprecipitation process followed by subsequent heat treatments. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicate Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 nanostructures undergo significant morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles during thermal treatments. Nanostructures with different morphology, including nanotubes, strongly influence the photoluminescence properties. The dependence of luminescence lifetime on morphological nature of the nanostructures demonstrates that the one dimensional nanostructures such as nanorods and nanotubes have higher emission intensity with shorter lifetime. Our analysis suggests that the morphological transformation of the nanostructures plays the most important role in the behavior of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms, resulting in the overall photoluminescence properties.

  11. Shape-shifting corals: Molecular markers show morphology is evolutionarily plastic in Porites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Cynthia L

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corals are notoriously difficult to identify at the species-level due to few diagnostic characters and variable skeletal morphology. This 'coral species problem' is an impediment to understanding the evolution and biodiversity of this important and threatened group of organisms. We examined the evolution of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS and mitochondrial markers (COI, putative control region in Porites, one of the most taxonomically challenging and ecologically important genera of reef-building corals. Results Nuclear and mitochondrial markers were congruent, clearly resolving many traditionally recognized species; however, branching and mounding varieties were genetically indistinguishable within at least two clades, and specimens matching the description of 'Porites lutea' sorted into three genetically divergent groups. Corallite-level features were generally concordant with genetic groups, although hyper-variability in one group (Clade I overlapped and obscured several others, and Synarea (previously thought to be a separate subgenus was closely related to congeners despite its unique morphology. Scanning electron microscopy revealed subtle differences between genetic groups that may have been overlooked previously as taxonomic characters. Conclusion This study demonstrates that the coral skeleton can be remarkably evolutionarily plastic, which may explain some taxonomic difficulties, and obscure underlying patterns of endemism and diversity.

  12. Analysis of banded morphology in multiphase steels based on a discrete dislocation–transformation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of the austenitic microstructural morphology on the mechanical response of a multiphase steel is analyzed by comparing two relevant configurations, namely (i) uniformly distributed grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferritic matrix and (ii) a banded morphology of the two phases. The analysis is carried out numerically using a discrete dislocation–transformation model that captures processes occurring at sub-grain length scales connected to nucleation and evolution of individual dislocations and martensitic platelets inside the austenitic grains. The simulations indicate that a microstructure composed of uniformly distributed grains of austenite is optimal in terms of strength since it delays the onset of plastic localization compared with banded microstructures

  13. p21H-ras-induced morphological transformation and increases in c-myc expression are independent of functional protein kinase C.

    OpenAIRE

    A.C. Lloyd; Paterson, H. F.; Morris, J D(School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London, London, UK); Hall, A; Marshall, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that efficient DNA synthesis by oncogenic p21H-ras only occurs in the presence of insulin and is absolutely dependent on functional protein kinase C. Here we show that morphological transformation induced by oncogenic p21H-ras does not require functional protein kinase C. The early phases of protein kinase C-independent morphological transformation do not require de novo protein synthesis. We have also demonstrated that the introduction of p21H-ras into qui...

  14. Text Detection in Video Using Haar Wavelet Transformation and Morphological Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh AnnajiKene

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents simple and efficient method for text detection, extraction and localization from video or static images using Haar wavelet and Morphological operator. Haar wavelet transform have its coefficients either 1 or -1 , so that the operation speed of Haar wavelet transformation is fastest among all wavelets. The sub bands contain both text edges and non-text edges however the intensity of text edges is different that of the non-text edges. Instead of using Canny operator we used Sobal operator for edge detection because Sobal operator detect more edges than Canny operator when there is text information. Morphological operators are applied to edit or smoothing out the text region. Then detected text regions are further decomposed into character level. Then using some refinement the final text region are obtained.

  15. Peculiarities of ?-? transformation and strengthening of metastable alloys with various martensite morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The particularities of the ?-? transformation on slow heating of matastable alloys with various martensitic morphology (N31, N28, Kh16N8M3 and others) have been investigated. It was shown that the variously oriented ?-phase, which strengthens martensite is formed preferably in dislocation areas of partly twinned martensite. In alloys with package and mixed (? + ?) martensites, on slow heating a ?-phase of a single orientation, causing no increase in strength properties, is formed

  16. Morphology transformation of hybrid micelles self-assembled from rod-coil block copolymer and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chunhua; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping; Zhang, Xu

    2012-03-01

    Hybrid polymeric micelles self-assembled from a mixture containing poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) block copolymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared. The effect of AuNPs on the self-assembly behavior of PBLG-b-PEG was studied both experimentally by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and laser light scattering and computationally using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. It was found that, the pure PBLG-b-PEG block copolymer self-assembles into long cylindrical micelles. By introducing AuNPs to the stock block copolymer solution, the formed aggregate morphology transforms to spherical micelles. The DPD simulation results well reproduced the morphological transformations observed in the experiments. And the simulation revealed that the main reason for the aggregate morphology transformation is the breakage of ordered packing of PBLG rods in micelle core by the added nanoparticles. Moreover, from the DPD simulations, the distribution information on nanoparticles was obtained. The nanoparticles were found to prefer to locate near the core/shell interface as well as in the core center of the micelles. The combination of experimental and simulation methods lead to a comprehensive understanding of such a complex self-assembly system. PMID:22299635

  17. FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ?9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3??O4) generated from F (??0.04) and L (??0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (??0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ? Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ? Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ? Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ? Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ? Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  18. Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

  19. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Lutsyk A. D.; Filyak Yu. Z.; Varyvoda O. Yu.; Stoika R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1) knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA) and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO) were com...

  20. Parametric based morphological transformation for contrast enhancement of color images in poor-lighting

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atluri Srikrishna; M Pompapathi; G Srinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    The objective of contrast operators consists in normalizing the gray levels of the input image for the purpose of avoiding abrupt changes in intensity among different regions. In this paper morphological transformations are used to detect the background in color images characterized by poor lighting. The disadvantage of contrast enhancement as studied in previous contrast enhancement algorithms is over illumination. An efficient algorithm is introduced to tackle the problem of over illumination by controlling the intensities at dark and bright regions of an image and preserve the geometry of the object. Finally the performance of the proposed algorithm is illustrated through the processing of gray scale images and color images with different backgrounds.

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

  2. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show elevated exposure of DGalNAc carbohydrate determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutsyk A. D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the influence of pituitary tumor transforming gene (pttg-1 knockout on glycome of parenchimal organs by means of lectin histochemistry. Methods. DGalNAc, DGlcNAc, NeuNAc carbohydrate determinants were labelled with soybean agglutinin (SBA and wheat germ agglutinin (WGA, conjugated to peroxidase, with subsequent visualization of the lectin-binding sites with diaminobenzidine. The testes and kidneys of murine strain BL6/C57 with the pttg-1 gene knockout (PTTG-KO were compared to the wild type (PTTG-WT animals, both groups 1 month of age. Results. Knockout of the pttg-1 gene was accompanied by enhanced exposure of the DGalNAc sugar residues within the Golgi complex of secondary spermatocytes, in a brush border of renal tubules and on the lumenal surface of collecting ducts. Conclusions. This study suggests that knockout of the pttg-1 gene may lead to the changes in carbohydrate processing in mammalian organism.

  3. Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

    2013-01-01

    While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

  4. Development of oxide dispersion strengthened steels for FBR core application. 2. Morphology improvement by martensite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previously manufactured oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel cladding tubes had inferior internal creep rupture strength in the circumferential hoop direction. This unexpected feature of ODS cladding tubes was substantially ascribed to the needle-like grain structure aligned with the forming direction. In this study, the grain morphology was controlled by using the martensite transformation in ODS martensitic steels to produce an equi-axial grain structure. A major improvement in the strength anisotropy was successfully achieved. The most effective yttria addition was about 1 mass% in improving the strength of the ODS martensitic steels. A simple addition of titanium was particularly effective in increasing the strength level of the ODS martensitic steels to that of ODS ferritic steels. (author)

  5. Morphological and crystallographic transformation from immature to mature coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saruwatari, Kazuko; Nagasaka, Seiji; Ozaki, Noriaki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi

    2011-08-01

    Morphology and crystallographic orientations of coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae, at the various growth stages were investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) stereo-photogrammetry to understand the developments of two different coccolith units, namely V and R units. SEM observation indicates that the immature coccolith units at the earliest stage were not perfectly fixed on the organic base plates and several units were often lacked. The all units showed platy morphology and often lay parallel to the organic base plate. Their crystal orientations were close to that of the mature R units. With further growth, the platy morphology changes to a trapezoid to anvil-shape for both units, resulting in the interlocking structure of VR units. Morphological analyses present that the edges of the platy crystals parallel to the organic base plate were estimated as , and their inner/upper surfaces were estimated as {10 14}. As they interlocked further, R units inclined more outward to develop the inner tube elements with {10 1 4} and then each unit develops differently distal and proximal shield elements, which are respectively estimated as {10 14} in the distal view and {2 1 10} planes in the proximal view. Based on the above results, the formation of different coccolith units and their growth were discussed. PMID:21258835

  6. TiO2 nanofibers resembling 'yellow bristle grass' in morphology by a soft chemical transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Sandeep; Deepak, T G; Nair, Shantikumar V; Nair, A Sreekumaran

    2015-05-28

    We synthesized a uniquely shaped one-dimensional (1-D) TiO2 nanostructure having the morphology of yellow bristle grass with high surface area by the titanate route under mild reaction conditions. The electrospun TiO2-SiO2 composite nanofibers upon treatment with concentrated NaOH at 80 °C under ambient pressure for 24 h resulted in sodium titanate (Na2Ti3O7) nanostructures. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures have an overall 1-D fibrous morphology but the highly porous fiber surfaces were decorated with layered thorn-like features (a morphology resembling that of yellow bristle grass) resulting in high surface area (113 m(2) g(-1)) and porosity. The Na2Ti3O7 nanostructures were converted into TiO2 nanostructures of the same morphology by acidification (0.1 N HCl) followed by low temperature sintering (110 °C) processes. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) constructed out of the material (cells of area 0.20 cm(2) and thickness 12 ?m) showed a power conversion efficiency (?) of 8.02% in comparison with commercial P-25 TiO2 (? = 6.1%). PMID:25923133

  7. Reversible structural transformations in a Co(II)-based 2D dynamic metal-organic framework showing selective solvent uptake

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjog S Nagarkar; Sujit K Ghosh

    2015-04-01

    A Co(II)-based two-dimensional (2D) metal-organic framework (MOF) [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5(H2O)2] (1) {pca = pyrazine carboxylic acid, and bdc = 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid} was synthesized solvothermally. The compound loses the coordinated lattice water molecules on heating which is accompanied by solidstate structural transformation to yield dehydrated phase [Co(pca)(bdc)0.5] (1?). The hydrated structure can be regained by exposing 1? to water vapour (1??). These reversible solid-state structural transformations are accompanied by a visible colour change in the material. The dehydrated compound also shows highly selective water uptake over other solvents like MeOH, EtOH, THF. This selective water uptake can be ascribed to the high affinity of polar water molecule towards the open metal site created on heating. The present report provides important insights into the reversible structural transformations observed due to variable coordination number of the central metal ion and transformability of the framework. The selective water uptake over alcohols along with visible colour change demonstrates the potential of the present compound in bio-alcohol purification.

  8. Mycalamide A Shows Cytotoxic Properties and Prevents EGF-Induced Neoplastic Transformation through Inhibition of Nuclear Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyshlovoy, Sergey A.; Fedorov, Sergey N.; Kalinovsky, Anatoly I.; Shubina, Larisa K.; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Stonik, Valentin A.; Honecker, Friedemann

    2012-01-01

    Mycalamide A, a marine natural compound previously isolated from sponges, is known as a protein synthesis inhibitor with potent antitumor activity. However, the ability of this compound to prevent malignant transformation of cells has never been examined before. Here, for the first time, we report the isolation of mycalamide A from ascidian Polysincraton sp. as well as investigation of its cancer preventive properties. In murine JB6 Cl41 P+ cells, mycalamide A inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced neoplastic transformation, and induced apoptosis at subnanomolar or nanomolar concentrations. The compound inhibited transcriptional activity of the oncogenic nuclear factors AP-1 and NF-?B, a potential mechanism of its cancer preventive properties. Induction of phosphorylation of the kinases MAPK p38, JNK, and ERK was also observed at high concentrations of mycalamide A. The drug shows promising potential for both cancer-prevention and cytotoxic therapy and should be further developed. PMID:22822368

  9. AFLP analysis shows high incongruence between genetic differentiation and morphology-based taxonomy in a widely distributed tortoise.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulí?ek, Peter; Jandzik, D.; Fritz, U.; Schneider, C.; Široký, P.

    2013-01-01

    Ro?. 108, ?. 1 (2013), s. 151-160. ISSN 0024-4066 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Amplified fragment length polymorphism * morphological plasticity * reptiles * stabilizing selection * Testudines Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.535, year: 2013

  10. Role of parent phase morphology in governing its metastable phase transformation: an investigation in Zr-1wt%Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work has made an attempt to bring out the role of the size of the parent phase on the occurrence of metastable phase transformations like martensitic and omega, with due emphasis to transformation in nanometric dimension. Beta phase, having compositions suitable for martensitic and omega transformations, has been generated in different size ranges and morphology in a Zr-1wt%Nb alloy. The beta phase distribution was in form of patches, present at the grain boundaries and tri-junctions, and needle shaped precipitates, having intragranular distribution. The mechanism of formation of the needle shaped precipitates has been worked out. The transformations inside the beta phase have been monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It could be established that beta precipitates having compositions amenable for martensitic, omega or both the transformations remained untransformed once their size was below a certain limit. A theoretical basis for validating this aspect has also been presented here. (author)

  11. Application of the Hough transform for the automatic determination of soot aggregate morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grishin, Igor; Thomson, Kevin; Migliorini, Francesca; Sloan, James J

    2012-02-10

    We report a new method for automated identification and measurement of primary particles within soot aggregates as well as the sizes of the aggregates and discuss its application to high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the aggregates. The image processing algorithm is based on an optimized Hough transform, applied to the external border of the aggregate. This achieves a significant data reduction by decomposing the particle border into fragments, which are assumed to be spheres in the present application, consistent with the known morphology of soot aggregates. Unlike traditional techniques, which are ultimately reliant on manual (human) measurement of a small sample of primary particles from a subset of aggregates, this method gives a direct measurement of the sizes of the aggregates and the size distributions of the primary particles of which they are composed. The current version of the algorithm allows processing of high-resolution TEM images by a conventional laptop computer at a rate of 1-2 ms per aggregate. The results were validated by comparison with manual image processing, and excellent agreement was found. PMID:22330294

  12. Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Soljanlahti

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

  13. Quenching and morphological transformation in semi-analytic models and CANDELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Ryan; Pandya, Viraj; Somerville, Rachel S.; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N.; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F.; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-08-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies since z ˜ 3 by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) and GAMA (Galaxy and Mass Assembly) surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disc instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sérsic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the specific star formation rate-Sérsic index plane and study the build-up of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star-forming discs declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star-forming spheroids and quiescent discs are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied. Our model is qualitatively successful at reproducing the evolution of the two `main' populations (star-forming discs and quiescent spheroids), and approximately reproduces the relative fractions of all four types, but predicts a stronger decline in star-forming spheroids, and increase in quiescent discs, than is seen in the observations. A model with an additional channel for bulge growth via disc instabilities agrees better overall with the observations than a model in which bulges can grow only through mergers. We also examine the relative importance of these different physical drivers of transformation (major and minor mergers and disc instabilities).

  14. Morphological and lithological transformation records of the Lake Czechowskie basin on the basis of paleogeography and GIS techniques analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramkowski, M. A.; B?aszkiewicz, M.; Tyszkowski, S.; Kordowski, J.

    2014-12-01

    The analyses of the annually laminated lacustrine sediments are particularly important in the studies of global climate change. They provide information about the ecosystem response to environmental and climate changes. The condition for the laminated sedimentation with the annual resolution is a calm sedimentation environment where there is no mixing and thus there are anaerobic conditions in the benthic zone. Below a certain depth there is no wave induced mixing and temperature is constant, which causes water stagnation. In shallower areas such conditions are favoured by the morphology of the lake basin and the long presence of ice cover (bradymictic). The combination of these environmental features predispose to the deposition of laminated sediments. Lake Czechowskie is located within the limit of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet during the Last Glaciation in the Central European Lowland (northern Poland - 53°52"N 18°14"E) in a deep kettle-hole type. Taking into account the thickness of the lacustrine sediments, the maximum depth of the basin exceeds 70 m. Detailed surveying as well as geological drilling using the GIS techniques made it possible to reconstruct the morphology of the basin of Lake Czechowskie and its adjacent areas before the biogenic sedimentation started in Allerød. At that time water level was 2 m higher than in the modern times. Following climate changes initiated the natural processes of the lake basin transformation. The analysis of the morphology of the lake basin is the basis for modelling the sedimentation conditions considering, inter alia, the wind direction and wind velocity, fluctuations of the water levels and the degree of filling the basin with the deposits in different periods of the Late Glacial and Holocene. It allows specifying the variability and sedimentation rate within the basin. The analysis shows the spatial variation of the erosion and accumulation zones, and enables to determine the zones of calm sedimentation revealing places particularly predisposed to accumulate annually laminated lacustrine sediments. This study is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution (ICLEA) of the Helmholtz Association and the research project no. 2011/01/B/ST10/07367 Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.

  15. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae: Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A'wani Aziz Nurdalila

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance–Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish.

  16. Homogeneous Nature of Malaysian Marine Fish Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Perciformes; Serranidae): Evidence Based on Molecular Markers, Morphology and Fourier Transform Infrared Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdalila, A'wani Aziz; Bunawan, Hamidun; Kumar, Subbiah Vijay; Rodrigues, Kenneth Francis; Baharum, Syarul Nataqain

    2015-01-01

    Taxonomic confusion exists within the genus Epinephelus due to the lack of morphological specializations and the overwhelming number of species reported in several studies. The homogenous nature of the morphology has created confusion in the Malaysian Marine fish species Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and Epinephelus hexagonatus. In this study, the partial DNA sequence of the 16S gene and mitochondrial nucleotide sequences of two gene regions, Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I and III were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship between them. In the phylogenetic trees, E. fuscoguttatus was monophyletic with E. hexagonatus species and morphology examination shows that no significant differences were found in the morphometric features between these two taxa. This suggests that E. fuscoguttatus is not distinguishable from E. hexagonatus species, and that E. fuscoguttatus have been identified to be E. hexagonatus species is likely attributed to differences in environment and ability to camouflage themselves under certain conditions. Interestingly, this finding was also supported by Principal Component Analysis on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) data analysis. Molecular, morphological and meristic characteristics were combined with ATR-FTIR analysis used in this study offer new perspectives in fish species identification. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an extensive genetic population study of E. fuscoguttatus in Malaysia and this understanding will play an important role in informing genetic stock-specific strategies for the management and conservation of this highly valued fish. PMID:26147421

  17. Effects of surface stability on the morphological transformation of metals and metal oxides as investigated by first-principles calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Gouveia, Amanda Fernandes; Ferrer, Mateus Meneghetti; Longo, Elson

    2015-10-01

    Morphology is a key property of materials. Owing to their precise structure and morphology, crystals and nanocrystals provide excellent model systems for joint experimental and theoretical investigations into surface-related properties. Faceted polyhedral crystals and nanocrystals expose well-defined crystallographic planes depending on the synthesis method, which allow for thoughtful investigations into structure-reactivity relationships under practical conditions. This feature article introduces recent work, based on the combined use of experimental findings and first-principles calculations, to provide deeper knowledge of the electronic, structural, and energetic properties controlling the morphology and the transformation mechanisms of different metals and metal oxides: Ag, anatase TiO2, BaZrO3, and ?-Ag2WO4. According to the Wulff theorem, the equilibrium shapes of these systems are obtained from the values of their respective surface energies. These investigations are useful to gain further understanding of how to achieve morphological control of complex three-dimensional crystals by tuning the ratio of the surface energy values of the different facets. This strategy allows the prediction of possible morphologies for a crystal and/or nanocrystal by controlling the relative values of surface energies. PMID:26377834

  18. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilar, R.; Sharma, S.P. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, A., E-mail: amelia.almeida@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Cangueiro, L.T. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emídio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-01-01

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  19. Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

  20. The 10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the group environment since z~1

    CERN Document Server

    Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Bolzonella, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Sargent, M; Cucciati, O; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L A M; Scodeggio, M; Kampczyk, P; Peng, Y; Oesch, P; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N Z

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z=1 using a large well defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with M_B luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z~0.5 and log(M*/Msol)~10.2, the "effect" of group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving colour and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to 3-4 times higher correcting for infall and the ...

  1. Morphological taphonomic transformations of fossil bones in continental environments, and repercussions of their chemical composition

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Jalvo, Yolanda; Sánchez Chillón, B.; Andrews, Peter; Fernández López, Sixto Rafael; Alcalá Martínez, L.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a summary of structural or surface modifications of vertebrate bone remains in continental palaeoenvironments that may have repercussions on their chemical composition. Both before and after burial, a different set of physical, chemical and biological agencies may produce modifications of the bone morphological structure and/or bone chemical composition. Several of these morphological modifications are diagnostic of particular agents, which o...

  2. Amino acid-dependent transformations of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles: impact on morphology, stability and toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junpeng; Sun, Xia; Zou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Hongwu

    2014-08-17

    Humans face the risk of exposure to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) due to their extensive application in consumer products. AgNPs can interact with many substances in the human body due to their chemically unstable nature and high activity properties, which might result in unknown hazards and even some serious diseases for humans. As the basic constituent element of human bodies, amino acids (AAs) differ in concentration and variety in different cells and tissues. Thus, understanding the transformation of citrate-coated AgNPs in the presence of AAs is crucial for determining their fate and toxicity in the human body. Our study focused on the transformation of the morphology, dissolution behavior and reaction product of AgNPs in different AA-containing systems and then evaluated the effect of these transformations on the cytotoxicity of AgNPs. The obtained results indicated that the addition of glycine with the lowest Ag(+) binding energy had little effect on the transformations and toxicity of AgNPs. While in the presence of histidine with higher Ag(+) binding energy, the Ag(+) release and particle size of AgNPs obviously increased. These transformations resulted in a decrease in the cytotoxicity of AgNPs due to the formation of Ag-His complex and the growth of AgNPs. Furthermore, l-cysteine with the highest Ag(+) binding energy could easily interact with AgNPs, transforming them completely to form [Ag(Cys)n](+) and Ag2S precipitates, which induced the largest decrease in AgNP toxicity. In summary, our results may provide useful information to understand the fate, transformation, and toxicity of citrate-coated AgNPs in the human body. PMID:24910988

  3. Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

    2012-10-15

    The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

  4. Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES

    CERN Document Server

    Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

    2008-01-01

    We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

  5. Schema as an architectural design operator: the case of the transformation of the morphological model

    OpenAIRE

    Raynaud, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    The study of architectural design bridges various approaches focusing on design sciences, cognitive psychology and architecturology. Architecturology aims to describe the full range of changes that appear during the design process. We are able to describe, by means of scales, the operations by which an architect gives size to the building. This modelling seems adequate when the morphological model is not adulterated during the design process (as in some projects of Jørn Utzon or Alvar Aalto)....

  6. Transformable core-corona nanoparticles: Simultaneous change of core morphology and corona wettability in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Takuya; Kimura, Ayaka; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Suzuki, Takuma; Kikuchi, Akihiko

    2014-11-01

    We prepared transformable thermoresponsive nanoparticles with variable core softness, controlled by the nanoparticle core's glass transition temperature (Tg). The nanoparticles were prepared by the dispersion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA) and/or methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) macromonomer in a polar solvent. The shape of the nanoparticle core changed with temperature. We then prepared poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films with dispersed thermoresponsive nanoparticles, to elongate the nanoparticles through a uniaxial stretching of the films at 60°C. In this manner, the nanoparticle shape changed from spherical to rod-like morphologies, depending on the degree of film extension. Additionally, the rod-shaped nanoparticles only changed back to spheres with temperature modulation. The nanoparticle core's Tg value affected the rate of its physical transformation from rods to spheres at 37°C, with a slower rate observed for increased Tg. As the nanorod shape change was relatively minor at 37°C, we could control the shape of these transformable nanoparticles under various physiological conditions, a highly desirable feature for drug delivery applications. PMID:25200203

  7. Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

  8. Adaptive order morphology edge detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanni Wang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operator and the general order morphology transformation. The conclusion is that our model is feasible for edge detection of the gray image and the satellite remote sensing images.

  9. A ridgelet transform method for constraining tectonic models via abyssal-hill morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Nathan J.; Clayton, Robert W.

    2007-03-01

    Abyssal-hill shape and orientation are related to the direction and spreading rate of paleo-spreading centers. Therefore analyzing abyssal-hill shape and trend is useful for constraining tectonic models of regions devoid of magnetic reversal anomalies. Detecting systematic changes of abyssal-hill shapes or trends, due to changes in spreading rate or direction, is not straightforward, which makes it difficult to determine appropriate regions over which to average abyssal-hill parameters. Often, however, detecting these systematic changes, where they occur, and the scale over which they occur, is of primary importance for tectonic reconstructions. We present a new method of abyssal-hill analysis that is based on the ridgelet transform, a relative of the two-dimensional wavelet transform. Our method is capable of locally estimating the width, azimuth, and root-mean-square (RMS) amplitude of abyssal-hill fabric and highlights changes in these parameters across a survey area, making it possible to identify regions created with a constant spreading rate and direction. We use three multibeam swaths, one crossing the Osbourn Trough in the southwest Pacific Basin, one crossing the East Pacific Rise, and one crossing the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, to demonstrate the utility and performance of our method.

  10. TRANSFORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  11. Adaptive order morphology edge detection

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanni Wang; Fei Ge

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operato...

  12. Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KamilaOglecka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

  13. Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS

    CERN Document Server

    Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

  14. Mitochondrial sequences of Seriatopora corals show little agreement with morphology and reveal the duplication of a tRNA gene near the control region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flot, J.-F.; Licuanan, W. Y.; Nakano, Y.; Payri, C.; Cruaud, C.; Tillier, S.

    2008-12-01

    The taxonomy of corals of the genus Seriatopora has not previously been studied using molecular sequence markers. As a first step toward a re-evaluation of species boundaries in this genus, mitochondrial sequence variability was analyzed in 51 samples collected from Okinawa, New Caledonia, and the Philippines. Four clusters of sequences were detected that showed little concordance with species currently recognized on a morphological basis. The most likely explanation is that the skeletal characters used for species identification are highly variable (polymorphic or phenotypically plastic); alternative explanations include introgression/hybridization, or deep coalescence and the retention of ancestral mitochondrial polymorphisms. In all individuals sequenced, two copies of trnW were found on either side of the atp8 gene near the putative D-loop, a novel mitochondrial gene arrangement that may have arisen from a duplication of the trnW-atp8 region followed by a deletion of one atp8.

  15. ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANALYSES OF THE INTERACTIONS WITHIN BINARY MIXTURES OF CARCINOGENIC PAHS USING MORPHOLOGICAL CELL TRANSFORMATION OF C3HIOT1/2 CL8 CELLS. Studies of defined mixtures of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) have identified three major categories of interacti...

  16. A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

    2014-12-28

    A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2(?2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (?-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8. PMID:25376240

  17. Interphase precipitation in vanadium-alloyed steels: Strengthening contribution and morphological variability with austenite to ferrite transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of characteristic features of interphase precipitation in steels with progressive of austenite-to-ferrite transformation is analyzed from both experimental and modeling approaches. The model developed describing the time and temperature evolution of sheet spacing and particle spacing shows good agreement with the experimental data. The interactions between the transformation and interphase-precipitated carbides are discussed, and particular attention is paid to the occurrence of fibrous carbides. It is suggested that the ease of interface motion is the main factor controlling its appearance. Finally, the local strengthening in a single ferrite grain containing different precipitation states is analyzed by nanoindentation and compared with the theoretical calculations. The evolution of strengthening induced by interphase precipitation with the microstructural parameters is then discussed

  18. Universality of striped morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlund, E; Jacobi, M Nilsson

    2010-09-24

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energetically favored and therefore they arise universally as ground states to potentials whose Hankel transforms have nontrivial minima. PMID:21230804

  19. The effect of HNO3 on morphology, phase transformation, and luminescence properties of LaPO4:Eu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ruisen; Lv, Meng; Li, Xia

    2016-01-01

    LaPO4:Eu3+ powders with different morphologies were hydrothermally constructed by adjusting the amount of HNO3 without using a catalyst, surfactant, or template. The as-prepared products were characterized by photoluminescence spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectra, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The SEM study revealed that the amount of HNO3 played a crucial role in the morphology of the final products. The XRD results indicated that the as-prepared samples were in the monoclinic phase when 3 mL of HNO3 was used. The HR-TEM micrographs and SAED results demonstrated that the prepared nanorods were single and crystalline in nature with HNO3, and that they grew preferentially along the [0 1 2] direction. The emission spectra showed that the LaPO4:Eu3+ samples had the strongest emission intensity when prepared with HNO3.

  20. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nfujita@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); and others

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Mice lacking pituitary tumor transforming gene show testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, thrombocytopenia, aberrant cell cycle progression, and premature centromere division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z; Yu, R; Melmed, S

    2001-11-01

    Tumorigenic pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) is a mammalian homolog of Xenopus securin that inhibits chromatid separation, is overexpressed in many human tumor types, and mediates transcriptional activation. Loss of yeast securin Pds1p or Drosophila securin pimples is lethal. Here we show that mice lacking PTTG (PTTG -/-) are, surprisingly, viable and fertile; but they have testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, and thrombocytopenia. PTTG -/- mouse embryo fibroblasts exhibited aberrant cell cycle progression with prolonged G2-M phase and binucleated and multinucleated nuclei with increased aneuploidy. PTTG -/- mouse embryo fibroblast metaphases contained quadriradial, triradial, and chromosome breaks, as well as premature centromere division. The results show that PTTG functions to maintain chromosome stability, cell cycle progression, and appropriate cell division. Moreover, mammalian sister chromatid separation, an important transition in the cell cycle, is likely regulated by mechanisms in addition to securin. PMID:11682618

  3. Controlled synthesis of crystalline calcium carbonate aggregates with unusual morphologies involving the phase transformation from amorphous calcium carbonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peanut-shaped CaCO3 aggregates, featured of two dandelion-like heads built up from rod-like subunits, have been synthesized via a facile precipitation reaction between Na2CO3 and CaCl2 at ambient temperature in the presence of magnesium ions and ethanol solvent. The as-prepared products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that a high magnesium concentration and ethanol solvent are necessary for the formation of the unusual peanut-like aggregates. In addition, a multistep phase transformation process from amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) to a mixture of ACC and calcite and ultimately to calcite and aragonite was observed in the formation process of the unusual structures. A possible mechanism for the formation of the unusual peanut-shape aggregates has been proposed and discussed

  4. Chicken gga-miR-181a targets MYBL1 and shows an inhibitory effect on proliferation of Marek's disease virus-transformed lymphoid cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Ling; Li, Xin; Zhao, Chunfang; Han, Bo; Qu, Lujiang; Song, Jiuzhou; Liu, Changjun; Yang, Ning

    2015-11-01

    Marek's disease (MD), caused by Marek's disease virus (MDV), is a lymphoproliferative neoplastic disease of chickens and is characterized by MD lymphoma in multiple visceral organs of chicken. It causes great damage to poultry health. Recently, miRNA has been reported to be involved in Marek's disease lymphomagenesis. Our previous study showed that gga-miR-181a was downregulated in MDV-induced lymphoma, and its target gene, v-myb myeloblastosis viral oncogene homolog-like 1 (MYBL1), was predicted. In this study, the interaction between gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 was further verified by detecting protein expression levels of MYBL1 after transfecting miR-181a mimic into MD lymphoma cell line, MSB1. The result showed that protein level of MYBL1 was lower in gga-miR-181a mimic transfecting group than that in the negative control group at 96 h post transfection, which indicated that MYBL1 was a target gene of gga-miR-181a. Additionally, we found that the expression of MYBL1 was higher in MDV-infected samples than that in non-infected controls, which agreed with the proposition that miRNA showed a negatively correlated expression pattern with its target gene. We observed the inhibitory effect of gga-miR-181a on MSB1 cell proliferation. Collectively, the aberrant expression of gga-miR-181a and MYBL1 in MD lymphoma suggested that they might be involved in MD tumor transformation and played important roles. PMID:26500265

  5. Bio-inspired synthesis of titania with polyamine induced morphology and phase transformation at room-temperature: insight into the role of the protonated amino group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Hao, Bo; Wang, Xiaobo; Chen, Ge

    2013-09-14

    Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAAH), a mimic of biopolyamines, was used to induce the mineralization of titania at room-temperature, hollow spheres with a mixed phase (anatase and rutile) were obtained, and the fine anatase and rutile nanocrystals were observed mixing at the sub-10 nm scale on the hollow spheres. The structural information about the precipitated titania gained by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a distinct dependence of the polymorph and morphology of the titania precipitates on the molecular structure of the polyamines and titanium precursors. Moreover, we have observed the phase transformation from anatase to rutile in the formation process of hollow spheres, and it was suggested that the protonated amino groups on PAAH played key roles in the transformation of both polymorphs and morphologies of titania. Additionally, poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA), a long chain quaternary ammonium polymer, was used as another catalytic template for the synthesis of titania, which also led to a hollow structure with a mixture of anatase and TiO2-B. PMID:23838673

  6. Coordinate expression of the alpha and beta chains of human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor confers ligand-induced morphological transformation in mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Chiba, S; Hanazono, Y; Mano, H; Yazaki, Y; Hirai, H

    1993-06-25

    Two distinct components, alpha and beta chains, which compose the high affinity receptor for human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) do not contain any catalytic domains of known enzymes. However, in mouse lymphoid cell lines transfected with cDNAs of the both chains, GM-CSF triggers tyrosine phosphorylation of several cellular proteins and allows continuous proliferation. To elucidate whether the high affinity receptor functions in nonhematopoietic cells, we have reconstituted human GM-CSF receptor in mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts. In NIH3T3 clones, in which the high affinity receptor is reconstituted, human GM-CSF has triggered rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of cellular proteins, transfected beta chain, and another protein of 40-45 kDa. Moreover, human GM-CSF stimulated DNA synthesis and induced morphological transformation. These observations indicate that coordinately expressed alpha and beta chains of human GM-CSF receptor activates intrinsic protein-tyrosine kinases by the stimulation with human GM-CSF and that the activated protein-tyrosine kinases phosphorylate tyrosine residues of an intrinsic 40-45-kDa protein and the transfected beta chain in NIH3T3 cells. Activation of the protein-tyrosine kinases is likely to have biological functions to induce DNA synthesis and morphological transformation of mouse fibroblasts. PMID:8514801

  7. Correlation of morphological transformation to sister chromatid exchanges induced by split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens on cultured Syrian hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relationship between the induction of DNA damage as reflected by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation and morphological transformation in exponentially growing Syrian hamster embryo cells was determined quantitatively after split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens. With split doses of carcinogen separated by 2 to 24 hr, only N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (0.50 microgram/ml) enhanced both SCE induction and transformation when compared to single exposure. Split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine (0.20 microgram/ml), mitomycin C (50 ng/ml), or ultraviolet light (3.0 J/sq m) were less effective than single exposures, while split doses of methyl methanesulfonate (40 micrograms/ml) caused transformation frequencies similar to a single treatment and decreased SCE frequencies with time intervals greater than 4 hr. Split or single exposures of X-irradiation (200 R) resulted in similar low frequencies of transformation and SCE. Contrasting with these results, a significant potentiation of SCE occurred after split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in cultures arrested in G1 with arginine-glutamine-deficient medium or by contact inhibition compared to a single treatment. This response was attributed to the interaction of carcinogen with DNA containing unrepaired damage and demonstrates the importance of the cell cycle phase of the target cell during carcinogen exposure for the induction of SCE by split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The similarity of responses for transformation and SCE induction with split doses of carcinogens suggests that DNA lesions involved in SCE are essential for the initiation of neoplastic development

  8. Phase transformation and morphology tuning of ?-NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ nanocrystals through K+ ions codoping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhi-Qin; Zhao, Su-Ling; Cui, Yue; Tian, Li-Jiao; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Xu, Zheng

    2015-03-01

    In this work, a simple method to modulate the crystal phase and morphology with a large amount of K+ ions codoping is proposed. The phase changes to the mixture of ?-NaYF4 and ?-KYF4 with increasing the content of K+ ions to 80 mol%. When it exceeds 80 mol%, ?-NaYF4 disappears gradually and ?-KYF4 dominates with a poor crystalline. In addition, the morphology changes from nanosphere to nanoplate, and then to nanoprism, which indicates that a higher content of K+ ions favors the growth rates along [0001] than the [10-10] of the nanocrystals. Additionally, the upconversion (UC) luminescence properties and the ratio of red/green (R/G) UC intensity of samples with different phases and morphologies are detected, which makes it possible to tune the UC fluorescence by varying the concentration of K+ ions. Project supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (Grant No. 2013AA032205), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51272022), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2012JBZ001).

  9. Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hon, M.-H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Chang, T.-C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 Ta-Hsueh Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Electronic and Optoelectronics Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Bldg. 11, 195, Sec. 4, Chung-Hsing Road, Chutung, Hsinchu, 310, Taiwan (China); Wang, M.-C. [Faculty of Fragrance and Cosmetics, Kaohsiung Medical University, 100 Shi-Chuan 1st Road, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: mcwang@kmu.edu.tw

    2008-06-30

    The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} transforms to the hexagonal {eta}-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and the orthorhombic Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) {gamma}-Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from {eta}'-Cu{sub 6}Sn{sub 5} and reacts with Sn to form Ag{sub 3}Sn, and the Cu{sub 5}Zn{sub 8} layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

  10. A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

    2015-09-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498-499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron-ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of iron aggregates in the striatum. Our data show that our 498-499InsTC mouse models recapitulate early pathological and clinical traits of the human neuroferritinopathy, thus providing a valuable model for the study of the disease. Finally, we propose a mechanistic model of lipofuscine formation that can account for the etiopathogenesis of human neuroferritinopathy. PMID:25447222

  11. Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; K. Janeczko; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

  12. A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. - Highlights: • Multi-condition segmentation of austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite and ferrite in bainite. • Ferrites in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite segmented by variation in relative carbon counts. • Carbon partitioning during growth explains variation in carbon content of ferrites in bainites. • Developed EBSD image processing tools can be applied to the microstructures of a variety of alloys. • EBSD-based segmentation procedure verified by correlative TEM results

  13. Effect of multiple irradiation with low doses of gamma-rays on morphological transformation and growth ability of human embryo cells in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors measured expression of transformed phenotypes in human embryo (HE) cells repeatedly irradiated with a dose of 7.5 cGy per week throughout the life span of these cells in vitro. Irradiation was repeated until the cells had accumulated 195 cGy when the cells had reached the equivalent of their 26th passage and samples of cells at several passages were assayed for cell survival by colony formation, for mutation at hypoxanthin guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) locus and for transformation by focus formation. The lifespan (mean population doublings) of multiple irradiated cultures with a total dose of 97.5 cGy was slightly, but significantly, prolonged over that of controls. Although transformed foci were not observed with cells until cells had accumulated 97.5 cGy, it increased with increasing accumulated dose. No cells, however, showed unlimited life span in vitro and also expressed tumorigenicity. (author)

  14. Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

    2012-07-01

    We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pErosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

  15. Morphological Hit-Or Transform Based Approach for Building Damage Estimation from Vhr Airborne Imagery in 2011 Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parape, C. D. K.; Chinthaka, H.; Premachandra, N.; Tamura, M.; Sugiura, M.

    2012-08-01

    The very high resolution (VHR) airborne images offer the opportunity to recognize features such as road, vegetation, buildings and other kind of infrastructures. The advantage of remote sensing and its applications made it possible to extract damaged, undamaged building and vulnerability assessment of wide urban areas due to a natural disaster. In this paper, we focus on an automatic building detection method which is helpful to optimizing, recognizing, rescuing, recovery and management tasks in the event of a disaster. Objective of this study is to develop techniques for tsunami damaged building extraction, based on very high resolution (VHR) airborne images acquired before and after the 2011 East coastline of Japan among Tohoku area and to carry out a damage assessment of building and vulnerable area mapping. This paper presents a methodology and results of evaluating damaged buildings detection algorithm using an object recognition task based on Mathematical Morphological (MM) operators for Very High Resolution (VHR) remotely sensed airborne images. The proposed approach involves several advanced morphological operators among which an adaptive hit-or-miss transform with varying size and shape of the structuring elements. VHR airborne images consisting of pre and post 2011 Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and Tsunami site of the Ishinomaki, Miyagi area in Japan were used. The extracted results of building were compared with ground truth data giving 76% and 88% in accuracy before and after the Tsunami event.

  16. The Morphological Transformation of Red-Sequence Galaxies in the Distant Cluster XMMU J1229+0151

    CERN Document Server

    Cerulo, P; Lidman, C; Delaye, L; Demarco, R; Huertas-Company, M; Mei, S; Sanchez-Janssen, R

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of galaxy properties along the red sequence in XMMU J1229+0151, an X-ray selected cluster at $z=0.98$ drawn from the HAWK-I Cluster Survey (HCS). Taking advantage of the broad photometric coverage and the availability of 77 spectra in the cluster field, we fit synthetic spectral energy distributions, and estimate stellar masses and photometric redshifts, which we use to determine the cluster membership. We investigate morphological and structural properties of red sequence galaxies and find that elliptical galaxies populate the bright end, while S0 galaxies represent the predominant population at intermediate luminosities, with their fraction decreasing at fainter magnitudes. A comparison with the low-redshift sample of the WINGS cluster survey reveals that at $z\\sim1$ the bright end of the red sequence of XMMU J1229+0151 is richer in S0 galaxies. The faint end of the red sequence in XMMUJ1229+0151 appears rich in disc-dominated galaxies, which are rarer in the lo...

  17. Morphological transformation of the silicon(112) surface through metal adsorption. Faceting vs. stabilization; Morphologische Transformation der Silizium(112) Oberflaeche durch Metalladsorption. Facettierung vs. Stabilisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiethoff, Christian

    2010-06-21

    Semiconductor nanowires lately attracted immense attention in worldwide research. Lots of possible applications were discussed and partially realized. Gold is the most commonly used metal in catalyzed nanowire growth, but exhibits poor electronic properties for building integrated circuits. Recently, aluminium was achieved to work as a catalyst and the nanowires grown this way showed extremely smooth surfaces. This is in contrast to surfaces grown with other metals. In this work the modification of the silicon (112) surface by metal adsorption is studied. Since nanowires with [111] growth direction have [112]-like sidewalls, this way a virtually endless nanowire surface is used to study the interaction of gold, silver and aluminium with the silicon surface. Spot Profile Analysis Low Energy Electron Diffraction (SPA-LEED) is used to analyze the surfaces. This high resolution diffraction method allows for detailed characterization of the surface structures and facets. Gold adsorption leads to eight different surface phases, the most stable one exhibits 111- and 113-facets and is shown to occur on nanowire surfaces if they were grown with gold as a catalyst. Silver adsorption pushes the surface to form 111- and 115-facets. The facet size distribution is quite narrow, so the finite size effect creates intensity minima in the vicinity of the bragg points in diffraction patterns. Aluminium adsorption finally leads to a stabilization of the silicon (112) surface, no facets are formed. This atomic flat surface was seen on nanowire sidewalls, grown with aluminium as catalyst. (orig.)

  18. Perspectives in Physical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Abraham, R G

    1998-01-01

    In the first section of these lectures I outline the classical framework of the Hubble classification system. Because of space limitations I will focus on points of controversy concerning the physical interpretation of the Hubble sequence, showing how morphological ideas shape our understanding of galaxy evolution. I will then present an overview of the remarkable progress made in recent years in understanding how the local morphological composition has transformed into that seen the distant Universe, highlighting work from the Hubble Deep Field (HDF). Recent studies show quite clearly that the Hubble system does not provide a useful framework for describing the appearance of galaxies at redshifts z >1.5. I argue that as a result of this work the Hubble system needs to be replaced by a system that is more objective, more physically meaningful, and which is applicable across a wider range of redshifts.

  19. Astronomical image representation by the curvelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starck, J. L.; Donoho, D. L.; Candès, E. J.

    2003-02-01

    We outline digital implementations of two newly developed multiscale representation systems, namely, the ridgelet and curvelet transforms. We apply these digital transforms to the problem of restoring an image from noisy data and compare our results with those obtained via well established methods based on the thresholding of wavelet coefficients. We show that the curvelet transform allows us also to well enhance elongated features contained in the data. Finally, we describe the Morphological Component Analysis, which consists in separating features in an image which do not present the same morphological characteristics. A range of examples illustrates the results.

  20. The power of Nb-substituted TiO2 in Li-ion batteries: Morphology transformation induced by high concentration substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hao; Lan, Chun-Kai; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the power potential of Li-ion batteries using a hydrothermal process to synthesize nanoscale Nb-TiO2 with high surface area. By substituting Nb into anatase TiO2, the rate capability of Li-ion batteries is improved with the formation of nanoplate Nb-TiO2 containing (001) facets and NbOx species. In addition, the high solubility of Nb promotes the transformation of TiO2 from hollow-like to plate-like morphology, accelerating the Li-ion surface transportation over a large contact area. With respect to rate capability, Nb-TiO2 displays a high capacity of 220 mAh g-1 at 0.5C and retains 127 mAh g-1 at 10C. Additionally, the cyclability test exhibits less degradation after 10,000 cycles. In order to investigate the mechanisms of capability improvement, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV) are applied to measure the Li-ion diffusivity and surface charge-transfer resistance. The results demonstrate that both Li-ion diffusivity and surface charge-transfer ability are enhanced, leading to pseudocapacitance. Thus, it can be concluded that nanoplate Nb-TiO2 exhibits superior rate capability by the improvement of pseudocapacitance. This study derives a novel process to synthesize nanoplate TiO2 and should provide a potential approach for industrial fabrication of high power Li-ion batteries.

  1. Biochemical imaging of normal, adenoma, and colorectal adenocarcinoma tissues by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and morphological correlation by histopathological analysis: preliminary results

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Aparecida de Almeida Chaves, Piva; João Lucas Rangel, Silva; Leandro José, Raniero; Carmen Silvia Passos, Lima; Emilia Angela Loschiavo, Arisawa; Cristiane de, Oliveira; Renata de Azevedo, Canevari; Juliana, Ferreira; Airton Abrahão, Martin.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The colorectal cancer is a major health problem worldwide. Histology is considered the gold standard for differential diagnosis. However, it depends on the observer's experience, which can lead to discrepancies and poor results. Spectroscopic imaging by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR [...] ) is a technique that may be able to improve the diagnosis, because it is based on biochemical differences of the structural constituents of tissue. Therefore, the main goal of this study was to explore the use of FTIR imaging technique in normal colon tissue, colorectal adenoma, and adenocarcinoma in order to correlate their morphological structures with their biochemical imaging. Methods Samples were collected from normal (n = 4), adenoma (n = 4), and adenocarcinoma human colorectal tissue (n = 4) from patients undergoing colonoscopy or surgical resection of colon lesions. The samples were sectioned with a cryostat in sequential sections; the first slice was placed on CaF2 slide and the second slice was placed on glass slide for histological analysis (HE staining). The cluster analyses were performed by the software Cytospec (1.4.02)®. Results In normal samples, biochemical analysis classified six different structures, namely the lamina propria of mucous glands (epithelial cells and goblet cells), central lumen of the gland, mucin, and conjunctive tissue. In samples with adenoma and adenocarcinoma, altered regions could also be identified with high sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate the potential and viability of using infrared spectroscopy to identify and classify colorectal tissues.

  2. Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

  3. Two bisthienylethene-Ir(iii) complexes showing acid/base-induced structural transformation and on-off luminescence switching in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Deng-Ke; Hu, Jiong-Sheng; Li, Min-Qiang; Gong, Dan-Ping; Li, Xiao-Xiong; Ward, Michael D

    2015-12-28

    Complexes [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdtiH)](PF6)·2CHCl3 (1-H) and [Ir(dfppy)2(pbdti)] (1) were synthesized by the reaction of bisthienylethene pbdtiH and an [Ir(dfppy)2Cl]2 dimer under neutral and basic conditions, respectively. Thus, the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit is coordinated by pbdtiH in 1-H, and by pbdti(-) in 1, which are confirmed by their crystal structures. The structures of 1-H and 1 could be interconverted in solution, upon alternately adding NEt3 and TFA, thus resulting in reversible luminescence switching between the on-state of 1-H and the off-state of 1 at room temperature. In addition, both 1-H and 1 show solid-state luminescence, with a broad emission at 534 nm and 525 nm, respectively. The free pbdtiH ligand shows photochromic behavior in CH2Cl2 solution. However, no photochromism has been observed in 1-H and 1, indicating that the coordination of the pbdtiH/pbdti(-) ligand to the {Ir(dfppy)2}(+) unit could suppress their photochromic behaviors. PMID:26586364

  4. Banded-like morphology and martensitic transformation of dual-phase Ni–Mn–In magnetic shape memory alloy with enhanced ductility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two of the current challenges facing producers of Ni–Mn–In alloys are the achievement of small hysteresis and good ductility. Here, we present a dual-phase (?-Ni51.8Mn31.4In16.8 and ?-Ni62.4Mn32.5In5.1) Ni52Mn32In16 alloy prepared by the zone melting liquid metal cooling directional solidification method, which simultaneously shows small hysteresis (?T < 10 K) and good ductility (6.6%). In addition, and more importantly, an inter-martensitic transition with a large magnetization jump occurs in this alloy. This is expected to further broaden the working temperature range of actuators and sensors that use this magnetic shape memory alloy. The sequence of the martensitic transformation can be shown by in situ X-ray diffraction to be austenite ? 10M ? 14M. Additionally, the second (?) phase dramatically enhances the entropy change of these structural transformations and shifts them to higher temperatures. During the directional solidification, a novel banded-like microstructure, consisting of two layers, one of the ? single phase and the other of the two phases coupled, forms at the low growth rate. A qualitative model is presented to explain the experimental observation, taking into account both the competitive nucleation and the growth of the phases. Experimental and theoretical analysis in the present work shows a linear relationship between the maximum spacing of the ? single phase layer and the growth rate

  5. Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

    2014-02-27

    Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

  6. Soft morphological image resizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltseff, Pavel A.

    1997-04-01

    One important problem in computer vision and image processing is image resizing. Current techniques are generally based on different interpolation methods. These methods are convenient but the downsampled or upsampled image will include new gray values which are not present in the original image. Soft morphological interpolation is a new technique for resampling discrete data. The soft morphological operations are an alternative to the standard morphological operation. The generic description of hierarchical soft morphological transformations was done previously. The further development of soft morphological operations by a hierarchical structural system uses the relaxation of the requirement that the result of the operation must be the r-th largest or smallest value of the corresponding multiset, where r is an order index of the internal hard center. We will assume that any reasonable integer value is acceptable. The purpose of this paper is to derive the sot morphological convolution and compare the result of this convolution with the cubic convolution and Gaussian pyramid.

  7. Dendrochronological records of the floodplain morphology transformation of Desná river valley in the last 150 years, The Hrubý Jeseník Mts., Czech Republic.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrádek, Mojmír

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 15, ?. 3 (2007), s. 2-15. ISSN 1210-8812 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA300860601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : floodplain morphology * palaeochannels * historical floods * tree ring reductions * abrupt growth release * exposed root s Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. In vitro morphologic transformation of Syrian hamster cells by U.V.-irradiation is enhanced by X-irradiation and unaffected by chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U.V.-exposure of foetal hamster cells (secondary or tertiary sub-cultures) seeded for colony formation resulted in the induction of transformation. The U.V.-effect on colony-forming ability resulted in a D37 of 58 ergs/mm2. The observed transformation frequency induced by U.V.-increased approximately in proportion to increased doses in the range of 7.5 to 60.8 ergs/mm2 examined. When cells seeded for colony formation were treated with U.V. and later with either benzo(a)pyrene or N-acetoxy-fluorenyl-acetamide, commencing 6 min after exposure to U.V., there was neither an additive nor a synergistic enhancement of the transformation frequency ordinarily observed with either chemical agent alone. In mass cultures that were X-irradiated with 250 R, seeded for colony formation and treated with either 15 or 30 ergs.mm2 of U.V. 48 hours later, the enhancement of transformation was approximately 12- and 6-fold on a colony basis and 6- and 3-fold on a dish basis, respectively. No transformation occurred after X-irradiation only. The enhancement obtained by the pre-treatment with X-ray is similar to that reported for the combination of X-ray and chemical carcinogens. (author)

  9. Revising morphology of -oriented silicon and germanium nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migas, Dmitri B.; Borisenko, Victor E.; Rusli; Soci, Cesare

    2015-08-01

    By means of ab initio calculations we show that morphology of -oriented silicon and germanium nanowires is defined by {112} and {011} facets. Changes in nanowire morphology are predicted to involve a partial transformation of {011} facets in favor of {112} facets even though the latter ones act as edges between adjacent {011} facets. Our estimates of surface energies clearly indicate a (112) surface to be thermodynamically preferable with respect to a (011) surface for both silicon and germanium. These findings can explain experimental observations of {112} facets in round-like and triangle-like morphologies of -oriented silicon nanowires.

  10. Algorithm for brain extraction on Magnetic Resonance Images T1 using Morphological 3D Transformations / Algoritmo para la extracción de imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 usando transformaciones morfológicas en 3D

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J. D., Mendiola-Santibañez; I. M, Santillán Méndez; C., Paredes Orta; I. R, Terol Villalobos.

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una composición de transformaciones morfológicas para la extracción del cerebro en imágenes de resonancia magnética T1 (MRI T1) en 3D. La propuesta hace uso de dos transformaciones morfológicas conexas, la nivelación inferior y una familia de filtros viscosos alternados [...] secuenciales (VASFs). Las propiedades de estos operadores- las cuales consisten en el control del proceso de reconstrucción de un marcador dentro de la imagen original-, se explotan para segmentar el cerebro de 20 volúmenes de MRI T1. Los cerebros segmentados se comparan respecto a: i) segmentaciones obtenidas a partir del algoritmo BET, el cual es popular en la comunidad científica para la segmentación del cerebro; y ii) segmentaciones manuales. Los índices calculados indican que la transformación propuesta produce buenos resultados en su desempeño. El tiempo empleado por el operador durante su ejecución es aceptable además de que la propuesta puede ser implementada en Matlab Abstract in english In this paper a 3D morphological composition of transformations for brain extraction on brain Magnetic Resonance Images T1 (MRI T1) is presented. The proposal makes use of two morphological connected transformations, the lower leveling and a family of the viscous alternating sequential filters (VASF [...] s). The properties of these operators -which consist in the control of the reconstruction process of a marker into the original image-, are exploited to segment the brain in 20 volumes of MRI T1. The segmented brains are compared with respect to: i) the segmentations obtained from BET which is popular among the scientific community for segmenting the brain; and ii) manual segmentations. The computed indices indicate that the proposed transformation produces good results during its performance. The consumed time for the algorithm during the execution is acceptable and it can be implemented in Matlab.

  11. Facile synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles inside a nanoporous carbon matrix (M/MO@C) through the morphology-preserved transformation of metal-organic framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Woojeong; Kim, Hee Soo; Chun, Hyungphil; Yoo, Won Cheol

    2015-04-28

    A facile method to transform metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into metal/metal oxide@carbon (M/MO@C) composites with well-defined shapes is reported. The porosity of carbon and the particle sizes of M/MO are readily controlled by a simple two-step process that includes impregnation of the polymer precursors and a thermolysis reaction. PMID:25813137

  12. The transformation behaviour of the beta phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A temperature-time-transformation (TTT) diagram has been developed for the ?-phase in Zr-2.5 wt% Nb pressure tubes. The results show that the morphology and/or physical state of the ?-phase in pressure tubes has a significant effect on the transformation behaviour compared with a bulk Zr-19 wt%Nb alloy. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  13. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and possibly even DNA molecules. Light-concentrating devices, such as the optical black hole, can be used for efficient solar light collection in photovoltaic elements for renewable energy. With the dramatic advances in micro- and nanofabrication methods, we are presented with the opportunity to control light in a way that was not possible with the materials provided to us by nature. In an artificial pattern of sub-wavelength elements, the propagation of electromagnetic energy can be defined by an equivalent spatial and spectral dispersion of effective dielectric and magnetic properties. These synthetic structures, which can be fabricated with a desired spatial distribution of effective permittivity epsilon(r) and permeability ?(r), offer a unique potential to guide and control the flow of electromagnetic energy in such an engineered optical space. No longer are we constrained by the electromagnetic response of natural materials and their chemical compounds. Instead, we can tailor the shape and size of the structural units of the metamaterials, or tune their composition and morphology to provide new functionality.

  14. Neoplastic transformation of immortalized human epidermal keratinocytes by ionizing radiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thraves, P; Salehi, Z; Dritschilo, A.; Rhim, J S

    1990-01-01

    Efforts to investigate the progression of events that cause human cells to become neoplastic in response to ionizing radiation have been aided by the development of tissue culture systems of epithelial cells. In the present study, nontumorigenic human epidermal keratinocytes immortalized by adenovirus type 12 and simian virus 40 have been transformed by exposure to x-ray irradiation. Such transformants showed morphological alterations, formed colonies in soft agar, and induced carcinomas when...

  15. Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype / Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Simone, Pohl; Nei Fernandes, Lopes; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel, Braga; Rodrigo, Danielowski; Ilda Mariclei de Castro da, Silva; Jose Antonio, Peters.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneti [...] camente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhous [...] e conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

  16. Universality of striped morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Edlund, Erik; Jacobi, Martin Nilsson

    2011-01-01

    We present a method for predicting the low-temperature behavior of spherical and Ising spin models with isotropic potentials. For the spherical model the characteristic length scales of the ground states are exactly determined but the morphology is shown to be degenerate with checkerboard patterns, stripes and more complex morphologies having identical energy. For the Ising models we show that the discretization breaks the degeneracy causing striped morphologies to be energe...

  17. Spacetime transformation acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    García-Meca, C; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

    2013-01-01

    A recently proposed analogue transformation method has allowed the extension of transformation acoustics to general spacetime transformations. We analyze here in detail the differences between this new analogue transformation acoustics (ATA) method and the standard one (STA). We show explicitly that STA is not suitable for transformations that mix space and time. ATA takes as starting point the acoustic equation for the velocity potential, instead of that for the pressure as in STA. This velocity-potential equation by itself already allows for some transformations mixing space and time, but not all of them. We explicitly obtain the entire set of transformations that do not leave its form invariant. It is in these cases that ATA shows its true potential, allowing for building a transformation acoustics method that enables the full range of spacetime transformations. We provide an example of an important transformation which cannot be achieved with STA. Using this transformation, we design and simulate an acous...

  18. Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions. : lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

    The notion of home is a relational concept, which reflects the embedded sense of belonging to a certain space. Home is material and imagined and the concept embeds relationships between imagined ideals and specific physical spaces. Home is somewhere in particular; a place invested with meaning through lived experience and culturally defined practices. The analysis of home making processes in Maputo documents how this sense of belonging is created and the research focus on the relationship between the material, symbolic and imagined home. A house turns into a home through inhabitation which involves feelings of security (physical and legal), concepts of family and social networks, relation to neighbourhood and how objects and spaces are invested with symbolic meanings. The study argues that the Maputo peri-urban inhabitants are acting as the de facto city makers with limited, if any, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves.

  19. Transformer Protection Using the Wavelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZGÖNENEL, Okan; ÖNB?LG?N, Güven; KOCAMAN, Ça?r?

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for power transformer protection algorithm. Power system signals such as current and voltage have traditionally been analysed by the Fast Fourier Transform. This paper aims to prove that the Wavelet Transform is a reliable and computationally efficient tool for distinguishing between the inrush currents and fault currents. The simulated results presented clearly show that the proposed technique for power transformer protection facilitates the a...

  20. Martensitic phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter examines lattice-distortive, virtually diffusionless structural changes having dominant deviatoric components and associated shape changes such that strain energy dominates the kinetics and morphology during the transformations. Nucleation restricts the martensitic transformation in all ferrous alloys and in some nonferrous systems. Topics considered include temperature dependence, time dependence, stress dependence, morphology and crystallography. The materials examined are austenitic stainless steels, alkali metals (sodium and lithium), solidified gases (hydrogen, oxygen, argon-nitrogen and argon-oxygen), superconductors (titanium-niobium, Nb3Sn, other A15-structure superconductors), iron-nickel alloys, and polymers

  1. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  2. Progress report on induction of transformations in cultured epithelial cells, 8-1-78 to 5-31-79

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yubas, J M

    1979-01-01

    During the report period the induction of morphologic transformation in both murine and human epithelial lung cultures was studied. The results of the first dose-response curve study showed a dose dependent increase in the yield of transformants versus methylcholanthrene concentration through 5 ug/ml followed by a decline in yield at 10 ug/ml. These curves are in terms of transformants per cell exposed and therefore fit with conventional wisdom, i.e., the rising arm of the curve reflects an increase in transformants with dose, while the descending arm reflects the counterbalancing effects of cytotoxicity. Attempts to repeat this curve consistently failed. By sequentially removing each of the additives, it was learned that it was necessary to have high levels of hydrocortisone present during carcinogen exposure in order to obtain successful morphologic transformation. A repeatable assay for morphologic transformation of epithelial lung cells is now established. Two human lung samples have been studied in essentially the same system. Of the three transformed human lines studied thusfar, all have grown to form colonies in soft agar, and all have formed multicellular tumor speroids. The relationship between the morphologic transformant and the cells which give rise to soft agar collonies, multicellular tumor spheroids and, hopefully, tumors is problematic. The solution awaits a clonal isolation technique for the transformants. (ERB)

  3. In situ x-ray diffraction of an arc weld showing the phase transformations of Ti and Fe as a function of position in the weld performed at a synchrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The synchrotron x-ray source provides a unique opportunity to observe open-quotes in-situclose quotes processes. The formation of the open-quotes short-livedclose quotes intermediate species, Ta2C, during the combustion synthesis of TaC, has been observed and reported by monitoring the Bragg diffraction peaks of the reactants and products. Similarly, the synthesis of the ferroelectric material, BaTiO3, and subsequent phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal have also been investigated. These experiments would not have been possible without the high incident x-ray flux available at a synchrotron source. The physical and mechanical properties of a weld join are highly independent upon the thermal history of the weld. Factors such as grain size, which increases with annealing, influence the tensile strength of the weld. This work presents the results of an investigation of the phase changes in two materials, titanium and stainless steel, which occur during the welding process. 4 refs., 3 figs

  4. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  5. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our ...

  6. Martensitic transformation under stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamics considerations of martensitic transformation under stress are considered. The equation for dM s/d? established by Patel and Cohen is discussed taking account of the grain size effect in polycrystalline materials, i.e. the orientation preference effect and the interaction between grain boundary and applied stress. A general model for the calculation of Ms temperature in the face centered cubic to body centered cubic (fcc ? bcc(bct)) transformation influenced by stress in iron based alloys is proposed. Quantitative descriptions of strain effects on nucleation rate or nucleation barrier, activation energy and morphology, as well as the effect of internal stress on autocatalytic nucleation of martensitic transformation are briefly reviewed. The modeling of martensitic transformation under stress, involving modeling of the motion of martensite/parent interface and reorientation of martensite under stress is reviewed

  7. A simple model for some unusual properties of martensitic transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

    2004-01-01

    We report a detailed numerical investigation of a recently introduced two dimensional model for square-to-rectangle martensitic transformation that explains several unusual features of the martensitic transformation. This model includes inertial effects, dissipation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains and an inhomogeneous stress field to describe the effect of lattice defects which serves as nucleation centers. Both single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation has been studied for single quench situation and thermal cycling. The final stage morphologies of single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation bear considerable similarity suggesting that the initial distribution of the defects is not important. Thermal cycling using continuous cooling and heating simulations show the existence of hysteresis in the transformation. More importantly, the rate of energy dissipated occurs in the forms of bursts with power law statistics for their amplitudes and durations which explains the result...

  8. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, Amalia

    2011-07-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  9. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  10. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amalia Torre

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

  11. Morphology map of bainites in 2% Si steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A metallographic study of isothermal transformation products formed at the early stage of transformation was made in silicon alloyed high-carbon steels (C wt%=0.6, 0.8, 1.1 and 1.4) in the temperature range between 700 and 200 C. Observations are summarized as a ''morphology map'' showing the formation temperature-carbon content fields of isothermal transformation products. In all steels investigated, the proeutectoid ferrite, upper bainite and lower bainite are formed at temperatures below the extrapolated A3 line and above 600 C, between 550 and 400 C, and below 350 C and above the Ms temperature, respectively. The microstructural-Bs temperature and the transition temperature from upper bainite to lower bainite are independent of the bulk carbon content, and around 550 and 350 C, respectively. It is shown that above results can be explained by a diffusional model for the proeutectoid ferrite formation and a displacive model for the bainite formation. (orig.)

  12. Musical morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compa...

  13. Morphological Filtering Algorithm for Restoring Images Contaminated by Impulse Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Domingo Mendiola-Santibañez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology to restore gray scale images with pixels polluted by random impulsive noise is presented. Noise is discovered using a criterion based on the white top-hat by reconstruction. Pixels detected as corrupted are restored using an iterative morphological algorithm built with extensive and antiex- tensive morphological transformations. The proposal is compared with the rank ordered mean filter (ROM and other morphological transformations reported in the current literature.

  14. Learning transformed product distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Daskalakis, Constantinos; Diakonikolas, Ilias; Servedio, Rocco A.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of learning an unknown product distribution $X$ over $\\{0,1\\}^n$ using samples $f(X)$ where $f$ is a \\emph{known} transformation function. Each choice of a transformation function $f$ specifies a learning problem in this framework. Information-theoretic arguments show that for every transformation function $f$ the corresponding learning problem can be solved to accuracy $\\eps$, using $\\tilde{O}(n/\\eps^2)$ examples, by a generic algorithm whose runni...

  15. Investigation of phase transformation in an Fe-Mn-Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, morphologic, magnetic and thermal properties of Fe-12Mn-0.5Cr alloy, in which martensite and bainite phase transformations are observed, have been investigated using various physical characterisation methods. In Fe-12Mn-0.5Cr alloy, the transformation of austenite phase to martensite and bainite formation were captured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moessbauer Spectroscopy was used to determine volume fraction of both martensite and bainite formed in austenite phase. As a result, unlike austenite, which has a paramagnetic behaviour, bainite and martensite phases showed ferromagnetic. Some thermal properties and bainite or martensite start temperature of the sample have been determined by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). DSC results show that during the transformation from austenite to martensite or bainite crystallographic phase an exothermic heat flow and on the other hand from bainite or martensite to austenite an endothermic heat flow was observed

  16. River morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

  17. Evolutionary analysis of pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topik Hidayat

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available HIDAYAT,  TOPIK; YUKAWA,  TOMOHISA; ITO, MOTOMI.  2006. Evolutionary analysis of  pollinaria morphology of subtribe Aeridinae (Orchidaceae. Reinwardtia 12(3: 223–235. –– Pollinarium is one of the distinct synapomorphies of Orchidaceae. With using characters  derived from the  pollinarium,  phylogenetic relationships among  genera of subtribe  Aeridinae was examined. Cladistic analysis showed that (1 Subtribe  Aeridinae is monophyletic group. (2 Five of six groups constructed in the analysis are consistent with the groups recognized in previous molecular  phylogenetic analyses.  (3 The  genera Cleisostoma and  Phalaenopsis are  non-monophyletic group. (4 Pollinarium morphology endorses monophyly  Trichoglottis  and Phalaenopsis alliances.  (5 Although transformation of the stipe and viscidium shapes in the subtribe is subjected to parallelism, the results showed that these characters are much useful in determining relationships in the subtribe than those of pollinium.

  18. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  19. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  20. Show Me the Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  1. Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Shinsaku

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

  2. A color discriminating broad range cell staining technology for early detection of cell transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagiv Idit

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Advanced diagnostic tools stand today at the heart of successful cancer treatment. CellDetect® is a new histochemical staining technology that enables color discrimination between normal cells and a wide variety of neoplastic tissues. Using this technology, normal cells are colored blue/green, while neoplastic cells color red. This tinctorial difference coincides with clear morphological visualization properties, mainly in tissue samples. Here we show that the CellDetect® technology can be deployed to distinguish normal cells from transformed cells and most significantly detect cells in their early pre-cancerous transformed state. Materials and Methods: In tissue culture, we studied the ability of the CellDetect® technology to color discriminate foci in a number of two stage transformation systems as well as in a well defined cellular model for cervical cancer development, using HPV16 transformed keratinocytes. Results: In all these cellular systems, the CellDetect® technology was able to sensitively show that all transformed cells, including pre-cancerous HPV 16 transformed cells, are colored red, whereas normal cells are colored blue/green. The staining technology was able to pick up: (i early transformation events in the form of small type 1 foci (non-invasive, not piled up small, with parallel alignment of cells, and (ii early HPV16 transformed cells, even prior to their ability to form colonies in soft agar. The study shows the utility of the CellDetect® technology in early detection of transformation events.

  3. Filament identification through mathematical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-10-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FILFINDER. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FILFINDER identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far-infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where data are available. There is a suggestive but noisy correlation between typical filament brightness and literature values of the star formation rates for clouds in the Gould Belt.

  4. Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. H. B. KEKRE

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

  5. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  6. Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Amalia Torre

    2011-01-01

    The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when consideri...

  7. Not a "reality" show.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  8. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and librarians on student achievement. Todd notes, “If we do not show value, we will not have a future. Evidence-based practice is not about the survival of school librarians, it’s about the survival of our students” (40. In this issue we feature school libraries and their connection to evidence based practice. Former Editor-in-Chief, Lindsay Glynn, began putting the wheels in motion for this feature almost a year ago. She invited Carol Gordon and Ross Todd to act as guest editors of the section, drawing upon their contacts and previous work in this field. The result is an issue with five feature articles exploring different aspects of the connection between school libraries and evidence based practice, from the theoretical to the practical. In addition, there is a thought-provoking Commentary by David Loertscher, asking whether we need the evolutionary model of evidence based practice, or something more revolutionary!In addition to the Feature section, we have a well-rounded issue with articles on the topics of library human resources, and the development of a scholars’ portal. As well, there are a record 10 evidence summaries and our educational EBL101 column. I hope there is something for everyone in this issue of EBLIP – enjoy, and see you soon in Stockholm!

  9. Immiscible blend morphology after shear and elongation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Gibson L.; Trifkovic, Milana; Hedegaard, Aaron; Macosko, Christopher W.

    2015-05-01

    This work examines the role of shear and extensional strain on immiscible blend morphology, namely domain size, orientation, and co-continuity. The domain size reduces with surface tension similar to what is observed with isolated droplets. The domain size is shown to increase with shear strain due to coalescence. Hence the best mixing is found with low shear strains, i.e. low rates of shear and short durations of time. Extensional strain (extrusion draw ratio DR) reduces phase width and thickness with a DR-0.5 dependence, suggesting the transformation to a fibrilar morphology. The critical draw ratio for morphology transformation is approximately 7, in agreement with observations by Grace for droplet breakup in elongation. Fibrilar morphology is also consistent with a large increase in strain-to-break in the drawn film and with observed creep and optical scattering behavior.

  10. Martensitic transformations; Martensite hentai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, K. [University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1997-09-20

    This paper explains the recent studies on martensitic transformation (M transformation). The classical theory on nucleation in M transformation gives non-realistic activation energy as large as 10{sup 4}eV for Fe system. Although various theoretical and experimental approaches have been attempted, a universal theory is not yet established. The {beta}{sub 1}(DO{sub 3})-{gamma}{sub 1} transformation of Cu- Al-Ni alloy was resolved as lattice-invariable deformation by introducing the second kind twin. Various subsequent comparative studies for alloy systems between a phenomenology and experimental results showed the validity of a phenomenology due to lattice-invariable deformation. In the thermodynamics of M transformation, it has been recognized that the mechanism of transformation is entirely different between athermal and isothermal transformations, however, a statistical thermodynamic model was proposed for dealing with these transformations integrally. The study on intelligent materials is under active investigation from the viewpoint of application of M transformation. 44 refs.

  11. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    2012-01-01

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, iden...

  12. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

    1976-01-01

    Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

  13. Soft morphological filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Lasse; Astola, Jaakko T.; Neuvo, Yrjo A.

    1991-07-01

    New morphological operations, called soft morphological operations, are introduced. They maintain most of the properties of standard morphological operations, yet give improved performance under certain conditions. The main difference to standard morphological operations is that soft morphological operations are less sensitive to additive noise and to small variations in the shape of the objects to be filtered.

  14. Visualizing Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pia

    Transformation, defined as the step of extracting, arranging and simplifying data into visual form (M. Neurath, 1974), was developed in connection with ISOTYPE (International System Of TYpographic Picture Education) and might well be the most important legacy of Isotype to the field of graphic design. Recently transformation has attracted renewed interest because of the book ‘The Transformer’ written by Robin Kinross and Marie Neurath. My on-going research project, summarized in this paper, identifies and depicts the essential principles of data visualization underlying the process of transformation with reference to Marie Neurath’s sketches on the Bilston Project. The material has been collected at the Otto and Marie Neurath Collection housed at the University of Reading, UK. By using data visualization as a research method to look directly into the process of transformation the project elaborates on previous revisions of the concept of transformation (Macdonald-Ross & Waller, 1974; Kinross, 1979, Kinross & Marie Neurath, 2009). The inquiry method I have used is unusual in the way the material has been organized, by “rewinding” transformation (as explained later in the paper), using the finished charts as a starting point and then going back to the beginning; furthermore this inquiry presents a novel approach to clarifying the process by designing symbols and diagrams. It will be demonstrated that transformation offers an improved approach to data visualization. The message in the chart is not preformed, but formed through the process of transformation; this means that the purpose of transformation is not the styling of charts with pictograms but rather creating a meaningful message. The contribution of this paper is an elaborated understanding of the process of transformation and a demonstration of the adoption of a research-through-design method.

  15. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

  16. Transformational leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-12-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment? PMID:22094611

  17. Solid phase transformations

    CERN Document Server

    ?ermák, J

    2008-01-01

    This special-topic book, devoted to ""Solid Phase Transformations"" , covers a broad range of phenomena which are of importance in a number of technological processes. Most commercial alloys undergo thermal treatment after casting, with the aim of imparting desired compositions and/or optimal morphologies to the component phases. In spite of the fact that the topic has lain at the center of physical metallurgy for a long time, there are numerous aspects which are wide open to potential investigative breakthroughs. Materials with new structures also stimulate research in the field, as well as n

  18. Modelling of Simultaneous Transformations in Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiawen

    2009-01-01

    The microstructure of a steel is often developed by solid-state transformation from austenite. The major transformation products are allotriomorphic ferrite, pearlite, Widmanstatten ferrite, bainite and martensite, differentiated by morphological features, and their nucleation and growth mechanisms. A steel often consists of several phases as a result of dynamic evolution during continuous cooling. The complexity of the calculation of all the transformations simultaneously poses a challenge. ...

  19. mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN A-lin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

  20. Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2008-10-21

    The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

  1. The J and P transformer book a practical technology of the power transformer

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Arthur Charles

    1983-01-01

    The J&P Transformer Book, 11th Edition deals with the design, installation, and maintenance of transformers. The book contains technical information, tables, calculations, diagrams, and illustrations based on information supplied by transformer manufacturers and related industries. It reviews fundamental transformer principles, the magnetic circuit, the characteristics of, and general types of transformers. The text contains tables showing the information that should be given to the transformer manufacturer to be used as a basis in preparing quotations. Transformer designs include three import

  2. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

    2011-12-10

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  3. Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

  4. Generalization of Hasimoto's transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Molitor, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the famous Hasimoto's transformation by showing that the dynamics of a closed unidimensional vortex filament embedded in a three-dimensional manifold of constant curvature gives rise under Hasimoto's transformation to the non-linear Schrodinger equation. We also give a natural interpretation of the function \\psi introduced by Hasimoto in terms of moving frames associated to a natural complex bundle over the filament.

  5. Controlled synthesis of BiVO4 with multiple morphologies via an ethylenediamine-assisted hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized via a simple ethylenediamine (EN) assisted hydrothermal route. One of the mixed crystal phase with spherical and porous morphology showed excellent photocatalytic activity and about 90% Rhodamine B was degraded after 140 min visible light irradiation. - Highlights: • BiVO4 samples with various morphologies were synthesized by hydrothermal method. • Ethylenediamine mainly acts as alkaline source to adjust pH values of precursor. • BiVO4 with spherical morphology has excellent photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: In this work, BiVO4 particles with different crystal structures and morphologies including hexahedral, spherical porous and hyperbranched ones were fabricated in the presence of ethylenediamine by hydrothermal process. The as-fabricated samples were well characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy. The results showed that the morphology and crystal structure of BiVO4 particles could be well controlled by only changing the ethylenediamine content in the deionized water solution. Photocatalytic activity of the samples was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible-light irradiation. It was shown that BiVO4 sample with spherical porous morphology and mixed crystal phase exhibited the best photocatalytic performance after optimizing the ethylenediamine content. The best degradation ratio of Rhodamine B could reach about 87% after 140 min visible-light irradiation

  6. Commutation and Darboux transformation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M V Prabhakar; H Bhate

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we show that the Darboux transformation for a large class of nonlinear evolution equations arises due to factorization and commutation. The factorization and commutation has been pointed out earlier for Schrödinger operator. We show that it extends to a large class of nonlinear differential equations which admit Lax pairs including Boussinesq, Davey–Stewartson, Bogoyavlensky–Schiff and -wave interaction equation.

  7. The Internal Ultraviolet-to-Optical Color Dispersion: Quantifying the Morphological K-Correction

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Dickinson, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Giavalisco, Mauro; Dickinson, Mark; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2003-01-01

    We present a quantitative measure of the internal color dispersion within galaxies, which quantifies differences in morphology as a function of wavelength. We apply this statistic to a local galaxy sample with archival images at 1500 and 2500 Angstroms from the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope, and ground-based B-band observations to investigate how the color dispersion relates to global galaxy properties. The intenal color dispersion generally correlates with transformations in galaxy morphology as a function of wavelength, i.e., it quantifies the morphological K-correction. Mid-type spiral galaxies exhibit the highest dispersion in their internal colors, which stems from differences in the bulge, disk, and spiral-arm components. Irregulars and late-type spirals show moderate internal color dispersion, which implies that young stars generally dominate the colors. Ellipticals, lenticulars, and early-type spirals generally have low or negligible internal color dispersion, which indicates that the stars contributi...

  8. Transforming giants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

  9. Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: "Mahalle" as an urban structure since the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Eren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of “mahalle” which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize “mahalle” with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

  10. Last castles of the transforming cities in Turkey: 'Mahalle' as an urban structure since the Ottoman period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?mre Özbek Eren

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the case of 'mahalle' which is a special kind of neighborhood in Turkey, in terms of spatial and social movements in the context of urban transformation of the country. Mahalle has important effects on urban morphology and sociology since the Ottoman period. It has been either a structural part of the urban morphology or social and cultural organizer of the society. These roles and the meaning of mahalle have recently been changing in favor of global dynamics in the transforming cities. The aim of this paper is to emphasize 'mahalle' with its rich potentials and opportunities come through its history. Different districts were chosen from ?stanbul as case studies in order to analysis these opportunities and challenges. The results show that, mahalle is still alive and has important roles on urban morphology and urban life as a physical and social unit, while on the other hand it is on the way to be lost.

  11. Analytical electron microscope study of the omega phase transformation in a zirconium-niobium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaluzec, N. J.

    1979-01-01

    The study of the as-quenched omega phase morphology shows that the domain size of Zr-15% Nb is on the order of 30 A. No alignment of omega domains along <222>..beta.. directions was observed and samples having undergone thermal cycling in thin foil form, did not develop a long-period structure of alternating ..beta.. and ..omega.. phases below the omega transformation temperature. (FS)

  12. Psychoanalytic transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riolo, Fernando

    2007-12-01

    The author describes how Bion took Freud's conception of dreams as a form of thought and used it as the basis of his theory of transformations. Bion developed an expanded theory of 'dream thought', understood as a process of selection and transformation of sensory and emotional experiences. In this theory, the work of analysis is in turn conceived as a process not only of deciphering symbols, of revealing already existing unconscious meanings, but also of symbol production--of a process for generating thoughts and conferring meaning on experiences that have never been conscious and never been repressed because they have never been 'thought'. Analysis, in its specific operational sense, becomes a system of transformation whereby unconscious somatopsychic processes acquire the conditions for representability and become capable of translation into thoughts, words and interpretations. The rules of transformation applied by the patient in his representations and those applied by the analyst in his interpretations have the same importance for the analytic process as those described by Freud for the process of dreaming. The author discusses the broad categories of transformation adduced by Bion (rigid motion, projective, and in hallucinosis) and introduces some further distinctions within them. PMID:18055372

  13. El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

  14. Laser-induced chemical transformation of PATP adsorbed on Ag nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-A study of the effects from surface morphology of substrate and surface coverage of PATP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-Fang; Liu, Guo-Kun

    2015-03-01

    The laser induced transformation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) to p,p?-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) has attracted intensive interest recently, in which localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) assisted photocatalysis has been demonstrated to play an important role. In this paper, we systematically investigate the factors that influence the reaction for further understanding the mechanism using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The laser-induced formation of DMAB was found to depend on the surface coverage of PATP, the aggregation state of NPs, and the laser power. The disappearance of DMAB Raman signal at very low concentration of Ag NPs reveals that DMAB may only be formed between the neighboring NPs that can provide a suitable distance for the interaction between adsorbed PATP molecules.

  15. Transformation Multiphysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moccia, Massimo; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki; Galdi, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    Spatial tailoring of the material constitutive properties is a well-known strategy to mold the local flow of given observables in different physical domains. Coordinate-transformation-based methods (e.g., transformation optics) offer a powerful and systematic approach to design anisotropic, spatially-inhomogeneous artificial materials ("metamaterials") capable of precisely manipulating wave-based (electromagnetic, acoustic, elastic) as well as diffusion-based (heat) phenomena in a desired fashion. Most studies available in the literature deal with the design of a single specific functionality in a given physical domain. We address here the simultaneous manipulation of multiple physical phenomena in independent fashions. As a proof of principle of this "transformation multiphysics" framework, we design and synthesize (in terms of realistic material constituents) a metamaterial shell that simultaneously behaves as a thermal concentrator and an electrical "invisibility cloak". Our numerical results open up intri...

  16. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed

  17. Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

  18. Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface

  19. The formation of graben morphology in the Dead Sea Fault, and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Katsman, Regina

    2015-09-01

    The Dead Sea Fault (DSF) is a 1000 km long continental transform. It forms a narrow and elongated valley with uplifted shoulders showing an east-west asymmetry, which is not common in other continental transforms. This topography may have strongly affected the course of human history. Several papers addressed the geomorphology of the DSF, but there is still no consensus with respect to the dominant mechanism of its formation. Our thermomechanical modeling demonstrates that existence of a transform prior to the rifting predefined high strain softening on the faults in the strong upper crust and created a precursor weak zone localizing deformations in the subsequent transtensional period. Together with a slow rate of extension over the Arabian plate, they controlled a narrow asymmetric morphology of the fault. This rift pattern was enhanced by a fast deposition of evaporites from the Sedom Lagoon, which occupied the rift depression for a short time period.

  20. Landskabets transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2010-01-01

    ’Landskabets transformation’ præsenterer en kritisk undersøgelse af forholdet mellem landskabsplanlægning/ landskabsarkitektur, nuværende paradigmer for planlægning, politik og samfund og generativ praksis. Mere specifikt udfolder afhandlingen på den baggrund et planlægnings- og designparadigme, som fokuserer på rumlig virkning og betydningen af kropslig og sanselig opmærksomhed i både fysisk og abstrakt/konceptuelt rum. Gennem dette fokus fremkommer et dynamisk syn på, hvordan landskab kan fors...

  1. ADE Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Donagi, Ron

    2015-01-01

    There is a beautiful correspondence between configurations of lines on a rational surface and tautological bundles over that surface. We extend this correspondence to families, by means of a generalized Fourier-Mukai transform that relates spectral data to bundles over a rational surface fibration.

  2. Superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings

  3. Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Zheng

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

  4. Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs

  5. Quantifying Morphological Computation

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Ay; Keyan Zahedi

    2013-01-01

    The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent's behaviour, or ho...

  6. Microcavity morphology optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2014-09-01

    High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.

  7. Computing Prosodic Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Kiraz, George Anton

    1996-01-01

    This paper establishes a framework under which various aspects of prosodic morphology, such as templatic morphology and infixation, can be handled under two-level theory using an implemented multi-tape two-level model. The paper provides a new computational analysis of root-and-pattern morphology based on prosody.

  8. Discrete transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, Jean M

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of signals and systems using transform methods is a very important aspect of the examination of processes and problems in an increasingly wide range of applications. Whereas the initial impetus in the development of methods appropriate for handling discrete sets of data occurred mainly in an electrical engineering context (for example in the design of digital filters), the same techniques are in use in such disciplines as cardiology, optics, speech analysis and management, as well as in other branches of science and engineering. This text is aimed at a readership whose mathematical background includes some acquaintance with complex numbers, linear differen­ tial equations, matrix algebra, and series. Specifically, a familiarity with Fourier series (in trigonometric and exponential forms) is assumed, and an exposure to the concept of a continuous integral transform is desirable. Such a background can be expected, for example, on completion of the first year of a science or engineering degree cour...

  9. Identity transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Robinson, Sarah; Jones, Sally

    2014-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of ‘pedagogical nudging’ and examines four interventions in an entrepreneurship classroom and the potential it has for student identity transformation. Pedagogical nudging is positioned as a tool, which in the hands of a reflective, professional, with an understanding and rationale for using it, provides students with the opportunity to explore their own entrepreneurial identity in unforeseen ways. It builds on insights from three different streams of literature: ...

  10. Transformative Agency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to enhance the conceptual understanding of the mediatory relationship between paradoxes on an organizational and an individual level. It presents a concept of agency that comprises and mediates between a structural and individual pole. The constitution of this agency is achieved through narrative activity that oscillates between the poles and transforms paradoxes through the configuration of plots and metaphors. Empirical cases are introduced in order to illustrate t...

  11. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M [Birck Nanotechnology Center School of ECE, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2011-01-31

    We review recent progress in developing a new class of specially designed optical metamaterial spaces with functionalities that cannot be obtained with conventional optics or natural materials. These optical metamaterial spaces could enable innovative paradigms of transformation optics pertinent to optical cloaking, sub-wavelength sensing, super-resolution imaging, magnifying hyperlenses, and light-concentrating devices. We also outline our recent development and deployment of an easy-to-use, multifaceted, on-line research environment for the nanophotonics research community. In particular, we show representative examples of two online software tools addressing a growing need for efficient numerical simulations in the area of transformation optics. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain boundaries, whereas at lower temperatures so-called bainitic ? plates nucleate both at grain boundaries and intragranularly. This morphological transition with decreasing temperature is associated with a change in transformation mechanism. The combined results of EPMA, OM and dilatometry show that the growth of these bainitic ? plates is partitionless, and not accompanied by a volume change. Subsequently, a post-transformation redistribution of Fe takes place, which causes a dilatation that can be modelled based on the diffusion of Fe and the interface-area density. This mechanism as well as the formed microstructure are similar to bainite in steel, and therefore we chose to denote this transformation product as bainitic ?. In addition, the AFM observations on bainitic ? plates show an invariant plane strain surface relief with tilt angles that are consistent with the Burgers' transformation model based on shear. In contrast, the AFM results show that the formation of primary ? is accompanied by an irregular dip on a free surface, which is in agreement with the volume decrease measured using dilatometry. Furthermore, the EPMA results show that primary ? is formed by a partitioning transformation. The change in transformation mechanism with decreasing temperature is supported by the observed trend in both the dilatation and the volume fraction ? as a function of temperature

  14. Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bohemen, S. M. C.; Sietsma, J.; van der Zwaag, S.

    2006-10-01

    The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain boundaries, whereas at lower temperatures so-called bainitic ? plates nucleate both at grain boundaries and intragranularly. This morphological transition with decreasing temperature is associated with a change in transformation mechanism. The combined results of EPMA, OM and dilatometry show that the growth of these bainitic ? plates is partitionless, and not accompanied by a volume change. Subsequently, a post-transformation redistribution of Fe takes place, which causes a dilatation that can be modelled based on the diffusion of Fe and the interface-area density. This mechanism as well as the formed microstructure are similar to bainite in steel, and therefore we chose to denote this transformation product as bainitic ? . In addition, the AFM observations on bainitic ? plates show an invariant plane strain surface relief with tilt angles that are consistent with the Burgers’ transformation model based on shear. In contrast, the AFM results show that the formation of primary ? is accompanied by an irregular dip on a free surface, which is in agreement with the volume decrease measured using dilatometry. Furthermore, the EPMA results show that primary ? is formed by a partitioning transformation. The change in transformation mechanism with decreasing temperature is supported by the observed trend in both the dilatation and the volume fraction ? as a function of temperature.

  15. Transformation of lakes in mires

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis?aw Marek

    1992-01-01

    It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

  16. Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Naraghi, Reza

    2009-01-01

    Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as formability and strength. However, the difficulty of predicting the material behaviour is one of the major drawbacks of these steels. In order to model this behaviour it is of great importance to be able to characterize the morphology, crystallography and the amount of different types of martensite. The...

  17. Helicity transformation and pseudospin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The many-particle helicity transformation is found to satisfy general conditions imposed on transformation to pseudo space-spin degrees of freedom in heavy nuclei. Both mean-field and many-particle estimates are presented to show that the nucleons in the helicity-transformed representation are bound by a strongly nonlocal potential with an effectively reduced spin-orbit interaction strength. Since the helicity and chirality transformations are closely related and coincide in the ultrarelativistic limit, pseudospin symmetry in heavy nuclei seems to be connected to chiral symmetry of high energy hadrons

  18. The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

  19. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

  20. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

    2013-11-01

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  1. Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slock, James

    1995-01-01

    Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

  2. Effect of homogenization temperature on the martensitic transformation kinetics in a Fe-32%Ni-0.4%Cr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic, morphological and some thermal properties of thermally induced and deformation-induced martensite were studied in a Fe-32%Ni-0.4%Cr alloy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and compression deformation test techniques were used for these studies. SEM observations revealed the occurrence of both athermal and isothermal martensitic transformation kinetics for producing a lenticular martensite morphology for different homogenization conditions of the prior austenite phase. The DSC measurement results showed a fair agreement with those of previous studies on ferrous alloys

  3. Rotary Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  4. Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Stabellini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

  5. Morphological Assessment of Reconstructed Lowland Streams in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoitink, T.; Eekhout, J.; de Brouwer, J.; Verdonschot, P.

    2014-12-01

    Channelisation measures taken halfway the 20th century have had destructive consequences for the diversity of the ecology in the majority of the lowland streams in countries such as the Netherlands. Re-meandering is the common practice in restoring these lowland streams. Three lowland streams were monitored during the initial two years after construction of a new channel. The monitoring program included morphological surveys, sediment sampling, habitat pattern surveys, and discharge and water level measurements. Adjustments of the longitudinal bed profile formed the main morphological response. These adjustments were most likely caused by a lack of longitudinal connectivity of the streams as a whole, interrupting transport of sediment at locations of weirs and culverts. Bank erosion was observed only in a limited number of channel bends, and was often related to floodplain heterogeneity. Longitudinal channel bed adjustments and bank erosion were mainly caused by exogenous influences. In channel bends, the cross-sectional shape transformed from trapezoidal to the typical asymmetrical shape as found in meandering rivers. This behaviour can be attributed to an autogenous response to the prevailing flow conditions. Due to the prevailing fine sediment characteristics, bed material is readily set in motion and is being transported during the entire year. The existing design principles fail to address the initial morphological development after reconstruction. An evaluation of pre-set targets to realize water depth and flow velocity ranges shows the current procedures to be deficient. Based on this unfavourable evaluation, and the two-dimensional nature of habitat patterns needed to improve the conditions for stream organisms, we recommend to predict morphological developments as part of the design procedures for lowland stream restoration in the Netherlands.

  6. Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Weng, Lv Qian [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Shao Jun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Central South University, State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Dong, Wen Yi [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Urban and Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China)

    2011-07-15

    The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO{sub 2} with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450 C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N{sub 2} show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater. (orig.)

  7. Morphological evolution through complex domains of fitness.

    OpenAIRE

    Niklas, K J

    1994-01-01

    Computer simulated phenotypic walks through multi-dimensional fitness-landscapes indicate that (i) the number of phenotypes capable of reconciling conflicting morphological requirements increases in proportion to the number of manifold functional obligations an organism must perform to grow, survive, and reproduce, and (ii) walks over multi-task fitness-landscapes require fewer but larger phenotypic transformations than those through single-task landscapes. These results were determined by (i...

  8. Microstructure of warm rolling and pearlitic transformation of ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlitic transformation mechanisms have been investigated in ultra-fine grained GCr15 steel. The ultrafine-grained steel, whose grain size was less than 1 ?m, was prepared by thermo-mechanical treatment at 873 K and then annealing at 923 K for 2 h. Pearlitic transformation was conducted by reheating the ultra-fine grained samples at 1073 K and 1123 K for different periods of time and then cooling in air. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that normal lamellar pearlite, instead of granular cementite and ferrite, cannot be formed when the grain size is approximately less than 4(± 0.6) ?m, which yields a critical grain size for normal lamellar pearlitic transformations in this chromium alloyed steel. The result confirms that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the ultra-fine grained steel, and the addition of chromium element doesn't change this pearlitic phase transformation rule. Meanwhile, the grain growth rate is reduced by chromium alloying, which is beneficial to form fine grains during austenitizing, thus it facilitating pearlitic transformation by divorced eutectoid transformation. Moreover, chromium element can form a relatively high gradient in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, which promotes carbide formation in the frontier of the undissolved carbide, i.e., chromium promotes divorced eutectoid transformation. - Highlights: • Ultrafine-grained GCr15 steel was obtained by warm rolling and annealing technology. • Reduction of grain size makes pearlite morphology from lamellar to granular. • Adding Cr does not change normal pearlitic phase transformation rule in UFG steel. • Cr carbide resists grain growth and facilitates pearlitic transformation by DET

  9. Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Young Hur; Zhao Weimin; Wang Zhifeng

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu) and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase) under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied....

  10. Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    CERN Document Server

    Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

  11. Computer Simulation of Martensitic Transformation Under Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Wen, Y.; Denis, S; E Gautier

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports a computer simulation of martensitic transformation in both Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Ni-C alloys by a 2-dimensional model. The influence of the imposed stress on the mechanical behaviour, the transformation kinetics, and the microstructure are illustrated for Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The study of transformation kinetics shows the following features : (1) in case of stress-free transformation, both alloys transform in burst, the transformation will go directly to near completion once a band c...

  12. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  13. Galaxy morphology - an unsupervised machine learning approach

    CERN Document Server

    Schutter, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Structural properties posses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being ...

  14. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

  15. Morphological and spectroscopic analysis of cellulose nanocrystals extracted from oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, Y. K.; Bhat, A. H.; Faiz, A.

    2015-07-01

    This work evaluates the use of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) fiber as a source of cellulose to obtain nanocrystalline cellulose (CNC) by acid hydrolysis reaction. The raw OPEFB fibers were pretreated with aqueous Sodium hydroxide at 80°C followed by bleaching treatment and further hydrolyzed with Sulphuric acid at 45°C with limited range of hydrolysis time and acid concentration. The resulting CNC's were characterized for spectroscopic, crystallographic and morphological properties using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffractometer (XRD), Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Finding of this study shows that the properties of CNC's are strongly dependent on the hydrolysis time and acid concentration.

  16. Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, R. Dhinesh [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India); Jayavel, R., E-mail: rjvel@annauniv.edu [Crystal Growth Centre, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025, India and Centre for Nanoscience and Technology, Anna University, Chennai - 600 025 (India)

    2014-04-24

    LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO{sub 3} nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material.

  17. Transforming floundering into success

    OpenAIRE

    Naish, Lee

    2012-01-01

    We show how logic programs with "delays" can be transformed to programs without delays in a way which preserves information concerning floundering (also known as deadlock). This allows a declarative (model-theoretic), bottom-up or goal independent approach to be used for analysis and debugging of properties related to floundering. We rely on some previously introduced restrictions on delay primitives and a key observation which allows properties such as groundness to be anal...

  18. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various spending measures, and also to a certain extent in some qualitative policy-making patterns. What has emerged can best be described as the ‘supply-side welfare state’ model, and this overall orientation is re...

  19. Transparent Model Transformation: Turning Your Favourite Model Editor into a Transformation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acretoaie, Vlad; Störrle, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Current model transformation languages are supported by dedicated editors, often closely coupled to a single execution engine. We introduce Transparent Model Transformation, a paradigm enabling modelers to specify transformations using a familiar tool: their model editor. We also present VMTL, the first transformation language implementing the principles of Transparent Model Transformation: syntax, environment, and execution transparency. VMTL works by weaving a transformation aspect into its host modeling language. We show how our implementation of VMTL turns any model editor into a flexible model transformation tool sharing the model editor’s benefits, transparently.

  20. Assessment of Morphological Variation in Irish Brassica oleracea Species

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed A. El-Esawi; Paula Bourke; Kieran Germaine; Renee Malone

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the morphological variation in 25 accessions of an Irish collection of Brassica oleracea using 44 morphological traits. The morphological traits showed a pronounced variation among accessions. Vegetative preflowering and maturity traits revealed higher variation than seedling traits. Of the 44 morphological descriptors used, 28 were significantly different and proved useful in examining diversity and differentiating among accessions studied. Principal component a...

  1. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.

    2011-01-01

    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

  2. Morphological spectrum of peripheral nerve sheath tumors: A series of 126 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabhane Sushma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By convention, soft tissue tumors include the peripheral nerve sheath tumor (PNST although they arise from neuroectoderm. PNSTs display a wide spectrum of morphology and biological behavior. Malignant transformation in benign tumors, especially neurofibroma, is an acknowledged phenomenon.This article describes clinico-pathological features of 126 PNSTs with their morphological variants and those associated with neurofibromatosis 1 (NF1 encountered in a single center over a 6-year period. Benign PNSTs were more common [118 (93.65%] when compared with their malignant counterparts [8 (6.34%]. Histological variants including plexiform schwannomas and diffuse, plexiform and pigmented forms of neurofibromas, though rare, were observed. Eleven (8.73% patients with NF1 showed a strong association with plexiform neurofibroma. A malignant transformation in pre-existing neurofibroma was seen in 1 patient with NF1. This series highlights the clinico-pathological spectrum of PNSTs, their morphological variants and the incidence of associated NF1. The importance of detecting plexiform variants lies in their vastly different prognostic implications particularly when occurring in the setting of NF1

  3. Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described Xm Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

  4. THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT

    OpenAIRE

    Rechea Alberola, Manuel; Basset Salom, Luisa

    1996-01-01

    This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to carry out the computations are shown and some new results are presented

  5. Morphology and speech technology

    OpenAIRE

    Lüngen, Harald; Pampel, Martina; Drexel, Guido; Gibbon, Dafydd; Althoff, Frederek; Schillo, Christoph

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a morphological component in a speech recognition architecture for German dealing with the recognition of compounds from their individual constituents. The specification of our morphological model allows for variation in functionality, e.g. the reconstruction of split compounds, of lexicalised, and of non-lexicalised (unknown) compounds.An implementation and evaluation results for split compounds are presented.

  6. Natural plasmid transformation in a high-frequency-of transformation marine Vibrio strain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estuarine bacterium Vibrio strain DI-9 has been shown to be naturally transformable with both broad host range plasmid multimers and homologous chromosomal DNA at average frequencies of 3.5 x 10-9 and 3.4 x 10-7 transformants per recipient, respectively. Growth of plasmid transformants in nonselective medium resulted in cured strains that transformed 6 to 42,857 times more frequently than the parental strain, depending on the type of transforming DNA. These high-frequency-of-transformation (HfT) strains were transformed at frequencies ranging from 1.1 x 10-8 to 1.3 x 10-4 transformants per recipient with plasmid DNA and at an average frequency of 8.3 x 10-5 transformants per recipient with homologous chromosomal DNA. The highest transformation frequencies were observed by using multimers of an R1162 derivative carrying the transposon Tn5 (pQSR50). Probing of total DNA preparations from one of the cured strains demonstrated that no plasmid DNA remained in the cured strains which may have provided homology to the transforming DNA. All transformants and cured strains could be differentiated from the parental strains by colony morphology. DNA binding studies indicated that late-log-phase HfT strains bound [3H]bacteriophage lambda DNA 2.1 times more rapidly than the parental strain. These results suggest that the original plasmid transformation event of strain DI-9 was the result of uptake and expression of plasmid DNA by a competent mutant (HfT strain). Additionally, it was found that a strain of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, USFS 3420, could be naturally transformed with plasmid DNA. Natural plasmid transformation by high-transforming mutants may be a means of plasmid acquisition by natural aquatic bacterial populations

  7. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention.

  8. WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Courbebaisse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

  9. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is develo...

  10. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial / Reality shows: a psychosocial approach

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marília Pereira Bueno, Millan.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as r [...] elações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical b [...] asis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

  11. Morphological evolution of Si nanowires upon lithiation: a first-principles multiscale model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubuk, Ekin D; Wang, Wei L; Zhao, Kejie; Vlassak, Joost J; Suo, Zhigang; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2013-05-01

    Silicon is a promising anode material for high-capacity Li-ion batteries. Recent experiments show that lithiation of crystalline silicon nanowires leads to highly anisotropic morphologies. This has been interpreted as due to anisotropy in equilibrium interface energies, but this interpretation does not capture the dynamic, nonequilibrium nature of the lithiation process. Here, we provide a comprehensive explanation of experimentally observed morphological changes, based on first-principles multiscale simulations. We identify reaction paths and associated structural transformations for Li insertion into the Si {110} and {111} surfaces and calculate the relevant energy barriers from density functional theory methods. We then perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for nanowires with surfaces of different orientations, which reproduce to a remarkable degree the experimentally observed profiles and the relative reaction front rates. PMID:23541144

  12. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Changwen; Yin, Youping; Qi, Zhaoran; Li, Ren; Song, Zhangyong; Li, Yan; Wang, Zhongkang

    2015-10-01

    An Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation system for the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi was established. Three binary T-DNA vectors, pPZP-Hph, pPZP-Hph-RNAi and pPZP-Hph-DsRed2, were constructed. The trpc promoter from Aspergillus nidulans was used as the cis-regulatory element to drive the expression of hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph) gene and DsRed2, which conferred the hygromycin B (Hyg B) resistance and red fluorescence visualization, respectively. The blastospores and conidia were used as the recipients. The blastospores' transformation efficiency reached ?20-40 transformants per 10(6) blastospores, whereas the conidia were not transformed. Based on an analysis of five generations of subcultures, PCR and Southern blotting assays, the Ptrpc-hph cassette had integrated into the genomes of all transformants, which contained single copy of the hph gene and showed mitotic stability. Abundant altered morphologic phenotypes in colonies, blastospores and hyphae formations were observed in the arbitrary insertional mutants of N. rileyi, which made it possible to study the relationships between the functions and the interrupted genes over the whole genome. The transformation protocol will promote the functional characterization of genes, and the construction of genetically engineered strains of this important entomopathogenic fungus, and potentially of other similar fungal pathogens. PMID:26275508

  13. Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

  14. On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

  15. Morphological transformation in a freshwater Cyanobium sp. induced by grazers.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezberová, Jitka; Komárková, Jaroslava

    2007-01-01

    Ro?. 9, ?. 7 (2007), s. 1858-1862. ISSN 1462-2912 R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GA206/05/0007; GA AV ?R(CZ) 1QS600170504 Grant ostatní: GAUSF(CZ) GAJU 64/2004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Keywords : Cyanobium * anri-grazing response * Ochromonas * spinae * picocyanobacteria Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.929, year: 2007

  16. Dendritic shape of precipitates observed in the solid state transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gamma phase precipitates out in the dendritic morphology when the alloy was reacted at 750 deg. C after homogenization at 950 deg. C. This morphology appears to be the result of special crystallographic features of the precipitating phase in relation to the parent phase, which is quite unusual in the solid state phase transformations. On the basis of similarity in the crystal structure and low mismatch in the parameters, we have predicted few other binary alloy systems in which dendritic morphology is expected in the solid state precipitation. The list includes alloys in Ag-Zn and Cu-Sn systems. Our present work is based on this prediction. Beta-phase alloys in Ag-Zn and Ni-Zn systems and gamma-phase alloys in Cu-Sn system were prepared which show single phase (intermediate solid solution) at homogenization temperature. After homogenization, the samples were cooled down to the reaction temperature in the two phase region. It was indeed found that the precipitates formed in the dendritic shape. (orig./A.B.)

  17. Other Infrared (IR) Transform Spectroscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeld, T.

    1981-10-01

    Profiting from the example of Fourier transform spectroscopy, a number of possible other transform spectroscopies, such as Hadamard, Walsh, and Laplace transforms, have been investigated. A number of other transforms show spectroscopic promise in the IR. (1) CHIRP. Here a tunable laser is coupled via a beamsplitter to a spatially extended sample and a heterodyne detector. The audio frequency output of the latter after chirp transformation yields a range resolved signal useful for remote measurements or nonuniform sample measurements. (2) KRAMERS-KRONIG. This transform, for which a simplified fast calculating procedure has evolved in the Fourier domain, interconverts refraction and absorption spectra. Refractive index spectra offer advantages for tunable laser work, can be used for absorption spectrum correction, and can be conveniently obtained by asymmetric FT-IR. (3) ABSORBANCE NONLINEARITY. Particle size or shape, thickness, or concentration distributions within an inhomogeneous sample can be calculated from line shape distortions produced by the energy nonlinearity of the absorption process. Other transforms of potential ability, such as the Hankel, the equiabsorbance, and two dimensional Fourier transforms, will be briefly mentioned.

  18. Morphology of Ion-Sputtered Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Makeev, M A; Barabási, A L; Makeev, Maxim; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barab\\'asi, Albert-L\\'aszl\\'o

    2002-01-01

    We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum theory to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect, and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear te...

  19. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  20. Metric approach to transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crudo, Richard A.; O'Brien, James G.

    2009-09-01

    The conventional method for calculating the dielectric tensor for metamaterial relies on finding a transformation from the physical space containing the medium to a virtual electromagnetic space. Such a transformation exists if, and only if, the space is flat, which greatly restricts the way in which we are able to manipulate light. Furthermore, the transformation medium must not alter the temporal coordinate. Here, we show an alternate method for calculating the dielectric tensor that stems from the light ray trajectory equation derived from the metric. Thus, the process of defining an explicit transformation is circumvented entirely. We show that this method reproduces the correct results for the cylindrical cloaking device, and we use it to derive the material parameters of a device that gives rise to a curved space in which light rays follow closed Keplerian orbits.

  1. Trastuzumab resistance induces EMT to transform HER2+ PTEN? to a triple negative breast cancer that requires unique treatment options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Joseph P.; Korkaya, Hasan; Ouzounova, Maria D.; Jiang, Hui; Conley, Sarah J.; Newman, Bryan W.; Sun, Lichao; Connarn, Jamie N.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Zhang, Ning; Wicha, Max S.; Sun, Duxin

    2015-01-01

    Although trastuzumab is an effective treatment in early stage HER2+ breast cancer the majority of advanced HER2+ breast cancers develop trastuzumab resistance, especially in the 40% of breast cancers with loss of PTEN. However, HER2+ breast cancer patients continue to receive trastuzumab regardless PTEN status and the consequence of therapy in these patients is unknown. We demonstrate that continued use of trastuzumab in HER2+ cells with loss of PTEN induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and transform HER2+ to a triple negative breast cancer. These transformed cells exhibited mesenchymal morphology and gene expression markers, while parent HER2+ cells showed epithelial morphology and markers. The transformed cells exhibited loss of dependence on ERBB family signaling (such as HER2, HER3, HER4, BTC, HRG, EGF) and reduced estrogen and progesterone receptors. Continued use of trastuzumab in HER2+ PTEN? cells increased the frequency of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and metastasis potential. Strikingly, parental HER2+ cells and transformed resistant cells respond to treatment differently. Transformed resistant cells were sensitive to chemical probe (sulforaphane) through inhibition of IL-6/STAT3/NF-?B positive feedback loop whereas parental HER2+ cells did not respond. This data suggests that trastuzumab resistance in HER2+ PTEN? breast cancer induces EMT and subtype switching, which requires unique treatment options. PMID:26522776

  2. EVALUATION OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERS AND ASSESMENT OF DNA CONTENT USING FLOWCYTOMETRY ANALYSIS IN REGENERANTS DWARF NAPIERGRASS FROM EMBRYOGENIC CALLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafiatul Umami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Callus is an excellent source for in vitro plant regeneration, but plants regenerated from callus sometimes show phenotypic and genotypic variation from the initial plants. In this study, there was no variations between regenerated plants and dwarf napiergrass as control. Research result on six morphological characters did not show differences between regenerated plants and control plants. There were not either significant differences of DNA content between control and regenerated plants. The method established by this research was a stable and efficient method that can be applied for supplying transformation materials using callus.

  3. Liquid Metal Transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  4. The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in alloy steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in two Mn-containing interstitial free steels and a maraging steel were examined in detail by a combination of transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction in a scanning electron microscope and optical microscopy. Indirect determination of the orientation relationship between the lath martensite and the austenite was made by analysis of misorientation distributions, and a similar orientation relationship was found for the three alloys in accordance with previous observations in low-carbon steels. Furthermore, the formation of six variants in a given packet and the preferential arrangement into blocks of low-misorientation variant pairs demonstrate a universality of morphology and crystallography of lath martensite. The presence of six variants in a packet can be accounted for by the minimization of the total shape strain introduced during the transformation. The lath boundaries developed within the volume of a certain variant show alternating misorientations and a mixed tilt and twist character characterizing these structures as low-energy dislocation structures

  5. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array

  6. Morphology of diesel soot residuals from supercooled water droplets and ice crystals: implications for optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnato, Barbara V.; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison C.; Dubey, Manvendra; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-01

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processes often transform their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at ?20 and ?40 °C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness ?0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ?0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness ?0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ?63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  7. Synthesis and morphological modification of semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valente, Jaime S., E-mail: jsanchez@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); López-Salinas, Esteban [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico); Prince, Julia [Universidad Anáhuac México Norte, Av. Universidad Anáhuac # 46, Huixquilucan, Edo. de México 52786 (Mexico); González, Ignacio; Acevedo-Peña, Prospero [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Química, Apdo. Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Ángel, Paz del [Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo, Eje Central # 152, 07730 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2014-09-15

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) thin films with different chemical compositions (MgZnAl, MgZnGa, MgGaAl) and varying thicknesses were easily prepared by sol–gel method followed by dip-coating. Films were chemically uniform, transparent and well adhered to a conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate. Structure, chemical composition and morphology of the thin films were characterized by XRD-GADDS, SEM-EDS and AFM. Additionally, the semiconducting properties of all the prepared films were studied through the Mott–Schottky relationship; such properties were closely related to the chemical compositions of the film. The films were characterized after electrochemical treatment and important modifications regarding surface morphology, particle and crystal sizes were observed. An in-depth study was conducted in order to investigate the effect of several different electrochemical treatments on the morphology, particle size distribution and crystal size of LDH thin films. Upon electrochemical treatment, the films' surface became smooth and the particles forming the films were transformed from flaky open LDH platelets to uniformly distributed close-packed LDH nanoparticles. - Highlights: • Semiconducting Mg(Zn)Al(Ga)–LDH/ITO thin films prepared by sol–gel. • LDH thin films show a turbostratic morphology made up of porous flakes. • Electrochemical treatments change the flaky structure into a nanoparticle array.

  8. Morphology Of Diesel Soot Residuals From Supercooled Water Droplets And Ice Crystals: Implications For Optical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    China, Swarup; Kulkarni, Gourihar; Scarnatio, Barbara; Sharma, Noopur; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Shilling, John E.; Wilson, Jacqueline M.; Zelenyuk, Alla; Chand, Duli; Liu, Shang; Aiken, Allison; Dubey, Manvendra K.; Laskin, Alexander; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Mazzoleni, Claudio

    2015-11-04

    Freshly emitted soot particles are fractal-like aggregates, but atmospheric processing often transforms their morphology. Morphology of soot particles plays an important role in determining their optical properties, life cycle and hence their effect on Earth’s radiative balance. However, little is known about the morphology of soot particles that participated in cold cloud processes. Here we report results from laboratory experiments that simulate cold cloud processing of diesel soot particles by allowing them to form supercooled droplets and ice crystals at -20 and -40°C, respectively. Electron microscopy revealed that soot residuals from ice crystals were more compact (roundness~0.55) than those from supercooled droplets (roundness ~0.45), while nascent soot particles were the least compact (roundness~0.41). Optical simulations using the discrete dipole approximation showed that the more compact structure enhances soot single scattering albedo by a factor up to 1.4, thereby reducing the top-of-the-atmosphere direct radiative forcing by ~63%. These results underscore that climate models should consider the morphological evolution of soot particles due to cold cloud processing to improve the estimate of direct radiative forcing of soot.

  9. COMPARISON OF REAL AND COMPLEX-VALUED VERSIONS OF WAVELET TRANSFORM, CURVELET TRANSFORM AND RIDGELET TRANSFORM FOR MEDICAL IMAGE DENOISING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin YASAR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study; medical images were denoising with multiresolution analyses using real-valued wavelet transform (RVWT, complex-valued wavelet transform (CVWT, ridgelet transform (RT, real-valued first-generation curvelet transform (RVFG CT, real-valued second-generation curvelet transform (RVSG CT, complex-valued second-generation curvelet transform (CVSG CT and results are compared. First and second-generation curvelet transformations are used for realvalued curvelet transform as two techniques. For the evaluation of the proposed system, we used 32 lung CT images. These images include 10 images with benign nodules and 22 images with malign nodules. Different types of noise like the Random noise, Gaussian noise and Salt & Pepper noise were added to these images and they are removed separately. The performances of used transforms are compared using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR parameter. Obtained results showed that complex-valued wavelet transform are suited for removal of random noise and Gaussian noise. In case of Gaussian noise in images, PSNRs of first generation curvelet transform and complex-valued wavelet transform are around 33 dB. The ridgelet transform provides high PSNR value (30.4dB for denoising of salt & pepper noise in images.

  10. Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.

  11. Halphen's transform and middle convolution

    CERN Document Server

    Reiter, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    We show that the Halphen transform of a Lam\\'e equation can be written as the symmetric square of the Lam\\'e equation followed by an Euler transform. We use this to compute a list of Lam\\'e equations with (non-) arithmetic Fuchsian monodromy group. It contains all those Lam\\'e equations where the quaternion algebra $A$ over $k$ associated to the arithmetic Fuchsian group is a quaternion algebra $A$ over $\\mathbb{Q}$

  12. Model Transformation Testing Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Baudry, Benoit; Dinh-Trong, Trung; Mottu, Jean-Marie; Simmonds, Devon; France, Robert; Ghosh, Sudipto; Fleurey, Franck; Le Traon, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Model transformations play a critical role in Model Driven Engineering, and thus rigorous techniques for testing model transformations are needed. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that must be tackled to define sound and practical techniques for testing transformations.

  13. On K-transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Nasim

    1981-09-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

  14. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net. PMID:18252452

  15. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up. Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  16. Generalized Fourier transforms classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Svend; Møller, Steen

    2002-01-01

    The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

  17. Heterospecific transformation among cyanobacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, S E; Porter, R D

    1986-01-01

    Heterospecific transformation occurred between cyanobacteria currently classified in either the genus Synechococcus or Synechocystis. Cyanobacterial strains 73109 and 6906 were capable of physiological transformation.

  18. Highly Porous NiTi with Isotropic Pore Morphology Fabricated by Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S. A.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Meshkot, M. A.

    2013-02-01

    Highly porous NiTi with isotropic pore morphology has been successfully produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental Ni/Ti metallic powders. The effects of adding urea and NaCl as temporary pore fillers were investigated on pore morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and the phase transformation temperatures of specimens. These parameters were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly porous specimens were obtained with up to 83% total porosity and pore sizes between 300 and 500 ?m in diameter. Results show pore characteristics were improved from anisotropic to isotropic and pore morphology was changed from channel-like to irregular by adding pore filler powders. Furthermore, the highly porous specimens produced when using urea as a space holder, were of more uniform composition in comparison to NaCl. DSC results showed that a two-step martensitic phase transformation takes place during the cooling cycles and the austenite finish temperature ( A f) is close to human body temperature. Compression test results reveal that the compressive strength of highly porous NiTi is about 155 MPa and recoverable strain about 6% in superelasticity regime.

  19. Transformation of the Zagreb urban region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Ili?

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

  20. Image denoising using orthonormal finite ridgelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Minh N.; Vetterli, Martin

    2000-12-01

    This paper addresses the image denoising problem using a newly proposed digital image transform: the finite rigdelet transform (FRIT). The transform is invertible, non-redundant and achieved via fast algorithms. Furthermore this transform can be designed to be orthonormal thus indicating its potential in many other image processing applications. We then propose various improvements on the initial design of the FRIT in order to make it to have better energy compaction and to reduce the border effect. Experimental results show that the new transform outperforms wavelets in denoising images with linear discontinuities.

  1. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  2. Approximate quantum Fourier transform and decoherence

    CERN Document Server

    Barenco, A; Suominen, K A; Torma, P; Barenco, Adriano; Ekert, Artur; Suominen, Kalle Antti; Torma, Paivi

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the advantages of using the approximate quantum Fourier transform (AQFT) in algorithms which involve periodicity estimations. We analyse quantum networks performing AQFT in the presence of decoherence and show that extensive approximations can be made before the accuracy of AQFT (as compared with regular quantum Fourier transform) is compromised. We show that for some computations an approximation may imply a better performance.

  3. Quantum transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ?q replaced by ?q with dq = dq/?1-?2(q), where ?2(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures ?W and ?Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (?q2 + ?W)? = 0

  4. Feature and Contrast Enhancement of Mammographic Image Based on Multiscale Analysis and Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Shibin Wu; Shaode Yu; Yuhan Yang; Yaoqin Xie

    2013-01-01

    A new algorithm for feature and contrast enhancement of mammographic images is proposed in this paper. The approach bases on multiscale transform and mathematical morphology. First of all, the Laplacian Gaussian pyramid operator is applied to transform the mammography into different scale subband images. In addition, the detail or high frequency subimages are equalized by contrast limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE) and low-pass subimages are processed by mathematical morphology. ...

  5. The synaptic morphological perceptron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Daniel S.

    2006-08-01

    In recent years, several researchers have constructed novel neural network models based on lattice algebra. Because of computational similarities to operations in the system of image morphology, these models are often called morphological neural networks. One neural model that has been successfully applied to many pattern recognition problems is the single-layer morphological perceptron with dendritic structure (SLMP). In this model, the fundamental computations are performed at dendrites connected to the body of a single neuron. Current training algorithms for the SLMP work by enclosing the target patterns in a set of hyperboxes orthogonal to the axes of the data space. This work introduces an alternate model of the SLMP, dubbed the synaptic morphological perceptron (SMP). In this model, each dendrite has one or more synapses that receive connections from inputs. The SMP can learn any region of space determined by an arbitrary configuration of hyperplanes, and is not restricted to forming hyperboxes during training. Thus, it represents a more general form of the morphological perceptron than previous architectures.

  6. ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper some of the more conspicuous auroral features are described as they appear in the ISIS-2 scanning photometer data, using the results of improved programs for transforming the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and for producing latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times. Special attention is given to the diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete auroras. When looked at globally and on an essentially instantaneous basis, the large scale patterns, or 'morphology' of auroras take on a certain simplicity. These patterns deserve to be studied in their own right, independently of their relation to substorm dynamics, because they probably indicate the existence of a rather limited number of distinct magnetospheric configurations or states which produce these patterns. (Auth.)

  7. Size- and morphology-controllable synthesis of MIL-96 (Al) by hydrolysis and coordination modulation of dual aluminium source and ligand systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dandan; Liu, Yunqi; Dai, Fangna; Zhao, Jinchong; Yang, Kang; Liu, Chenguang

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, an efficient method to fabricate Al-based metal organic framework (Al-MOF) MIL-96 crystals with controllable size and morphology, by mixing other forms of reactants to replace the coordination modulators or capping agents, is presented. The size and morphology of the MIL-96 crystals can be selectively varied by simply altering the ratio of dual reactants via their hydrolysis reaction. All the samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and nitrogen sorption. Then based on the BFDH theory, a mechanism for the impact of hydrolysis of reactants on the crystal size and morphology is presented and discussed. We also evaluated the performance of these MOFs as sorbents for capturing CO2, and they all show enhanced adsorption properties compared with the bulk material, displaying high adsorption capacities on CO2 at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. PMID:26309045

  8. Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Young Hur

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

  9. Impact of External Environmental Turbulence on Enterprise Transformation Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Lei; Wang Wenping; Yu Chunjie

    2013-01-01

    This study establishes a simulation model of enterprise transformation to study the impact of external environmental turbulence on enterprise transformation strategy. The result shows that the optimal degree of enterprise transformation declines as the level of external environmental turbulence rises. Further analysis indicates the reason of this result: First, with higher degree of transformation, enterprises could get more new capabilities that match the extern...

  10. Dasatinib-related Follicular Hyperplasia: An Underrecognized Entity With Characteristic Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Michael G; Ewalt, Mark D; Gratzinger, Dita

    2015-10-01

    Dasatinib, a second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against BCR-ABL1 and other Src family tyrosine kinases, is approved as a first-line treatment option for Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. Recently, lymphadenopathy with morphologic features of reactive follicular hyperplasia was described in a cohort of patients with CML on long-term dasatinib therapy. However, the complete morphologic and immunophenotypic features of this previously underappreciated adverse effect have not been fully described. Herein, we report 3 cases of unexplained lymphadenopathy resulting in multiple diagnostic procedures in patients with CML and a history of long-term dasatinib therapy. Morphologic examination demonstrated preserved nodal architecture showing hybrid features of progressive transformation of germinal centers and Castleman-type changes in a background of florid follicular hyperplasia. Large germinal centers were disrupted by complex infolding of IgD mantle zones arranged as cuffs surrounding perforating capillaries. Other abnormalities variably present included decreased CD20 expression among polytypic B cells and increased Epstein-Barr virus reactivity in scattered paracortical cells and/or individual germinal centers. B-cell clonality studies showed no predominant clonal rearrangements. Consideration of dasatinib-related lymphadenopathy may pre-empt unnecessary repeat diagnostic procedures in patients with CML or other dasatinib-susceptible malignancies and persistent lymphadenopathy. PMID:26360368

  11. Efficiency of Deterministic Entanglement Transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, R; Ji, Z; Ying, M; Duan, Runyao; Feng, Yuan; Ji, Zhengfeng; Ying, Mingsheng

    2005-01-01

    We prove that a sufficiently many copies of a bipartite entangled pure state always can be transformed into some copies of another one with certainty by local quantum operations and classical communication. The efficiency of such a transformation is characterized by deterministic entanglement exchange rate, and it is proved to be always positive and bounded from top by the infimum of the ratios of Renyi's entropies of source state and target state. A careful analysis shows that the deterministic entanglement exchange rate cannot be increased even in the presence of catalysts. As an application, we show that there can be two incomparable states with deterministic entanglement exchange rate strictly exceeding one.

  12. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  13. Mineralogy, morphology and crystal-chemistry of the monazite from Catalao 1 (Goias, Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Catalao alkaline carbonatite complex hosts a number of mineral resources including monazite. This mineral is a common accessory phase in two lithological units: carbonatite and silexite. Textural evidence suggest that monazite replaced carbonates in the carbonatite and crystallized simultaneously with quartz in the silexite. Monazite was resistant to the strong laterization that affected the massif, except for the incipient transformation into gorceixite or cerianite. In both carbonatite and silexite, monazite occurs as a complex aggregate of sub-micrometric crystals, showing unusual morphological and chemical characteristics. It contains Ca, Sr, and Ba in the A-site, and shows a certain degree of hydration indicated by ATD and IV data. Structural formulae calculated on the basis of sum of cations=1 show a moderate ionic deficiency in the anionic site. Rietveld refinement indicated poor crystallinity. Notwithstanding these peculiar characteristics, cell dimensions are similar to those of standard monazite. (author)

  14. Roughness-controlled self-assembly of mannitol/LB agar microparticles by polymorphic transformation for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

  15. The effects of stress on the martensitic transformation in Ni-Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous research on a Ni-37.5at%Al crystal has shown that there are significant differences between the thermal expansion behaviour measured along the three left angle 100 right angle directions. It was believed that an internal, defect strain field, as a result of the crystal production, served to determine its morphology on cooling it below the martensite start temperature (Ms). The current research has focused on the effects of an applied biaxial stress on the thermal strain measured along one of these directions. Measurements taken using capacitance dilatometry show that the applied stress has a dramatic effect on the thermal expansion of the crystal, significantly increasing both the thermal strain detected in the martensite phase and the pretransformation strain. The application of biaxial stress was found to modify the martensite morphology significantly. Extensive cracking was observed on the crystal surface as it was cooled through the martensitic transformation. (orig.)

  16. On discrete cosine transform

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality ...

  17. Digital image colorization based on distance transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagodzinski, Przemyslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2008-01-01

    Colorization is a term introduced by W. Markle1 to describe a computerized process for adding color to black and white pictures, movies or TV programs. The task involves replacing a scalar value stored at each pixel of the gray scale image by a vector in a three dimensional color space with luminance, saturation and hue or simply RGB. Since different colors may carry the same luminance value but vary in hue and/or saturation, the problem of colorization has no inherently "correct" solution. Due to these ambiguities, human interaction usually plays a large role. In this paper we present a novel colorization method that takes advantage of the morphological distance transformation, changes of neighboring pixel intensities and gradients to propagate the color within the gray scale image. The proposed method frees the user of segmenting the image, as color is provided simply by scribbles which are next automatically propagated within the image. The effectiveness of the algorithm allows the user to work interactively and to obtain the desired results promptly after providing the color scribbles. In the paper we show that the proposed method allows for high quality colorization results for still images.

  18. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentration is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl ° /Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl ± complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110 plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111 plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane. The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag + ion and (AgCl ± concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl ° 2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  19. Shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks: Raman characterization and sculpturing mechanism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    I.A., López; M., Ceballos; G., Hernández; L., Acosta; I., Gómez.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The sculpturing action of chloride ions on silver nanoplates is investigated. Recent reports show that the shape transformation from silver triangular nanoprisms to nanodisks by addition of chloride ion occurs after a threshold concentration. In this work, a chemical study of this threshold concentr [...] ation is presented. There is theoretical and experimental evidence that the morphological change only depends on the chloride ion concentration and not on the Cl-/Ag molar ratio. Besides, the chloride ion etching ability is attributed to the (AgCl)° complex, which controls the morphology change through a stepwise process where a silver atom is removed from the (110) plane, and is subsequently deposited on the (111) plane (i.e. from the nanoplate vertex to the basal plane). The threshold chloride ion concentration in the shape transformation coincides with the point where Ag+ ion and (AgCl)° concentrations are the same. On the other hand, the quantitative formation of AgCl-2 avoids the stepwise process, and then the colloidal system is destabilized. Furthermore, the analysis of the Raman spectra supports the transformation mechanisms.

  20. THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

  1. Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

  2. Morphology of uranium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium metal is being used as nuclear fuel for Indian Research Reactors. During production of U metal various intermediate compounds of uranium are being processed. Physical, chemical properties of these compounds are important in overall processing rate and conversion determination. As no systematic data on morphology of these compounds were available, study was conducted to record the morphology of various U-compounds which are important in production of ceramic and metallic U-fuel for reactors. Most important intermediates were found to be ammonium diuranate (ADU) and uranium oxide (UO3/UO2). Morphology of these powders controls their flowability required for further material movement through different equipment, surface area required for chemical reactivity of powder, carryover losses occurred during gas solid counter current reaction and tap density required for effective capacity determination. ADU particle basically consists of primary platelets of 250-500 nm width and of 500-1000 nm length. These primary platelets form primary agglomerates. These agglomerates look like woollen balls or balls or cauliflower and primary agglomerates are also connected with each other to form secondary agglomerates. The basic morphology of ADU is maintained in UO3 even after calcination at high temperature. Pores are generated at the surface of platelet of UO3 due to release of gaseous reaction products during calcination. As temperature increases more pores are generated and sintering also starts. Specific surface area of UO3, produced by the calcination of ammonium di-urinate is generally a function of two competing processes: generation of surface area due to generation of pores because of the evolution of gaseous products (NH3, H2O vapour) and the loss of surfaces due to sintering. As a results surface area increases with calcination temperature due to generation of pores and then reduces. It has also been observed that morphology of the compounds are very much processing path dependent. In the process, parametric effects on morphology also has been studied. Present paper describes these observations with an idea to have larger participations in this multidisciplinary research and to be able to become morphology designer. (author)

  3. Model Validation in Ontology Based Transformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. Almendros-Jiménez

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Model Driven Engineering (MDE is an emerging approach of software engineering. MDE emphasizes the construction of models from which the implementation should be derived by applying model transformations. The Ontology Definition Meta-model (ODM has been proposed as a profile for UML models of the Web Ontology Language (OWL. In this context, transformations of UML models can be mapped into ODM/OWL transformations. On the other hand, model validation is a crucial task in model transformation. Meta-modeling permits to give a syntactic structure to source and target models. However, semantic requirements have to be imposed on source and target models. A given transformation will be sound when source and target models fulfill the syntactic and semantic requirements. In this paper, we present an approach for model validation in ODM based transformations. Adopting a logic programming based transformational approach we will show how it is possible to transform and validate models. Properties to be validated range from structural and semantic requirements of models (pre and post conditions to properties of the transformation (invariants. The approach has been applied to a well-known example of model transformation: the Entity-Relationship (ER to Relational Model (RM transformation.

  4. The study of retained austenite morphology in low-carbon silico manganese steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental results of a retained austenite morphology in low-carbon steels of a chemical composition of 0.2% C, 1.5% Mn, and 1.5% Si are presented. The microstructure of retained austenite after martensitic transformation in samples quenched from austenite region, dual phase region and suggested isothermal bainitic transformation were analysed. (author)

  5. Structural phase transformations in metallic grain boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov, Timofey; Olmsted, David L.; Asta, Mark; Mishin, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Structural transformations at interfaces are of profound fundamental interest as complex examples of phase transitions in low-dimensional systems. Despite decades of extensive research, no compelling evidence exists for structural transformations in high-angle grain boundaries in elemental systems. Here we show that the critical impediment to observations of such phase transformations in atomistic modeling has been rooted in inadequate simulation methodology. The proposed ne...

  6. Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can be easily rephrased in Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to get the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained disformal transformation, we use it to induce a new geometry.

  7. Right-unitary transformation theory and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Zhong

    1996-01-01

    We develop a new transformation theory in quantum physics, where the transformation operators, defined in the infinite dimensional Hilbert space, have right-unitary inverses only. Through several theorems, we discuss the properties of state space of such operators. As one application of the right-unitary transformation (RUT), we show that using the RUT method, we can solve exactly various interactions of many-level atoms with quantized radiation fields, where the energy of a...

  8. Morphological heterogeneity in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Rubei, K; Rose, P E; Hill, F G

    1984-01-01

    Considerable heterogeneity of lymphoblast morphology in childhood B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia has been observed. One case showed unusual monocytic features and emphasised the need for marker studies in the accurate definition of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia phenotypes. B cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is rare but may have been previously underestimated by morphological misinterpretation. Further information is required to determine if the different morphological features of this...

  9. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    OpenAIRE

    S. Gavrilets

    1999-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable i...

  10. Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

  11. On discrete cosine transform

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Jianqin

    2011-01-01

    The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

  12. Soft morphological filters: a robust morphological filtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Lasse; Astola, Jaakko T.

    1994-01-01

    We introduce new morphological filters, called soft morphological filters. They maintain most of the desirable properties of standard morphological operations yet are less sensitive to additive noise and to small variations in the shapes of the objects to be filtered. The main difference from standard morphological filters is that maximum and minimum operations are replaced by more general weighted-order statistics. This results in the loss of some algebraic properties but improved performance under noisy conditions.

  13. Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

    2010-04-02

    Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

  14. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  15. Malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma

    OpenAIRE

    Al Ansari, Afaf A.; Al Hail, Fatima A.; Abboud, Emad

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of malignant transformation of uterine leiomyoma is reported. A 54 year old lady, nulliparous and 2 years postmenopausal presented to gynecology clinic with a pelvi – abdominal mass and ultrasound scan suggestive of multiple uterine fibroid. Total abdominal hysterectomy performed. Histopathology report showed leiomyosarcomative changes from benign leiomyoma within the huge mass.

  16. Transformation optics and invisibility cloaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Min; Yan, Min; Yan, Wei

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly summarize the theory of transformation optics and introduce its application in achieving perfect invisibility cloaking. In particular, we theoretically show how the task of realizing cylindrical invisibility cloaks can be eased by using either structural approximation or material simplification. The corresponding invisibility performances of the approximate or simplified cylindrical cloaks are presented in detail.

  17. Transformational silicon electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2014-02-25

    In today\\'s traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 ?m), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry\\'s most advanced high-?/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  18. Appell transformation and symmetry transformations for the paraxial wave equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torre, A.

    2011-07-01

    The analysis presented in this paper is the natural continuation of that developed in a previous paper, where the Appell transformation, well known in the theory of the heat equation, has been interpreted in relation to the paraxial (free) propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry as connecting solutions of the pertinent paraxial wave equation, which are generated by Fourier or Hankel pairs of functions. Indeed, here we will reformulate in optical terms the result proved by Leutwiler relative to the n-dimensional heat equation. Accordingly, we will show that the optical Appell transformation is essentially—in the sense clarified in the text—the only symmetry transformation for the paraxial wave equation.

  19. Appell transformation and symmetry transformations for the paraxial wave equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis presented in this paper is the natural continuation of that developed in a previous paper, where the Appell transformation, well known in the theory of the heat equation, has been interpreted in relation to the paraxial (free) propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry as connecting solutions of the pertinent paraxial wave equation, which are generated by Fourier or Hankel pairs of functions. Indeed, here we will reformulate in optical terms the result proved by Leutwiler relative to the n-dimensional heat equation. Accordingly, we will show that the optical Appell transformation is essentially—in the sense clarified in the text—the only symmetry transformation for the paraxial wave equation

  20. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  1. Approaches to Automated Morphological Classification of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    Naim, Avi

    1994-01-01

    There is an obvious need for automated classification of galaxies, as the number of observed galaxies increases very fast. We examine several approaches to this problem, utilising {\\em Artificial Neural Networks} (ANNs). We quote results from a recent study which show that ANNs can classsify galaxies morphologically as well as humans can.

  2. Roentgeno-morphological correlations in lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the clinical and X-ray data on 2.107 cases of morphologically-confirmed lung cancer showed a relationship between roentgenologic and histologic patterns of both central and peripheral forms of the lesion. Main roentgenologic symptoms versus histologic pattern of both forms of lung cancer are discussed

  3. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  4. Using Multiple Sources of Information for Constraint-Based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Tur, G

    1999-01-01

    This thesis presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable to languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. For morphologically complex languages like Turkish, automatic morphological disambiguation involves selecting for each token morphological parse(s), with the right set of inflectional and derivational markers. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information obtained from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our approach a...

  5. Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

    2011-01-01

    We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

  6. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

  7. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation

  8. Transforms and Applications Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Poularikas, Alexander D

    2010-01-01

    Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

  9. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  10. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed. The work was approached from a new angle every year through a series of associated questions, resulting in an extensive body of drawings describing the various discourses raised. The developed observational...

  11. Transforms, algorithms and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the sum of a trigonometric series. The main purpose of these notes is to give a brief overview of some Fourier-related transforms, namely: continuous Fourier transform, Fourier series, discrete Fouri...

  12. Genetic transformation of yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietz, R D; Woods, R A

    2001-04-01

    Genetic transformation was first described by Griffith in 1928 and has since been demonstrated in a variety of organisms, including many species of fungi. This review focuses on the history and technology of the transformation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The application of protocols developed for S. cerevisiae to other important yeast species is discussed. The protocols for transformation by spheroplasting, LiAc/ssDNA/PEG, and electroporation are compared, and possible mechanisms for transformation are discussed. PMID:11314265

  13. Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Philippe; Andres, Eric

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new implementation of the Ridgelet transform based on discrete analytical 2-D lines: the discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated discrete Radon transform. The innovative step of the DART is the construction of discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a DART adapted to a sp...

  14. Amplified Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Cornwell, David

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calcula...

  15. Toroidal SQUID with ferromagnetic core superconducting transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferromagnetic cores have been used for the secondary of a superconducting flux transformer in connection with a toroidal SQUID. Circuit analysis predicts an easier matching of the transformer for large inductances of the primary. Experimental data show a general agreement with the circuit analysis and a comparatively small increase in noise due to the metallic core

  16. Transformational leadership and the nurse executive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, J; Klafehn, K A

    1990-04-01

    Effective nurse executive leadership is paramount in today's health care environment. Such leadership includes the qualities of a transformational leader and, to a lesser extent, a transactional leader. A study conducted among excellent nurse executives and members of their immediate staff showed that all executives were predominantly transformational leaders but also possessed transactional leadership skills. PMID:2324835

  17. Darboux Transformation for Supersymmetric KP Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Q. P.; Manas, Manuel

    1999-01-01

    Comment: 14 pages, LaTeX2e with amsmath,amssymb,amsthm and geometry packages. In this new version we consider both the Manin-Radul and the Jacobian SKP hierachies and we show how the elementary Darboux transformation composed with a reversion of signs in the fermionic times constitute a proper transformation of these hierarchies

  18. Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups

    CERN Document Server

    Sanjay, P K

    2011-01-01

    We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

  19. Noncommutative versions of some classical birational transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Bergh, Michel Van den; Presotto, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we generalize some classical birational transformations to the non-commutative case. In particular we show that 3-dimensional quadratic Sklyanin algebras (non-commutative projective planes) and 3-dimensional cubic Sklyanin algebras (non-commutative quadrics) have the same function field. In the same vein we construct and analogue of the Cremona transform for non-commutative projective planes.

  20. Phase Transformations in Nb-Al-Ti alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, E. S. K.; Subramanian, P. R.; Dimiduk, D. M.

    1996-06-01

    Phase relationships as well as morphological and crystallographic features in Nb-rich Nb-Al and Nb-Al-Ti alloys have been investigated. The phase boundaries involving the bcc and Nb3Al (A15 structure) were experimentally determined and several isothermal sections of the Nb-rich corner of the Nb-AI-Ti phase diagram established. The present findings show that (a) the solubility of Al in Nb is considerably less than that reported previously, (b) the high-temperature bcc phase undergoes an ordering transformation to the B2 structure, and (c) the ? phase also forms in these alloys. The sequence of decomposition of the high-temperature bcc phase during isothermal decomposition in the bcc + Nb3Al phase field has been systematically studied in these alloys. A wide variety of morphological features were found to be associated with the Nb3Al precipitates that formed in the bcc/B2 matrix during isothermal heat treatments. The lengthening kinetics of the plate-shaped Nb3Al precipitates were also studied.

  1. SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong; Li, Haisheng; Qiu, Weimin; Harkness, Linda; Kassem, Moustapha; Bunger, Cody

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by...

  2. Fast Color Space Transformations Using Minimax Approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M Emre; Celiker, Fatih; 10.1049/iet-ipr.2008.0172

    2010-01-01

    Color space transformations are frequently used in image processing, graphics, and visualization applications. In many cases, these transformations are complex nonlinear functions, which prohibits their use in time-critical applications. In this paper, we present a new approach called Minimax Approximations for Color-space Transformations (MACT).We demonstrate MACT on three commonly used color space transformations. Extensive experiments on a large and diverse image set and comparisons with well-known multidimensional lookup table interpolation methods show that MACT achieves an excellent balance among four criteria: ease of implementation, memory usage, accuracy, and computational speed.

  3. Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov [Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2006-07-01

    The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments.

  4. The Tunneling Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Hipple, Robert

    2014-01-01

    We supplement the Lorentz transform $L(v)$ with a new "Tunneling" transform $T(v)$. Application of this new transform to elementary quantum mechanics offers a novel, intuitive insight into the nature of quantum tunneling; in particular, the so called "Klein Paradox" is discussed.

  5. Hashimoto transform for stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation

    OpenAIRE

    Neklyudov, Misha

    2014-01-01

    We show that Hashimoto transformation is applicable to the one dimensional stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and transforms it to the stochastic generalized heat equation with nonlocal (in space) interaction.

  6. A Transformer Class E Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolajewski Miroslaw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ?MAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

  7. The Three-Dimensional Morphology of Growing Dendrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, J. W.; Mohan, K. A.; Gulsoy, E. B.; Shahani, A. J.; Xiao, X.; Bouman, C. A.; de Graef, M.; Voorhees, P. W.

    2015-07-01

    The processes controlling the morphology of dendrites have been of great interest to a wide range of communities, since they are examples of an out-of-equilibrium pattern forming system, there is a clear connection with battery failure processes, and their morphology sets the properties of many metallic alloys. We determine the three-dimensional morphology of free growing metallic dendrites using a novel X-ray tomographic technique that improves the temporal resolution by more than an order of magnitude compared to conventional techniques. These measurements show that the growth morphology of metallic dendrites is surprisingly different from that seen in model systems, the morphology is not self-similar with distance back from the tip, and that this morphology can have an unexpectedly strong influence on solute segregation in castings. These experiments also provide benchmark data that can be used to validate simulations of free dendritic growth.

  8. Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M.A. Haidar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

  9. Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maslo, Elina

    Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part of the ASEM LLL Hub network 2 Survey on Workplace Learning in Asia and Europe. We will present the work of researchers on the survey as the first transformative learning space and workplace learning we discovered in the enterprises in Latvia as a second example on the transformative learning space. We will try to show, that there are some universal criteria, which makes learning process successful in those two very different learning examples.

  10. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas

  11. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  12. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  13. Quantum Optical Version of Classical Optical Transformations and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Hong-yi

    2010-01-01

    By the newly developed technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators, we explore quantum optical version of classical optical transformations such as optical Fresnel transform, Hankel transform, fractional Fourier transform, Wigner transform, wavelet transform and Fresnel-Hadmard combinatorial transform etc. In this way one may gain benefit for developing classical optics theory from the research in quantum optics, or vice-versa. We can not only find some new quantum mechanical unitary operators which correspond to the known optical transformations, deriving a new theorem for calculating quantum tomogram of density operators, but also can reveal some new classical optical transformations. We derive GFO's normal product form and its canonical coherent state representation and find that GFO is the loyal representation of symplectic group multiplication rule. We show that GFT is just the transformation matrix element of GFO in the coordinate representation such that two successive GFTs i...

  14. Galaxy morphology - An unsupervised machine learning approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutter, A.; Shamir, L.

    2015-09-01

    Structural properties poses valuable information about the formation and evolution of galaxies, and are important for understanding the past, present, and future universe. Here we use unsupervised machine learning methodology to analyze a network of similarities between galaxy morphological types, and automatically deduce a morphological sequence of galaxies. Application of the method to the EFIGI catalog show that the morphological scheme produced by the algorithm is largely in agreement with the De Vaucouleurs system, demonstrating the ability of computer vision and machine learning methods to automatically profile galaxy morphological sequences. The unsupervised analysis method is based on comprehensive computer vision techniques that compute the visual similarities between the different morphological types. Rather than relying on human cognition, the proposed system deduces the similarities between sets of galaxy images in an automatic manner, and is therefore not limited by the number of galaxies being analyzed. The source code of the method is publicly available, and the protocol of the experiment is included in the paper so that the experiment can be replicated, and the method can be used to analyze user-defined datasets of galaxy images.

  15. Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

  16. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyer, P

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourier transforms for non-Abelian groups is defined. A slightly relaxed definition is shown to simplify the analysis and the networks that computes the transforms. Efficient networks for computing such transforms for a class of metacyclic groups are introduced. A novel network for computing a Fourier transform for a group used in quantum error-correction is also given.

  17. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mess

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  18. p53 regulates the proliferation, differentiation and spontaneous transformation of mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have been extensively studied and gained wide popularity due to their therapeutic potential. Spontaneous transformation of MSC, from both human and murine origin, has been reported in many studies. MSC transformation depends on the culture conditions, the origin of the cells and the time on culture; however, the precise biological characteristics involved in this process have not been fully defined yet. In this study, we investigated the role of p53 in the biology and transformation of murine bone marrow (BM)-derived MSC. We demonstrate that the MSC derived from p53KO mice showed an augmented proliferation rate, a shorter doubling time and also morphologic and phenotypic changes, as compared to MSC derived from wild-type animals. Furthermore, the MSC devoid of p53 had an increased number of cells able to generate colonies. In addition, not only proliferation but also MSC differentiation is controlled by p53 since its absence modifies the speed of the process. Moreover, genomic instability, changes in the expression of c-myc and anchorage independent growth were also observed in p53KO MSC. In addition, the absence of p53 implicates the spontaneous transformation of MSC in long-term cultures. Our results reveal that p53 plays a central role in the biology of MSC.

  19. Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andrea, Mess.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own [...] work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

  20. Morphology of spiral galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physical basis for the morphological classification of spiral galaxies is presented from the point of view of the density wave theory. Specifically, emphasis is placed on the hypothesis of quasi-stationary spiral structure for regular grand designs in galaxies. The modal approach is adopted which also naturally covers the large scale structure in galaxies with less regular spiral structure. The dynamical mechanisms for the formation and the maintenance of spiral structure of diverse shapes is placed in a unified framework. Various dilemmmas and issues are discussed in some detail

  1. Nearly Optimal Sparse Fourier Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hassanieh, Haitham; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). Further, they are the first known algorithms that satisfy this property. Also, if one assumes that the Fast Fourier Transform is optimal, the algorithm for the exactly k-sparse case is optimal for any k = n^{\\Omega(1)} . We complement our algorithmic results by showing that any algorithm for computing the sparse Fourier transform of a general signal must use at least \\Omega(k log(n/k)/ log log n) signal samples, even if it is allowed to perform adaptive sampling.

  2. Cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda ( Ailuropoda melanoleuca)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueirido, Borja; Palmqvist, Paul; Pérez-Claros, Juan A.; Dong, Wei

    2011-02-01

    In this study, landmark-based methods of geometric morphometrics are used for investigating the main aspects of cranial shape transformation in the evolution of the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. Specifically, we explore if the highly derived cranial adaptations for bamboo feeding of the living panda were developed early in the panda's lineage. Results obtained show that the overall cranial morphologies of the oldest known panda, the "pygmy" Ailuropoda microta, and the late Pleistocene Ailuropoda baconi are both very similar to that of their closest living relative, A. melanoleuca, which agrees with a previous proposal based on qualitative criteria. However, we also describe several differences between the crania of A. microta, A. baconi, and A. melanoleuca, including the development of the postorbital process, the orientation of the occipital region, and the expansion of the braincase. As a result, the cranial morphology of A. microta shows a less specialized morphology toward a fibrous and durophagous diet compared to the giant panda. These results are confirmed by a comparative analysis of the dimensions of the upper teeth in bears, which has revealed differences in relative tooth size between A. microta and A. melanoleuca, most probably as a result of mosaic evolution. Therefore, we conclude that cranial shape did not remain essentially uniform in the Ailuropoda lineage, as previously thought, but underwent a number of changes during more than 2 Myr.

  3. Performance of summation invariants of projective transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhir, Nasereh; Ali, Jamaludin Md

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, the classification of two dimension objects under the projective transformation group, interested group in computer vision, is presented. Results between the proposed invariants with previous invariant features are compared to show the performance of the method.

  4. Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2003-01-01

    It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and rel...

  5. Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Star-shaped terpolymers of the ABC type composed of incompatible polymer components give a variety of ordered structures with mesoscopic length scales depending on their composition ratio. Their peculiar features are summarized in this report. Polymer components adopted are polyisoprene (I), polystyrene (S) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P), and many monodisperse samples of the IXSYPZ type were anionically prepared. Firstly our focus is on molecules of the I1.0S1.0Px1 type, where x1 is only a variable. The complex but systematic morphology change was displayed within the range 0.2 ? x1 ? 10, that is, their structures change from spherical plus lamellae structure for I1.0S1.0P0.2 to periodic tilings (0.4 ? x1 ? 1.9), then to lamellae-in-lamella (3.0 ? x1 ? 4.9) and lamellae-in-cylinder (7.9 ? x1 ? 10) structures with increasing x1. Here if we pay attention to the structural variation of the P domain inclusively, it transforms from sphere to cylinder, lamella and then to matrix, which is the same as that for linear polymers. Among them, several periodic Archimedean tiling patterns can be naturally formed when the relative lengths of the three chains are close to one another. Moreover, it has been found that the tiling zone is spread out widely. For example, the series I1.0S1.8Px2 (with 0.8 ? x2 ? 2.9) and the other series I1.0SyP2.0 (with 1.1 ? y ? 2.7) show mostly Archimedean tilings. Additionally, block copolymer/homopolymer blends with a composition of I1.0S2.7P2.5 reveal a quasicrystalline tiling with dodecagonal symmetry. Furthermore, a zinc-blende-type four-branched network structure was created just a little outside of the tiling region for a block copolymer/homopolymer blend of I1.0S2.3P0.8. When some more asymmetry in chain length is introduced, hyperbolic tiling on a gyroid membrane has successfully been constructed for the sample I1.0S1.8P3.2 and it transforms into a hierarchical cylinders-in-lamella structure with further increase in P content to I1.0S1.8P6.4. Thus, kaleidoscopic morphologies have been generated from ABC star-shaped terpolymers and their structural change has turned out to be very sensitive to relative compositions.

  6. Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, Yushu; Hayashida, Kenichi; Dotera, Tomonari; Takano, Atsushi

    2011-07-01

    Star-shaped terpolymers of the ABC type composed of incompatible polymer components give a variety of ordered structures with mesoscopic length scales depending on their composition ratio. Their peculiar features are summarized in this report. Polymer components adopted are polyisoprene (I), polystyrene (S) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P), and many monodisperse samples of the IXSYPZ type were anionically prepared. Firstly our focus is on molecules of the I1.0S1.0Px1 type, where x1 is only a variable. The complex but systematic morphology change was displayed within the range 0.2 <= x1 <= 10, that is, their structures change from spherical plus lamellae structure for I1.0S1.0P0.2 to periodic tilings (0.4 <= x1 <= 1.9), then to lamellae-in-lamella (3.0 <= x1 <= 4.9) and lamellae-in-cylinder (7.9 <= x1 <= 10) structures with increasing x1. Here if we pay attention to the structural variation of the P domain inclusively, it transforms from sphere to cylinder, lamella and then to matrix, which is the same as that for linear polymers. Among them, several periodic Archimedean tiling patterns can be naturally formed when the relative lengths of the three chains are close to one another. Moreover, it has been found that the tiling zone is spread out widely. For example, the series I1.0S1.8Px2 (with 0.8 <= x2 <= 2.9) and the other series I1.0SyP2.0 (with 1.1 <= y <= 2.7) show mostly Archimedean tilings. Additionally, block copolymer/homopolymer blends with a composition of I1.0S2.7P2.5 reveal a quasicrystalline tiling with dodecagonal symmetry. Furthermore, a zinc-blende-type four-branched network structure was created just a little outside of the tiling region for a block copolymer/homopolymer blend of I1.0S2.3P0.8. When some more asymmetry in chain length is introduced, hyperbolic tiling on a gyroid membrane has successfully been constructed for the sample I1.0S1.8P3.2 and it transforms into a hierarchical cylinders-in-lamella structure with further increase in P content to I1.0S1.8P6.4. Thus, kaleidoscopic morphologies have been generated from ABC star-shaped terpolymers and their structural change has turned out to be very sensitive to relative compositions.

  7. A Czech Morphological Lexicon

    CERN Document Server

    Skoumalova, H

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, a treatment of Czech phonological rules in two-level morphology approach is described. First the possible phonological alternations in Czech are listed and then their treatment in a practical application of a Czech morphological lexicon. From no-reply@xxx.lanl.gov Thu Oct 7 08:24 MET 1999 Received: from newmint.cern.ch (dxmint.cern.ch [137.138.26.76]) by sundh98.cern.ch (8.8.5/8.8.5) with ESMTP id IAA19870 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from yyy.lanl.gov (yyy.lanl.gov [204.121.6.60]) by newmint.cern.ch (8.9.3/8.9.3) with ESMTP id IAA28502 for ; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 08:24:36 +0200 (MET DST) Received: from xxx.lanl.gov (xxx.lanl.gov [204.121.6.57]) by yyy.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) with ESMTP id AAA17918; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:01 -0600 (MDT) Received: (from e-prints@localhost) by xxx.lanl.gov (x.x.x/x.x.x) id AAA25245; Thu, 7 Oct 1999 00:12:08 -0600

  8. Morphology of urethral tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Bert; Schulz, Georg; Herzen, Julia; Mushkolaj, Shpend; Bormann, Therese; Beckmann, Felix; Püschel, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Micro computed tomography has been developed to a powerful technique for the characterization of hard and soft human and animal tissues. Soft tissues including the urethra, however, are difficult to be analyzed, since the microstructures of interest exhibit X-ray absorption values very similar to the surroundings. Selective staining using highly absorbing species is a widely used approach, but associated with significant tissue modification. Alternatively, one can suitably embed the soft tissue, which requires the exchange of water. Therefore, the more recently developed phase contrast modes providing much better contrast of low X-ray absorbing species are especially accommodating in soft tissue characterization. The present communication deals with the morphological characterization of sheep, pig and human urethras on the micrometer scale taking advantage of micro computed tomography in absorption and phase contrast modes. The performance of grating-based tomography is demonstrated for freshly explanted male and female urethras in saline solution. The micro-morphology of the urethra is important to understand how the muscles close the urethra to reach continence. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing, the function under static and, more important, under stress conditions has to be uncovered for the realization of artificial urinary sphincters, which needs sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

  9. Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya P. Savinykh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

  10. Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

  11. Fast complexified quaternion Fourier transform

    OpenAIRE

    Said, Salem; Bihan, Nicolas le; Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2006-01-01

    A discrete complexified quaternion Fourier transform is introduced. This is a generalization of the discrete quaternion Fourier transform to the case where either or both of the signal/image and the transform kernel are complex quaternion-valued. It is shown how to compute the transform using four standard complex Fourier transforms and the properties of the transform are briefly discussed.

  12. Evolution of the brightest cluster galaxies: the influence of morphology, stellar mass and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongyao; Aragón-Salamanca, Alfonso; Conselice, Christopher J.

    2015-11-01

    Using a sample of 425 nearby brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) from von der Linden et al., we study the relationship between their internal properties (stellar masses, structural parameters and morphologies) and their environment. More massive BCGs tend to inhabit denser regions and more massive clusters than lower mass BCGs. Furthermore, cDs, which are BCGs with particularly extended envelopes, seem to prefer marginally denser regions and tend to be hosted by more massive haloes than elliptical BCGs. cD and elliptical BCGs show parallel positive correlations between their stellar masses and environmental densities. However, at a fixed environmental density, cDs are, on average, ˜40 per cent more massive. Our results, together with the findings of previous studies, suggest an evolutionary link between elliptical and cD BCGs. We suggest that most present-day cDs started their life as ellipticals, which subsequently grew in stellar mass and size due to mergers. In this process, the cD envelope developed. The large scatter in the stellar masses and sizes of the cDs reflects their different merger histories. The growth of the BCGs in mass and size seems to be linked to the hierarchical growth of the structures they inhabit: as the groups and clusters became denser and more massive, the BCGs at their centres also grew. This process is nearing completion since the majority (˜60 per cent) of the BCGs in the local Universe have cD morphology. However, the presence of galaxies with intermediate morphological classes (between ellipticals and cDs) suggests that the growth and morphological transformation of some BCGs is still ongoing.

  13. The Hough transform estimator

    CERN Document Server

    Goldenshluger, A; Goldenshluger, Alexander; Zeevi, Assaf

    2004-01-01

    This article pursues a statistical study of the Hough transform, the celebrated computer vision algorithm used to detect the presence of lines in a noisy image. We first study asymptotic properties of the Hough transform estimator, whose objective is to find the line that ``best'' fits a set of planar points. In particular, we establish strong consistency and rates of convergence, and characterize the limiting distribution of the Hough transform estimator. While the convergence rates are seen to be slower than those found in some standard regression methods, the Hough transform estimator is shown to be more robust as measured by its breakdown point. We next study the Hough transform in the context of the problem of detecting multiple lines. This is addressed via the framework of excess mass functionals and modality testing. Throughout, several numerical examples help illustrate various properties of the estimator. Relations between the Hough transform and more mainstream statistical paradigms and methods are ...

  14. A relation connecting scale transformation, Galilean transformation and Baecklund transformation for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that the two-parameter manifold of Baecklund transformations known for the nonlinear Schroedinger equation can be generated from one Baecklund transformation with specified parameters by use of scale transformation and Galilean transformation. (orig.)

  15. Memory of Power Transformed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina Maleska

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay is focused on the phenomenon of power. Special attention is paid to the past understanding, research and explanation of what power is, and how it has been understood throughout history. Traditionally, power has referred to authority, influence, control. The research of literary works, however, has led me to the realization that the notion of power is understood in different terms in literature in comparison to how it is explained in philosophy and the social sciences. In order to contribute to the broader understanding of power from a literary point of view, this essay examines many questions concerning this phenomenon, such as: how does the past understanding of power determine how it is accepted and interpreted in the present? How are the success of the present efforts and initiatives affected by the memory of power? The essay attempts to show that the memory of the notion of power is not and cannot be fixed and given once and for all. Therefore, the literary examples provided demonstrate how the definitions of power given in the past are transformed and transfigured by present literary works, which show how we may “forget” what we know about this phenomenon, and define it from a new perspective.

  16. Intragranular ferrite morphologies in medium carbon vanadium-microalloyed steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine TTT diagram of medium carbon V-N micro-alloyed steel with emphasis on the development of intragranular ferrite morphologies. The isothermal treatment was carried out at 350, 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600°C. These treatments were interrupted at different times in order to analyze the evolution of the microstructure. Metallographic evaluation was done using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that at high temperatures (? 500°C polygonal intragranulary nucleated ferrite idiomorphs, combined with grain boundary ferrite and pearlite were produced and followed by an incomplete transformation phenomenon. At intermediate temperatures (450, 500°C an interloced acicular ferrite (AF microstructure is produced, and at low temperatures (400, 350°C the sheave of parallel acicular ferrite plates, similar to bainitic sheaves but intragranularly nucleated were observed. In addition to sheaf type acicular ferrite, the grain boundary nucleated bainitic sheaves are observed. [Projekat Ministartsva nauke Republike Srbije, br. OI174004

  17. Reusable model transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Sagar; Moha, Naouel; Mahé, Vincent; Barais, Olivier; Baudry, Benoit; Jézéquel, Jean-Marc

    2012-01-01

    Model transformations written for an input metamodel may often apply to other metamodels that share similar concepts. For example, a transformation written to refactor Java models can be applicable to refactoring UML class diagrams as both languages share concepts such as classes, methods, attributes, and inheritance. Deriving motivation from this example, we present an approach to make model transformations reusable such that they function correctly across several similar metamodels. Our app...

  18. Scale invariant feature transform

    OpenAIRE

    Lindeberg, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is an image descriptor for image-based matching developed by David Lowe (1999,2004). This descriptor as well as related image descriptors are used for a large number of purposes in computer vision related to point matching between different views of a 3-D scene and view-based object recognition. The SIFT descriptor is invariant to translations, rotations and scaling transformations in the image domain and robust to moderate perspective transformations ...

  19. The Hough transform estimator

    OpenAIRE

    Goldenshluger, Alexander; Zeevi, Assaf

    2005-01-01

    This article pursues a statistical study of the Hough transform, the celebrated computer vision algorithm used to detect the presence of lines in a noisy image. We first study asymptotic properties of the Hough transform estimator, whose objective is to find the line that ``best'' fits a set of planar points. In particular, we establish strong consistency and rates of convergence, and characterize the limiting distribution of the Hough transform estimator. While the converge...

  20. Generalized Stirling transform

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mourad

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, algorithms are developed for computing the Stirling transform and the inverse Stirling transform; specifically, we investigate a class of sequences satisfying a two-term recurrence. We derive a general identity which generalizes the usual Stirling transform and investigate the corresponding generating functions also. In addition, some interesting consequences of these results related to classical sequences like Fibonacci, Bernoulli and the numbers of derangeme...

  1. Efficient Quantum Transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Hoyer, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Quantum mechanics requires the operation of quantum computers to be unitary, and thus makes it important to have general techniques for developing fast quantum algorithms for computing unitary transforms. A quantum routine for computing a generalized Kronecker product is given. Applications include re-development of the networks for computing the Walsh-Hadamard and the quantum Fourier transform. New networks for two wavelet transforms are given. Quantum computation of Fourie...

  2. Quantized Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boson mapping of single fermion operators in a situation dominated by the pairing force gives rise to a transformation that can be considered a quantized version of the Bogoliubov transformation. This transformation can also be obtained as an exact special case of operators constructed from an approximate treatment of particle number projection, suggesting a method of obtaining the boson mapping in cases more complicated than that of pairing force domination

  3. The Object Databases Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Tavac

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with the transformation of a relationaldatabase to an object database. It suggests a new so-lution based on database and model-driven engineeringintegration. In the first part it is discussed in generalissues of relational database transformation into objectone, some problematic areas are identified. Subsequently,depending on detailed analyze of the database reverse en-gineering processes, the whole process is defined as a se-quence of models and transformation among them b...

  4. GOOD GOVERNANCE AND TRANSFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Wagener, Hans-Jürgen

    2005-01-01

    Transformation of a totalitarian, basically administratively coordinated system into a democratic one that is coordinated predominantly by markets and competition has been triggered by, among others, the perception of a serious deficit in welfare and happiness. Public policy has a special task transforming the economic order by liberalisation, privatisation, stabilisation and the installation of institutions that are supportive for competition. After 15 years since transformation began, there...

  5. Evaluation of transform based image coders, using different transforms and techniques in the transform domain

    OpenAIRE

    Salvado, José; Roque, Bruno

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses the most relevant aspects of lossy image coding techniques, and presents an evaluation study on this subject, using several transforms and different methods in the transform domain. We developed different transform based image coders/decoders (codecs) using different transforms, such as the discrete cosine transform, the discrete wavelet transform and the S transform. Besides JPEG Baseline, we also use other techniques and methods in the transform domain such ...

  6. Investigation of Transformer Model for TRV Calculation by EMTP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thein, Myo Min; Ikeda, Hisatoshi; Harada, Katsuhiko; Ohtsuka, Shinya; Hikita, Masayuki; Haginomori, Eiichi; Koshiduka, Tadashi

    Analysis of the EMTP transformer model was performed with the 4kVA two windings low voltage transformer with the current injection (CIJ) measurement method to study a transient recovery voltage (TRV) at the transformer limited fault (TLF) current interrupting condition. Tested transformer's impedance was measured by the frequency response analyzer (FRA). From FRA measurement graphs leakage inductance, stray capacitance and resistance were calculated. The EMTP transformer model was constructed with those values. The EMTP simulation was done for a current injection circuit by using transformer model. The experiment and simulation results show a reasonable agreement.

  7. Coaxial pulse matching transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a coaxial pulse matching transformer with comparatively simple design, increased mechanical strength, and low stray inductance. The transformer design makes it easy to change the turns ratio. The circuit of the device and an expression for the current multiplication factor are presented; experiments confirm the efficiency of the transformer. Apparatus with a coaxial transformer for producing high-power pulsed magnetic fields is designed (current pulses of 1-10 MA into a load and a natural frequency of 100 kHz)

  8. The convolution transform

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2005-01-01

    In studies of general operators of the same nature, general convolution transforms are immediately encountered as the objects of inversion. The relation between differential operators and integral transforms is the basic theme of this work, which is geared toward upper-level undergraduates and graduate students. It may be read easily by anyone with a working knowledge of real and complex variable theory. Topics include the finite and non-finite kernels, variation diminishing transforms, asymptotic behavior of kernels, real inversion theory, representation theory, the Weierstrass transform, and

  9. Distributed photovoltaic grid transformers

    CERN Document Server

    Shertukde, Hemchandra Madhusudan

    2014-01-01

    The demand for alternative energy sources fuels the need for electric power and controls engineers to possess a practical understanding of transformers suitable for solar energy. Meeting that need, Distributed Photovoltaic Grid Transformers begins by explaining the basic theory behind transformers in the solar power arena, and then progresses to describe the development, manufacture, and sale of distributed photovoltaic (PV) grid transformers, which help boost the electric DC voltage (generally at 30 volts) harnessed by a PV panel to a higher level (generally at 115 volts or higher) once it is

  10. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  11. A DC Transformer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During the period of this project three different possible DC transformer concepts were proposed, theoretically modeled, and then experimentally tested with the...

  12. Morphology-mechanical Property Relationship of Polypropylene/starch Blends

    OpenAIRE

    C.H. Azhari; Wong, S. F.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of morphology on mechanical property of several polypropylene/starch (PP/starch) blends of varying compositions was studied. The blends prepared were at wt%PP/wt%starch of 97.5/2.5, 95/5, 92.5/7.7, 90/10, 87.5/12.5 and 85/15. The morphology of the blends observed, using scanning electron microscopy showed them to be immiscible blends with distinct polymer-starch domains at high starch volume fractions (85%PP/15%starch-87.5%PP/12.5%starch), which gradually showed the morphology o...

  13. Martensitic transformation in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of the isothermal martensitic transformation in Fe--29.6 Ni and Fe--22.5 Ni--4 Mn alloys were investigated as a function of constant magnetic fields, ranging up to 140 KOe (11 x 106 ampere/m). The principal role of the applied magnetic field is to increase the free-energy difference between the product and parent phases in these iron-based alloys, and so the transformational driving force for a given composition can be varied even at a fixed temperature. In the Fe--Ni alloy, the isothermal transformation rate is increased by raising the magnetic field as well as by lowering the temperature, leading in either case to the entre of burst characteristics. The Fe--Ni--Mn alloy does not transform perceptibly without an applied field, but exhibits isothermal C-curve kinetics in fields above 60 KOe (4.8 x 106 ampere/m). The average volume per martensitic plate ad the average plate orientation are found to be insensitive to the strength and direction of the magnetic field, undoubtedly indicating the dominance of autocatalytic nucleation during the course of the isothermal transformation. However, there is some tendency for the morphology to become less lath-like and more plate-like with increasing field strength at a given transformation temperature, and likewise with increasing temperature at a given driving force. Evidently, the prevailing view that martensite becomes more plate-like with decreasing transformation temperature is a consequence of the attendant increase in driving force rather than a pure thermal effect. Nucleation rate measurements have also been carried out as a function of temperature and magnetic-field strength. In testing nucleation models against these results, it is necessary to take into account the effects of magnetic field, as well as of temperature, on the elastic constants

  14. Structural, Morphological, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Nanostructured CoFe Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis Deposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirabadizadeh, Ahmad; Sarhaddi, Reza; Vahedipanah, Zahra; Mardani, Reza

    2015-08-01

    Nanostructured CoFe thin films were prepared on the glass substrates by spray pyrolysis deposition (SPD) method. The as-deposited films were separately annealed at 500°C in ambient air and hydrogen atmospheres to investigate the effect of annealing atmosphere on different properties of the deposited films. Structural, morphological, magnetic and electrical properties of annealed thin films were investigated by the X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and four-point probe measurements, respectively. XRD patterns show that by changing the annealing atmosphere from ambient air to hydrogen, the crystal structure transformed from cubic spinel phase (Fd-3m) to cubic CsCl-type phase (Pm-3m). SEM images demonstrated that the morphology, grain size and thickness of annealed thin films depend greatly on the atmosphere type. Thickness of the films annealed in ambient air and hydrogen atmosphere were 378 and 356 nm, respectively. The morphology of the films changes from small sized granular for the ambient air-annealed films to coral-like structures for the hydrogen atmosphere annealed films. The magnetic properties of the annealed thin films depend on the annealing atmosphere, the applied field directions and film microstructural properties. Hydrogen annealing induced a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in CoFe thin films. Room temperature hysteresis measurements show soft magnetic behavior of the hydrogen atmosphere annealed CoFe films in the perpendicular direction suggested its application in perpendicular magnetic recording media.

  15. Pollen Morphology of Origanum L. (Labiatae) Taxons in Turkiye

    OpenAIRE

    Hanife Akyalcin

    2003-01-01

    The research work was conducted to investigate the pollen morphology of twenty-two taxa of Origanum L., which had been described in accordance with their external-morphological characteristics and comparatively examined through the light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). Each taxons had also been described palynologically. According to palynological data the pollens of Origanum L. showed reticulate and suprareticulate ornamentation. Chilocalyx section, that showed reticulate ornamentat...

  16. Fourier Cosine and Sine Transform on fractal space

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN Guang-sheng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we establish local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine Transforms on fractal space, considered some properties of local fractional Cosine and Sine Transforms, show applications of local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine transform to local fractional equations with local fractional derivative.

  17. A morphological indicator for comparing simulated cosmological scenarios with observations

    CERN Document Server

    Lega, E; Alimi, J M; Scholl, H

    1995-01-01

    We propose a morphological multi-scale analysis of large-scale structures obtained by computer simulations and by observations. Structures are obtained at different scales by applying a wavelet transform on the observed and simulated data. Application of a segmentation algorithm allows a quantitative morphological description of the structures at each scale. The morphological parameter which we propose represents the deviation of a structure from sphericity. The dependence on scale of this simple parameter is shown to characterize in simulations the underlying cosmological model. We compare the HDM, CDM and mixed models with the CfA catalogue. This comparison favours a mixed model containing 65\\% of CDM, 30\\% of HDM, and 5\\% baryonic matter.

  18. Droplet free energy functional for the morphology of martensites

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M; Rao, Madan; Sengupta, Surajit

    1996-01-01

    Martensites are metastable phases, possessing a characteristic morphology, usually formed during a fast quench accross a structural transition. We attempt to understand these morphological features using a coarsegrained free energy functional {\\cal F}[\\epsilon ; \\Phi] which contains, in addition to the usual strain fields \\epsilon_{ij} (the `` order parameter'' for the transition), the ``vacancy'' field \\phi which arises due to the geometric mismatch at a parent-product interface. The relaxation of this mismatch is slow compared to typical front propagation times and hence \\phi is essentially frozen in the reference frame of the growing martensite front. Minimisation of {\\cal F} then automatically yeilds typical martensite morphologies. We demonstrate this in two dimensions for the square to rhombus transformation and obtain internally twinned martensites, which grow as thin strips, for ``hard'' martensites (e.g., Fe-based alloys) or with a `single-interface', for ``soft'' martensites (e.g., In-Tl alloys).

  19. Transformation from hollow carbon octahedra to compressed octahedra and their use in lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mei, Tao; Li, Na; Li, Qianwen; Xing, Zheng; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qian, Yitai, E-mail: ytqian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Science at Microscale and Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Shen, Xiaoyan [Jiangsu Highstar Battery Manufacturing CO., LTD (China)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Schematic illustration of the transformation process from hollow carbon octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed hollow carbon octahedra ?. Highlights: ? We demonstrate the in situ template synthesis of hollow carbon octahedra. ? The shell thickness of hollow carbon octahedra is only 2.5 nm. ? Morphology transformation could be realized by extending of reaction time. ? The hollow structures show reversible capacity as 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. -- Abstract: Hollow carbon octahedra with an average size of 300 nm and a shell thickness of 2.5 nm were prepared by a reaction starting from ferrocene and Mg(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O at 700 °C for 10 h. They became compressed and turned into deflated balloon-like octahedra when the reaction time was increased to 16 h. It was proposed that the gas pressure generated during the reaction process induced the transformation from broken carbon hollow octahedra into deflated balloon-like compressed octahedra. X-ray powder diffraction and Raman spectroscopy indicate that the as-obtained carbon products possess a graphitic structure and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images indicate that they have low crystallinity. Their application as an electrode shows reversible capacity of 353 mAh g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles in the charge/discharge experiments of secondary lithium ion batteries.

  20. Characteristics of radiation-induced neoplastic transformation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, J.B.

    1986-01-01

    Data are presented to support the hypothesis that the initial step in the morphologic transformation of irradiated rodent (BALB/3T3) cells is a frequent cellular event involving a large fraction of the irradiated population. This process appears to involve DNA damage, but not to represent a targeted mutation in specific structural gene(s). Morphologic transformation and immortalization appear to be distinct steps in the overall process of transformation. In contradistinction to rodent cells, immortalization is a very rare event in human diploid cells which is induced at extremely low frequencies. The hypothesis is presented that immortality develops among clones of cells bearing stable chromosomal rearrangements which emerge during the proliferation of a population of radiation damaged cells.

  1. Effect of pulsed electric fields assisted acetylation on morphological, structural and functional characteristics of potato starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jing; Chen, Rujiao; Zeng, Xin-An; Han, Zhong

    2016-02-01

    Pulsed electric fields (PEF)-assisted acetylation of potato starch with different degree of substitution (DS) was prepared and effects of PEF strength, reaction time, starch concentration on DS were studied by response surface methodology. Results showed DS was increased from 0.054 (reaction time of 15 min) to 0.130 (reaction time of 60 min) as PEF strength increased from 3 to 5 kV/cm. External morphology revealed that acetylated starch with higher DS was aggravated more bulges and asperities. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the introduction of acetyl group through a band at 1730 cm(-1). The optimum sample (DS =0 .13) had lower retrogradation (39.1%), breakdown (155 BU) and setback value (149BU), while pasting temperature (62.2 °C) was slightly higher than non-PEF-assisted samples. These results demonstrated PEF treatment can be a potential and beneficial method for acetylation and achieve higher DS with shorter reaction time. PMID:26304315

  2. GREEN SYNTHESIS OF CALCIUM CARBONATE WITH UNUSUAL MORPHOLOGIES IN THE PRESENCE OF FRUIT EXTRACTS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CHENGLI, YAO; ANJIAN, XIE; YUHUA, SHEN; JINMIAO, ZHU; TENGJIAO, LI.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we reported a novel green strategy for the biological synthesis of calcium carbonate crystals using water-soluble polysaccharides extracted from the apple and pear. The resultant crystals were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrar [...] ed (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD). The results showed that water-soluble polysaccharides as a soft template were easy to induce calcium carbonate with unusual morphologies (such as straw bundles-like). Based on the time-dependent growth of CaCC3 particles, possible mechanisms were proposed for the formation of straw bundle-like CaCC3 microspheres with secondary structures in the presence of water-soluble polysaccharides.

  3. Morphological and mechanical imaging of Bacillus cereus spore formation at the nanoscale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Congzhou; Stanciu, Cristina; Ehrhardt, Christopher J; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2015-04-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bacillus are able to transform into metabolically dormant states called (endo) spores in response to nutrient deprivation and other harsh conditions. These morphologically distinct spores are fascinating constructs, amongst the most durable cells in nature, and have attracted attention owing to their relevance in food-related illnesses and bioterrorism. Observing the course of bacterial spore formation (sporulation) spatially, temporally and mechanically, from the vegetative cell to a mature spore, is critical for a better understanding of this process. Here, we present a fast and versatile strategy for monitoring both the morphological and mechanical changes of Bacillus cereus bacteria at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy. Through a strategy of imaging and nanomechanical mapping, we show the morphogenesis of the endospore and released mature endospore. Finally, we investigate individual spores to characterize their surface mechanically. The progression in elasticity coupled with a similarity of characteristic distributions between the incipient endospores and the formed spores show these distinct stages. Taken together, our data demonstrates the power of atomic force microscopy applied in microbiology for probing this important biological process at the single cell scale. PMID:25581787

  4. Synthesis, morphology, optical and photocatalytic performance of nanostructured ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girija, K. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); DRDO – BU CLS, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Thirumalairajan, S. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Avadhani, G.S. [Department of Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mangalaraj, D., E-mail: dmraj800@yahoo.com [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Ponpandian, N. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); DRDO – BU CLS, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India); Viswanathan, C. [Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046 (India)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Nanostructures of ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using facile reflux condensation process. ? The pH of the reaction mixture shows evident influence on the size and shape of the nanostructures formed. ? The nanostructures exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B and was found to be superior for higher pH value. - Abstract: Fine powders of ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were prepared via low temperature reflux condensation method by varying the pH value without using any surfactant. The pH value of reaction mixture had great influence on the morphology of final products. High crystalline single phase ?-Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanostructures were obtained by thermal treatment at 900 °C which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological analysis revealed rod like nanostructures at lower and higher pH values of 6 and 10, while spindle like structures were obtained at pH = 8. The phase purity and presence of vibrational bands were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical absorbance spectrum showed intense absorption features in the UV spectral region. A broad blue emission peak centered at 441 nm due to donor–acceptor gallium–oxygen vacancy pair recombination appeared. The photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was higher for nanorods at pH 10.

  5. Synthesis, morphology, optical and photocatalytic performance of nanostructured ?-Ga2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? Nanostructures of ?-Ga2O3 were prepared using facile reflux condensation process. ? The pH of the reaction mixture shows evident influence on the size and shape of the nanostructures formed. ? The nanostructures exhibited good photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B and was found to be superior for higher pH value. - Abstract: Fine powders of ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures were prepared via low temperature reflux condensation method by varying the pH value without using any surfactant. The pH value of reaction mixture had great influence on the morphology of final products. High crystalline single phase ?-Ga2O3 nanostructures were obtained by thermal treatment at 900 °C which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological analysis revealed rod like nanostructures at lower and higher pH values of 6 and 10, while spindle like structures were obtained at pH = 8. The phase purity and presence of vibrational bands were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The optical absorbance spectrum showed intense absorption features in the UV spectral region. A broad blue emission peak centered at 441 nm due to donor–acceptor gallium–oxygen vacancy pair recombination appeared. The photocatalytic activity toward Rhodamine B under visible light irradiation was higher for nanorods at pH 10

  6. Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad [Food Science Program, School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia); Ahmad, Ishak [Polymer Research Centre (PORCE), School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2013-11-27

    Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

  7. Control over the morphology and segregation of Zebrafish germ cell granules during embryonic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakkrasae La-Iad

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish germ cells contain granular-like structures, organized around the cell nucleus. These structures share common features with polar granules in Drosophila, germinal granules in Xenopus and chromatoid bodies in mice germ cells, such as the localization of the zebrafish Vasa, Piwi and Nanos proteins, among others. Little is known about the structure of these granules as well as their segregation in mitosis during early germ-cell development. Results Using transgenic fish expressing a fluorescently labeled novel component of Zebrafish germ cell granules termed Granulito, we followed the morphology and distribution of the granules. We show that whereas these granules initially exhibit a wide size variation, by the end of the first day of development they become a homogeneous population of medium size granules. We investigated this resizing event and demonstrated the role of microtubules and the minus-end microtubule dependent motor protein Dynein in the process. Last, we show that the function of the germ cell granule resident protein the Tudor domain containing protein-7 (Tdrd7 is required for determination of granule morphology and number. Conclusion Our results suggest that Zebrafish germ cell granules undergo a transformation process, which involves germ cell specific proteins as well as the microtubular network.

  8. Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

  9. Differentiating morphology, form, and meaning: neural correlates of morphological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Davis, Matthew H; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2007-09-01

    The role of morphological structure in word recognition raises issues about the nature and structure of the language system. One major issue is whether morphological factors provide an independent principle for lexical organization and processing, or whether morphological effects can be reduced to the joint contribution of form and meaning. The independence of form, meaning, and morphological structure can be directly investigated using derivationally complex words, because derived words can share form but need not share meaning (e.g., archer-arch). We used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to investigate priming between pairs of words that potentially shared a stem, where this link was either semantically transparent (e.g., bravely-brave) or opaque (e.g., archer-arch). These morphologically related pairs were contrasted with identity priming (e.g., mist-mist) and priming for pairs of words that shared only form (e.g., scandal-scan) or meaning (e.g., accuse-blame). Morphologically related words produced significantly reduced activation in left frontal regions, whether the pairs were semantically transparent or opaque. The effect was not found for any of the control conditions (identity, form, or meaning). Morphological effects were observed separately from processing form and meaning and we propose that they reflect segmentation of complex derived words, a process triggered by surface morphological structure of complex words. PMID:17714008

  10. The Power of LOCCq State Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Thapliyal, A V; Thapliyal, Ashish V.; Smolin, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Reversible state transformations under entanglement non-increasing operations give rise to entanglement measures. It is well known that asymptotic local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are required to get a simple operational measure of bipartite pure state entanglement. For bipartite mixed states and multipartite pure states it is likely that a more powerful class of operations will be needed. To this end \\cite{BPRST01} have defined more powerful versions of state transformations (or reducibilities), namely LOCCq (asymptotic LOCC with a sublinear amount of quantum communication) and CLOCC (asymptotic LOCC with catalysis). In this paper we show that {\\em LOCCq state transformations are only as powerful as asymptotic LOCC state transformations} for multipartite pure states. We first generalize the concept of entanglement gambling from two parties to multiple parties: any pure multipartite entangled state can be transformed to an EPR pair shared by some pair of parties and that any irreducible $m$...

  11. Relationships between Convolution and Correlation for Fourier Transform and Quaternion Fourier Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we introduce convolution theorem for the Fourier transform (FT) of two complex functions. We show that the correlation theorem for the FT can be derived using properties of convolution. We develop this idea to derive the correlation theorem for the quaternion Fourier transform (QFT) of the two quaternion functions.

  12. Morphological evolution of disk galaxies in clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Mastropietro, C; Mayer, L; Debattista, Victor P; Piffaretti, R; Stadel, J; Mastropietro, Chiara; Moore, Ben; Mayer, Lucio; Debattista, Victor P.; Piffaretti, Rocco; Stadel, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    The recent discovery of hidden non-axysimmetric and disk-like structures in bright Virgo dwarf elliptical and lenticular galaxies (dE/dSph/dS0) indicates that they may have late-type progenitors. Using N-body simulations we follow the evolution of disk galaxies within a LambdaCDM cluster simulated with 10e7 particles, where the hierarchical growth and galaxy harassment are modeled self-consistently. Most of the galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation, even at the outskirts of the cluster, and move through the Hubble sequence from late type disks to dwarf spheroidals. None of the disks are completely destroyed therefore they can not be the progenitors of ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs). The time evolution of the simulated galaxies is compared with unsharp-masked images obtained from VLT data and the projected kinematics of our models with the latest high resolution spectroscopic studies from the Keck and Palomar telescopes.

  13. Martensitic transformation and shape memory recovery property of Cu72Al26.5Nb1.5 high temperature shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: The martensite variants show self-accommodated morphology with (0 0 1 8) twin relationship. (1 2 1 0) twin and (1 1 0) stacking faults substructures are found in the martensite. The shape recovery ratio of the alloy aged in both martensite and austenite state decreases with the aging time increasing in the early stage and then becomes stable. - Abstract: Martensitic transformation and shape memory recovery property of Cu72Al26.5Nb1.5 alloy have been systematically investigated by means of differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction, transmission electronic microscopy and bending test in this work. The results show that the alloy undergoes one-step martensitic transformation from the monoclinic ?'1 to DO3 cubic structure during the process of cooling and heating, and the martensitic transformation starting temperature of the alloy is up to 560 K, indicating the potential application in high temperature environment. TEM observations reveal that the martensites exhibit typical spear-like, plate-like and fork-like morphologies, and most of the martensite variants show self-accommodated state with (0 0 1 8) twin relationship. Two kinds of the substructures of martensites are determined to be (1 2 1 0) twin and (1 1 0) stacking faults for the alloy. Bending tests indicate that the aging time has remarkable influence on the shape recovery ratio of the alloy. The shape recovery ratio firstly decreases and then becomes stable with the aging duration increasing.

  14. Metamaterial-enabled transformation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Nathan

    Transformation Optics is a design methodology that uses the form invariance of Maxwell's equations to distort electromagnetic fields. This distortion is imposed on a region of space by mimicking a curvilinear coordinate system with prescribed magnetoelectric material parameters. By simply specifying the correct coordinate transformation, researchers have created such exotic devices as invisibility cloaks, ``perfect'' lenses, and illusion devices. Unfortunately, these devices typically require correspondingly exotic material parameters that do not occur in Nature. Researchers have therefore turned to complex artificial media known as metamaterials to approximate the desired responses. However, the metamaterial design process is complex, and there are limitations on the responses that they achieve. In this dissertation, we explore both the applicability and limitations of metamaterials in Transformation Optics design. We begin in Chapter 2 by investigating the freedoms available to use in the transformation optics design process itself. We show that quasi-conformal mappings may be used to alleviate some of the complexity of material design in both two- and three-dimensional design. We then go on in Chapter 3 to apply this method to the design of a transformation-optics modified optic. We show that even a highly-approximate implementation of such a lens would retain many of the key performance feautures that we would expect from a full material prescription. However, the approximations made in the design of our lens may not be valid in other areas of transformation optical design. For instance, the high-frequency approximations of our lens design ignore the effects of impedance mismatch, and the approximation is not valid when the material parameters vary on the order of a wavelength. Therefore, in Chapter 4 we use other freedoms available to us to design a full-parameter cloak of invisibility. By tailoring the electromagnetic environment of our cloak, we are able to achieve three distinct material responses with a singe metamaterial unit cell. We show the power of our design by experimentally demonstrating a cloak of ten wavelengths in diameter at microwave frequencies. In addition to these specific examples, we seek a general method to simulate transformation optics devices containing metamaterial inclusions. In Chapter 5, we examine the discrete-approximation, and we apply it to the design of an electromagnetic cloak. We show that the point-dipole description of metamaterial elements allows us to correct for some aberrations that appear when the limits of homogenization are violated. Finally, we examine so-called ``complementary metamaterials'' and their utility in transformation optics devices. Complementary metamaterials exchange the void and metallized regions of conventional metamaterial elements, and thereby offer a dual response to the electromagnetic field. This duality is attractive because it provides a straightforward method of creating broadband, highly-anisotropic magnetics. We analyze these elements and show that they may be incorporated into our discrete-dipole model. However, we show that the unique characteristics of complementary elements limit their functionality when used as effective materials.

  15. Analogue transformation acoustics and the compression of spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    García-Meca, C; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed technique known as analogue transformation acoustics has allowed the extension of the transformational paradigm to general spacetime transformations under which the acoustic equations are not form invariant. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of analogue transformation acoustics and show how this technique can be applied to build a device that increases the density of events within a given spacetime region by simultaneously compressing space and time.

  16. Analogue transformation acoustics and the compression of spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    García-Meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J.; Martínez, A.

    2014-01-01

    A recently developed technique known as analogue transformation acoustics has allowed the extension of the transformational paradigm to general spacetime transformations under which the acoustic equations are not form invariant. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of analogue transformation acoustics and show how this technique can be applied to build a device that increases the density of events within a given spacetime region by simultaneously compressing space and t...

  17. Derivative-dependent metric transformation and physical degrees of freedom

    OpenAIRE

    Domènech, Guillem; Mukohyama, Shinji; Namba, Ryo(Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan); Naruko, Atsushi; Saitou, Rio(Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583, Japan); Watanabe, Yota

    2015-01-01

    We study metric transformations which depend on a scalar field $\\phi$ and its first derivatives and confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom does not change under such transformations, as long as they are not singular. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of a simple model in the gauge $\\phi = t$. In addition, we explicitly show that the transformation and the gauge fixing do commute in transforming the action. We then extend the analysis to more general gravitati...

  18. Robust Multiple Signal Classification via Probability Measure Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new framework for robust multiple signal classification (MUSIC). The proposed framework, called robust measure-transformed (MT) MUSIC, is based on applying a transform to the probability distribution of the received signals, i.e., transformation of the probability measure defined on the observation space. In robust MT-MUSIC, the sample covariance is replaced by the empirical MT-covariance. By judicious choice of the transform we show that: 1) th...

  19. Gauge and Lorentz transformation placed on the same foundation

    OpenAIRE

    Ilmar Ots; Hannes Liivat; Stefan Groote; Rein Saar

    2010-01-01

    In this note we show that a "dynamical" interaction for arbitrary spin can be constructed in a straightforward way if gauge and Lorentz transformations are placed on the same foundation. As Lorentz transformations act on space-time coordinates, gauge transformations are applied to the gauge field. Placing these two transformations on the same ground means that all quantized field like spin-1/2 and spin-3/2 spinors are functions not only of the coordinates but also of the gau...

  20. Compressing power transformer windings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorshunov, V.Yu.; Konov, Yu.S.; Moguzov, V.F.

    1982-09-01

    Power transformers used in power systems are periodically removed from service for overhaul. Eliminating the overhaul would reduce maintenance costs; however, to achieve this requires the solution of a series of technical problems. The solution of these problems is discussed. A device for testing transformer windings is described.

  1. Direct current transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  2. On General Moeller Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a study on the general Moeller transformation and emphatically introduce its differential form. In this paper, a definition of acceleration is given in spacetime language and the inertial reference frame is also settled. With a discussion of the geodesic equations of motion, the differential form of the general Moeller transformation at arbitrary direction is presented.

  3. The unhomogeneous Bogoliubov transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unhomogeneous Bogolyubov transformations are proposed for any fermonic and bosonic systems. In this case the unhomogeneous terms of transformation is Grassmann variables and c11-number functions accordingly for fermonic and bosonic systems. The correlation functions of unhomogeneous terms will depend on properties of systems

  4. Copula and semicopula transforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Durante

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available We characterize the transformation, defined for every copula C, by Ch(x,y:=h[−1](C(h(x,h(y, where x and y belong to [0,1] and h is a strictly increasing and continuous function on [0,1]. We study this transformation also in the class of quasi-copulas and semicopulas.

  5. Copula and semicopula transforms

    OpenAIRE

    Fabrizio Durante; Carlo Sempi

    2005-01-01

    We characterize the transformation, defined for every copula C, by Ch(x,y):=h[−1](C(h(x),h(y))), where x and y belong to [0,1] and h is a strictly increasing and continuous function on [0,1]. We study this transformation also in the class of quasi-copulas and semicopulas.

  6. Ultradiscrete Miura transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ultradiscrete analogue of the Miura transformation is constructed through the bilinear form of the discrete KdV and modified KdV equations. This transformation maps solutions of the 'box and ball system with a carrier' to those of the 'box and ball system'. Explicit examples of solutions are also discussed

  7. Development of morphology in laser dressed grinding wheels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Jackson

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper describes the development of faceted morphology in laser dressed grinding wheels.Design/methodology/approach: The approach used in the paper is based on locally melting a vitrified grinding wheel and measuring features such as grain size, cooling rate and melt depth as a function of laser fluence and relating these measures to the morphology shown in the microstructures presented in the paper.Findings: The findings of this course of research lead the authors to believe that a specific morphology is dependent upon cooling rate and laser fluence.Research limitations/implications: The findings show that further research is required to fully understand how certain morphologies form as a function of cooling rate and laser fluence. It should be noted that morphologies observed in laser processed grinding wheels include cellular and fully dendritic morphologies in addition to faceted vertices.Practical implications: The results imply that laser dressed grinding wheels can be used for machining different materials at different grinding speeds. The paper also shows that much development is needed to identify laser processing conditions that are appropriate for different workpiece materials.Originality/value: The paper shows that different morphologies can be used to machine workpiece materials under different conditions. The originality in the paper is focused on the formation on minute cutting points using increasing laser fluences.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  9. Nanostructure and morphology modified porous silicon sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gole, James L.; Lewis, Stephen E.

    2005-03-01

    The ability to control and transform the morphology and optical properties of porous silicon (PS) interface arrays can have important implications for displays and sensors. The optoelectronic properties and interaction sensing capabilities of PS can be varied as a function of pore size and pore morphology as dictated by the manipulation of a surface structure which can be controlled with current density, the solution composition of the electrochemical etches used to prepare the pores, and careful post etch surface treatments. These treatments influence the time dependent photoluminescence (PL) emission from PS. The variation of surface structure as it effects the PL from these PS pore arrays is outlined and discussed within the framework of detailed molecular electronic structure calculations which model the excited state structure giving rise to the UV-visible PL emission from PS. Applications varying from displays to sensors to micro-reactors will be considered. Porous silicon interfaces have also been transformed within the framework of nanotechnology to create highly efficient sensors displaying a rapid, reversible, sensitive, and selective response to HCl, NH3, CO, and NO down to the ppb level. Photoluminescence induced metallization is used to obtain a highly efficient, nanoporous PS array selectively modifies its impedance response to considerably improve the detection of the NH3, CO, and NO. Through FFT analysis, a gas response can be acquired and filtered on a drifting baseline, further improving sensitivity. New nanoscale exclusive techniques have been developed for the rapid formation of highly efficient TiO2-xNx nanophotocatalysts, operative and tunable throughout the visible wavelength region, to be used in conjunction with porous silicon hybrid nanopore coated micropores to form novel and efficient solar pumped sensor arrays.

  10. Morphological characterization and genetic analysis of Drechslera teres isolates

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.P.G., Frazzon; A.T.S., Matsumura; S.T., Van Der Sand.

    Full Text Available Net blotch, caused by the phytopathogen Drechslera teres, is a common disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and is responsible for large economic losses in some barley growing areas. In this study the morphology and genetic variability of eight D. teres isolates from different regions of the Brazili [...] an state of Rio Grande do Sul were investigated. Colony morphology was studied on potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and genetic variability investigated using the random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD) technique. 27 commercially available primers were tested of which 16 were selected for use in polymorphic analysis due to their good resolution and reproducibility. Similarity coefficients were used to construct dendrograms based on colony morphology and RAPD data showing the relationship between the eight isolates studied. Colony morphology showed variability between the isolates while RAPD assays showed high similarity coefficients, but grouping of the isolates according to the geographic origins of the seeds from which they were isolated was not possible.

  11. Multi-scale kinetic surface roughening of reactive-sputtered TaN thin films characterized by wavelet transform approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinetic surface roughening of TaN thin films deposited by reactive sputtering was investigated by using atomic force microscopy. Wavelet transform method incorporating power spectrum density analysis was applied to extract the global and local surface morphologies of the films. Then the dynamical exponents of global and local surface roughening were calculated in terms of dynamic scaling theory. The results show that the kinetic surface roughening of TaN thin films exhibits multi-scale characteristics, where a set of local dynamical exponents (?l = 0.95, ?l = 0.24) and global dynamical exponents (?g = 1.56, ?g = 0.71) was obtained. The local surface roughening is dominated by the competition between linear surface diffusion and deposition flux noise, while the global surface roughening displays anomalous rapid-roughening behavior due to the preferred grain growth. - Highlights: • Film surface multi-scale behaviors were characterized by wavelet transform. • Microscopic mechanisms of surface multi-scale behaviors were investigated

  12. Effects of 5-h multimodal stress on the molecules and pathways involved in dendritic morphology and cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiran; Cheng, Xiaorui; Cui, Xiuliang; Wang, Tongxing; Liu, Gang; Yang, Ruishang; Wang, Jianhui; Bo, Xiaochen; Wang, Shengqi; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2015-09-01

    Stress induces cognitive impairments, which are likely related to the damaged dendritic morphology in the brain. Treatments for stress-induced impairments remain limited because the molecules and pathways underlying these impairments are unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find the potential molecules and pathways related to damage of the dendritic morphology induced by stress. To do this, we detected gene expression, constructed a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network, and analyzed the molecular pathways in the brains of mice exposed to 5-h multimodal stress. The results showed that stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration, decreased cognitive function, damaged dendritic morphologies, and altered APBB1, CLSTN1, KCNA4, NOTCH3, PLAU, RPS6KA1, SYP, TGFB1, KCNA1, NTRK3, and SNCA expression in the brains of mice. Further analyses found that the abnormal expressions of CLSTN1, PLAU, NOTCH3, and TGFB1 induced by stress were related to alterations in the dendritic morphology. These four genes demonstrated interactions with 55 other genes, and configured a closed PPI network. Molecular pathway analysis use the Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), specifically the gene ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), each identified three pathways that were significantly enriched in the gene list of the PPI network, with genes belonging to the Notch and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B) signaling pathways being the most enriched. Our results suggest that TGFB1, PLAU, NOTCH3, and CLSTN1 may be related to the alterations in dendritic morphology induced by stress, and imply that the Notch and TGF-B signaling pathways may be involved. PMID:26165635

  13. Influence of substitution of V for Ti on martensitic transformation of TiPd alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transformation behavior, crystal structure and morphology of variant crystals of martensite of vanadium added TiPd martensitic alloys were investigated. In the alloys substituted vanadium for titanium from 2 to 10mol%, the crystal structure of the martensite was found to be essentially 2H structure. In the alloys containing vanadium more than 6mol%, no sharp change in electrical resistivity during forward and reverse transformation was observed and transformation became a little bit sluggish. Corresponding to this curious behavior, quite unusual morphology in the martensite variant crystals, consisting of fine irregular fragments or ''mosaic'' structure began to appear in those alloys. (orig.)

  14. Brain Tumor Segmentation Based on Structuring Element Map Modification and Marker-controlled Watershed Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Brain medical images are generally prone to noise and also fraught with intensity heterogeneity within the tumor. Fuzzy and boundary discontinuity caused by the tumor also adversely affects the accuracy of the tumor segmentation. A method based on morphological structuring element map modification and marker-controlled watershed segmentation is proposed. Firstly, a structuring element map is constructed according to the sum of the weighted variance of the specific regions within morphological gradient image, and each value of the structuring element map represents the size of structuring element (SE. Secondly, the original image is modified by morphological opening-closing, where the size of SE are determined by the structuring element map in the corresponding pixel, such an adaptive image modification can eliminate the noise and small regular details while preserve the larger object contours without less location offsets. Finally, marker-controlled watershed transform is used to complete the tumor segmentation. Experiments show that the method ensures brain tumors are more accurately segmented.

  15. A model for distribution transformers replacement economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total owning cost of transformers is usually calculated as a present value at time of purchase, using well-defined parameters that take into account specific actual and forecasted financial data including the projected cost of losses over the expected life of the unit. Improvements in transformer efficiency, especially in the last decade, have resulted in changes in evaluation parameters used in such calculations. It is not uncommon to see that the capitalized cost of transformer losses reaches 1.5 times the invoiced price of a transformer. It is therefore of interest to examine the economics of replacing an older transformer by a more efficient unit, rather than refurbishing the older unit. An example of a 50-kVA transformer originally installed in 1974 is used. The analysis shows that if the unit is installed, it is not economical to remove it for replacement with a new unit; but if the transformer is not in service the opposite applies. A computer program running with Lotus 123 is available that aids in these transformer replacement economics calculations. The program also allows sensitivity analyses and comparisons of present worth to changeout and/or refurbishment cost. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions. PMID:24219917

  17. Transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons and the influence of the transformation strategies on the photocatalytic performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutar, Melita; Rozman, Nejc; Pregelj, Matej; Bittencourt, Carla; Cerc Korošec, Romana; Sever Škapin, Andrijana; Mrzel, Aleš; Škapin, Sre?o D

    2015-01-01

    Summary The influence of the reaction conditions during the transformation of hydrogen titanate nanoribbons to TiO2 nanoribbons on the phase composition, the morphology, the appearance of the nanoribbon surfaces and their optical properties was investigated. The transformations were performed (i) through a heat treatment in oxidative and reductive atmospheres in the temperature range of 400–650 °C, (ii) through a hydrothermal treatment in neutral and basic environments at 160 °C, and (iii) through a microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment in a neutral environment at 200 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigations showed that the hydrothermal processing significantly affected the nanoribbon surfaces, which became rougher, while the transformations based on calcination in either oxidative or reductive atmospheres had no effect on the morphology or on the surface appearance of the nanoribbons. The transformations performed in the reductive atmosphere, an NH3(g)/Ar(g) flow, and in the ammonia solution led to nitrogen doping. The nitrogen content increased with an increasing calcination temperature, as was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. According to electron paramagnetic resonance measurements the calcination in the reductive atmosphere also resulted in a partial reduction of Ti4+ to Ti3+. The photocatalytic performance of the derived TiO2 NRs was estimated on the basis of the photocatalytic oxidation of isopropanol. After calcinating in air, the photocatalytic performance of the investigated TiO2 NRs increased with an increased content of anatase. In contrast, the photocatalytic performance of the N-doped TiO2 NRs showed no dependence on the calcination temperature. An additional comparison showed that the N-doping significantly suppressed the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 NRs, i.e., by 3 to almost 10 times, in comparison with the TiO2 NRs derived by calcination in air. On the other hand, the photocatalytic performance of the hydrothermally derived TiO2 NRs was additionally improved by a subsequent heat treatment in air. PMID:25977854

  18. Recurrent Spatial Transformer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SØnderby, SØren Kaae; SØnderby, Casper Kaae

    2015-01-01

    We integrate the recently proposed spatial transformer network (SPN) [Jaderberg et. al 2015] into a recurrent neural network (RNN) to form an RNN-SPN model. We use the RNN-SPN to classify digits in cluttered MNIST sequences. The proposed model achieves a single digit error of 1.5% compared to 2.9% for a convolutional networks and 2.0% for convolutional networks with SPN layers. The SPN outputs a zoomed, rotated and skewed version of the input image. We investigate different down-sampling factors (ratio of pixel in input and output) for the SPN and show that the RNN-SPN model is able to down-sample the input images without deteriorating performance. The down-sampling in RNN-SPN can be thought of as adaptive down-sampling that minimizes the information loss in the regions of interest. We attribute the superior performance of the RNN-SPN to the fact that it can attend to a sequence of regions of interest.

  19. Quantum morphology operations based on quantum representation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Suzhen; Mao, Xia; Li, Tian; Xue, Yuli; Chen, Lijiang; Xiong, Qingxu

    2015-05-01

    Quantum morphology operations are proposed based on the novel enhanced quantum representation model. Two kinds of quantum morphology operations are included: quantum binary and grayscale morphology operations. Dilation and erosion operations are fundamental to morphological operations. Consequently, we focus on quantum binary and flat grayscale dilation and erosion operations and their corresponding circuits. As the basis of designing of binary morphology operations, three basic quantum logic operations AND, OR, and NOT involving two binary images are presented. Thus, quantum binary dilation and erosion operations can be realized based on these logic operations supplemented by quantum measurement operations. As to the design of flat grayscale dilation and erosion operations, the searching for maxima or minima in a certain space is involved; here, we use Grover's search algorithm to get these maxima and minima. With respect that the grayscale is represented by quantum bit string, the quantum bit string comparator is used as an oracle in Grover's search algorithm. In these quantum morphology operations, quantum parallelism is well utilized. The time complexity analysis shows that quantum morphology operations' time complexity is much lower or equal to the classical morphology operations.

  20. THE RELATION BETWEEN GALAXY MORPHOLOGY AND ENVIRONMENT IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE: AN RC3-SDSS PICTURE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results of an analysis of the local (z ? 0) morphology-environment relation for 911 bright (MB 11.7-1014.8 h–1 M?, from isolated single-galaxy halos to massive groups and low-mass clusters. We pay particular attention to how morphology relates to central versus satellite status (where 'central' galaxies are the most massive within their halo). The fraction of galaxies which are elliptical is a strong function of stellar mass; it is also a strong function of halo mass, but only for central galaxies. We interpret this as evidence for a scenario where elliptical galaxies are always formed, probably via mergers, as central galaxies within their halos, with satellite ellipticals being previously central galaxies accreted onto a larger halo. The overall fraction of galaxies which are S0 increases strongly with halo mass, from ?10% to ?70%. Here, too, we find striking differences between the central and satellite populations. 20% ± 2% of central galaxies with stellar masses M* > 1010.5 M? are S0 regardless of halo mass, but satellite S0 galaxies are only found in massive (>1013 h–1 M?) halos, where they are 69% ± 4% of the M* > 1010.5 M? satellite population. This suggests two channels for forming S0 galaxies: one which operates for central galaxies and another which transforms lower-mass (M* ?11 M?) accreted spirals into satellite S0 galaxies in massive halos. Analysis of finer morphological structure (bars and rings in disk galaxies) shows some trends with stellar mass, but none with halo mass; this is consistent with other recent studies which indicate that bars are not strongly influenced by galaxy environment. Radio sources in high-mass central galaxies are common, similarly so for elliptical and S0 galaxies, with a frequency that increases with the halo mass. Emission-line active galactic nuclei (mostly LINERs) are more common in S0s, but show no strong trends with environment.

  1. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markovic, Smilja; Veselinovic, Ljiljana; Lukic, Miodrag J; Ignjatovic, Nenad; Uskokovic, Dragan [Institute of Technical Sciences of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Knez Mihailova 35/IV, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Karanovic, Ljiljana [Laboratory for Crystallography, Faculty of Mining and Geology, University of Belgrade, Dusina 7, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bracko, Ines, E-mail: dragan.uskokovic@itn.sanu.ac.rs [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2011-08-15

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 {sup 0}C, from HAp to {beta}-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  2. Synthetical bone-like and biological hydroxyapatites: a comparative study of crystal structure and morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phase composition, crystal structure and morphology of biological hydroxyapatite (BHAp) extracted from human mandible bone, and carbonated hydroxyapatite (CHAp), synthesized by the chemical precipitation method, were studied by x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (R) spectroscopy techniques, combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Structural and microstructural parameters were determined through Rietveld refinement of recorded XRD data, performed using the FullProf computing program, and TEM. Microstructural analysis shows anisotropic extension along the [0 0 l] crystallographic direction (i.e. elongated crystallites shape) of both investigated samples. The average crystallite sizes of 10 and 8 nm were estimated for BHAp and CHAp, respectively. The FTIR and R spectroscopy studies show that carbonate ions substitute both phosphate and hydroxyl ions in the crystal structure of BHAp as well as in CHAp, indicating that both of them are mixed AB-type of CHAp. The thermal behaviour and carbonate content were analysed using thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The carbonate content of about 1 wt.% and phase transition, at near 790 0C, from HAp to ?-tricalcium phosphate were determined in both samples. The quality of synthesized CHAp powder, particularly, the particle size distribution and uniformity of morphology, was analysed by a particle size analyser based on laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy, respectively. These data were used to discuss similarity between natural and synthetic CHAp. Good correlation between the unit cell parameters, average crystallite size, morphology, carbonate content and crystallographic positions of carbonate ions in natural and synthetic HAp samples was found.

  3. Fish Manoeuvres and Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Pedley, Timothy

    2008-11-01

    The extraordinary manoeuvrability observed in many fish is attributed to their inherent flexibility, which might be enhanced by the use of appendages like fins. The aim of this work is to understand the role of morphological adaptations, such as body shape and deployment of median fins, on manoeuvrability and internal body dynamics. The 3d vortex lattice numerical method was employed to analyse the hydrodynamics for arbitrary body planforms of infinitesimal thickness. The internal structure of the body due to the combined skeletal system and soft tissue, is represented as an active Euler-Bernoulli beam, in which the time-dependent bending moment distribution is calculated from body inertia and the hydrodynamic pressure difference across the body. C-turns are the manoeuvre of choice for this work and the response for three different species of fish are examined. Angelfish(Pterophyllum eimekei), pike (Esox sp) and tuna (Thunnus albacares) were chosen for their differences in body profile, median fin use and manoeuvrability. Net direction change and bending moment response to prescribed backbone flexure are calculated and used to interpret the influence of body profile on manoeuvrability and muscle work done. Internal stresses may be computed from anatomical data on muscle fibre distribution and recruitment. To the future, it is intended to extend this work to other typical manoeuvres, such as fast starts for which muscle activation patterns have been measured quite widely.

  4. SEIRA studies of uracil adsorbed on wet-chemically prepared gold nanoparticles film on glass substrate - Effect of morphology of film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naveen; Thomas, S.; Tokas, R. B.; Kshirsagar, R. J.

    2014-08-01

    Surface-enhanced infrared absorption (SEIRA) studies of uracil adsorbed on wet-chemically prepared gold nanoparticles (AuNp) immobilized on silanised glass substrate were carried out using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The deposition time dependent evolution of morphological changes in AuNp films and its influence on the SEIRA spectra of uracil were investigated. The morphological changes were examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The spectrum of uracil adsorbed on AuNp film obtained with ½ an hour deposition time showed a clear enhancement than 2 and 4 h deposition times. The small shift seen in SEIRA spectra indicates weak interaction of the molecules with AuNp film.

  5. Effect of the structure of ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene graft copolymers on morphology and mechanical properties of SAN/EPDM blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethylene-propylene-diene-graft-polystyrene (EPDM-g-PS copolymers were synthesized to obtain different structures of graft copolymers with different graft lengths and graft densities. The structure of synthesized EPDM-g-PS copolymers was characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC and by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. These presynthesized graft copolymers were added (5 phr to styrene-acrylonitrile (SAN and ethylene-propylene-diene (EPDM blends, prepared to maintain the following SAN/EPDM ratios a 95/5 and b 90/10. SAN/EPDM blends were characterized by the determination of mechanical properties (tensile strength, elongation at break while their morphology was inspected by scanning electronic microscopy, SEM. The obtained results show that various structures of EPDM-g-PS copolymers influence the miscibility in SAN/EPDM blends. Optimal concentration of side branches of graft copolymers provide the finest morphology and enhance mechanical properties.

  6. Activation of the Raf-1/MAP kinase cascade is not sufficient for Ras transformation of RIE-1 epithelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Oldham, S M; Clark, G J; Gangarosa, L M; Coffey, R. J.; C. J.

    1996-01-01

    The potent transforming activity of membrane-targeted Raf-1 (Raf-CAAX) suggests that Ras transformation is triggered primarily by a Ras-mediated translocation of Raf-1 to the plasma membrane. However, whereas constitutively activated mutants of Ras [H-Ras(61L) and K-Ras4B(12V)] and Raf-1 (DeltaRaf-22W and Raf-CAAX) caused indistinguishable morphologic and growth (in soft agar and nude mice) transformation of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts, only mutant Ras caused morphologic transformation of RIE-1 rat i...

  7. A discrete fractional random transform

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2006-01-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  8. Genetics of Follicular Lymphoma Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Pasqualucci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent disease, but 30%–40% of cases undergo histologic transformation to an aggressive malignancy, typically represented by diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL. The pathogenesis of this process remains largely unknown. Using whole-exome sequencing and copy-number analysis, we show here that the dominant clone of FL and transformed FL (tFL arise by divergent evolution from a common mutated precursor through the acquisition of distinct genetic events. Mutations in epigenetic modifiers and antiapoptotic genes are introduced early in the common precursor, whereas tFL is specifically associated with alterations deregulating cell-cycle progression and DNA damage responses (CDKN2A/B, MYC, and TP53 as well as aberrant somatic hypermutation. The genomic profile of tFL shares similarities with that of germinal center B cell-type de novo DLBCL but also displays unique combinations of altered genes with diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

  9. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  10. Gaussian Beam Collimation via Transformation Media

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Yuancheng; Li, Hongqiang

    2013-01-01

    Conventional method for Gaussian beam collimation is to expand the beam waist to achieve a smaller divergence angle. Recent transformation optics offers an unconventional path to control the electromagnetic field. In this paper we show that a Gaussian beam can be converted into a plane wave-like beam by transformation media within the scale of several wavelengths. Design details and full-wave simulation results via finite element method are provided.

  11. On Transformation of Potapov's Fundamental Matrix Inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Katsnelson, Victor

    2007-01-01

    According to V.P.Potapov, a classical interpolation problem can be reformulated in terms of a so-called Fundamental Matrix Inequality (FMI). To show that every solution of the FMI satisfies the interpolation problem, we usualy have to transform the FMI in some special way. In this paper the number of of transformations of the FMI which come into play are motivated and demonstrated by simple, but typical examples.

  12. Improving plant transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, L V; Oliveira, A P; Lourenço, M V; Bertoni, B W; França, S C; Rosa-Santos, T M; Zingaretti, S M

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a quick and low-cost method to improve plant transformation using Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This method involves the use of physical wounding, ultrasound, and an increase in exposure time to the bacteria. We show how the transformation rate increased from 0 to 14% when an ultrasound pulse of 10 s was used in conjunction with 96 h of bacterial exposure in Eclipta alba explants. PMID:26125878

  13. A General Geometric Fourier Transform Convolution Theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Bujack, Roxana; Scheuermann, Gerik; Hitzer, Eckhard

    2013-01-01

    The large variety of Fourier transforms in geometric algebras inspired the straight forward definition of ``A General Geometric Fourier Transform`` in Bujack et al., Proc. of ICCA9, covering most versions in the literature. We showed which constraints are additionally necessary to obtain certain features like linearity, a scaling, or a shift theorem. In this paper we extend the former results by a convolution theorem.

  14. Two-dimensional quaternion wavelet transform

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi; Ashino, Ryuichi; Vaillancourt, R??mi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the continuous quaternion wavelet transform (CQWT). We express the admissibility condition in terms of the (right-sided) quaternion Fourier transform. We show that its fundamental properties, such as inner product, norm relation, and inversion formula, can be established whenever the quaternion wavelets satisfy a particular admissibility condition. We present several examples of the CQWT. As an application we derive a Heisenberg type uncertainty princ...

  15. Ridgelet transform applied to motion compensated images

    OpenAIRE

    Granai, L.; Moschetti, F.; Vandergheynst, P.

    2003-01-01

    Wavelet transform is a powerful instrument in catching zero-dimensional singularities. Ridgelets are a powerful instrument in catching and representing mono-dimensional singularities in bidimensional space. In this paper we propose a hybrid video coder scheme using ridgelet transform for the first approximation of line-edge singularities in displaced frame difference images. We demonstrate the potential of ridgelets and results show substantial improvements when compared to wavelet only based...

  16. Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, William Y; Sanford, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    "Transforming Enterprise Cloud Services" addresses the fundamental ideology of Cloud Services and how enterprises in commercial, federal, and defense industries can transform their current information technology and management models to adopt this new method. It goes beyond the mere description of service frameworks in relation to cloud technologies and operations and provides practical path-forward solutions for identified challenges. For instance, as organizations transform their data and service models to compete in a new environment where data and services coexist with others in

  17. Laplace transforms essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Shafii-Mousavi, Morteza

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Laplace Transforms includes the Laplace transform, the inverse Laplace transform, special functions and properties, applications to ordinary linear differential equations, Fourier tr

  18. Transformers and motors

    CERN Document Server

    Shultz, George

    1991-01-01

    Transformers and Motors is an in-depth technical reference which was originally written for the National Joint Apprenticeship Training Committee to train apprentice and journeymen electricians. This book provides detailed information for equipment installation and covers equipment maintenance and repair. The book also includes troubleshooting and replacement guidelines, and it contains a minimum of theory and math.In this easy-to-understand, practical sourcebook, you'll discover:* Explanations of the fundamental concepts of transformers and motors* Transformer connections and d

  19. Information under Lorentz Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of quantum information, we investigate extensively some important classes of a general form of a two-qubit system under Lorentz transformation. It is shown Lorentz transformation causes a decay of entanglement and consequently information loses. On the other hand, it generates entangled states between systems prepared initially in a separable states. The partial entangled states are more robust under Lorentz transformation than maximally entangled states. Therefore the rate of information lose is larger for maximum entangled states compared with that for partially entangled states. (general)

  20. Bainite Morphology in Two Experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti Steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ?awrynowicz Z.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an investigation of the bainite morphology in two experimental Mo-Cr and Mo-Cr-V-Ti steels using TEM, high speed dilatometry backed by thermodynamic analysis. The microstructure was investigated using metallography and TEM method. After austenitisation at 1200oC followed by bainitic reaction in upper and lower temperatures of isothetmal transformation the bainite was in the form of classical sheaves. The amont, distribution and morphology of retained austenite and bainitic ferrite depend on prior austenitisation and isothermal transformation temperatures within the bainitic range.

  1. Reasons for lower transformation efficiency in indica rice using Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation: lessons from transformation assays and genome-wide expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Weiwei; Zhou, Fei; Wang, Lei; Xie, Weibo; Chen, Hao; Li, Xianghua; Lin, Yongjun

    2012-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation has been routinely used in rice for more than a decade. However, the transformation efficiency of the indica rice variety is still unsatisfactory and much lower than that of japonica cultivars. Further improvement on the transformation efficiency lies in the genetic manipulation of the plant itself, which requires a better understanding of the underlying process accounting for the susceptibility of plant cells to Agrobacterium infection as well as the identification of plant genes involved in the transformation process. In this study, transient and stable transformation assays using different japonica and indica cultivars showed that the lower transformation efficiency in indica rice was mainly due to the low efficiency in T-DNA integration into the plant genome. Analyses of the global gene expression patterns across the transformation process in different varieties revealed major differences in the expression of genes responding to Agrobacterium within the first 6 h after infection and more differentially expressed genes were observed in the indica cultivar Zhenshan 97 (ZS), with a number of genes repressed early during infection. Microarray analysis revealed an important effect of plant defense response on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. It has been shown that some genes which may be necessary for the transformation process were down-regulated in the indica cultivar ZS. This dataset provided a versatile resource for plant genomic research to understand the regulatory network of transformation process, and showed great promise for improving indica rice transformation using genetic manipulation of the rice genome. PMID:22089972

  2. Morphology of Mock SDSS Catalogues

    CERN Document Server

    Sheth, J V

    2003-01-01

    We measure the geometry, topology and morphology of the superclusters in mock SDSS catalogues prepared by Cole et al.(1998). The mock catalogues refer to $\\tau$CDM and $\\L$CDM {\\em flat} cosmological models and are populated by galaxies so that these act as biased tracers of mass, conforming with the correlation function measured using APM catalogue. We compute the Minkowski Functionals (MFs) for the cosmic density fields using SURFGEN (Sheth et al.2003) and use the available 10 realizations of $\\tau$CDM to study the effect of cosmic variance in estimation of MFs and Shapefinders, which we find to be extremely well constrained statistics. Although all the mock catalogues of alaxies have the same two-point correlation function and similar clustering amplitude, the global MFs due to $\\tau$CDM show systematically lower amplitude compared to those due to $\\L$CDM; a detectable effect due to nonzero, higher order correlation functions. The characteristic thickness (T), breadth (B) and length (L) of the supercluster...

  3. Morphological characteristics of “Monterufoli horse”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Giorgetti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Monterufoli horse is a local endangered breed of the Tuscany and derives from the omonym area in province of Pisa. This horse derives from local wild and extinct equines and has Maremmano, Tolfetano and Oriental ancestors. The mean and the standard deviation of biometric characters, and the absolut and percentage frequency of morphological characteristics were calculated. The measures of the adult females were estimated by ANOVA considering three different class of age. The average sizes were: height at withers of 135.4±6.3 and 129.2±5.9, thorax circumference of 166.4±8.3 and 163.4±8.9, frontshank circumference of 17.7±1.5 and 17.5±0.9, for males and females, respectively. All the observed horses presented dark coat. Monterufoli horses showed the physical characteristics of local extinct ancestors (Selvena pony, but also the characteristics of other breeds that contributed to improve the local population. This horse, which was once used in agriculture and for light draught, is now involved for saddle use.

  4. Derivative-dependent metric transformation and physical degrees of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Domènech, Guillem; Namba, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Saitou, Rio; Watanabe, Yota

    2015-01-01

    We study metric transformations which depend on a scalar field $\\phi$ and its first derivatives and confirm that the number of physical degrees of freedom does not change under such transformations, as long as they are not singular. We perform a Hamiltonian analysis of a simple model in the gauge $\\phi = t$. In addition, we explicitly show that the transformation and the gauge fixing do commute in transforming the action. We then extend the analysis to more general gravitational theories and transformations in general gauges. We verify that the set of all constraints and the constraint algebra are left unchanged by such transformations and conclude that the number of degrees of freedom is not modified by a regular and invertible generic transformation among two metrics. We also discuss the implications on the recently called "hidden" constraints and on the case of a singular transformation, a.k.a. mimetic gravity.

  5. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    CERN Document Server

    López, J M; Lopez, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the enviromental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semi-solid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for the morphological changes observed. Our numerical results are in excellent agreement with experiments carried out with the fungus Aspergillus oryzae on solid agar.

  6. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Polypropylene/Polyoxymethylene Blends

    OpenAIRE

    Sirirat Wacharawichanant; Tanakorn Siripattanasak

    2013-01-01

    This work studies the mechanical and morphological properties of polypropylene (PP)/polyoxymethylene (POM) blends. The PP/POM blends were prepared by melting-blend with an internal mixer. The contents of PP were used at 10%, 20%, 30%, 70%, 80% and 90% by weight. The phase morphology of the blends was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) due to the mechanical properties depended on the phase morphology. The results show the decrease of the impact strength, Young’s modulus and tensil...

  7. A resource-based Korean morphological annotation system

    CERN Document Server

    Huh, Hyun-Gue

    2007-01-01

    We describe a resource-based method of morphological annotation of written Korean text. Korean is an agglutinative language. The output of our system is a graph of morphemes annotated with accurate linguistic information. The language resources used by the system can be easily updated, which allows us-ers to control the evolution of the per-formances of the system. We show that morphological annotation of Korean text can be performed directly with a lexicon of words and without morpho-logical rules.

  8. Systematic study on the influence of the morphology of ?-MoO3 in the selective oxidation of propylene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuh, Kirsten; Kleist, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A variety of morphologically different ?-MoO3 samples were prepared by hydrothermal synthesis and applied in the selective oxidation of propylene. Their catalytic performance was compared to ?-MoO3 prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) and a classical synthesis route. Hydrothermal synthesis from ammonium heptamolybdate (AHM) and nitric acid at pH 1-2 led to ammonium containing molybdenum oxide phases that were completely transformed into ?-MoO3 after calcination at 550 °C. A one-step synthesis of ?-MoO3 rods was possible starting from MoO3·2H2O with acetic acid or nitric acid and from AHM with nitric acid at 180°C. Particularly, if nitric acid was used during synthesis, the rod-like morphology of the samples could be stabilized during calcination at 550°C and the following catalytic activity tests, which was beneficial for the catalytic performance in propylene oxidation. Characterization studies using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy showed that those samples, which retained their rod-like morphology during the activity tests, yielded the highest propylene conversion.

  9. 8,9-DIHYDROXY-8,9-DIHYDRODIBENZO[A,L]PYRENE IS A POTENT MORPHOLOGICAL CELL-TRANSFORMING AGENT IN C3H10T1/2C18 MOUSE EMBRYO FIBROBLASTS IN THE ABSENCE OF DETECTABLE STABLE COVALENT DNA ADDUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comparative genotoxic effects of racemic trans-8,9dihydroxy-8,9-dihydrodibenzo[a,l]pyrene (trans- DB[a,l]P8,9-diol), the metabolic K-region dihydrodiol of dibenzo[a,l] pyrene (DB[a,l]P) (dibenzo[def,p]chrysene) and DB[a,l]P in transformable mouse embryo C3HIOT1/2C18 (C3HIOT1/...

  10. Deposition of plasma polymerized perfluoromethylene-dominated films showing oil-repellency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plasma polymerized fluorocarbon films were deposited onto polyethylene (PE) substrates to increase oil-repellency of PE. Depositions were performed using the monomer, 1H,1H,2H-perfluoro-1-dodecene in a parallel-plate, radio frequency (rf) reactor, with variable continuous-wave power ranging from 2 to 160 W. The film deposition rate and morphology were strongly dependent on the applied rf power. Most importantly, the chemical structure of the deposited films was also altered, resulting in changes in contact angles of various liquids and the surface energy. Films deposited at low power were composed mainly of perfluoromethylene (CF2) species (up to 67.2%), as shown by (XPS). With an increase in rf power, CF2 content in the film decreased as further fragmentation of the monomer occurred. For each deposition at varying rf powers, even at powers as low as 2 W, the C=C and C-H bonds in the monomer were dissociated by the plasma and not incorporated into the films, as shown by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Oil-repellency, as shown by increased contact angles of hydrocarbon liquids, was found to increase as the amount of CF2 species increased in the film structure. A low critical surface energy (2.7 mJ/m2) was calculated for the film deposited with only 2 W of rf power. Adhesion of the plasma-polymerized films to the PE was also evaluated and found to be poor for films with a high concentration of CF2 species, where cohesive failure within the film occurred. However, adhesion increased as a function of rf power, where the film structure showed more cross-linking. There was a compromise between producing a film with high oleophobicity (oil-repellency) while maintaining adhesion of the film to PE, as some disruption of the CF2 chains in the films was necessary for cohesion through cross-linking

  11. Quaternions and Lorentz transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years, it was argued by some authors that number systems with non-commutative multiplication laws can provide a deeper physical insight into many open theoretical problems. The generalization of the Lorentz group to transformations with faster-than-light speed parameters (the so-called 'extended theory of relativity') has shown itself - apart from the real existence of tachyons - to be a useful tool in order to deal, within a purely classical (i.e. relativistic but not quantum-mechanical) frame work, with antiparticles, discrete symmetries, CPT-covariance, and so on. Therefore, it seems worthwhile looking for possible connections between non-commutative number systems and 'superluminal' Lorentz transformations. In this paper, the author reviews how Lorentz transformations (both subluminal and superluminal) have been translated in quaterion language. Besides, some considerations are made on possible, further developments of the theory, according to the suggestions by the group properties of quaternionic (generalized) Lorentz transformations (QGLT). (Auth.)

  12. The Extended Laplace Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Ramadan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space of new generalized functions has been constructed. The operation of associative multiplication has been defined on this space. The Extended Laplace Transform has been defined

  13. Crazy Qubit Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Hardy, L; Hardy, Lucien; Song, David D.

    2001-01-01

    We generalise our previous results of universal linear manipulations [Phys. Rev. A63, 032304 (2001)] to investigate three types of nonlinear qubit transformations using measurement and quantum based schemes. Firstly, nonlinear rotations are studied. We rotate different parts of a Bloch sphere in opposite directions about the z-axis. The second transformation is a map which sends a qubit to its orthogonal state (which we define as ORTHOG). We consider the case when the ORTHOG is applied to only a partial area of a Bloch sphere. We also study nonlinear general transformation, i.e. (theta,phi)->(theta-alpha,phi), again, applied only to part of the Bloch sphere. In order to achieve these three operations, we consider different measurement preparations and derive the optimal average (instead of universal) quantum unitary transformations. We also introduce a simple method for a qubit measurement and its application to other cases.

  14. Transformer design tradeoffs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  15. Broadband Transformation Optics Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Igor I. Smolyaninov; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.

    2010-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that two-dimensional broadband transformation optics devices based on metamaterial designs may be built using tapered waveguides. Here we review application of this principle to broadband electromagnetic cloaking, trapped rainbow, and novel microscopy devices.

  16. Broadband Transformation Optics Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Smolyaninova, Vera N; Kildishev, Alexander V; Shalaev, Vladimir M

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have suggested that two-dimensional broadband transformation optics devices based on metamaterial designs may be built using tapered waveguides. Here we review application of this principle to broadband electromagnetic cloaking, trapped rainbow, and novel microscopy devices.

  17. Transformations of High Explosives

    International Science & Technology Center (ISTC)

    Creation of Scientific Grounds, Techniques and Technologies for the Transformation of the Explosive 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (Trotyl, TNT) into valuable Civil Products (Polymeric Materials, Dyes, Biologically Active Compounds, etc.).

  18. Transformation invariant sparse coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard

    2011-01-01

    Sparse coding is a well established principle for unsupervised learning. Traditionally, features are extracted in sparse coding in specific locations, however, often we would prefer invariant representation. This paper introduces a general transformation invariant sparse coding (TISC) model. The model decomposes images into features invariant to location and general transformation by a set of specified operators as well as a sparse coding matrix indicating where and to what degree in the origina...

  19. Deformation through Transformations

    OpenAIRE

    Roytburd, A.

    1996-01-01

    Constitutive stress-strain relations for transformational deformation are discussed. A crystal which can be in two possible phase states is considered. A phase transformation begins during the deformation after a certain amount of elastic strain. For each fixed level of strain an equilibrium polydomain microstructure is established which corresponds to a minimum in the free energy of the crystal. The equilibrium microstructure consists of plane-parallel layers of a product phase separated by ...

  20. Business process transformation

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Varun

    2015-01-01

    Featuring contributions from prominent thinkers and researchers, this volume in the ""Advances in Management Information Systems"" series provides a rich set of conceptual, empirical, and introspective studies that epitomize fundamental knowledge in the area of Business Process Transformation. Processes are interpreted broadly to include operational and managerial processes within and between organizations, as well as those involved in knowledge generation. Transformation includes radical and incremental change, its conduct, management, and outcome. The editors and contributing authors pay clo

  1. Transforming shape in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats, Miquel; Lim, Sungwoo; Jowers, Iestyn; Garner, Steve W.; Chase, Scott Curland

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with how design shapes are generated and explored by means of sketching. It presents research into the way designers transform shapes from one state to another using sketch representations. An experimental investigation of the sketching processes of designers is presented. Connections between sketches are defined in terms of shape transformations and described according to shape rules. These rules provide a formal description of the shape exploration process and develop u...

  2. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOOCHAKI, A.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  3. Transformer Internal Faults Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    A Koochaki; KOUHSARI, S. M.; GHANAVATI, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method of modeling internal faults in a power transformer. The method leads to a model which is compatible with commercial phasor-based software packages. Consequently; it enables calculation of fault currents in any branch of the network due to a winding fault of a power transformer. These currents can be used for evaluation of protective relays' performance and can lead to better setting of protective functions.

  4. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  5. Advancing Sustainable Urban Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    McCormick, Kes; Anderberg, Stefan; Coenen, Lars; Neij, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Despite increased awareness of the urgency to respond to climate change and to promote sustainable development, there are few powerful initiatives that are decisively shifting urban development in a sustainable, resilient and low-carbon direction. This Special Volume of the Journal of Cleaner Production explores sustainable urban transformation focusing on structural transformation processes – multi-dimensional and radical change – that can effectively direct urban development towards ambitio...

  6. Power transformers quality assurance

    CERN Document Server

    Dasgupta, Indrajit

    2009-01-01

    About the Book: With the view to attain higher reliability in power system operation, the quality assurance in the field of distribution and power transformers has claimed growing attention. Besides new developments in the material technology and manufacturing processes of transformers, regular diagnostic testing and maintenance of any engineering product may be ascertained by ensuring: right selection of materials and components and their quality checks. application of correct manufacturing processes any systems engineering. the user`s awareness towards preventive maintenance. The

  7. Transformation of Digital Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    In digital ecosystems, the fusion relation between business and technology means that the decision of technical compatibility of the offering is also the decision of how to position the firm relative to the coopetive relations that characterize business ecosystems. In this article we develop the Digital Ecosystem Technology Transformation (DETT) framework for explaining technology-based transformation of digital ecosystems by integrating theories of business and technology ecosystems. The framew...

  8. Fourier transformation for pedestrians

    CERN Document Server

    Butz, Tilman

    2006-01-01

    Meant to serve an "entertaining textbook," this book belongs to a rare genre. It is written for all students and practitioners who deal with Fourier transformation. Fourier series as well as continuous and discrete Fourier transformation are covered, and particular emphasis is placed on window functions. Many illustrations and easy-to-solve exercises make the book especially accessible, and its humorous style will add to the pleasure of learning from it.

  9. Modeling vegetation controls on fluvial morphological trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoldi, Walter; Siviglia, Annunziato; Tettamanti, Stefano; Toffolon, Marco; Vetsch, David; Francalanci, Simona

    2014-10-01

    The role of riparian vegetation in shaping river morphology is widely recognized. The interaction between vegetation growth and riverbed evolution is characterized by complex nonlinear feedbacks, which hinder direct estimates of the role of key elements on the morphological evolutionary trajectories of gravel bed rivers. Adopting a simple theoretical framework, we develop a numerical model which couples hydromorphodynamics with biomass dynamics. We perform a sensitivity analysis considering several parameters as flood intensity, type of vegetation, and groundwater level. We find that the inclusion of vegetation determines a threshold behavior, identifying two possible equilibrium configurations: unvegetated versus vegetated bars. Stable vegetation patterns can establish only under specific conditions, which depend on the different environmental and species-related characteristics. From a management point of view, model results show that relatively small changes in water availability or species composition may determine a sudden shift between dynamic unvegetated conditions to more stable, vegetated rivers.

  10. Parallelisation of Algorithms of Mathematical Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Boukerram

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The tools of mathematical morphology developed within the framework of the image processing, require of big capacity of data and the very high costs of execution. So today, the limits of the sequential machines are not to be any more to show, the passage in the new parallel machines of type Simd, Mimd, clusters or grids is imperative. This paper deals with problems related to the parallelisation of the algorithm of mathematical morphology and highlights the resources influencing over the computing time. This study leans on the various levels of parallelisable calculation to evaluate the awaited profits then in term of processing time. An implementation of a whole of algorithms of reference is carried out on a cluster and a simd computer.

  11. Two micron morphology of candidate protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a deep near-infrared imaging survey of low-luminosity cold IRAS sources in the Taurus dark cloud are discussed. The images involved identify the compact sources energizing the IRAS sources, identify infrared nebulosity around numbers of the invisible sources, and reveal the large-scale (about 1000 to 10,000 AU) morphology of this nebulosity. Some of the invisible sources show a clear bipolar or monopolar morphology suggesting a close relation of the nebulosity with a bipolar mass outflow. It is concluded that the nebulosity is likely due to scattering of radiation from the central source by the dust associated with the mass outflow extending to the poles of a circumstellar dust disk. 28 refs

  12. Two micron morphology of candidate protostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Motohide; Gatley, Ian; Waller, William; Werner, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Results of a deep near-infrared imaging survey of low-luminosity cold IRAS sources in the Taurus dark cloud are discussed. The images involved identify the compact sources energizing the IRAS sources, identify infrared nebulosity around numbers of the invisible sources, and reveal the large-scale (about 1000 to 10,000 AU) morphology of this nebulosity. Some of the invisible sources show a clear bipolar or monopolar morphology suggesting a close relation of the nebulosity with a bipolar mass outflow. It is concluded that the nebulosity is likely due to scattering of radiation from the central source by the dust associated with the mass outflow extending to the poles of a circumstellar dust disk.

  13. Transformers analysis, design, and measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Fernandez, Xose M; Turowski, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on contemporary economic, design, diagnostics, and maintenance aspects of power, instrument, and high frequency transformers, which are critical to designers for a transformer stations. The text covers such topics as shell type and superconducting transformers as well as coreless PCB and planar transformers. It emphasizes challenges and strategies in transformer design and illustrates the importance of economics in transformers management by reviewing life cycle cost design and the use of decision methods to manage risk.

  14. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin UV photography shows hidden sun damage UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  15. Wireless Pacemaker Shows Promise in Early Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_154399.html Wireless Pacemaker Shows Promise in Early Trial Though it ... MONDAY, Aug. 31, 2015 (HealthDay News) --A tiny, wireless heart pacemaker showed promise in early tests and ...

  16. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sperm morphology (shape): Does it affect fertility? How is a ... sperm), and the volume of fluid. How is morphology assessed? To assess sperm morphology, the sperm are ...

  17. The transformation of Spirals into S0 galaxies in the cluster environment

    CERN Document Server

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Buson, Lucio

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the observational evidences of the morphological transformation of Spirals into S0 galaxies in the cluster environment exploiting two big databases of galaxy clusters: WINGS (0.04 < z < 0.07) and EDisCS (0.4 < z < 0.8). The most important results are: 1) the average number of S0 galaxies in clusters is almost a factor of $\\sim 3 - 4$ larger today than at redshift $z \\sim 1$; 2) the fraction of S0's to Spirals increases on average by a factor $\\sim$ 2 every Gyr; 3) the average rate of transformation for Spirals (not considering the infall of new galaxies from the cosmic web) is: $\\sim$ 5 Sp into S0's per Gyr and $\\sim$ 2 Sp into E's per Gyr; 4) there are evidences that the interstellar gas of Spirals is stripped by an hot intergalactic medium; 5) there are also indirect hints that major/minor merging events have played a role in the transformation of Spiral galaxies. In particular, we show that: 1) the ratio between the number of S0's and Spirals (NS0/NSp) in the WINGS clusters is correl...

  18. Kinetics of phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This volume contains papers presented at the Materials Research Society symposium on Kinetics of Phase Transformations held in Boston, Massachusetts from November 26-29, 1990. The symposium provided a forum for research results in an exceptionally broad and interdisciplinary field. Presentations covered nearly every major class of transformations including solid-solid, liquid-solid, transport phenomena and kinetics modeling. Papers involving amorphous Si, a dominant topic at the symposium, are collected in the first section followed by sections on four major areas of transformation kinetics. The symposium opened with joint sessions on ion and electron beam induced transformations in conjunction with the Surface Chemistry and Beam-Solid Interactions: symposium. Subsequent sessions focused on the areas of ordering and nonlinear diffusion kinetics, solid state reactions and amorphization, kinetics and defects of amorphous silicon, and kinetics of melting and solidification. Seven internationally recognized invited speakers reviewed many of the important problems and recent results in these areas, including defects in amorphous Si, crystal to glass transformations, ordering kinetics, solid-state amorphization, computer modeling, and liquid/solid transformations

  19. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    2013-01-01

    Organic electronic devices are an intense area of research. While some devices, such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED) have matured and are found in a vast amount of consumer electronic devices, their energy producing counterpart, organic photovoltaics (OPV), are still in the process of making the transition from the laboratory into the commercial market. One of the biggest challenges in this process is upscaling the production. The object of this thesis is to investigate the morphology of OPV devices produced from pilot scale roll to roll (R2R) coaters. OPV devices still struggle with low performance, and the morphology is known to have a critical impact on the performance of a device. Several studies have tried to identify the optimal morphology of OPV devices and how to achieve it. Most work has been focused on OPVs produced by spin coating in a small laboratory scale. Devices produced by R2R coating, which works fundamentally different, have not been studied. Traditional production of OPV has required the use of toxic solvents. A new environmentally friendly approach using water based inks, made of nanoparticles, is now being tested. However, nothing is known about the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small domain size to be studied, in the nanometer regime, and the poor contrast due to the similarity of the organic materials. The physical impact of the ink and the process of coating it, was investigated by electron microscopy, X-ray scattering, hard X-ray ptychography and soft X-ray transmission imaging. Utilizing the robustness and high resolution of transmission electron microscopy, different preparations of inks were studied. Electron microscopy offers good visualization, but lacks contrast to distinguish similar organic materials, such as P3HT and PCBM, two components of the active layer. Electron diffraction yields information about the crystal structure of the samples but have a coarse spot size. X-ray scattering is a well known technique for measuring shapes, sizes, crystal structures and orientation. Both small- and wide-angle scattering were used to measure the crystallinity of the layers as a function of polymer, type of ink, annealing etc. Ptychography is a new state of the art X-ray imaging technique based on coherent scattering. Together with Scanning X-ray Transmission Microscopy (STXM) it has been used in this study to inspect the morphology of the active layer taken from working solar cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed the viability of ptychography as a characterization technique for OPVs evaluated. The ink studies showed that the nanoparticles in the active layer were disrupted. Dense parts of the nanoparticles could be observed surrounded by a bulk of less dense material. The same pattern was seen in preparations made by both coating methods. A difference, observed between the two methods was that the layer produced by R2R consisted of aggregates of particles. The particles in the spin coated samples were uniformly distributed. Furthermore, this thesis focuseds on developing, and testing, a new method for high throughput characterization of OPV devices. An advantage with R2R coating is the continuous production of layers and the possibility to change production parameters continuously during the process. It would therefore be an advantage if the characterization could also be done continuously. For this purpose a small film winder-underwinder was tested. The crystalline structure was measured using small angle X-ray scattering on three samples. The high spatial resol

  20. Preparation of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes with different morphologies from melamine-formaldehyde resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi; Zhang, Bingqing; Shi, Jingying; Yang, Qihua

    2015-04-01

    We report a facile method for the synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNTs) from melamine-formaldehyde (MR) resin using FeCl3 or supported FeCl3 as catalysts. The growth of NCNTs follows a decomposition-reconstruction mechanism, in which the polymer precursor would totally gasify during pyrolysis process and then transformed into carbon nanotubes. The morphology of the NCNTs could be adjusted via applying different catalyst supports and three kinds of carbon nanotubes with outer-diameter of 20-200 nm and morphologies of either bamboo-like or hollow interiors were obtained. Nitrogen atoms in the materials were mainly in the form of pyridinic and quaternary form while the formation of iron species strongly depended on the interaction between iron precursor and organic carbon/nitrogen sources. All MR resin derived NCNTs are efficient toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). NCNTs prepared using FeCl3 as catalyst showed the highest ORR activity with half-wave potentials of -0.17 V, which is comparable with commercial Pt/C. This is probably because of a close contact between MR resin and iron precursor could enhance the iron-ligand coordination strength and thus steadily improve the performance of the catalyst. PMID:25790324

  1. Morphological modifications of electrodeposited calcium phosphate coatings under amino acids effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevet, R.; Lemelle, A.; Untereiner, V.; Manfait, M.; Sockalingum, G. D.; Benhayoune, H.

    2013-03-01

    Calcium phosphate coatings are synthesized on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) substrates by pulsed electrodeposition. This work aims to observe the morphological modifications of the coating when an amino acid is added to the electrolytic solution used in the process. The effects of two amino acids (glutamic acid and aspartic acid) are studied at a low and a high concentration. The coating morphology is observed at a nanometer scale by field emission gun-scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM). The structural characterization of the coating is performed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, corrosion measurements of the prosthetic surfaces are carried out by potentiodynamic polarization experiments in a physiological solution named Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM). The results show that the addition of an amino acid to the electrolytic solution leads to the decrease of the size of the crystallites which compose the prosthetic calcium phosphate coating that becomes denser and less porous than the coatings obtained without amino acid. Consequently, the corrosion behavior of the prosthetic material immersed in DMEM is improved.

  2. Influence of Morphology on the Optical Properties of Metal Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, A. L.; Noguez, C.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of morphology on the optical properties of silver nanoparticles is studied. A general relationship between the surface plasmon resonances and the morphology of each nanoparticle is established. The optical response is investigated for cubes and decahedrons with different truncations. We found that polyhedral nanoparticles composed with less faces show more surface plasmon resonances than spherical-like ones. It is also observed that the vertices of the nanopart...

  3. A resource-based Korean morphological annotation system

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyun-Gue; Laporte, Eric

    2007-01-01

    We describe a resource-based method of morphological annotation of written Korean text. Korean is an agglutinative language. The output of our system is a graph of morphemes annotated with accurate linguistic information. The language resources used by the system can be easily updated, which allows us-ers to control the evolution of the per-formances of the system. We show that morphological annotation of Korean text can be performed directly with a lexicon of words and with...

  4. Morphological and functional disturbances of platelets induced by cryopreservation.

    OpenAIRE

    Baythoon, H; Tuddenham, E G; Hutton, R A

    1982-01-01

    In vitro morphological and functional studies were carried out on platelets which had been cryopreserved in the presence of 5% dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO). Overall loss of platelets was around 50%. Those which survived freezing and reconstitution showed marked morphological deterioration, increase of procoagulant activity (PF3a) and a decrease in their aggregability and adenine nucleotide content. We conclude that if transfused, cryopreserved platelets are likely to be less effective than fres...

  5. Generic model of morphological changes in growing colonies of fungi

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Juan M.; Jensen, Henrik J.

    2001-01-01

    Fungal colonies are able to exhibit different morphologies depending on the enviromental conditions. This allows them to cope with and adapt to external changes. When grown in solid or semi-solid media the bulk of the colony is compact and several morphological transitions have been reported to occur as the external conditions are varied. Here we show how a unified simple mathematical model, which includes the effect of the accumulation of toxic metabolites, can account for ...

  6. The Morphologies of Massive Galaxies at 1 < z < 3 in the CANDELS-UDS Field

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, V A; Cirasuolo, M; McLure, R J; Targett, T A; Bell, E F; Croton, D J; Dekel, A; Faber, S M; Ferguson, H C; Grogin, N A; Kocevski, D D; Koekemoer, A M; Koo, D C; Lai, K; Lotz, J M; McGrath, E J; Newman, J A; van der Wel, A

    2013-01-01

    We have used high-resolution, HST WFC3/IR, near-infrared imaging to conduct a detailed bulge-disk decomposition of the morphologies of ~200 of the most massive (M_star > 10^11 M_solar) galaxies at 12 they are mostly disk-dominated. Interestingly, we find that while most of the quiescent galaxies are bulge-dominated, a significant fraction (25-40%) of the most quiescent galaxies, have disk-dominated morphologies. Thus, our results suggest that the physical mechanisms which quench star-formation activity are not simply connected to those responsible for the morphological transformation of massive galaxies.

  7. Morphology engineering of monolayer MoS2 by adjusting chemical environment during growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yingjie; Luo, Xingfang; Yuan, Cailei; Han, Shuming; Yu, Ting; Yang, Yong; Li, Qinliang

    2015-11-01

    The precise control of the morphology of monolayer MoS2 is of particular importance for their potential applications and device performance. In this work, we present an experimental method to study the shape evolution of the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown MoS2 flakes. We observed that the morphology of monolayer MoS2 flakes transformed from truncated triangular shape to triangular shape by increasing the stoichiometric ratio of S:Mo, and consequently tailor the optical properties of MoS2 flakes. The results suggest the possibility to engineer the morphology of monolayer MoS2 by adjusting the chemical environment during growth.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of three freshwater microalgal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanitha, Mary; Radha, Sudhakar; Fatima, Anwar Aliya; Devi, Selvaraju Gayathri; Ramya, Mohandass

    2014-01-01

    Microalgal transformation has gained interest in recent years. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation remains as the most efficient method for the development of transgenic plants and microalgae due to its wide host range, inexpensive procedure and transfer of large segments of DNA. In the present study, three different microalgal species were isolated from freshwater environment and identified based on the morphological characteristics and ITS-2 region amplification. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was successful for the isolates Chlorella sp., Ankistrodesmus sp and Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus. Gene integration and expression was confirmed by PCR amplification of hptII and GUS histochemical assay. A. tumifaciens contamination was checked by amplification of npt II gene (kanamycin resistant) which lies outside the T-border. Based on GUS assay, transformation efficiencies were found to be 12.25% for Chlorella sp. 2.96% for Scenedesmus bajacalifornicus and 3.5% for Ankistrodesmus sp. PMID:25804057

  9. Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sompong Te-chato

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting gene transformation in mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. were investigated. Types of explants, strains and densities of Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and co-culture methods were examined to optimize gene transformation. The results showed that among strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens tested, LBA 4404 containing pBI 121 gave the calli with the highest resistance to kanamycin. Kanamycin at the concentration of 50-100 mg/l was the best range for selection of transformants. Higher density of agrobacteria tended to promote higher frequency of transformation. The best co-culture method was dipping the explant in a solution of agrobacteria for 10 minutes, followed by culturing onto co-culture medium without antibiotic for 48 hours. Among the explants used to co- culture with bacteria, half leaf treatment gave the best result for transformation; however, callus proliferation and plantlet regeneration were inferior to whole leaf treatment. Activity of ?-Glucuronidase (GUS could not be detected, thus resistance to kanamycin was used for detecting transformability. Shoot primordia could be induced from kanamycin-resistant calli grown in regeneration medium. After maintenance by subculturing to the same medium 2 to 3 times in 2-3 months, the developed shoots turned brown and finally died. Hence, the transformed plant of mangosteen was not obtained from this experiment.

  10. Design of Warped Stretch Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahjoubfar, Ata; Chen, Claire Lifan; Jalali, Bahram

    2015-01-01

    Time stretch dispersive Fourier transform enables real-time spectroscopy at the repetition rate of million scans per second. High-speed real-time instruments ranging from analog-to-digital converters to cameras and single-shot rare-phenomena capture equipment with record performance have been empowered by it. Its warped stretch variant, realized with nonlinear group delay dispersion, offers variable-rate spectral domain sampling, as well as the ability to engineer the time-bandwidth product of the signal’s envelope to match that of the data acquisition systems. To be able to reconstruct the signal with low loss, the spectrotemporal distribution of the signal spectrum needs to be sparse. Here, for the first time, we show how to design the kernel of the transform and specifically, the nonlinear group delay profile dictated by the signal sparsity. Such a kernel leads to smart stretching with nonuniform spectral resolution, having direct utility in improvement of data acquisition rate, real-time data compression, and enhancement of ultrafast data capture accuracy. We also discuss the application of warped stretch transform in spectrotemporal analysis of continuous-time signals. PMID:26602458

  11. Erythrocyte morphology in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Prajwal; Richards, Ross S; Uba Nwose, Ezekiel

    2012-10-01

    The study of erythrocyte morphology is of great importance in the field of hemorheology as the deformability of the circulating cells has a fundamental influence on the rheological properties of the blood. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia and obesity (mostly central obesity) are the major components of metabolic syndrome. In this review, we focus on the changes in erythrocyte morphology in different components of metabolic syndrome and also discuss the erythrocyte morphology in regards to oxidative stress - a common state of chronic diseases. This article also addresses the problem of inconsistency in the use of nomenclature and technique to identify the abnormal morphology and we recommend the use of standard terminology by all authors. PMID:23146056

  12. POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF CONTORTAE (ACANTHACEAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Scotland, R.

    1993-01-01

    Variation in pollen morphology is described and illustrated for 36 genera of Acanthaceae with contorted corolla aestivation. A parsimony analysis of pollen characters is presented. © 1993 The Linnean Society of London.

  13. Combining Hand-crafted Rules and Unsupervised Learning in Constraint-based Morphological Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Tur, Gokhan

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a constraint-based morphological disambiguation approach that is applicable languages with complex morphology--specifically agglutinative languages with productive inflectional and derivational morphological phenomena. In certain respects, our approach has been motivated by Brill's recent work, but with the observation that his transformational approach is not directly applicable to languages like Turkish. Our system combines corpus independent hand-crafted constraint rules, constraint rules that are learned via unsupervised learning from a training corpus, and additional statistical information from the corpus to be morphologically disambiguated. The hand-crafted rules are linguistically motivated and tuned to improve precision without sacrificing recall. The unsupervised learning process produces two sets of rules: (i) choose rules which choose morphological parses of a lexical item satisfying constraint effectively discarding other parses, and (ii) delete rules, which delete parses sati...

  14. On morphological color texture characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Aptoula, Erchan; Lefèvre, Sébastien

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the combined use of multiple structuring elements with the standard morphological texture characterization tools, namely morphological covariance and granulometry. The resulting operator is applied to both grayscale and color images in the context of texture classication. As to its extension to color texture data, it is realized by means of a weighting based reduced vector ordering in the IHLS color space, equipped with genetically optimized arguments. The classication experime...

  15. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 ...

  16. Morphological exploration of shape spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Angulo, Jesus; Meyer, Fernand

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to propose efficient tools for analysing shape families using morphological operators. The developments include the definition of shape statistics (mean and variance of shapes, modes of shape variation) and the interpolation/extrapolation in shape geodesic paths. The main required ingredients for the operators and the algorithms here introduced are well known in mathematical morphology such as the median set, the watershed on distance functions or the interpolation fu...

  17. Scale Transformations on the Noncommutative Plane and the Seiberg-Witten Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzul, A.; Stern, A.

    We write down three kinds of scale transformations (i)-(iii) on the noncommutative plane. Transformation (i) is the analogue of standard dilations on the plane, transformation (ii) is a rescaling of the noncommutative parameter ?, and transformation (iii) is a combination of the previous two, whereby the defining relations for the noncommutative plane are preserved. The action of the three transformations is defined on gauge fields evaluated at fixed coordinates and ?. The transformations are obtained only up to terms which transform covariantly under gauge transformations. We give possible constraints on these terms. We show how the transformations (i) and (ii) depend on the choice of star product, and show the relation of (ii) to Seiberg-Witten transformations. Because transformation (iii) preserves the fundamental commutation relations it is a symmetry of the algebra. One has the possibility of implementing it as a symmetry of the dynamics, as well, in noncommutative field theories where ? is not fixed.

  18. Hankel transform as a transform between two entangled state representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We find that the self-reciprocal Hankel transformation (HT) is embodied in quantum mechanics by a transform between two entangled state representations which are deduced from the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled states of continuum variables. The properties of HT can now be studied by virtue of the entangled states. The Hankel transform is directly tied to the representation transform

  19. Approximation and compression with sparse orthonormal transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Osman Gokhan; Guleryuz, Onur G; Altunbasak, Yucel

    2015-08-01

    We propose a new transform design method that targets the generation of compression-optimized transforms for next-generation multimedia applications. The fundamental idea behind transform compression is to exploit regularity within signals such that redundancy is minimized subject to a fidelity cost. Multimedia signals, in particular images and video, are well known to contain a diverse set of localized structures, leading to many different types of regularity and to nonstationary signal statistics. The proposed method designs sparse orthonormal transforms (SOTs) that automatically exploit regularity over different signal structures and provides an adaptation method that determines the best representation over localized regions. Unlike earlier work that is motivated by linear approximation constructs and model-based designs that are limited to specific types of signal regularity, our work uses general nonlinear approximation ideas and a data-driven setup to significantly broaden its reach. We show that our SOT designs provide a safe and principled extension of the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) by reducing to the KLT on Gaussian processes and by automatically exploiting non-Gaussian statistics to significantly improve over the KLT on more general processes. We provide an algebraic optimization framework that generates optimized designs for any desired transform structure (multiresolution, block, lapped, and so on) with significantly better n -term approximation performance. For each structure, we propose a new prototype codec and test over a database of images. Simulation results show consistent increase in compression and approximation performance compared with conventional methods. PMID:25823033

  20. 3-D brain image registration using optimal morphological processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The three-dimensional (3-D) registration of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Positron Emission Tomographic (PET) images of the brain is important for analysis of the human brain and its diseases. A procedure for optimization of (3-D) morphological structuring elements, based on a genetic algorithm, is presented in the paper. The registration of the MR and PET images is done by means of a registration procedure in two major phases. In the first phase, the Iterative Principal Axis Transform (IPAR) is used for initial registration. In the second phase, the optimal shape description method based on the Morphological Signature Transform (MST) is used for final registration. The morphological processing is used to improve the accuracy of the basic IPAR method. The brain ventricle is used as a landmark for MST registration. A near-optimal structuring element obtained by means of a genetic algorithm is used in MST to describe the shape of the ventricle. The method has been tested on the set of brain images demonstrating the feasibility of approach. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs