WorldWideScience
 
 
1

Morphological Transform for Image Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

2008-05-01

2

Morphological Transformation in the Coma Cluster  

Science.gov (United States)

This proposal seeks to document the various stages of ram pressure stripping of brightspiral galaxies evolving in the rich Coma cluster environment. Based on two ram pressurestripping examples we have already found in Coma, we have selected an additional fivetargets which manifest signs of ICM-ISM interactions. These seven objects are distributedin a ring around the inner core of Coma, sampling different locations in the cluster andeach can be expected to show a different phase of evolution of the stripping process. Wepropose WFC3 UVIS imaging to reveal the details of the interactions. From theseobservations, we will be able to piece together a coherent picture of the processes whichdrive morphological transformation and evolution of disk galaxies in rich environments.The ionization and global star formation patterns, both spatial and temporal, will revealand characterize the ISM-ICM interactions driving the evolution of galaxies in clustersand altering their morphologies.

Gregg, Michael

2014-10-01

3

Chinese dyslexics show neural differences in morphological processing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous behavioral studies have suggested that morphological awareness is impaired in Chinese children with reading disability (RD), but how this is reflected in brain alterations is not known. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the current study compared morphological processing in a RD group (11-13 years old) to an age-matched typically developing (TD) group. Participants made semantic relatedness judgments to incongruent word pairs that were either semantically related but did not share a morpheme or semantically unrelated but did share a morpheme. This was compared to conditions where semantic relatedness and morphemic information was congruent. A smaller incongruency effect was found in left dorsal posterior (BA9) and ventral anterior (BA47) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in the RD compared to the TD, suggesting that the RD is less sensitive to morphological information. This was a specific deficit as a phonological control task that manipulated congruency between orthography and phonology did not show group differences in the IFG. Moreover, brain activation in the IFG for the incongruency effect in the semantic task was negatively correlated with reading skill for the RD group only, suggesting that higher skill children with RD may rely on a compensatory whole-word strategy by ignoring the morphemic information. PMID:23872198

Liu, Li; Tao, Ran; Wang, Wenjing; You, Wenping; Peng, Danling; Booth, James R

2013-10-01

4

Morphology Transformation in Pairs of Galaxies The Local Sample  

CERN Document Server

We present photometric analysis of a local sample of 14 isolated pairs of galaxies. The photometric properties analyzed in the local pairs are: colors, morphology, tidal effects and activity. We verify that close pairs have an excess of early-type galaxies and many elliptical galaxies in this pairs are, in fact, lenticular galaxies. Many late-pairs in our sample show strong tidal damage and blue star formation regions. We conclude that pairs of different morphologies may have passed through different evolution processes which violently transformed their morphology. Pairs with at least one early-type component may be descendents of groups of galaxies. However, late-type pairs are probably long-lived showing clearly signs of interaction. Some of them could be seen as an early stage of mergers. These photometric database will be used for future comparison with more distant pairs in order to study galaxy evolution.

Junqueira, S; Infante, L; Junqueira, Selma; Mello, Duilia F. de; Infante, Leopoldo

1997-01-01

5

An Adaptive Digital Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Morphological Haar Wavelet Transform  

Science.gov (United States)

At present, much more of the wavelet-based digital watermarking algorithms are based on linear wavelet transform and fewer on non-linear wavelet transform. In this paper, we propose an adaptive digital image watermarking algorithm based on non-linear wavelet transform--Morphological Haar Wavelet Transform. In the algorithm, the original image and the watermark image are decomposed with multi-scale morphological wavelet transform respectively. Then the watermark information is adaptively embedded into the original image in different resolutions, combining the features of Human Visual System (HVS). The experimental results show that our method is more robust and effective than the ordinary wavelet transform algorithms.

Huang, Xiaosheng; Zhao, Sujuan

6

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without st...

Colorado Henry; Dhage Sanjay; Hahn Thomas

2011-01-01

7

X-ray microscopy of human spermatozoa shows change of mitochondrial morphology after capacitation  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Using X-ray microscopy two morphologically distinct states were observed of the human spermatozoan mitochondria: (i) compact and tightly wrapped around the axoneme, and (ii) morphologically transformed, i.e. with circular areas of high X-ray transmission, either loosely wrapped around the axoneme or distended. The spermatozoa were examined at two stages of their post-ejaculation maturation process, i.e. as present in fresh ejaculated semen and after in-vitro capacitation. X-ray microscopy allowed sample preparation that was as simple as for conventional light microscopy whilst giving high resolution (30 nm) imaging of samples in liquid media compatible with the requirements of live biological specimens. The specimens were not fixed, stained or metal coated. These features make X-ray microscopy useful in the study of cells, particularly cells in suspension. The relative frequencies of the two morphological states of the mitochondria in seminal plasma and after in-vitro capacitation were compared. In seminal plasma, almost all spermatozoa had compact and tightly wrapped mitochondria. After harvesting by swim-up technique, an increase in the morphologically transformed state had occurred. However, the greatest increase in the morphologically transformed state occurred when the sample had been incubated under capacitating conditions. In this case almost all spermatozoa had morphologically transformed mitochondria.

Vorup-Jensen, T; Hjort, T

1999-01-01

8

Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv) showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, el...

Nikoli? Radomirka R.; Miti? Nevena V.

2003-01-01

9

Formation and morphological transformation of polarization singularities: hunting the monstar  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The theoretical formalism and experimental measurements to form and transform between the three morphologies of the polarization singular patterns—star, lemon and monstar—are presented here. The monstar is statistically rare in isotropic random fields but its controllable realization is achieved by tuning the field anisotropy in three-beam interference. (paper)

10

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without structural phase transformation are confirmed by recording selected area electron diffraction at various stages. The prepared CdS nanorods have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The importance of this phenomenon is vital for the potential application for CdS such as smart materials.

Dhage, Sanjay R.; Colorado, Henry A.; Hahn, Thomas

2011-06-01

11

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without structural phase transformation are confirmed by recording selected area electron diffraction at various stages. The prepared CdS nanorods have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The importance of this phenomenon is vital for the potential application for CdS such as smart materials.

Colorado Henry

2011-01-01

12

Morphological Transformation and Star Formation Across Cosmic Time  

Science.gov (United States)

We derive the median morphological and star formation activity for five samples of galaxies across a look-back time of 12 Gyr. The galaxy samples are selected using the Mean Abundance Matching technique as a way of matching progenitors and descendant galaxies. The five samples represent z=0 stellar masses of log(M*/Msun)=10.0 - 11.2, corresponding to z=0 dark matter halos of log(Mh/Msun)=11.5 - 13.5. Using the CANDELS GOODS-S and UDS samples we are complete up to z=2.2, 2.6, 3.6 for the three lowest mass bins and up to z=4 for the two highest mass bins. The morphology of each galaxy is quantified through the single-component Sersic index. With the exception of the galaxies in least massive bin, the average Sersic index at high redshift indicates a disk-like morphology, while at lower redshift the average Sersic index indicates a spheroidal light distribution. The morphology for galaxies in the lowest mass bin remains disk-like from z~2.2 to the limit of completeness at z~0.5. The star formation rate is derived for each galaxy using the dust corrected restframe 1500A luminosity. The galaxies undergo a decrease in star formation activity by ~2-3 orders of magnitude with the most massive systems starting their transformation of star formation activity at earlier times than less massive systems. The transformation of morphology and star formation is decoupled in the sense that galaxies transforms from actively star forming disk-like systems to quiescent disks and only subsequently transform into spheroidal or bulge dominated systems.

CANDELS Team

2015-01-01

13

Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, elongated leaves, regular leaf arrangement along the stem and thicker leaves. Inheritance of altered characters was observed in the first progeny generation, and their genetic origin was considered.

Nikoli? Radomirka R.

2003-01-01

14

Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in binary mixtures: DPD study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological transformations in polymer brushes in a binary mixture of good and bad solvents are studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations drawing on a characteristic example of polyisoprene natural rubber in an acetone-benzene mixture. A coarse-grained DPD model of this system is built based on the experimental data in the literature. We focus on the transformation of dense, collapsed brush in bad solvent (acetone) to expanded brush solvated in good solvent (benzene) as the concentration of benzene increases. Compared to a sharp globule-to-coil transition observed in individual tethered chains, the collapsed-to-expanded transformation in brushes is found to be gradual without a prominent transition point. The transformation becomes more leveled as the brush density increases. At low densities, the collapsed brush is highly inhomogeneous and patterned into bunches composed of neighboring chains due to favorable polymer-polymer interaction. At high densities, the brush is expanded even in bad solvent due to steric restrictions. In addition, we considered a model system similar to the PINR-acetone-benzene system, but with the interactions between the solvent components worsened to the limit of miscibility. Enhanced contrast between good and bad solvents facilitates absorption of the good solvent by the brush, shifting the collapsed-to-expanded transformation to lower concentrations of good solvent. This effect is especially pronounced for higher brush densities. PMID:25295697

Cheng, Jianli; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

2014-11-01

15

Morphologic and Process Transformation at a Barrier Island of Taiwan  

Science.gov (United States)

Waisanding Barrier, the largest barrier island off the southwestern coast of Taiwan, has undergone morphologic and process transformation in recent decades. Based on the analysis of historical maps and aerial photographs, the island has migrated both southward and eastward (or landward). The shoreline at the northwest tip of the island has a retreat rate at 65 m/year, and the shoreline at the southern end migrates at a speed of 88 m/year southeastward. The overall land area has shrunken. Topographic profile surveys also show the great reduction of dune fields and the dune heights. This is mainly due to the starvation of sand sources. Three main processes have been proposed to explain the island migration: (1) the southward- dominant longshore drift; (2) the overwash process; and (3) the prevailing southward aeolian sand transport. Choushui river, the largest river in Taiwan, is the major sediment source for the Waisanding Barrier. Improvement constructions and illegal sand/gravel mining of the river may reduce large amounts of sediments that reach the shore. An artificial industrial park project located at the south of Choushui river mouth may also play an important role in blocking and preventing some of the southward longshore sand transport from reaching Waisanding Barrier. A permanent loss of sand to a submarine channel at the southern end had probably worsened the sediment storage of the barrier island. The strong wind transport during winter and the overwash process during spring high tides or stormy conditions may reduce the foredune and overall elevation of the island. This landform modification may result in the increase of overwash frequencies that move more sand landward and lower the elevation. As the results, the original back shore and dune field area are developed into a wide sandy tidal flat with many shallow tidal creeks formed during rising high tide stages. Because of all the landform changes in recent decades, the barrier island may undergo the transformation from a mixed energy wave-dominant environment to a mixed energy tide-dominant environment. If it follows the evolution trends, the barrier island may finally disappear when it reach the truly tide-dominated coastal environments suggested by Davis and Hayes.

Lin, T.

2006-12-01

16

Image masking using polygon fills and morphological transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

Polygon-fill operations and morphological transformations are effective computational tools for the land-masking and coastline-correction preprocessing operations often applied to AVHRR data prior to oceanographic applications. These masking operations, in conjunction with cloud-screening techniques, can be used on such other oceanographically significant remote-sensing data as those of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner, GOES, and Landsat. The sensitivity of the methods to regional variations in atmospheric conditions and land-ocean temperature gradients is assessed for tropical, midlatitude, and high latitude regions.

Simpson, James J.

1992-01-01

17

Enhancement of Mammographic Images using Morphology and Wavelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mammography is the effective technology for early detection of breast cancer and breast tumour analysis. In mammography, low dose x-ray is used for imaging. Due to the low dose X-ray the images obtained from mammography are poor in contrast and are contaminated by noise. Hence it is difficult for the radiologist to screen the mammograms for any abnormalities like microcalcifications and masses. This ensures the need for image enhancement to aid radiologist for interpretation. This paper introduces a new enhancement method for digital mammographic images based on modified mathematical morphology and biorthogonal wavelet transform. In the proposed method we adopted a level dependent threshold for thresholding the detail coefficients of wavelet transform. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, Contrast Improvement Index (CII and Edge Preservation Index (EPI are used. Experimental results and performance analysis indicate that the proposed method consistently outperforms existing techniques

Harish Kumar.N

2012-01-01

18

Characteristic wave detection in ECG signal using morphological transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Detection of characteristic waves, such as QRS complex, P wave and T wave, is one of the essential tasks in the cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition from Electrocardiogram (ECG. Methods A multiscale morphological derivative (MMD transform-based singularity detector, is developed for the detection of fiducial points in ECG signal, where these points are related to the characteristic waves such as the QRS complex, P wave and T wave. The MMD detector is constructed by substituting the conventional derivative with a multiscale morphological derivative. Results We demonstrated through experiments that the Q wave, R peak, S wave, the onsets and offsets of the P wave and T wave could be reliably detected in the multiscale space by the MMD detector. Compared with the results obtained via with wavelet transform-based and adaptive thresholding-based techniques, an overall better performance by the MMD method was observed. Conclusion The developed MMD method exhibits good potentials for automated ECG signal analysis and cardiovascular arrhythmia recognition.

Chan Kap

2005-09-01

19

Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO3) and ?-PbO2 and ?-PbO2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

20

On-substrate, self-standing Au-nanorod arrays showing morphology controlled properties  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We use supported alumina templates and electrodeposition to fabricate self-standing Au-nanorods (Au-NR) arrays. Depending on electrolyte and deposition conditions two different NR morphologies with either corrugated or smooth topologies are fabricated. We show that the properties of the NR arrays, including amphiphilic and optical, very much depend on their morphology. Smooth NR arrays are hydrophobic while the corrugated ones are hydrophilic. Also the optical reflectance, though it shows plasmon resonances at very similar wave lengths, is much lower for the corrugated NR arrays. The activity of the NR arrays as substrates for molecular detection using Raman scattering, and Rhodamine 6G (R6G) as model dye, also strongly depends on their morphology. R6G concentrations down to 1 pM are detected on the corrugated arrays yielding an effective enhancement factor (EF) of approximately 1 × 10. In contrast an over-estimated (because of their hydrophobic character) EF of 6 × 10 is obtained for the smooth NR arrays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Habouti, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Identified motor terminals in Drosophila larvae show distinct differences in morphology and physiology  

Science.gov (United States)

In Drosophila, the type I motor terminals innervating the larval ventral longitudinal muscle fibers 6 and 7 have been the most popular preparation for combining synaptic studies with genetics. We have further characterized the normal morphological and physiological properties of these motor terminals and the influence of muscle size on terminal morphology. Using dye-injection and physiological techniques, we show that the two axons supplying these terminals have different innervation patterns: axon 1 innervates only muscle fibers 6 and 7, whereas axon 2 innervates all of the ventral longitudinal muscle fibers. This difference in innervation pattern allows the two axons to be reliably identified. The terminals formed by axons 1 and 2 on muscle fibers 6 and 7 have the same number of branches; however, axon 2 terminals are approximately 30% longer than axon 1 terminals, resulting in a corresponding greater number of boutons for axon 2. The axon 1 boutons are approximately 30% wider than the axon 2 boutons. The excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) produced by axon 1 is generally smaller than that produced by axon 2, although the size distributions show considerable overlap. Consistent with vertebrate studies, there is a correlation between muscle fiber size and terminal size. For a single axon, terminal area and length, the number of terminal branches, and the number of boutons are all correlated with muscle fiber size, but bouton size is not. During prolonged repetitive stimulation, axon 2 motor terminals show synaptic depression, whereas axon 1 EPSPs facilitate. The response to repetitive stimulation appears to be similar at all motor terminals of an axon. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Lnenicka, G. A.; Keshishian, H.

2000-01-01

22

Surface reactivity, cytotoxic, and morphological transforming effects of diatomaceous Earth products in Syrian hamster embryo cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to evaluate the effect of thermal treatments on the surface reactivity and carcinogenic potential of diatomaceous earth (DE) products, the physicochemical features of some specimens--derived by heating the same original material--were compared with their cytotoxic and transforming potency. The samples were an untreated DE (amorphous) progressively heated in the laboratory at 900 degrees C (DE 900) and 1200 degrees C (DE 1200) and a commercial product manufactured from the same DE (Chd) from which the finer fraction (species, and for their cytotoxic and transforming potencies in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. X-ray diffractometry showed that DE 900, like DE, was still amorphous, whereas DE 1200 as well as the commercial product (Chd) were partially crystallized into cristobalite. The ability of the dust to release hydroxyl (*OH) radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, as revealed by the spin-trapping technique, was as follows: Chd-F, DE 1200 > Chd > DE 900 > DE, suggesting that on heating, the surface acquires a higher potential for free radical release. Most of the silica samples generated COO* radicals from the formate ion, following homolytic rupture of the carbon-hydrogen bond, in the presence of ascorbic acid. A concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and colony-forming efficiency was observed in SHE cultures treated with Chd-F, Chd, and DE. Heating abolished DE cytotoxicity but conferred a transforming ability to thermal treated particles. DE was the only sample that did not induce morphological transformation of cells. According to their transformation capacity, the samples were classified as follows: Chd-F > Chd, DE 1200 > DE 900 > DE. Taken together, the reported results suggest that (1) the transforming potential of a biogenic amorphous silica is related to the thermal treatment that transforms the original structure in cristobalite and generates surface active sites; (2) the reactivity of samples in releasing *OH radicals correlates to their transforming ability; (3) the finer fraction of the commercial product is significantly more toxic and transforming than the coarse dust; and (4) opposite to silica dusts of mineral origin, which loose both cytotoxicity and transforming ability upon heating, heated diatomite acquires a cell-transforming potency. DE products should be thus considered a set apart of silica-based potentially toxic materials. PMID:16571621

Elias, Zoé; Poirot, Odile; Fenoglio, Ivana; Ghiazza, Mara; Danière, Marie-Céleste; Terzetti, Francine; Darne, Christian; Coulais, Catherine; Matekovits, Ildiko; Fubini, Bice

2006-06-01

23

Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a t...

Hou, Xingsheng; Mcmillan, Mary; Coumans, Joe?lle V. F.; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J.; Pereg, Lily

2014-01-01

24

FOX-superroots of Lotus corniculatus, overexpressing Arabidopsis full-length cDNA, show stable variations in morphological traits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using the full-length cDNA overexpressor (FOX) gene-hunting system, we have generated 130 Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines in bird's-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus) for the systematic functional analysis of genes expressed in roots and for the selection of induced mutants with interesting root growth characteristics. We used the Arabidopsis-FOX Agrobacterium library (constructed by ligating pBIG2113SF) for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of superroots (SR) and the subsequent selection of gain-of-function mutants with ectopically expressed Arabidopsis genes. The original superroot culture of L. corniculatus is a unique host system displaying fast root growth in vitro, allowing continuous root cloning, direct somatic embryogenesis and mass regeneration of plants under entirely hormone-free culture conditions. Several of the Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines show interesting deviations from normal growth and morphology of roots from SR-plants, such as differences in pigmentation, growth rate, length or diameter. Some of these mutations are of potential agricultural interest. Genomic PCR analysis revealed that 100 (76.9%) out of the 130 transgenic lines showed the amplification of single fragments. Sequence analysis of the PCR fragments from these 100 lines identified full-length cDNA in 74 of them. Forty-three out of 74 full-length cDNA carried known genes. The Arabidopsis FOX-superroot lines of L. corniculatus, produced in this study, expand the FOX hunting system and provide a new tool for the genetic analysis and control of root growth in a leguminous forage plant. PMID:21106274

Himuro, Yasuyo; Tanaka, Hidenori; Hashiguchi, Masatsugu; Ichikawa, Takanari; Nakazawa, Miki; Seki, Motoaki; Fujita, Miki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Matsui, Minami; Akashi, Ryo; Hoffmann, Franz

2011-01-15

25

The Wheat Plastochron Mutant, fushi-darake, Shows Transformation of Reproductive Spikelet Meristem into Vegetative Shoot Meristem  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In wheat plants at the vegetative growth stage, the shoot apical meristem (SAM produces leaf primordia. When reproductive growth is initiated, the SAM forms an inflorescence meristem (IM that differentiates a series of spikelet meristem (SM as the branch. The SM then produces a series of floret meristem (FM as the branch. To identify the mechanisms that regulate formation of the reproductive meristems in wheat, we have investigated a leaf initiation mutant, fushi-darake (fdk which was developed by ion beam mutagenesis. The morphological traits were compared in wild type (WT and fdk mutant plants grown in the experimental field. WT plants initiated leaves from SAM at regular intervals in spiral phyllotaxy, while fdk plants had 1/2 alternate phyllotaxy with rapid leaf emergence. The fdk plants have increased numbers of nodes and leaves compared with WT plants. The time interval between successive leaf initiation events (plastochron was measured in plants grown in a growth chamber. The fdk plants clearly show the rapid leaf emergence, indicating a shortened plastochron. Each tiller in fdk plants branches at the upper part of the culm. The fine structure of organ formation in meristems of fdk plants was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SEM analysis indicated that fdk plants show transformation of spikelet meristems into vegetative shoot meristems. In conclusion, the fdk mutant has a heterochronic nature, i.e., both reproductive and vegetative programs were simultaneously in operation during the reproductive phase, resulting in a shortened plastochron and transformation of reproductive spikelets into vegetative shoots.

Chikako Tahira

2013-11-01

26

Pressure-Induced Morphology-Dependent Phase Transformations of Nanostructured Tin Doxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two morphologies of nanostructured tin dioxide (SnO2) (i.e., nanobelts and nanowires) were compressed in diamond anvil cells up to 38 GPa followed by decompression. In situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were employed to monitor the structural transformations. It was found that nanostructured SnO2 behaved drastically differently than bulk material in terms of transformation pressures, phase stability regions and compressibility. These findings provide new insight into the unique pressure behaviours of nanostructured materials and have profound implications for producing controlled structures with new applications achieved by combined pressure-morphology tuning.

27

Scallops show that muscle metabolic capacities reflect locomotor style and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although all scallops swim using their adductor muscle to close their valves, scallop species differ considerably in how they use their muscle during escape responses, in parallel with the striking interspecific differences in shell morphology. This provides an excellent opportunity to study links between muscle metabolic capacities and animal performance. We found that the capacity for anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic metabolism, as well as phosphoarginine levels in the phasic adductor muscle, differ with escape response strategy. Phosphoarginine contents were high in species that rely on phasic contractions (Amusium balloti, Placopecten magellanicus, and Pecten fumatus). Arginine kinase activities reflect reliance on rapid initial bursts of phasic contractions. Scallops that maintain their valves in a closed position for prolonged periods (P. fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima, and Crassadoma gigantea) have high activities of enzymes of anaerobic glycolysis in their phasic adductor muscle. Myosin ATPase activity was lower in the nonswimming scallop, C. gigantea, than in swimming scallops. The different patterns and roles of swimming are reflected in interspecific differences in the biochemical attributes of the phasic adductor muscle. These patterns suggest coevolution of muscle metabolic capacities, patterns of adductor muscle use, and shell morphology in scallops. PMID:24642541

Tremblay, Isabelle; Guderley, Helga E

2014-01-01

28

Robust estimation of morphologic features and shape representation of electrocardiograms using orthogonal transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An important task in the field of electrocardiogram (ECG) signal processing is the development of effective discrete transforms, which can extract useful clinical information from source signals and represent it as morphologic feature vector time series. Such time series are then suitable for further machine processing as well as for visual diagnostic procedures by cardiologists. We have tested and enhanced the existing Karhunen and Loève transform (KLT) feature vector space based noise dete...

Amon, Miha

2011-01-01

29

Kinetics and Morphological Instabilities of Stressed Solid-Solid Phase Transformations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An atomistic model of the growth kinetics of stressed solid-solid phase transformations is presented. Solid phase epitaxial growth of (001) Si was used for comparison of new and prior models with experiments. The results indicate that the migration of crystal island ledges in the growth interface may involve coordinated atomic motion. The model accounts for morphological instabilities during stressed solid-solid phase transformations.

Rudawski, N. G.; Jones, K. S.; Gwillliam, R.

2008-01-01

30

Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

Sule Tekkesinoglu

2014-03-01

31

Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research. PMID:23635867

Brum, Jennifer R; Schenck, Ryan O; Sullivan, Matthew B

2013-09-01

32

Cellular Responses during Morphological Transformation in Azospirillum brasilense and Its flcA Knockout Mutant.  

Science.gov (United States)

FlcA is a response regulator controlling flocculation and the morphological transformation of Azospirillum cells from vegetative to cyst-like forms. To understand the cellular responses of Azospirillum to conditions that cause morphological transformation, proteins differentially expressed under flocculation conditions in A. brasilense Sp7 and its flcA knockout mutant were investigated. Comparison of 2-DE protein profiles of wild-type (Sp7) and a flcA deletion mutant (Sp7-flcA?) revealed a total of 33 differentially expressed 2-DE gel spots, with 22 of these spots confidently separated to allow protein identification. Analysis of these spots by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and MASCOT database searching identified 48 proteins (?10% emPAI in each spot). The functional characteristics of these proteins included carbon metabolism (beta-ketothiolase and citrate synthase), nitrogen metabolism (Glutamine synthetase and nitric oxide synthase), stress tolerance (superoxide dismutase, Alkyl hydroperoxidase and ATP-dependent Clp protease proteolytic subunit) and morphological transformation (transducer coupling protein). The observed differences between Sp7 wild-type and flcA- strains enhance our understanding of the morphological transformation process and help to explain previous phenotypical observations. This work is a step forward in connecting the Azospirillum phenome and genome. PMID:25502569

Hou, Xingsheng; McMillan, Mary; Coumans, Joëlle V F; Poljak, Anne; Raftery, Mark J; Pereg, Lily

2014-01-01

33

Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5 was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

Nikoli? Radomirka

2005-01-01

34

Templated self-assembly of block copolymers and morphology transformation driven by the rayleigh instability.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the current study, we investigate the self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) confined in the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template and the subsequent morphology transformation induced by the Rayleigh instability. PS-b-P4VP nanotubes and nanorods with various internal nanostructures are fabricated by wetting the AAO template with PS-b-P4VP/chloroform solution, and then followed by solvent evaporation. After the removal of AAO template by potassium hydroxide solution, several different solvents (chloroform, toluene, and N,N-dimethylformamide) with different qualities are used to swell and anneal those nanotubes and nanorods suspended in aqueous media. Morphology transformation from nanostructured PS-b-P4VP nanotubes or nanorods to ordered nanospheres is observed by annealing upon chloroform and toluene while the morphology remains unchanged upon N,N-dimethylformamide annealing, indicating that solvent quality is a key factor in tuning the morphology and internal structures. Kinetics study and theoretical analysis for the morphology transition from two-dimensional (2D) block copolymer (BCP) nanotubes and nanorods to three-dimensional (3D) BCP nanospheres are further performed. From the morphological evolution and the quantitative calculation, it is confirmed that this transition is induced by the Rayleigh instability. This study provides a simple but promising method, that is, solvent annealing method, for the fabrication of BCP nanospheres with ordered internal nanostructures, which may have great application in drug delivery and other nanotechnology. PMID:25578803

Yan, Nan; Sheng, Yuping; Liu, Hongxia; Zhu, Yutian; Jiang, Wei

2015-02-10

35

Influence of morphological transformation on luminescence properties of europium-doped gadolinium oxide nanostructures  

Science.gov (United States)

Low dimensional europium (Eu3+)-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) lanthanide nanostructures are synthesized by an effective and simple coprecipitation process followed by subsequent heat treatments. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicate Eu3+-doped Gd2O3 nanostructures undergo significant morphological changes from nanorods to nanoparticles during thermal treatments. Nanostructures with different morphology, including nanotubes, strongly influence the photoluminescence properties. The dependence of luminescence lifetime on morphological nature of the nanostructures demonstrates that the one dimensional nanostructures such as nanorods and nanotubes have higher emission intensity with shorter lifetime. Our analysis suggests that the morphological transformation of the nanostructures plays the most important role in the behavior of radiative and nonradiative relaxation mechanisms, resulting in the overall photoluminescence properties.

Zhang, Kai; Dondapati, Hareesh; Holloway, Terence; Cao, Wei; Kar, Arik; Patra, Amitava; Pradhan, Aswini K.

2010-09-01

36

Morphology and crystallographic orientation relationship in isothermally transformed Fe–N austenite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The 225 °C isothermal transformation of a high-nitrogen austenite with Fe–2.71 wt.% N was investigated by means of electron microscopy. It was found that the transformation products were composed of ultrafine ?-Fe and ??-Fe4N plus retained austenite ?, which were in two types of morphologies, namely, (i) with the retained austenite patches dispersed among the (?-Fe + ??-Fe4N) packets and (ii) with the ultrafine ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe4N laths interwoven with each other within a single bainitic packet. A cube–cube orientation relationship between the ? (austenite) and ??-Fe4N, and a near Greninger–Troiano (G–T) one between the ? (austenite) and the bainitic ?-ferrite were detected. The morphology, orientation relationship and high hardness (> 1000 HV) of the transformation products indicated that the isothermal transformation of the high nitrogen austenite was analogous to a bainitic one. - Highlights: • Isothermal transformation products consisted of nano-sized ?-Fe + ?? + ? (retained). • The hardness of transformation product exceeded 1000 HV. • The ?-Fe and ?/??-Fe4N kept a near G-T OR in the grain interior

37

Analysis of banded morphology in multiphase steels based on a discrete dislocation–transformation model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of the austenitic microstructural morphology on the mechanical response of a multiphase steel is analyzed by comparing two relevant configurations, namely (i) uniformly distributed grains of retained austenite embedded in a ferritic matrix and (ii) a banded morphology of the two phases. The analysis is carried out numerically using a discrete dislocation–transformation model that captures processes occurring at sub-grain length scales connected to nucleation and evolution of individual dislocations and martensitic platelets inside the austenitic grains. The simulations indicate that a microstructure composed of uniformly distributed grains of austenite is optimal in terms of strength since it delays the onset of plastic localization compared with banded microstructures

38

The sublimation growth of AlN fibers: transformations in morphology and fiber direction  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The growth of AlN fibers using sublimation method was investigated in the temperature range from 1600 C to 2000 C. Large-scale AlN fibers are obtained with diameters from 100 nm to 50 {mu}m and lengths up to several millimeters. The fiber morphology and growth direction are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Raman scattering. The fibers change from wire-like to prism-like in morphology and increase in diameter as rising temperatures, accompanying a transformation in axial direction from [10 anti 10] to [0001]. The transformation in the growth direction is discussed in terms of AlN structure and supersaturation of AlN gas species. These results provide useful information for controlling the growth of large-scale AlN fibers. (orig.)

Bao, H.Q.; Chen, X.L.; Li, H.; Wang, G.; Song, B.; Wang, W.J. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 603, Beijing (China)

2009-01-15

39

Transforming growth factor-?2 induces morphological alteration of human corneal endothelial cells in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the morphological altering effect of transforming growth factor-?2 (TGF-?2 on untransfected human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs in vitro.METHODS: After untransfected HCECs were treated with TGF-?2 at different concentrations, the morphology, cytoskeleton distribution, and type IV collagen expression of the cells were examined with inverted contrast light microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, immunofluorescence or Western Blot.RESULTS:TGF-?2 at the concentration of 3-15 ?g/L had obviously alterative effects on HCECs morphology in dose and time-dependent manner, and 9 ?g/L was the peak concentration. TGF-?2 (9 ?g/L altered HCE cell morphology after treatment for 36h, increased the mean optical density (P<0.01 and the length of F-actin, reduced the mean optical density (P<0.01 of the collagen type IV in extracellular matrix (ECM and induced the rearrangement of F-actin, microtubule in cytoplasm and collagen type IV in ECM after treatment for 72h. CONCLUTION:TGF-?2 has obviously alterative effect on the morphology of HCECs from polygonal phenotype to enlarged spindle-shaped phenotype, in dose and time-dependence manner by inducing more, elongation and alignment of F-actin, rearrangement of microtubule and larger spread area of collagen type IV.

Jing Wang

2014-10-01

40

Interface morphology and its stability in martensitic phase transformation of nickel-titanium shape memory alloy  

Science.gov (United States)

Interface morphology and its stability during stress-induced martensitic phase transformation in the superelastic NiTi polycrystalline shape memory alloys are investigated in this thesis. A theoretical model is proposed to conduct the stability analysis and the instability criterion is established. Based on the calculation of the thermodynamic driving force along the interfaces and the incorporation of different kinetics laws, the interface instability and its corresponding modes are well addressed which can be compared with the experimental phenomena of the microtube. Starting from an unstable equilibrium state, the FEM simulation can verify the theoretical predictions and track the succeeding evolution of interface morphology to reach another stable equilibrium. The effect of various parameters such as surface energy density, transformation strain and critical driving force are discussed. Moreover, the structure effects are incorporated to consider the uniaxial tension of thin strips. The experimental nominal stress-strain curve and corresponding domain morphology can be roughly captured with the FEM simulation. The variation of domain patterns and especially the phenomena of interface switch (rotation) are studied subject to different parameters such as critical driving force, surface energy density, nucleation position and strip geometry.

Dong, Liang

 
 
 
 
41

[A novel hyperspectra absorption enhancing method based on morphological top-hat transformation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperspectral characteristics analysis of ground features is the basis for applications of high-resolution imaging technology to ground target identification and ground features classification. Based on morphological multi-scale Top-Hat transformation, a novel spectral absorption enhancing algorithms was put forward, which enhanced spectral absorption features while maintaining shape features of the absorption peak bands. Eleven reflectance spectra of different mineral groups were chosen from the mineral spectral library of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and we used a K-means clustering analysis on both the absorption-enhanced spectra and the original reflectance spectra. Results showed that, firstly, clustering groups of the absorption-enhanced spectra (AES) had better similarity within the same clustering group, and greater difference between different groups, furthermore, they were more consistent with the geological background of these minerals compared with clustering result of the original spectra (OS). Secondly, while all the original spectra were re-sampled to their ASTER spectra and the AES clustering result was displayed in the form of ASTER spectra of the minerals, we could easily describe both the representative spectral feature of each clustering group, and the typical spectral differences between every two groups. These fully demonstrate that the absorption-enhanced spectra have enhanced absorption features of the mineral spectra, and improved the separability of hyper-spectra. Accordingly, feature analysis based on absorption enhanced spectra can be used as reference for information extracting based on multi-spectral remote sensing image data, and it is a very useful method of hyperspectral analysis. PMID:21105412

Li, Hui; Lin, Qi-zhong; Wang, Qin-jun; Liu, Qing-jie; Chen, Yu

2010-09-01

42

QRS Detection by Combination of Wavelet Transform and Multi-resolution Morphological Decomposition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available QRS complex detecting algorithm was core of ECG auto-diagnosis method, heart rate variability analysis and deeply influences cardiac cycle division for signal compression. However, ECG signals collected by noninvasive surface electrodes were confused by several kinds of noise and its waveform variation was the main reasons for the hard realization of 100% detection accruracy. QRS complex detecting algorithms based on mixed methods were studied. This study proposed a QRS complex detecting algorithm based on wavelet transform and multi-resolution mathematical morphological decomposition (WMR algorithm. This algorithm possessed superiorities in R peak detection of the two methods. Moreover, a pre-processing method based on lifting scheme constructing multi-resolution morphological decomposition was adopted to reduce noise affection. And an efficient R peak search-back algorithm was employed to reduce the False Positives (FP and False Negatives (FN. According to simulation results in MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, QRS detection accuracy was over 99.8%.

Pu Zhang

2014-01-01

43

FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH- in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ˜9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3-?O4) generated from F (?˜0.04) and L (?˜0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (?˜0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite.

Usman, M.; Abdelmoula, M.; Hanna, K.; Grégoire, B.; Faure, P.; Ruby, C.

2012-10-01

44

MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION AND CHROMOSOME DAMAGE BY AMSACRINE IN C3H/10T(1/2) CLONE 8 CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological transformation, cell survival, chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei were measured in C3H/101/2CL8 cells after 24 hour exposure to amsacrine. A weak but dose-related increase in the percentage of dishes containing transformed foci occurred. As previously reported ...

45

Two lepidopteran cell lines stably transformed by the abc transporter gene pdr5 show tolerance to diacetoxyscirpenol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pleiotropic drug resistance 5 gene (pdr5) encodes a multidrug membrane transporter and plays a very important role in the efflux of a broad range of chemicals in yeast cells. To study the possible function of pdr5 in insect cells, two stably pdr5-transformed lepidopteran insect cell lines, Sf21 and CF-203, were developed. Transcripts of pdr5 were detected in these two lines using Northern blotting and RT-PCR analysis. When cells were treated with the protein synthesis inhibitor diacetoxyscirpenol, the transformed Sf21 and CF-203 cell lines showed increased tolerance to this chemical. However, unlike in yeast cells, ecdysone agonist RH5992 could not be excluded by PDR5, probably because of low expression levels or imperfect incorporation of the recombinant protein in these transformed cell lines. PMID:16618208

Zhang, D-Y; Krell, P J; Feng, Q-L

2006-01-01

46

FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH– in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ?9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3??O4) generated from F (??0.04) and L (??0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G (??0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Mössbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed FeII species with goethite. Highlights: ? Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated FeII to form magnetite. ? Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. ? Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. ? Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. ? Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphologicalmorphological properties.

47

Interrelations of compositions, transformation kinetics, morphology, and mechanical properties of alloy steels  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The strong influence of the fine-scale microstructural features on mechanical properties has become increasingly evident during the past decade. This is particularly true for fracture toughness of quenched and tempered alloy steels. Large differences in microstructure can be produced by isothermal, rather than athermal, treatments in the bainite and upper martensite temperature ranges. The kinetics of transformation as well as the kinds and volume fractions of transformation products can be varied over wide ranges by relatively small changes in chemical composition. The effects of the common alloying elements on transformation kinetics, both separately and in various combinations were determined experimentally. The synergistic effects of individual elements added as pairs of elements were not predictable from a knowledge of the effects of the individual elements. Isothermal treatments, coupled with variations in the kinds and amounts of alloying elements, produced different morphologies, compositions, and volume fractions of the transformation products. The effects of such microstructural differences on tensile properties, fracture toughness, and fatigue characteristics were evaluated. Beneficial effects were found, such as substantial increases in fracture toughness, with small changes in alloy content or with heat treatments that differed from those conventionally used.

Parker, E.R.

1977-03-01

48

Morphological transformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic 'acidic' polypeptide sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces aa 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology

49

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Vacuum Circuit Breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV Vacuum Circuit Breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from a Chromium-Copper powder metal mixture. The interrupting conditions covered a wide range of currents from 10% to 130% of the 28kA rated short circuit current of the tested circuit breaker and a wide range of TRV rates of rise, including the relatively slow rate of rise, normally used in testing and found in most indoor circuit breaker applications; two faster rates of rise equaling and exceeding those found in a known power plant transformer secondary protection application; and the fastest rates of rise possible in the laboratory which exceed the requirements of most transformer secondary faults. These tests showed that the interrupting performance of the tested Vacuum Circuit Breaker was unaffected by the TRV rate of rise to the fastest rates available in the test lab. Such a Vacuum Circuit Breaker can therefore be used without TRV modifying capacitors to slow down the rate of rise provided by the power system. This ability is particularly important if analysis shows that the expected TRV from a transformer secondary fault has a fast rate of rise beyond the recognized ability of an older circuit breaker to acceptably interrupt.

Smith, R.K. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

50

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A vacuum circuit breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of transient recovery voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV vacuum circuit breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from a chromium-copper powder metal mixture. The interrupting conditions covered a wide range of currents from 10% to 130% of the 28kA rated short circuit current of the tested circuit breaker and a wide range of TRV rates of rise, including the relatively slow rate of rise, normally used in testing and found in most indoor circuit breaker applications, two faster rates of rise equaling and exceeding those found in a known power plant transformer secondary protection application, and the fastest rates of rise possible in the laboratory which exceed the requirements of most transformer secondary faults. These tests showed that the interrupting performance of the tested vacuum circuit breaker was unaffected by the TRV rate of rise to the fastest rates available in the test lab. Such a vacuum circuit breaker can therefore be used without TRV modifying capacitors to slow down the rate of rise provided by the power system. This ability is particularly important if analysis shows that the expected TRV from a transformer secondary fault has a fast rate of rise beyond the recognized ability of an older circuit breaker to acceptably interrupt.

Smith, R.K. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1995-01-01

51

Performance analysis of wavelet transforms and morphological operator-based classification of epilepsy risk levels  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of singular value decomposition (SVD), expectation maximization (EM), and modified expectation maximization (MEM) as the postclassifiers for classifications of the epilepsy risk levels obtained from extracted features through wavelet transforms and morphological filters from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. The code converter acts as a level one classifier. The seven features such as energy, variance, positive and negative peaks, spike and sharp waves, events, average duration, and covariance are extracted from EEG signals. Out of which four parameters like positive and negative peaksand spike and sharp waves, events and average duration are extracted using Haar, dB2, dB4, and Sym 8 wavelet transforms with hard and soft thresholding methods. The above said four features are also extracted through morphological filters. Then, the performance of the code converter and classifiers are compared based on the parameters such as performance index (PI) and quality value (QV).The performance index and quality value of code converters are at low value of 33.26% and 12.74, respectively. The highest PI of 98.03% and QV of 23.82 are attained at dB2 wavelet with hard thresholding method for SVD classifier. All the postclassifiers are settled at PI value of more than 90% at QV of 20.

Harikumar, Rajaguru; Vijayakumar, Thangavel

2014-12-01

52

An Improved Compound Morphological Transform Algorithm for Video P-frame Compression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available DCT has block effect and the "mosquito noise" and become more obvious in the low transmission. It is difficult to meet the satisfaction of video transmission in narrow bandwidth and high quality requirements. Video image based on mathematical morphology inter-frame coding technique is the use of inter-frame motion compensation coding algorithm through complex morphological transformation, using the structural elements of the macro block irregular pieces for opening and closing operation, selecting and filtering the irregular pieces and then estimating and encoding the small irregular size for motion and motion vector and finding the matching block with absolute difference to achieve inter-frame prediction. The simulation can achieve relatively fine compensation to improve the coding efficiency and under the same compression ratio the video quality can be improved, the deficiencies of the DCT algorithm in image transmission are remedied to improve the effect of image transmission, to reduce the computational complexity, to improve signal noise ratio. It is of great significance in decoding and transmitting the network video.

Wang Xiao-li

2013-01-01

53

The insecticide buprofezin induces morphological transformation and kinetochore-positive micronuclei in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in the absence of detectable DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The insecticide buprofezin was examined for its genotoxicity in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of the compound in mammalian cells. Exposure to buprofezin concentrations of 12.5-100 microM did not significantly affect the colony-forming ability of the cells, but did result in increased frequencies of morphologically transformed colonies. Treatment with buprofezin did not cause a detectable induction of DNA repair synthesis, an indicator of DNA damage, but significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei. Immunostaining of the cells with antikinetochore antibody (CREST antibody) showed that essentially all of the buprofezin-induced micronuclei were kinetochore-positive. The results suggest that morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by buprofezin results from an interaction of the compound or a metabolite of it with the mitotic apparatus rather than from DNA damage. PMID:7694128

Herrera, L A; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Schiffmann, D; Chen, Q Y; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K; Andrae, U

1993-11-01

54

A variant acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(11;17) (q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphology of classical acute promyelocytic leukemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A subgroup of acute leukemia with morphology resembling acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) shows variant translocations involving RARA and has a different morphology from that of classical APL. The variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA subgroup has been reported to have leukemic cells with regular nuclei, many granules, absence of Auer rods, an increased number of Pelgeroid neutrophils, strong myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) resistance. Here, we re...

Han, Sang Bong; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Hee-je; Han, Kyungja

2010-01-01

55

Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US, and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005 as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001. Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

Sami Soljanlahti

2008-09-01

56

Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS{sub 2} on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS{sub 2} layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS{sub 2} layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS{sub 2}–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS{sub 2} layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS{sub 2} monolayers.

Lenenko, Natalia D.; Semina, Elena N. [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zaikovskii, Vladimir I. [G.K. Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 5 prosp. Ak. Lavrentieva, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Golub, Alexandre S., E-mail: golub@ineos.ac.ru [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, 28 ul. Vavilova, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2013-08-15

57

Thermally induced microstructure and morphology transformations in molybdenum disulfide–octadecyltrimethylammonim layered nanocomposite  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Microstructure of layered nanocomposite compound consisting of molybdenum disulfide single layers and the layers of octadecyltrimethylammonium molecules as well as the structure of destruction products of this hybrid compound were studied by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. Changes in composition, ordering and morphology of the host and guest layers of the compound occurring due to release of organic guest from the interlayer space of MoS2 on heating or on action of electronic beam have been revealed. Removal of the guest was found to initiate formation in the initial layered structure of the packets consisting of a few MoS2 layers which come close together within the distances of ca. 1–1.5 nm and 0.6–0.7 nm after heating at 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. Leaving the guest also causes deformations of MoS2 layers resulting in their non-flat geometry. At 400 °C, strong bending of a part of the sulfide layers with the radius as small as 3–4 nm was observed. - Highlights: • Microstructure of nanocomposite MoS2–octadecyltrimethylammonim was determined by TEM and XRD. • Transformations initiated by heating or electronic beam irradiation were revealed. • Lens-shaped fields of organic guest and packets containing a few MoS2 layers are formed on heating. • Removal of organic guest at 400 °C induces strong bending of MoS2

58

Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

59

Chloride-Induced Morphology Transformations of the Cu(110) Surface in Dilute HCl.  

Science.gov (United States)

Morphological changes of a bare Cu(110) substrate in 10 mM HCl aqueous solution have been studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (EC-STM), and reflectance anisotropy spectroscopy (RAS). At cathodic potentials more positive than the hydrogen evolution reaction, a bare copper surface (1 × 1) structure is found by EC-STM. At anodic potentials more negative than the copper(II) dissolution reaction, a furrowed structure is found. The governing factor that rules Cu(110)-Cl interface processes is discussed as an interplay among Cl(-) adsorption/desorption, the dynamic rearrangement of the surface atoms on the substrate, and strain in order to reduce the surface energy. The information provided by EC-STM and RAS complements that of CV, supplies detailed information on the surface morphology, and correlates peaking Faraday currents to structural modifications. Furthermore, RAS and EC-STM show changes in the surface appearance in a potential range where no specific charge transfer is observed. CV indicates that the Cu(110) surface chemistry compares much better to that of amorphous Cu than to that of the more stable (100) and (111) surfaces, respectively. PMID:25383708

Barati, Gholamreza; Solokha, Vladyslav; Wandelt, Klaus; Hingerl, Kurt; Cobet, Christoph

2014-12-01

60

THE 10k zCOSMOS: MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES IN THE GROUP ENVIRONMENT SINCE z ?1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z = 1 using a large well-defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with MB luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z ? 0.5 and log(M*/Msun) ? 10.2, the 'effect' of the group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving color and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to three to four times higher correcting for infall and the appearance of new groups. The rates reach values as high as 0.3-0.7 Gyr-1 in the groups (for masses around the crossing mass 1010.5 Msun), implying transformation timescales of 1.4-3 Gyr, compared with less than 0.2 Gyr-1, i.e., timescales >5 Gyr, outside of groups. All three transformation rates decrease at higher stellar masses, and must also decrease at lower mass, and must also decrease at lower masses below 1010 Msun which we cannot probe well. The rates involving color and star formation are consistently higher than those for morphology, by a factor of about 50%. Our conclusion is that the transformations that drive the evolution of the overall galaxy population since z ? 1 must occur at a rate two to four times higher in groups than outside of them.

 
 
 
 
61

A Case Report of Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Showing Morphologic Transformation during Followup Periods  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 64-year-old man underwent MRCP for further examination of gallbladder stones and IPMN of branch-type (IPMN-Br) was pointed out. Yearly MRCP had revealed the gradual increase of the cystic components, marked dilation of the main pancreatic duct (MPD), and filling defects in the MPD. After follow-up for three years, he underwent pancreatoduodenectomy. Histologically, the dilated MPD and connecting dilated branch ducts were filled with nodular growth of tumor cells consisting of gastric-typ...

Kazuhiro Yoshida; Yasuharu Tokuyama; Yoshihiro Tanaka; Shinji Osada; Yuichi Sanada

2009-01-01

62

Morphology transformation of patterned, uniform and faceted GaN microcrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the growth and characterization of patterned and uniformly distributed GaN microcrystals with well-defined facets and epitaxy. The microcrystals were grown on a mask patterned by lithography. The GaN microcrystals were formed by selective-area epitaxy using metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The GaN microcrystals have similar sizes and shapes. Each microcrystal consists of an upper and a lower part, which are rotated by 30 deg. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there is a rather clear interface between the two parts of the crystal, suggesting a sudden change in the growth direction. We performed ab initio calculations for the surface energies of hexagonal GaN, and the growth morphology is explained based on surface energy considerations

63

Karyotypic changes with neoplastic conversion in morphologically transformed golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Chromosomes from nine morphologically transformed (MT) cell lines (designated MT14 to MT22) of Golden hamster embryo cells induced by X-rays and from tumor-derived cell lines (MT14T to MT22T), obtained after injection of MT cells, were analyzed by the Giemsa banding method. MT cell lines showed a variety of numerical abnormalities. All of the MT cell lines involved trisomy of chromosomes 11 (80 to 100% of cells in each cell line) and 3 (8% of MT22 cells and 100% in other cell lines). Although the latent period for tumor growth differed greatly, eight of nine MT cell lines (MT14 to MT21) produced tumors at the site of injection. All tumor-derived cell lines involved trisomy of chromosome 3 at a 100% rate of incidence. Seven of nine tumor-derived cell lines (MT15T to MT18T, MT20T to MT22T) lost one chromosome 11 from the trisomic condition, resulting in disomy of chromosome 11. These results suggest that trisomies of chromosomes 11 and 3 may play a role in X-ray-induced neoplastic progression

64

Morphological alteration of x-ray induced partially transformed human cells by transfection with c-myc DNA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As a part of the authors' studies of mechanisms of human cell neoplastic transformation, they attempted to transform a normal human fibrolast strain (GM730) by x-irradiation. The authors obtained a partially transformed cell strain (designed GM730pt) which demonstrates various aspects of the transformed phenotype such as morphological change, growth in soft agar, and focus formation. When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with rhoSV2gpt or rhoSV2neo, the frequency with which cells took of the neo/sup +/ or gpt/sup +/ marker was extremely high (10/sup -1/) as compared to HeLa cells (10/sup -4/) or normal GM730 cells (10/sup -6/). When cultures of GM730pt cells were transfected with the cat c-myc gene, the morphology of the cells changed dramatically following 7 days of expression. Transfection of other plasmid DNAs or oncogenes such as rhoUC8, rhoSVneo, src sis, and N-rad had little or no effect on the phenotype of M730pt cells. On the other hand, a small gel purified fragment which contains an intronderived sequence on the c-myc gene was very effective when transfected into GM730pt cells. This suggests that a small sequence located in the second intron of c-myc may have special biological significance. The authors are using the M13 cloning and sequencing method to determine more precisely the size and composition of this sequence

65

Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ˜300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100-500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

Vilar, R.; Sharma, S. P.; Almeida, A.; Cangueiro, L. T.; Oliveira, V.

2014-01-01

66

Surface morphology and phase transformations of femtosecond laser-processed sapphire  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The morphological and structural modifications induced in sapphire by surface treatment with femtosecond laser radiation were studied. Single-crystal sapphire wafers cut parallel to the (0 1 2) planes were treated with 560 fs, 1030 nm wavelength laser radiation using wide ranges of pulse energy and repetition rate. Self-ordered periodic structures with an average spatial periodicity of ?300 nm were observed for fluences slightly higher than the ablation threshold. For higher fluences the interaction was more disruptive and extensive fracture, exfoliation, and ejection of ablation debris occurred. Four types of particles were found in the ablation debris: (a) spherical nanoparticles about 50 nm in diameter; (b) composite particles between 150 and 400 nm in size; (c) rounded resolidified particles about 100–500 nm in size; and (d) angular particles presenting a lamellar structure and deformation twins. The study of those particles by selected area electron diffraction showed that the spherical nanoparticles and the composite particles are amorphous, while the resolidified droplets and the angular particles, present a crystalline ?-alumina structure, the same of the original material. Taking into consideration the existing ablation theories, it is proposed that the spherical nanoparticles are directly emitted from the surface in the ablation plume, while resolidified droplets are emitted as a result of the ablation process, in the liquid phase, in the low intensity regime, and by exfoliation, in the high intensity regime. Nanoparticle clusters are formed by nanoparticle coalescence in the cooling ablation plume.

Vilar, R.; Sharma, S.P. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida, A., E-mail: amelia.almeida@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Cangueiro, L.T. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Oliveira, V. [Instituto de Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais e Superfícies (ICEMS), Instituto Superior Técnico, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Avenida Conselheiro Emídio Navarro No. 1, 1959-007 Lisboa (Portugal)

2014-01-01

67

Hydrothermal transformation of titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials were synthesized by hydrothermally treating suspensions of H-titanate nanotubes and characterized by XRD, TEM, and HRTEM. The effects of the pH values of the suspensions and the hydrothermal temperatures on the phase composition and morphology of the obtained TiO2 nanomaterials were systematically investigated. The H-titanate nanotubes were predominately transformed into anatase nanoparticle with rhombic shape when the pH value was greater than or equal to 1.0, whereas primarily turned into rutile nanorod with two pyramidal ends at the pH value less than or equal to 0.5. We propose a possible mechanism for hydrothermal transformation of H-titanate nanotubes into single-crystalline TiO2 nanomaterials. While the H-titanate nanotubes transform into tiny anatase nanocrystallites of ca. 3 nm in size, the formed nanocrystallites as an intermediate grow into the TiO2 nanomaterials with controlled phase composition and morphology. This growth process involves the steps of protonation, oriented attachment, and Ostwald ripening.

68

The 10k zCOSMOS: morphological transformation of galaxies in the group environment since z~1  

CERN Document Server

We study the evolution of galaxies inside and outside of the group environment since z=1 using a large well defined set of groups and galaxies from the zCOSMOS-bright redshift survey in the COSMOS field. The fraction of galaxies with early-type morphologies increases monotonically with M_B luminosity and stellar mass and with cosmic epoch. It is higher in the groups than elsewhere, especially at later epochs. The emerging environmental effect is superposed on a strong global mass-driven evolution, and at z~0.5 and log(M*/Msol)~10.2, the "effect" of group environment is equivalent to (only) about 0.2 dex in stellar mass or 2 Gyr in time. The stellar mass function of galaxies in groups is enriched in massive galaxies. We directly determine the transformation rates from late to early morphologies, and for transformations involving colour and star formation indicators. The transformation rates are systematically about twice as high in the groups as outside, or up to 3-4 times higher correcting for infall and the ...

Kovac, K; Knobel, C; Bolzonella, M; Iovino, A; Carollo, C M; Scarlata, C; Sargent, M; Cucciati, O; Zamorani, G; Pozzetti, L; Tasca, L A M; Scodeggio, M; Kampczyk, P; Peng, Y; Oesch, P; Zucca, E; Finoguenov, A; Contini, T; Kneib, J -P; Le Fèvre, O; Mainieri, V; Renzini, A; Bardelli, S; Bongiorno, A; Caputi, K; Coppa, G; De la Torre, S; de Ravel, L; Franzetti, P; Garilli, B; Lamareille, F; Le Borgne, J F; Le Brun, V; Maier, C; Mignoli, M; Pellò, R; Montero, E Perez; Ricciardelli, E; Silverman, J D; Tanaka, M; Tresse, L; Vergani, D; Abbas, U; Bottini, D; Cappi, A; Cassata, P; Cimatti, A; Fumana, M; Guzzo, L; Koekemoer, A M; Leauthaud, A; MacCagni, D; Marinoni, C; McCracken, H J; Memeo, P; Meneux, B; Porciani, C; Scaramella, R; Scoville, N Z

2009-01-01

69

Persistence of sister chromatid exchanges and in vitro morphological transformation of Syrian hamster fetal cells by chemical and physical carcinogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The induction of neoplastic cell transformation is closely associated with DNA alterations which occur shortly after carcinogen exposure. Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation is a sensitive indicator of carcinogen-DNA interaction and correlates with the induction of morphological cell transformation. The persistence of lesions generating SCE produced by chemical and physical carcinogens and its relevance to the induction of morphologic transformation was evaluated in coordinated experiments with cultured Syrian hamster fetal cells (HFC). Exponentially growing HFC were exposed for 1 h to benzo[a]pyrene (BP), methyl-methanesulfonate (MMS), cis-platinum (II) diaminedichloride (cis Pt II), N-methyl-N'-nitrosourea (MNU), mitomycin C (MMC), N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (AcAAF) or u.v. light irradiated. SCE analysis demonstrates that for a period of 48 h after carcinogen exposure, during which time the cells undergo at least four replicative cycles, DNA damage generating SCE induced by all chemical carcinogens either persisted or was partially removed, whereas u.v.-induced lesions were completely removed. An elevated SCE frequency persisted after two additional cell cycles after treatment with BP, AcAAF or MMC without increased cell lethality as compared to other carcinogens whose lesions were completely eliminated during the same period

70

A novel morphology of aragonite and an abnormal polymorph transformation from calcite to aragonite with PAM and CTAB as additives.  

Science.gov (United States)

The abnormal structure conversion of CaCO3 from calcite to aragonite was investigated with a mixture of polyacrylamide (PAM) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as additives by a hydrothermal method. A novel morphology of aragonite, "magnified" cubic shape, was observed. In order to investigate the effects of PAM and experimental temperature on the morphology and phase of CaCO3, the samples were synthesized without any additives and with PAM as template at 90 and 120 degrees C, respectively. The results indicate that both the interaction between the mixed template and the CaCO3 and the elevated experiment temperature play important roles in the process of polymorph transformation. PMID:17950303

Nan, Zhaodong; Shi, Zuoyi; Yan, Bianqing; Guo, Rong; Hou, Wanguo

2008-01-01

71

Recovery of morphologically normal transgenic tobacco from hairy roots co-transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes and a binary vector plasmid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Co-transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf explants with Agrobacterium rhizogenes harbouring pRi1855 and the binary vector pBin19 was achieved at a frequency of 67%. The kanamycin resistant hairy roots were cultured via a callusing phase to regenerate plants which were partially fertile when outcrossed with wild-type pollen. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of the F1 progeny demonstrated the efficient segregation of the hairy root marker from the kanamycin resistance marker, enabling morphologically normal plants to be recovered which retained the binary vector marker gene. This co-transformation strategy provides a means of introducing non-selectable genes into plants in cases where antibiotic resistance markers are undesirable. PMID:24226437

Hatamoto, H; Boulter, M E; Shirsat, A H; Croy, E J; Ellis, J R

1990-07-01

72

FeII induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble FeII and OH- in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of ? 9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F > L > G with almost 30 % of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, ?, of magnetite (Fe3...

Usman, Muhammad; Abdelmoula, Mustapha; Hanna, Khalil; Gre?goire, Brian; Faure, Pierre; Ruby, Christian

2012-01-01

73

Fe{sup II} induced mineralogical transformations of ferric oxyhydroxides into magnetite of variable stoichiometry and morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Moessbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the mineralogical transformations of ferrihydrite (F), lepidocrocite (L) and goethite (G) into magnetite as a function of aging time. Ferric oxyhydroxides were reacted with soluble Fe{sup II} and OH{sup -} in stoichiometric amounts to form magnetite at an initial pH of {approx}9.7. Observed transformation extent into magnetite followed the order: F>L>G with almost 30% of untransformed G after 1 month. The departure from stoichiometry, {delta}, of magnetite (Fe{sub 3-{delta}}O{sub 4}) generated from F ({delta}{approx}0.04) and L ({delta}{approx}0.05) was relatively low as compared to that in magnetite from G ({delta}{approx}0.08). The analysis by transmission electron microscopy and BET revealed that generated magnetite was also different in terms of morphology, particle size and surface area depending on the nature of initial ferric oxyhydroxide. This method of preparation is a possible way to form nano-sized magnetite. - Graphical abstract: Moessbauer spectrum of the early stage of magnetite formation formed from the interaction of adsorbed Fe{sup II} species with goethite. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ferric oxides were reacted with hydroxylated Fe{sup II} to form magnetite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetite formation was quantified as a function of aging time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete transformation of ferrihydrite and lepidocrocite was achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Almost 70% of initial goethite was transformed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Resulting magnetites have differences in stoichiometry and morphological properties.

Usman, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040 (Pakistan); Abdelmoula, M. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Hanna, K. [Universite de Lorraine, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie pour l' Environnement, LCPME, UMR 7564, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS-, 405 rue de Vandoeuvre, 54600 Villers-les-Nancy (France); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Rennes, UMR CNRS 6226 ' Sciences Chimiques de Rennes' , Avenue du General Leclerc, 35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France); and others

2012-10-15

74

On the morphology of the directionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interlamellar spacings and microstructural faults of the unidirectionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid are investigated by metallographic methods. In agreement with measurements of Mellor and Chadwick we find widely spread interlamellar spacings. The quality of the microstructure is seriously influenced by the transformation rate. While the alignment of the lamellae is nearly perfect in the central parts of the samples at rates of 0.27 and 0.45 cm/h, the lamellar character is lost at 18 cm/h. Primary crystals of the ?-phase and the delta-phase, eutectoid sub-boundaries, deviations of the lamellae from the main growth direction and periodical growth bands are found as microstructural faults. Moreover the discontinuous coarsening reaction starts at eutectoid grain boundaries. The primary crystals and the growth bands can be explained by influences of the unidirectional solidification which immediately precedes the unidirectional eutectoid transformation. The deviations of the lamellae from main growth direction are caused by irregularities of the transformation front. These are able to migrate on the transformation front transverse to the growth direction. (orig.)

75

Novel morphologies and phase transformation of CaCO 3 crystals formed in CDS and urea aqueous solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Calcium dodecyl sulfate (CDS) was used as an anionic surfactant and the source of calcium in the precipitation process of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3) crystals. The calcium ions adsorbed onto the surface of CDS self-assemblies are used to simulate the selective enrichment and/or extraction of mineral elements in biomineralization. The polymorphic changes from pure vaterite to a mixture composed of calcite, vaterite, and aragonite, and to pure calcite, were found by changing concentration of urea. The as-obtained vaterite with tabular sphere-shaped, bicone-shaped, dumbbell-shaped and apple-like morphologies, and the calcite-shaped hexagonal platelet, were fabricated, respectively. The transforming processes from vaterite to calcite and aragonite, and from calcite to aragonite, were found. The synergistic effects of the concentration of CO 32- and pH value, as well as anionic dodecyl sulfate and positive NH 4+, were believed to play an important role in the morphologic selectivity and phase transformation from vaterite to calcite.

Nan, Zhaodong; Yang, Qianqian; Chen, Zhiying

2010-02-01

76

Myelofibrotic transformations of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia are morphologically, biologically, and prognostically indistinguishable from primary myelofibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A fraction of polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET) cases will, in time, undergo myelofibrotic transformation. In such cases, fibrosis may mask the diagnostic histologic features of the original underlying myeloproliferative neoplasm. Thus, confidently differentiating postfibrotic PV/ET from primary myelofibrosis (PMF) histologically may not be possible. It is controversial whether post-PV/ET myelofibrosis (MF) differs clinicopathologically from PMF, or whether these entities are biologically, clinically, and prognostically indistinguishable. To answer this question, we compared multiple candidate biological, morphologic, and prognostic parameters between 19 postfibrotic ET/PV individuals and 18 PMF individuals. The postfibrotic ET/PV and PMF cases did not differ with regard to clinical outcome, cytogenetic abnormalities, serum lactate dehydrogenase level, peripheral blast count, bone marrow morphology, or grade of reticulin fibrosis. Only JAK2 allele burden, which was higher in the postfibrotic PV/ET population (P=0.011), differed between the 2 groups. Cardinal morphologic features of PMF (ie, marrow cellularity, intrasinusoidal hematopoiesis, osteosclerosis, etc.) were commonly observed in post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies, and only a minority of post-PV/ET MF marrow biopsies the retained diagnostic features of the primary myeloproliferative neoplasm (panmyelosis in PV and megakaryocytic hyperplasia in ET). Our study indicates that PMF and post-PV/ET MF are clinically and biologically indistinguishable. PMID:24897074

Sangle, Nikhil; Cook, Josh; Perkins, Sherrie; Teman, Carolin J; Bahler, David; Hickman, Kimberly; Wilson, Andrew; Prchal, Josef; Salama, Mohamed E

2014-10-01

77

Martensitic transformation under stress in ferrous alloys. Mechanical behaviour and resulting morphologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformation plasticity deformation mechanisms are reviewed in the case of ferrous alloys. From experimental data, microstructural observations and numerical simulations the contributions of the different mechanisms are discussed and a schematic diagram of these evolution is proposed depending on the applied stresses and the test condition. (orig.)

78

Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perfo...

Mariya Das, M.; Prakasa Rao, B. S.; Parvati, K.

2009-01-01

79

Transformable core-corona nanoparticles: Simultaneous change of core morphology and corona wettability in response to temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

We prepared transformable thermoresponsive nanoparticles with variable core softness, controlled by the nanoparticle core's glass transition temperature (Tg). The nanoparticles were prepared by the dispersion copolymerization of butyl methacrylate (BMA) and/or methyl methacrylate (MMA) with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) macromonomer in a polar solvent. The shape of the nanoparticle core changed with temperature. We then prepared poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) films with dispersed thermoresponsive nanoparticles, to elongate the nanoparticles through a uniaxial stretching of the films at 60°C. In this manner, the nanoparticle shape changed from spherical to rod-like morphologies, depending on the degree of film extension. Additionally, the rod-shaped nanoparticles only changed back to spheres with temperature modulation. The nanoparticle core's Tg value affected the rate of its physical transformation from rods to spheres at 37°C, with a slower rate observed for increased Tg. As the nanorod shape change was relatively minor at 37°C, we could control the shape of these transformable nanoparticles under various physiological conditions, a highly desirable feature for drug delivery applications. PMID:25200203

Matsuyama, Takuya; Kimura, Ayaka; Asoh, Taka-Aki; Suzuki, Takuma; Kikuchi, Akihiko

2014-11-01

80

Deformable registration for image-guided spine surgery: preserving rigid body vertebral morphology in free-form transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: Deformable registration of preoperative and intraoperative images facilitates accurate localization of target and critical anatomy in image-guided spine surgery. However, conventional deformable registration fails to preserve the morphology of rigid bone anatomy and can impart distortions that confound high-precision intervention. We propose a constrained registration method that preserves rigid morphology while allowing deformation of surrounding soft tissues. Method: The registration method aligns preoperative 3D CT to intraoperative cone-beam CT (CBCT) using free-form deformation (FFD) with penalties on rigid body motion imposed according to a simple intensity threshold. The penalties enforced 3 properties of a rigid transformation - namely, constraints on affinity (AC), orthogonality (OC), and properness (PC). The method also incorporated an injectivity constraint (IC) to preserve topology. Physical experiments (involving phantoms, an ovine spine, and a human cadaver) as well as digital simulations were performed to evaluate the sensitivity to registration parameters, preservation of rigid body morphology, and overall registration accuracy of constrained FFD in comparison to conventional unconstrained FFD (denoted uFFD) and Demons registration. Result: FFD with orthogonality and injectivity constraints (denoted FFD+OC+IC) demonstrated improved performance compared to uFFD and Demons. Affinity and properness constraints offered little or no additional improvement. The FFD+OC+IC method preserved rigid body morphology at near-ideal values of zero dilatation (D = 0.05, compared to 0.39 and 0.56 for uFFD and Demons, respectively) and shear (S = 0.08, compared to 0.36 and 0.44 for uFFD and Demons, respectively). Target registration error (TRE) was similarly improved for FFD+OC+IC (0.7 mm), compared to 1.4 and 1.8 mm for uFFD and Demons. Results were validated in human cadaver studies using CT and CBCT images, with FFD+OC+IC providing excellent preservation of rigid morphology and equivalent or improved TRE. Conclusions: A promising method for deformable registration in CBCT-guided spine surgery has been identified incorporating a constrained FFD to preserve bone morphology. The approach overcomes distortions intrinsic to unconstrained FFD and could better facilitate high-precision image-guided spine surgery.

Reaungamornrat, S.; Wang, A. S.; Uneri, A.; Otake, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Khanna, A. J.; Siewerdsen, J. H.

2014-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

[Cyclic groups of nonlinear transformations in morphology and the conception of cyclogenesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

When describing multiunit organic forms, it is expedient to generalize the classic science on biological symmetries of similarity at the expense of transition to symmetry operations from wider groups of transformations, first of all mebiusian and projective. A vast class of biological structures is successfully modelled on the base of cyclic groups not only the linear, but also non-linear transformations. This is evidently connected with existence of morphogenetically significant biochemical cycles. The suggested means of mathematical modelling for biological symmetries open new possibilities of morphometrical analysis and investigation of a known problem of morphogenetic parallelisms. The results obtained prove V. V. Vernadsky's hypothesis on biological significance of the non-Euclidian geometry. PMID:3827610

Petukhov, S V

1986-12-01

82

Adaptive order morphology edge detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operator and the general order morphology transformation. The conclusion is that our model is feasible for edge detection of the gray image and the satellite remote sensing images.

Yuanni Wang

2012-04-01

83

Morphological transformations in rat thymus under influence of multiplegravitational overloads and after pharmaceutical correction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using light and transmission electron microscopy techniques morphological features of mature male Wistar rats, which were exposed to hypergravity (9 g, 10 minutes, daily, 45times, were investigated. It was revealed, that reaction of thymus on multiple hypergravity resulted in haemodynamic changes and involution of lymphoid tissue according to the adaptive and compensatory reaction of the organ under repeated stress action. Administration of glutargin as an adaptogen under systematic hypergravity overloads provides certain corrective effect. Hypergravity-induced involution changes neither progress, nor totally arrest.

Moroz G.A.

2012-01-01

84

Mutation of NH2-terminal glycine of p60src prevents both myristoylation and morphological transformation.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

p60src, the transforming protein kinase of Rous sarcoma virus, contains the 14-carbon saturated fatty acid, myristic acid, linked through an amide bond to the alpha-amino group of its NH2-terminal glycine residue. Myristic acid is known to be attached to four other eukaryotic proteins. In each case the fatty acid is also linked through an amide bond to an NH2-terminal glycine. We have used oligonucleotide-directed mutagenesis to examine the amino acid specificity of the enzyme that myristoyla...

Kamps, M. P.; Buss, J. E.; Sefton, B. M.

1985-01-01

85

Image Segmentation Using Gray-Scale Morphology and Marker-Controlled Watershed Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segmentation, a new method, for color, gray-scale MR medical images, and aerial images, is proposed. The method is based on gray-scale morphology. Edge detection algorithm includes function edge and marker-controlled watershed segmentation. It features the simple algorithm implemented in MATLAB. The watershed segmentation has been proved to be a powerful and fast technique for both contour detection and region-based segmentation. In principle, watershed segmentation depends on ridges to perform a proper segmentation, a property that is often fulfilled in contour detection where the boundaries of the objects are expressed as ridges. For region-based segmentation, it is possible to convert the edges of the objects into ridges by calculating an edge map of the image. Watershed is normally implemented by region growing, based on a set of markers to avoid oversegmentation.

M. Mariya Das

2009-01-01

86

Curvelet Transform and Multi Structure Elements Morphology by Reconstruction based Retinal Image Analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Curvelet transform is a multi scale transform that can represent the edges along curves much more efficiently.Retinal images play important roles in finding of some diseases in early stages, such as diabetes, which can be performed by comparison of the states of retinal blood vessels. Automated image processing has the potential to support in the early detection of diabetes, by detecting changes in blood vessel diameter and patterns in the retina. Proposed paper describes the development of segmentation methodology in the processing of retinal blood vessel images obtained using non-mydriatic color photography. Highly accurate identification of blood vessels for the purpose of studying changes in the vessel network that can be utilized for detecting blood vessel diameter changes associated with the path physiology of diabetes. There is a deficiency of missing some thin vessels is because of utilizing a simple thresholding method. My contribution is to implement a technique that will also be applicable for small length blood vessels.

Kamala Devi.K

2012-07-01

87

A 3D MOF showing unprecedented solvent-induced single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation and excellent CO2 adsorption selectivity at room temperature.  

Science.gov (United States)

A water stable porous 3D metal-organic framework, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2(?2-H2O)]·2DMA (1, mother crystal, H2L = 2,2'-dinitrobiphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid, DMA = N,N-dimethylacetamide), shows unprecedented irreversible solvent-induced substitutions of bridging aqua ligands and guest-exchanges in single-crystal-to-single-crystal (SCSC) transformations at room temperature (RT), producing quantitatively three daughter crystals, [Cu3L2(?3-OH)2]·2S (2: 2A, S = acetone; 2B, S = 2-propanol; 2C, S = 2-butanol), which exhibit reversible interconversion by guest-exchanges at RT in SCSC transformations. MOF 1 shows excellent separation selectivity (128) of CO2/N2 at RT and is a better sorbent of micro-solid-phase extraction (?-SPE) than currently known benchmark ZIF-8. PMID:25376240

Qin, Tao; Gong, Jun; Ma, Junhan; Wang, Xin; Wang, Yonghua; Xu, Yan; Shen, Xuan; Zhu, Dunru

2014-12-28

88

Phase and morphological transformations of GaS single crystal surface by thermal treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

GaS single crystal layers have been thermally treated under argon flow for 4 h at two different temperatures (700 °C and 900 °C). The starting GaS sample and the annealed ones have been characterized by X- ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that GaS transformed into ?-Ga2O3 through the formation of Ga2S3 intermediate phase. Moreover, such an oxidation process involved the growth of dense Ga2S3 sub-micron crystallites at a temperature of 700 °C and relatively long ?-Ga2O3 nanowires (up to 4 ?m) at a temperature of 900 °C. Experiments also evidenced that an intentional supply of oxygen was unfavourable both to the formation of Ga2S3 phase and to the growth of sub-micron crystallites and nanowires.

Filippo, E.; Siciliano, T.; Genga, A.; Micocci, G.; Siciliano, M.; Tepore, A.

2012-11-01

89

Simple and fast annealing synthesis of titanium dioxide nanostructures and morphology transformation during annealing processes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Wire- and belt-like single-crystalline titanium dioxide nanostructures were synthesized by using a simple thermal annealing method, which has often been avoided for the synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures from high melting point metals such as Ti. The synthesis method requires neither high reaction temperature nor complicated reaction processes, and can be used for producing dense nanomaterials with relatively short reaction time at temperatures much lower than the melting point of titanium and titanium dioxide. Key synthesis factors including the choice of eutectic catalyst, growth temperature, and annealing time were systematically investigated. The synthesis reaction was promoted by a copper eutectic catalyst, producing long nanostructures with short reaction times. For example, it was observed that only 30 min of annealing time at 850 deg. C was enough to produce densely grown ?10 ?m long nanowires with diameters of ?100 nm, and longer reaction time brought about morphology changes from wires to belts as well as producing longer nanostructures up to ?30 ?m. The nanostructures have the crystalline rutile structure along the growth direction. Finally, our simple and effective method for the synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures could be utilized for growing other metal oxide nanowires from high melting temperature metals.

90

Osmotic Gradients Induce Bio-reminiscent Morphological Transformations in Giant Unilamellar Vesicles  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report observations of large-scale, in-plane and out-of-plane membrane deformations in giant uni- and multilamellar vesicles composed of binary and ternary lipid mixtures in the presence of net transvesicular osmotic gradients. The lipid mixtures we examined consisted of binary mixtures of DOPC and DPPC lipids and ternary mixtures comprising POPC, sphingomyelin, and cholesterol over a range of compositions – both of which produce co-existing phases for selected ranges of compositions at room temperature under thermodynamic equilibrium. In the presence of net osmotic gradient, we find that the in-plane phase separation potential of these mixtures is non-trivially altered and a variety of out-of-plane morphological remodeling occurs. The repertoire of membrane deformations we observe display striking resemblance to their biological counterparts in live cells encompassing vesiculation, membrane fission and fusion, tubulation and pearling, as well as expulsion of entrapped vesicles from multicompartmental GUV architectures through large, self-healing transient pores. These observations suggest that the forces introduced by simple osmotic gradients across membrane boundaries could act as a trigger for shape-dependent membrane and vesicle trafficking activities. We speculate that such coupling of osmotic gradients with membrane properties might have provided lipid-mediated mechanisms during the early evolution of membrane compartmentalization in the absence of osmoregulatory protein machinery.

KamilaOglecka

2012-05-01

91

Quenching and Morphological Transformation in Semi-Analytic Models and CANDELS  

CERN Document Server

We examine the spheroid growth and star formation quenching experienced by galaxies from z~3 to the present by studying the evolution with redshift of the quiescent and spheroid-dominated fractions of galaxies from the CANDELS and GAMA surveys. We compare the observed fractions with predictions from a semi-analytic model which includes prescriptions for bulge growth and AGN feedback due to mergers and disk instabilities. We facilitate direct morphological comparison by converting our model bulge-to-total stellar mass ratios to Sersic indices. We then subdivide our population into the four quadrants of the sSFR-Sersic index plane and study the buildup of each of these subpopulations. We find that the fraction of star forming disks declines steadily, while the fraction of quiescent spheroids builds up over cosmic time. The fractions of star forming spheroids and quiescent disks are both non-negligible, and stay nearly constant over the period we have studied, at about 10% and 15-20% respectively. Our model is q...

Brennan, Ryan; Somerville, Rachel S; Barro, Guillermo; Taylor, Edward N; Wuyts, Stijn; Bell, Eric F; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C; McIntosh, Daniel H; Papovich, Casey; Primack, Joel

2015-01-01

92

TRANSFORMATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

93

Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This applet is about transformers. The number of turns on the primary and secondary winding, load resistance, frequency and amplitude of the voltage can be set by the user. The voltage and current waveforms are shown. A detailed mathematical analysis along with snap shots of voltage and current waveforms of a real transformer is also provided. This simulation is part of a simulation library.

Ng, Chiu-King

2007-10-16

94

The Effects of Gas on Morphological Transformation in Mergers: Implications for Bulge and Disk Demographics  

CERN Document Server

Transformation of disks into spheroids via mergers is a well-accepted element of galaxy formation models. However, recent simulations have shown that bulge formation is suppressed in increasingly gas-rich mergers. We investigate the global implications of these results in a cosmological framework, using independent approaches: empirical halo-occupation models (where galaxies are populated in halos according to observations) and semi-analytic models. In both, ignoring the effects of gas in mergers leads to the well-known over-production of spheroids at low masses: low and intermediate-mass galaxies are inescapably predicted to be bulge-dominated (B/T~0.5 at <10^10 M_sun, with almost no 'bulgeless' systems), even if they have avoided major mergers. Including the different physical behavior of gas in mergers immediately leads to a dramatic change: bulge formation is suppressed in low-mass galaxies, which are observed to be gas-rich (giving B/T~0.1 at <10^10 M_sun, with a number of bulgeless galaxies in goo...

Hopkins, Philip F; Cox, Thomas J; Hernquist, Lars; Jogee, Shardha; Keres, Dusan; Ma, Chung-Pei; Robertson, Brant; Stewart, Kyle

2009-01-01

95

DNA ADDUCTS, METABOLISM, AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMING ACTIVITY OF ACEANTHRYLENE IN C3H10T1/2CL8 CELLS  

Science.gov (United States)

Aceanthrylene (ACE), a cycioponta-fused polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (CP-PAH) related to anthracene, has been studied for Its ability to be metabolized, to form DNA adducts, and to morphologically transform C3H101/2CL8 mouse embryo fibroblasts in culture. lthough ACE has been ...

96

Brassica napus L. cultivars show a broad variability in their morphology, physiology and metabolite levels in response to sulfur limitations and to pathogen attack  

Science.gov (United States)

Under adequate sulfur supply, plants accumulate sulfate in the vacuoles and use sulfur-containing metabolites as storage compounds. Under sulfur-limiting conditions, these pools of stored sulfur-compounds are depleted in order to balance the nitrogen to sulfur ratio for protein synthesis. Stress conditions like sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack induce changes in the sulfate pool and the levels of sulfur-containing metabolites, which often depend on the ecotypes or cultivars. We are interested in investigating the influence of the genetic background of canola (Brassica napus) cultivars in sulfur-limiting conditions on the resistance against Verticillium longisporum. Therefore, four commercially available B. napus cultivars were analyzed. These high-performing cultivars differ in some characteristics described in their cultivar pass, such as several agronomic traits, differences in the size of the root system, and resistance to certain pathogens, such as Phoma and Verticillium. The objectives of the study were to examine and explore the patterns of morphological, physiological and metabolic diversity in these B. napus cultivars at different sulfur concentrations and in the context of plant defense. Results indicate that the root systems are influenced differently by sulfur deficiency in the cultivars. Total root dry mass and length of root hairs differ not only among the cultivars but also vary in their reaction to sulfur limitation and pathogen attack. As a sensitive indicator of stress, several parameters of photosynthetic activity determined by PAM imaging showed a broad variability among the treatments. These results were supported by thermographic analysis. Levels of sulfur-containing metabolites also showed large variations. The data were interrelated to predict the specific behavior during sulfur limitation and/or pathogen attack. Advice for farming are discussed.

Weese, Annekathrin; Pallmann, Philip; Papenbrock, Jutta; Riemenschneider, Anja

2015-01-01

97

Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

98

Hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI in patients with chronic liver disease: Prediction of malignant transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: To investigate the predictive factors of malignant transformation of hypovascular hepatic nodule showing hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase images of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI (HHN). Materials and Methods: The clinical data and imaging findings of dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT) and gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI for a total of 103 HHNs in 24 patients with chronic liver disease were retrospectively investigated. After the results of follow-up examinations were investigated, HHNs were categorized into the three groups for each comparison: (1) nodules with enlargement and/or vascularization and others, (2) nodules with only enlargement and others, (3) nodules with only vascularization and others. Enlargement and/or vascularization during the follow-up period were defined as malignant transformation of HHN. The frequency of each clinical datum and imaging finding in each group was compared to identify the predictive factors for malignant transformation in HHN. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that a nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement and/or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, the hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of the initial DCE-CT was a significant predictive factor for the enlargement or vascularization of HHN (P < 0.05). Conclusion: A nodule size of 9 mm or more on the initial gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and hypoattenuation on the delayed phase imaging of initial DCE-CT would be helpful for predicting the outcome of HHN in patients with a risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Takayama, Yukihisa, E-mail: ytaka@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nishie, Akihiro, E-mail: anishie@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakayama, Tomohiro, E-mail: tomo.n@maple.ocn.ne.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ishigami, Kousei, E-mail: Ishigamikousei@aol.com [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kakihara, Daisuke, E-mail: kakky@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Ushijima, Yasuhiro, E-mail: ushijima@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Fujita, Nobuhiro, E-mail: nfujita@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka City, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Hirakawa, Masakazu, E-mail: mahira@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Kyushu University Beppu Hospital, 4546 Tsurumihara, Beppu, Oita 874-0838 (Japan); and others

2012-11-15

99

Actin-cytoskeleton and glial cell transformation: dissecting the morphological and molecular dynamics of tumorigenesis using light microscopy  

Science.gov (United States)

A glioma produces some of the most rapidly growing, angiogenic, and invasive primary brain tumor cells known. A lack of understanding about the intricately coupled molecular mechanisms that result in cell transformation is responsible, in part, for the minimal progress made in treating this disease over the past century. To begin dissecting molecular interrelationships in time and space within living normal and transformed cells, a morphological assay is being developed wherein patient-derived tumor cells are allowed to attach to a substrate, spread, change shape, and locomote. During this process (approximately 6.5 h), low magnification phase contrast images of the cells are recorded at 1 min intervals. Quantitative image analyses of these time-lapse images are used to measure dynamic parameter such as projected cell area, shape, and displacement for each cell. Although there is considerable cellular heterogeneity, patterns of patient-specific tumor cell behavior are beginning to emerge. In addition, the assay is being used to test the effects of drugs that alter specific intracellular processes (e.g., cytochalasin, 2-deoxyglucose, and chemotherapeutic drugs). To dissect tumor cell physiology into its molecular components, I have focused on the actin-cytoskeleton because it is involved in the temporal and spatial orchestration of ions, metabolites, macromolecules, and organelles that underlies the interconnected processes of tumor cell growth, motility, and differentiation. I have used fluorescent analogs of actin and its associated proteins in conjunction with multimode-based light microscopy of living cells to measure the complex interrelationships responsible for motility in patient-derived normal and transformed glia. I have simultaneously measured the dynamics of actin assembly and focal contact formation using new fluorescent analogs of actin and vinculin in single migrating human glioblastoma cells and used this information to begin developing a molecular model of tumor cell migration. By engineering new protein-based reagents and fluorescence spectroscopic methodologies we will be able to measure and manipulate a greater number of molecular processes and therefore further refine the model. The ultimate goal of this work is to use living cells to diagnose and design treatment for primary brain tumors in a more patient- specific manner.

Giuliano, Kenneth A.

1996-05-01

100

Constitutive activation of transforming growth factor Beta receptor 1 in the mouse uterus impairs uterine morphology and function.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite increasing evidence pointing to the essential involvement of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily in reproduction, a definitive role of TGFB signaling in the uterus remains to be unveiled. In this study, we generated a gain-of-function mouse model harboring a constitutively active (CA) TGFB receptor 1 (TGFBR1), the expression of which was conditionally induced by the progesterone receptor (Pgr)-Cre recombinase. Overactivation of TGFB signaling was verified by enhanced phosphorylation of SMAD2 and increased expression of TGFB target genes in the uterus. TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice were sterile. Histological, cellular, and molecular analyses demonstrated that constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus promoted formation of hypermuscled uteri. Accompanying this phenotype was the upregulation of a battery of smooth muscle genes in the uterus. Furthermore, TGFB ligands activated SMAD2/3 and stimulated the expression of a smooth muscle maker gene, alpha smooth muscle actin (ACTA2), in human uterine smooth muscle cells. Immunofluorescence microscopy identified a marked reduction of uterine glands in TGFBR1 Pgr-Cre CA mice within the endometrial compartment that contained myofibroblast-like cells. Thus, constitutive activation of TGFBR1 in the mouse uterus caused defects in uterine morphology and function, as evidenced by abnormal myometrial structure, dramatically reduced uterine glands, and impaired uterine decidualization. These results underscore the importance of a precisely controlled TGFB signaling system in establishing a uterine microenvironment conducive to normal development and function. PMID:25505200

Gao, Yang; Duran, Samantha; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Burghardt, Robert C; Bayless, Kayla J; Bartholin, Laurent; Li, Qinglei

2015-02-01

 
 
 
 
101

Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift  

CERN Document Server

"Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

Cameron, E

2012-01-01

102

Phase transformation, morphology evolution and luminescence property variation in Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We report a general and facile method for the synthesis of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This method may be of great significance in the synthesis of many other hollow spherical materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase, morphology and luminescence property were found to be strongly dependent on temperature and pH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The evolution process under various temperatures and pH values were discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The sample shows a strong red emission under short UV irradiation, and the lifetime is determined to be 7.0 ms. - Abstract: Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres with average size of 500-600 nm have been successfully synthesized via a solvothermal method in the presence of sodium citrate as surfactant followed by a subsequent heat treatment process. High polymer F127(EO{sub 106}PO{sub 70}EO{sub 106}) served as a soft template in the formation of as prepared hollow microspheres. It is found that the pH values and the reaction temperature are two crucial factors in determining the phase, morphology and luminescence properties of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu hollow microspheres. Morphology evolution can be achieved by changing the pH and the reaction temperature. The properties of the Eu{sup 3+}-doped Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Eu nanocrystals were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and UV-vis spectroscopy.

Wang, Qin; Guo, Jing; Jia, Wenjing; Liu, Baocang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (China); Zhang, Jun, E-mail: cejzhang@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot (China)

2012-11-25

103

Quantifying melanin distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump-probe microscopy is a quantitative molecular imaging technique that yields diagnostically relevant information from endogenous pigments, like melanin, by probing their ultrafast photodynamic properties. Previously, the method was applied to image thin, pigmented, cutaneous samples at different stages of melanoma, and results have shown a correlation between melanin photodynamic behavior and malignancy. Here, we add to the diagnostic power of the method by applying principles of mathematical morphology to parameterize melanins' image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, results show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from non-invasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N = 53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjuctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

2014-03-01

104

Phase Transformation and Morphology of Calcium Phosphate Prepared by Electrochemical Deposition Process Through Alkali Treatment and Calcination  

Science.gov (United States)

The phase transformation and morphology of calcium phosphate prepared by the electrochemical deposition (ECD) process through alkali treatment and calcination have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analyses (TG/DTA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). At the ECD process, when the excess OH- was produced, the reaction of 10Ca2++6PO{4/3-}+2OH-?Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 takes place on the Ti-6Al-4V and the HA is deposited. The XRD results reveal that the as-deposit was mostly composed of dicalcium phosphate dehydrate (Ca2H4P2O9; DCPD) and the minor phase of hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2; HA). After NaOH treatment, all DCPD were converted to HA. Moreover, the content of HA phase increases with ECD potential. After being calcined at 673 K and 873 K (400 °C and 600 °C) for 4 hours, the phase of HA maintained the major phase for an alkali-treated deposited sample. After being calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, some HA decomposed and caused the minor phases of ?-tricalcium phosphate ( ?-Ca3(PO4)2; ?-TCP), calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7; CPP), and calcium oxide (CaO) formation. The ?-TCP becomes the major phase with residual HA and CaO after being calcined at 1273 K (1000 °C) for 4 hours. The crack forms due to the release of absorbed water from the interior to top surface of sample. For the as-alkali treatment samples, the microstructures were affected by ECD potentials; when the deposited samples after alkali treatment and calcined at 1073 K (800 °C) for 4 hours, the microstructure presents the need-like "preforming HA" (pre-HA) from the matrix of plate-like postforming HA (post-HA).

Chen, Hui-Ting; Wang, Moo-Chin; Chang, Kuo-Ming; Wang, Szu-Hao; Shih, Wei-Jen; Li, Wong-Long

2014-04-01

105

Assessing vulnerability in stream channel evolution in relation with morphological transformations and hydrodynamic behavior. Case Study: the Subcarpathian Prahova Valley, Romania  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the study is to analyze the relationship between morphological transformations observed during the last 200 years along a 20 km reach of Prahova river, and hydrodynamic behavior during high intensity flood periods, in the context of erosion-control works and environmental changes. Along this sub-Carpathian reach, Prahova is a typical mountain river, partially regulated, flowing under fluvial and torrential regime and having a mean thalweg slope of about 1%. Riverbed material consists in cobbles and boulders. Its valley has gradually been cut; therefore four terraces may clearly be identified in the subbasin areas of Breaza and Câmpina. The Holocene floodplain is asymmetrical, and during the last decades an incision of about 3-4 m has clearly been observed in the main channel. This also led to an evolution from an anabranching river aspect to a meandering one along the studied reach. Reasons to explain these changes are a positive neotectonic background coupled with an increased anthropic component (granular material extraction, channel regulation for construction purposes of roads, bridges, railways, layout of gas and oil pipelines, vegetation cutoff etc.). The data obtained from 1900-1980 topographical maps and 1997-2002 satellite images and orthophotos were coupled with topo-bathymetric surveys carried out in 57 cross-sections, in order to obtain the DTM of the studied area. These cross-sections were used to build up the geometry of a 1D hydraulic model by using the HEC-RAS software (USACE, version 3.1.3). Simulations were obtained under steady flow conditions for 1% and 2% return periods (360-400 mc/s and 450-500 mc/s). Calibration of Manning roughness factors was performed on stages measured at the two upstream and downstream gauging stations. High values of computed shear stresses and velocities show areas of potential erosion leading to morphological changes, bank collapsing and incision observed during the last decades and predicted for the near future. Three main areas of erosion were identified, where the river has cut real gorges, up to over 4m depths. These findings where correlated with geological, morphological and land use data in a complex vulnerability approach, incorporated in a Geographical Information System. The results obtained could be very useful for local authorities when developing risk mitigation programs.

Osaci-Costache, G.; Armas, I.; Gogoase Nistoran, D.; Gheorghe, D.

2010-05-01

106

Cytotoxicity and morphological transforming potential of cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts: an in vitro model.  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously described the behaviour of different cobalt forms, i.e., cobalt nanoparticles (CoNP), cobalt microparticles (CoMP) and cobalt ions (Co(2+)), in culture medium (dissolution, interaction with medium components, bioavailability) as well as their uptake and intracellular distribution in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts (Sabbioni, Nanotoxicology, 2012). Here, we assess the cytotoxicity and morphological transformation of CoNP compared not only to Co(2+), but also to CoMP and to released Co products. Cytotoxicity reached maximum at 4-h exposure, with ranking CoMP > CoNP > Co(2+). However, if we consider toxicity as a function of intracellular Co, toxicity of the ionic forms seems to prevail over the particles. Co forms other than Co(2+) released from particles had toxicity intermediate between particles and ions. Alterations in concentrations of essential elements (Cu, Mg, Zn) in cells exposed to Co particles may contribute to toxicity. Both CoMP and CoNP (but not Co(2+) and other released Co forms) induced morphological transformation (CoMP > CoNP). This was dependent on reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by inhibition of type III foci with ascorbic acid. The present results suggest that the previously demonstrated massive mitochondrial and nuclear Co internalisation and DNA adduct formation by CoMP and CoNP (Sabbioni, Nanotoxicology, 2012) induce toxicity and transformation. On the contrary, the role of ions released by particles in culture medium is negligible. Thus, both the chemical and the physical properties of Co particles contribute to cytotoxicity and morphological transformation. PMID:23586465

Sabbioni, Enrico; Fortaner, Salvador; Farina, Massimo; Del Torchio, Riccardo; Olivato, Iolanda; Petrarca, Claudia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Perconti, Silvia; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Gornati, Rosalba; Di Gioacchino, Mario

2014-06-01

107

Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite transformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics

108

Quantifying melanin spatial distribution using pump-probe microscopy and a 2-D morphological autocorrelation transformation for melanoma diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Pump-probe microscopy is an emerging molecular imaging technique that probes the excited state dynamics properties of pigmented samples. This method has been particularly intriguing for melanoma because, unlike other methods available, it can provide nondestructive, quantitative chemical information regarding different types of melanins, with high spatial resolution. In this Letter, we present a method based on mathematical morphology to quantify melanin structure (eumelanin, pheomelanin, and total melanin content, uniquely available with pump-probe microscopy) to aid in melanoma diagnosis. The approach applies a two-dimensional autocorrelation function and utilizes statistical parameters of the corresponding autocorrelation images, specifically, the second moments and entropy, to parameterize image structure. Along with bulk melanin chemical information, we show that this method can differentiate invasive melanomas from noninvasive and benign lesions with high sensitivity and specificity (92.3% and 97.5%, respectively, with N=53). The mathematical method and the statistical analysis are described in detail and results from cutaneous and ocular conjunctival melanocytic lesions are presented.

Robles, Francisco E.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Warren, Warren S.

2013-12-01

109

A correlative approach to segmenting phases and ferrite morphologies in transformation-induced plasticity steel using electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Using a combination of electron back-scattering diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data, a segmentation procedure was developed to comprehensively distinguish austenite, martensite, polygonal ferrite, ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths in a thermo-mechanically processed low-Si, high-Al transformation-induced plasticity steel. The efficacy of the ferrite morphologies segmentation procedure was verified by transmission electron microscopy. The variation in carbon content between the ferrite in granular bainite and bainitic ferrite laths was explained on the basis of carbon partitioning during their growth. PMID:25126753

Gazder, Azdiar A; Al-Harbi, Fayez; Spanke, Hendrik Th; Mitchell, David R G; Pereloma, Elena V

2014-12-01

110

Investigation of early stage deformation mechanisms in a metastable ? titanium alloy showing combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As expected from the alloy design procedure, combined twinning-induced plasticity and transformation-induced plasticity effects are activated in a metastable ? Ti–12 wt.% Mo alloy. In situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy observations were carried out to investigate the deformation mechanisms and microstructure evolution sequence. In the early deformation stage, primary strain/stress-induced phase transformations (? ? ? and ? ? ??) and primary mechanical twinning ({3 3 2}?1 1 3? and {1 1 2}?1 1 1?) are activated simultaneously. Secondary martensitic phase transformation and secondary mechanical twinning are then triggered in the twinned ? zones. The {3 3 2}?1 1 3? twinning and the subsequent secondary mechanisms dominate the early-stage deformation process. The evolution of the deformation microstructure results in a high strain-hardening rate (?2 GPa), bringing about high tensile strength (?1 GPa) and large uniform elongation (>0.38)

111

A novel neuroferritinopathy mouse model (FTL 498InsTC) shows progressive brain iron dysregulation, morphological signs of early neurodegeneration and motor coordination deficits.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuroferritinopathy is a rare genetic disease with a dominant autosomal transmission caused by mutations of the ferritin light chain gene (FTL). It belongs to Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation, a group of disorders where iron dysregulation is tightly associated with neurodegeneration. We studied the 498-499InsTC mutation which causes the substitution of the last 9 amino acids and an elongation of extra 16 amino acids at the C-terminus of L-ferritin peptide. An analysis with cyclic voltammetry on the purified protein showed that this structural modification severely reduces the ability of the protein to store iron. In order to analyze the impact of the mutation in vivo, we generated mouse models for the some pathogenic human FTL gene in FVB and C57BL/6J strains. Transgenic mice in the FVB background showed high accumulation of the mutated ferritin in brain where it correlated with increased iron deposition with age, as scored by magnetic resonance imaging. Notably, the accumulation of iron-ferritin bodies was accompanied by signs of oxidative damage. In the C57BL/6 background, both the expression of the mutant ferritin and the iron levels were lower than in the FVB strain. Nevertheless, also these mice showed oxidative alterations in the brain. Furthermore, post-natal hippocampal neurons obtained from these mice experienced a marked increased cell death in response to chronic iron overload and/or acute oxidative stress, in comparison to wild-type neurons. Ultrastructural analyses revealed an accumulation of lipofuscin granules associated with iron deposits, particularly enriched in the cerebellum and striatum of our transgenic mice. Finally, experimental subjects were tested throughout development and aging at 2-, 8- and 18-months for behavioral phenotype. Rotarod test revealed a progressive impaired motor coordination building up with age, FTL mutant old mice showing a shorter latency to fall from the apparatus, according to higher accumulation of iron aggregates in the striatum. Our data show that our 498-499InsTC mouse models recapitulate early pathological and clinical traits of the human neuroferritinopathy, thus providing a valuable model for the study of the disease. Finally, we propose a mechanistic model of lipofuscine formation that can account for the etiopathogenesis of human neuroferritinopathy. PMID:25447222

Maccarinelli, Federica; Pagani, Antonella; Cozzi, Anna; Codazzi, Franca; Di Giacomo, Giuseppina; Capoccia, Sara; Rapino, Stefania; Finazzi, Dario; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Cirulli, Francesca; Giorgio, Marco; Cremona, Ottavio; Grohovaz, Fabio; Levi, Sonia

2014-11-01

112

Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between ...

Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

2011-01-01

113

Genetic analysis of patients with leukemic transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms shows recurrent SRSF2 mutations that are associated with adverse outcome  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Leukemic transformation (LT) of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Although previous candidate genetic studies have identified mutations in MPN patients who develop acute leukemia, the complement of genetic abnormalities in MPN patients who undergo LT is not known nor have specific molecular abnormalities been shown to have clinical relevance in this setting. We performed high-throughput resequencing of 22 genes in 53 patients wi...

Zhang, Su-jiang; Rampal, Raajit; Manshouri, Taghi; Patel, Jay; Mensah, Nana; Kayserian, Andrew; Hricik, Todd; Heguy, Adriana; Hedvat, Cyrus; Go?nen, Mithat; Kantarjian, Hagop; Levine, Ross L.; Abdel-wahab, Omar; Verstovsek, Srdan

2012-01-01

114

Correlation of morphological transformation to sister chromatid exchanges induced by split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens on cultured Syrian hamster cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The relationship between the induction of DNA damage as reflected by sister chromatid exchange (SCE) formation and morphological transformation in exponentially growing Syrian hamster embryo cells was determined quantitatively after split doses of chemical or physical carcinogens. With split doses of carcinogen separated by 2 to 24 hr, only N-acetoxy-2-fluorenyl-acetamide (0.50 microgram/ml) enhanced both SCE induction and transformation when compared to single exposure. Split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N- nitrosoguanidine (0.20 microgram/ml), mitomycin C (50 ng/ml), or ultraviolet light (3.0 J/sq m) were less effective than single exposures, while split doses of methyl methanesulfonate (40 micrograms/ml) caused transformation frequencies similar to a single treatment and decreased SCE frequencies with time intervals greater than 4 hr. Split or single exposures of X-irradiation (200 R) resulted in similar low frequencies of transformation and SCE. Contrasting with these results, a significant potentiation of SCE occurred after split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in cultures arrested in G1 with arginine-glutamine-deficient medium or by contact inhibition compared to a single treatment. This response was attributed to the interaction of carcinogen with DNA containing unrepaired damage and demonstrates the importance of the cell cycle phase of the target cell during carcinogen exposure for the induction of SCE by split doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrososplit doses of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. The similarity of responses for transformation and SCE induction with split doses of carcinogens suggests that DNA lesions involved in SCE are essential for the initiation of neoplastic development

115

Morphology and Crystallography of Bainite Transformation in a Single Prior-Austenite Grain of Low-Carbon Steel  

Science.gov (United States)

To elucidate the difference in the microstructure development of the bainite and the martensite-austenite (M-A) constituents between blocks (groups with bainitic ferrite having a similar crystal orientation), in a single prior-austenite grain, the microstructural development and morphology of bainite in one coarse grain formed in a simulated heat-affected zone of low-carbon steel were analyzed by laser-scanning confocal microscopy and an electron back-scattering diffraction method. The correlation between the morphologies of bainitic ferrite and the M-A constituent was elucidated by analyzing blocks in a coarse and single prior-austenite grain. The possibility of M-A constituent formation was enhanced when the misorientation between bainite ferrite was large. Furthermore, it was found via in situ observations that bainitic ferrite units belonging to the same Bain group were formed synchronously, although they were apparently separated from each other by another Bain group.

Terasaki, Hidenori; Komizo, Yu-ichi

2013-06-01

116

Genetic analysis of patients with leukemic transformation of myeloproliferative neoplasms shows recurrent SRSF2 mutations that are associated with adverse outcome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Leukemic transformation (LT) of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) is associated with a poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Although previous candidate genetic studies have identified mutations in MPN patients who develop acute leukemia, the complement of genetic abnormalities in MPN patients who undergo LT is not known nor have specific molecular abnormalities been shown to have clinical relevance in this setting. We performed high-throughput resequencing of 22 genes in 53 patients with LT after MPN to characterize the frequency of known myeloid mutations in this entity. In addition to JAK2 and TET2 mutations, which occur commonly in LT after MPN, we identified recurrent mutations in the serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (SRSF2) gene (18.9%) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transformed from MPNs. SRSF2 mutations are more common in AML derived from MPNs compared with LT after myelodysplasia (4.8%) or de novo AML (5.6%), respectively (P=.05). Importantly, SRSF2 mutations are associated with worsened overall survival in MPN patients who undergo LT in univariate (P=.03; HR, 2.77; 95% CI, 1.10-7.00) and multivariate analysis (P<.05; HR, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.01-4.42). These data suggest that SRSF2 mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of LT and may guide novel therapeutic approaches for MPN patients who undergo LT. PMID:22431577

Zhang, Su-Jiang; Rampal, Raajit; Manshouri, Taghi; Patel, Jay; Mensah, Nana; Kayserian, Andrew; Hricik, Todd; Heguy, Adriana; Hedvat, Cyrus; Gönen, Mithat; Kantarjian, Hagop; Levine, Ross L; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Verstovsek, Srdan

2012-05-10

117

In Vitro Cercariae Transformation: Comparison of Mechanical and Nonmechanical Methods and Observation of Morphological Changes of Detached Cercariae Tails  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Schistosomula, the larval stage of schistosomes in vertebrate hosts, are highly vulnerable and considered an ideal target for vaccine and drug development. Although the schistosomule stage is essential for biological studies, collecting sufficient numbers of schistosomula from their definitive hosts in vivo is difficult to accomplish. However, in vitro collection via cercariae transformation can effectively yield high numbers of schistosomula. We compared a current and widely used double-ende...

Coultas, Kristen A.; Zhang, Si-ming

2012-01-01

118

The effects of the structure transformations and morphology of gas bubbles on the sag of tungsten wires  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sagging of tungsten wires within the wide range of temperatures was studied. The values of the sag were measured with a method according to ASTM Designation F-269-52 T. Optical metallography, SEM and transmission electron microscopy combined with microhardness measurement and internal friction technique were used to study the processes controlling the sag. The sag was found to be dependent on the way in which polygonization and recrystallization occur and on the morphological changes of gas bubbles. The processes controlling the sag are mutually related. (Auth.)

119

Transformations Preserving the Hankel Transform  

Science.gov (United States)

We classify all polynomial transformations of integer sequences which preserve the Hankel transform, thus generalizing examples due to Layman and Spivey & Steil. We also show that such transformations form a group under composition.

French, Christopher

2007-07-01

120

Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity. PMID:22038587

Dulinska, J; Setkowicz, Z; Janeczko, K; Sandt, C; Dumas, P; Uram, L; Gzielo-Jurek, K; Chwiej, J

2012-03-01

 
 
 
 
121

Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pErosion in the tubules was observed in CHX and SH5E groups. Endodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

2012-07-01

122

Morphological Hit-Or Transform Based Approach for Building Damage Estimation from Vhr Airborne Imagery in 2011 Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake and Tsunami  

Science.gov (United States)

The very high resolution (VHR) airborne images offer the opportunity to recognize features such as road, vegetation, buildings and other kind of infrastructures. The advantage of remote sensing and its applications made it possible to extract damaged, undamaged building and vulnerability assessment of wide urban areas due to a natural disaster. In this paper, we focus on an automatic building detection method which is helpful to optimizing, recognizing, rescuing, recovery and management tasks in the event of a disaster. Objective of this study is to develop techniques for tsunami damaged building extraction, based on very high resolution (VHR) airborne images acquired before and after the 2011 East coastline of Japan among Tohoku area and to carry out a damage assessment of building and vulnerable area mapping. This paper presents a methodology and results of evaluating damaged buildings detection algorithm using an object recognition task based on Mathematical Morphological (MM) operators for Very High Resolution (VHR) remotely sensed airborne images. The proposed approach involves several advanced morphological operators among which an adaptive hit-or-miss transform with varying size and shape of the structuring elements. VHR airborne images consisting of pre and post 2011 Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake and Tsunami site of the Ishinomaki, Miyagi area in Japan were used. The extracted results of building were compared with ground truth data giving 76% and 88% in accuracy before and after the Tsunami event.

Parape, C. D. K.; Chinthaka, H.; Premachandra, N.; Tamura, M.; Sugiura, M.

2012-08-01

123

Transformation of c-oriented nanowall network to a flat morphology in GaN films on c-plane sapphire  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? High quality wurtzite structures GaN nanowall network formed on c-plane sapphire. ? Tapering of nanowalls at the apex cause electron confinement effects. ? Temperature dependent transformation of the six fold nanowall network to a flat morphology. ? Growth kinetics is influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding for GaN layer. -- Abstract: The work significantly optimizes growth parameters for nanostructured and flat GaN film in the 480-830 oC temperature range. The growth of ordered, high quality GaN nanowall hexagonal honeycomb like network on c-plane sapphire under nitrogen rich (N/Ga ratio of 100) conditions at temperatures below 700 oC is demonstrated. The walls are c-oriented wurtzite structures 200 nm wide at base and taper to 10 nm at apex, manifesting electron confinement effects to tune optoelectronic properties. For substrate temperatures above 700 oC the nanowalls thicken to a flat morphology with a dislocation density of 1010/cm2. The role of misfit dislocations in the GaN overlayer evolution is discussed in terms of growth kinetics being influenced by adatom diffusion, interactions and bonding at different temperatures. The GaN films are characterized by reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), field emission scanning electron (FESEM), high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and cathodoluminescence (CL).

124

Comparison of the effectiveness of different radiations for the induction of reproductive death, chromosome aberrations, morphological transformations and specific mutations in cultured mammalian cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ionizing radiations can induce a variety of changes in cultured mammalian cells, many of which are initiated by damage to the chromosomes. If the primary mechanisms of damage at the molecular level are similar, it can be expected that dose-effect relationships for the different cellular responses should exhibit common characteristics. A comparison of dose-effect relationships has been made for published data on several types of cells treated with radiations of different Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and assessed with respect to two or more endpoints. Various types of cells have different sensitivities to low LET as well as to high LET radiation and cellular effects are induced at different frequencies per unit dose. Cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations can presumably be induced as a result of damage in any one of the chromosomes. Chromosome breaks leading to deletions may occur at many sites. The probability of breaks may not be uniform along chromosomes, but this is difficult to establish. Cell transformation is more frequently (30 to 1000 times) induced by ionizing radiations than specific gene mutations and it may therefore be inferred that many, if not all, chromosomes contain one or more sites with genes which, if damaged, deleted or transposed to another site, may cause morphological malignant transformation. (Auth./C.F.)

125

MorphologicalMesh Filtering and -objects  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Since image analysis techniques have come to maturity, mesh analysis has remained challenging requiring more and more efforts for elaborating an effective theoretical model. In this article, following algebraic mesh operators, we introduce algorithms that perform morphological transformations on unorganized point sets connected by their Delaunay triangulations. We show that these algorithms correspond to morphological operators like erosion, dilation or opening, acting as "shape filters" on m...

Lome?nie, Nicolas; Stamon, Georges

2008-01-01

126

Direct observation of slow morphological transformations and wetting behavior of pulsed laser deposited sub-monolayer gold on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in atmosphere  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using high-resolution atomic force microscope we observed in ambient atmosphere the slow morphological transitions of the incipient adlayer of gold grown on (0 0 0 1) sapphire substrate by pulsed laser deposition. The equivalent average uniform thickness of the gold deposition was about 0.55 A, which is about one-fourth of its monolayer. A dynamic simulation revealed that about 10% of the gold was implanted into the substrate up to the depth of about 3.3 nm and the top monolayer of the sapphire surface was almost completely depleted of oxygen atoms due to the preferential sputtering by the plume particles. The gold adlayer transformed into a labile phase which enhanced the surface roughness and had a preferred orientation of a wavy structure during 24 h of the deposition. The auto-correlation function of this wavy structure in labile metastable phase revealed two-fold symmetry and provided a preferential size of about 4 nm (peak to peak) with a mean separation of 8 nm. At the end of about 6 days this phase was found to completely transform into an apparently de-wetted phase of beads with average in-plane diameter of ?20 nm and height of ?7 nm having large size distribution. Each bead was seen to have coating of a concentric corona layer, which might be that of the condensed moisture or other gaseous species from atmosphere because subjecting these samples to vacuum removed this layer. These observations shed light on the dynamics of the pulsed laser deposited metaics of the pulsed laser deposited metastable gold adlayer in the incipient stage of its growth on sapphire and their wetting or de-wetting mechanisms in ambient atmosphere

127

Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer

128

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

129

Effect of lattice defects and temperature transition rates on the deuteride (hydride) particle morphology and phase transformation thermal hysteresis in niobium  

Science.gov (United States)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed to investigate deuteride particle morphology and the phase transformation temperature hysteresis in low-concentration Nb-D alloys. Deformation either by cold rolling and or by previous deuteride cycling induced a coarse deuteride particle distribution. This observation is attributed to a more heterogeneous precipitation process facilitated by the dislocation defects and/or dislocation substructure. Deuteride precipitation in the deformed samples was observed immediately upon crossing the incoherent solvus during temperature reduction, again consistent with dislocation-aided nucleation. Deuteride dissolution was observed at the very onset of heating for the cold-rolled material, an observation unique among the samples characterized here. This is attributed to the availability of elastic accommodation energy for deuteride particles embedded in the severely work-hardened host matrix. In other words, the elastic energy assists dissolution, consistent with a theoretical model developed by Puls (1984 Acta Metall. 32 1259-69). The effect of temperature reduction transition rates was also investigated. Rapid, direct cooling (at 2-3 K min-1) resulted in a much finer deuteride particle distribution - a factor of 200 increase in the particle number density and a factor of ten reduction in characteristic particle size compared to well annealed single crystal Nb. The thermal hysteresis was also affected by the temperature transition rates, with a significant reduction of the hysteresis for the slowest cooling rates. This implies that at least part of the recorded hysteresis in the well annealed material is dependent on the temperature transition rate.

Heuser, Brent J.; Chen, W. C.

1999-09-01

130

Effect of H2O on the morphological changes of KNO3 formed on K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage materials: Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TR-XRD) studies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Based on combined FTIR and XRD studies, we report here that H2O induces a morphological change of KNO3 species formed on model K2O/Al2O3 NOx storage-reduction catalysts. Specifically as evidenced by FTIR, the contact of H2O with NO2 pre-adsorbed on K2O/Al2O3 promotes the transformation from bidentate (surface-like) KNO3 species to ionic (bulk-like) ones irrespective of K loadings. Once H2O is removed from the sample, a reversible transformation into bidentate KNO3 is observed, demonstrating a significant dependence of H2O on such morphological changes. TR-XRD results show the formation of two different types of bulk KNO3 phases (orthorhomobic and rhombohedral) in an as-impregnated sample. Once H2O begins to desorb above 400 K, the former is transformed into the latter, resulting in the existence of only the rhombohedral KNO3 phase. On the basis of consistent FTIR and TR-XRD results, we propose a model for the morphological changes of KNO3 species with respect to NO2 adsorption/desorption, H2O and/or heat treatments. Compared with the BaO/Al2O3 system, K2O/Al2O3 shows some similarities with respect to the formation of bulk nitrates upon H2O contact. However, there are significant differences that originate from the lower melting temperature of KNO3 relative to Ba(NO3)2.

Kim, Do Heui; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu K.; Szanyi, Janos; Hanson, Jonathan C.; Peden, Charles HF

2014-02-27

131

Morphologic transformation of human breast epithelial cells MCF-10A: dependence on an oxidative microenvironment and estrogen/epidermal growth factor receptors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MCF-10A, immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, are widely used in research examining carcinogenesis. The studies presented here were initiated with the observation that MCF-10A cells left in continuous culture for prolonged periods without re-feeding were prone to the development of transformed foci. We hypothesized that the depletion of labile culture components led to the onset of processes culminating in the observed cell transformation. The purpose of this study was to define the factors which promoted transformation of this cell line. Results Changes in levels of phenol red (PHR, hydrocortisone (HC, and epidermal growth factor (EGF with or without estrogen treatment indicated that both oxidative stress- and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?-mediated pathways contribute to cell transformation. Gene array and Western blotting analyses of cells maintained in our laboratory and of those from other sources documented detectable ER? and ERbeta (ER? in this ER?-negative cataloged cell line. Results also indicate the possibility of a direct association of EGF receptor (EGFR and ER? in these cells as well as the formation and high induction of a novel ternary complex that includes ER? (ER?/ER?/EGFR in cells grown under conditions facilitating transformation. Conclusions Our studies resulted in the development of a growth protocol where the effects of chronic, physiologically relevant alterations in the microenvironment on cellular transformation were examined. From our results, we were able to propose a model of transformation within the MCF-10A cell line in which oxidative stress, ER and EGFR play essential roles. Overall, our work indicates that the immediate microenvironment of cells exerts powerful growth cues which ultimately determine their transformation potential.

Yusuf Rita

2010-09-01

132

The impact of K{sup +} content on the structural transformations and morphological changes during the thermal treatment of ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Highlights: ? The acidic treatment considerably shortened the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods. ? ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with higher potassium contents undergo to the structural changes at higher temperatures. ? Up to 500 °C no structural and morpholigcal changes are observed. -- Abstract: The effect of heat treatment on the structure and morphology of ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with different potassium contents was investigated. These nanorods, prepared by ion exchange, were thermally treated at 500, 800, 1000 and 1100 °C, and characterized with X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. The structure and morphology of the starting sample remained preserved up to 500 °C. The first structural and morphological changes were observed when ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods with different potassium contents were heated at 800 °C. The sample with the highest potassium content decomposed only partially to ?-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, while the decomposition of the ?-MnO{sub 2} to ?-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was complete in the sample with the lowest potassium content. Morphologically, both samples were composed of nanorods and grains. When the temperature was increased to 1000 and 1100 °C, both the structure and morphology changed: the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods completely decomposed to Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} grains. The acidic media in which the ion exchange took place shortened the ?-MnO{sub 2} nanorods.

Umek, Polona, E-mail: polona.umek@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Center of Excellence NAMASTE, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Korošec, Romana Cerc [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Ašker?eva 5, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

2012-06-15

133

Immunologic and biochemical detection of cell surface alterations following morphological transformation or mutation of C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells by chemical carcinogens  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The C3H/10T1/2 C1 in mouse embryo fibroblast cell line is a permanent, cultured line whose hypotetraploid cells are contact inhibited and nontumorigenic in immunosuppressed syngeneic mice. Upon treatment with certain chemical carcinogens or radiation, some of these cells become morphologically transformed so that they are no longer contact inhibited and form foci, which are tumorigenic in immunosuppressed, syngeneic mice. Resistance to the cardiac glycoside ouabain can also be chemically induced in these cells, presumably by mutation of the gene encoding the Na+, K+-dependent adenosinetriphosphatase cation transport enzyme. Thus C3H/10T1/2 C1 8 cells find utility as in vitro neoplastic transformation and mutation systems. Morphologic transformation induced by chemical carcinogens in C3H/10T1/2 cells is accompanied by complex antigenic changes. These changes were studied using 125I labelled Protein A IRMA and fluorescence-activated cell sorter immunofluorescence assays. A panel of thirty different polyclonal antisera was prepared against transformed and nontransformed C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. Mutation of the gene encoding the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme is hypothesized to be responsible for the chemical carcinogen inducation of the ouabain resistance (Oua/sup r/) phenotype in C3H/10T1/2 cell lines. In order to test this hypothesis, the (Na,K)-ATPase enzyme activity of wild type and Oua/sup r/ C3H/10T1/2 cells were characterized for resistance to ouabain

134

Morphology and crystalline characterization of abalone shell and mimetic mineralization  

Science.gov (United States)

The microstructure and crystallization habit of natural abalone shells were characterized with the methods of SEM and XRD, etc. The soluble proteins extracted from the abalone shell play an important role on controlling the morphology and transformation of the mineral phase in the abalone shell. In vitro crystallization experiments of calcium carbonate showed that the addition of the soluble protein accelerates the transformation from vaterite to calcite.

Wang, Jiajun; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhao, Ying; Huang, Yaping; Wang, Dujin; Jiang, Lei; Wu, Jinguang; Xu, Duanfu

2003-05-01

135

Unusual surface and edge morphologies, sp2 to sp3 hybridized transformation and electronic damage after Ar+ ion irradiation of few-layer graphene surfaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Roughness and defects induced on few-layer graphene (FLG) irradiated by Ar+ ions at different energies were investigated using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy techniques. The results provide direct experimental evidence of ripple formation, sp2 to sp3 hybridized carbon transformation, electronic damage, Ar+ implantation, unusual defects and edge reconstructions in FLG, which depend on the irradiation energy. In addition, shadowing effects similar to those fo...

Al-harthi, Salim Hamood; Elzain, Mohammed; Al-barwani, Muataz; Kora A, Amal; Hysen, Thomas; Myint, Myo Tay Zar; Anantharaman, Maliemadom Ramaswamy

2012-01-01

136

Structural and morphological transformations of the (NH4, Na)-exchanged zeolites 4A, 13X and synthetic mordenite by thermal treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thermal treatment of (NH4, Na)-exchanged zeolites 4A and 13X results in the formation of an amorphous phase (T < 1000 degreesC) and a crystalline phase of mullite at temperatures above 1000 degreesC. No structural changes have been noticed for the (NH4, Na)-exchanged synthetic mordenite treated under the same conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and particle size analysis were used to characterize the initial...

Kosanovic?, Cleo; Subotic?, Boris; Ristic?, Alenka

2002-01-01

137

Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype / Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneti [...] camente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhous [...] e conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The shoot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

Simone, Pohl; Nei Fernandes, Lopes; Eugenia Jacira Bolacel, Braga; Rodrigo, Danielowski; Ilda Mariclei de Castro da, Silva; Jose Antonio, Peters.

2011-12-01

138

In vitro cell transformation by radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transforming phenotypes gradually express during subculturing after treatment of chemical carcinogens. However, we have a few information about radiation-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated that the dynamics of expression of transforming phenotypes in X-ray induced transformants of golden hamster embryo (GHE) cells. GHE cells expressed several transforming phenotypes aster X-irradiation. Although morphological change was a transit phenotype expressed soon after X-irradiation, the only progeny of them expressed the other transforming phenotypes, such as anchorage-independent growth, immortality and tumorigenicity, during extensive subculturing in GHE cells. No transformants showed activation of any oncogenes by DNA transfection assay using NIH 3T3 cells. Numerical chromosome changes, however, may affect neoplastic progression and trisomy of chromosome 3 may play an important role in tumorigenicity. We also compared proteins of normal and transformed GHE cells with SDS-PAGE. Protein band with molecular weight of approximately 240 kDa (P240) were absent in transformed GHE cells. Thus, chromosome number and the expression of cellular proteins may be altered in radiation induced transformed cells. (author)

139

Studies on the evolution of ZnO morphologies in a thermohydrolysis technique and evaluation of their functional properties.  

Science.gov (United States)

The transformation of ZnO morphologies in an in situ thermohydrolysis technique using hexamethylene tetramine is studied with and without surfactants. The photocatalytic and photoluminescence properties of these morphologically tuned ZnO morphologies are studied and the results presented. In the absence of any surfactants, the HMTA assisted in situ hydrolysis resulted in microtube and multipod morphologies. The addition of nonionic [Span-80] and cationic [CTAB] surfactants transforms the morphologies to microspheres, microdiscs and nanorods. The photoluminescence analysis shows a red luminescence in nanorods and green-indigo and blue-green emissions in microtubes and other morphologies. Photocatalytic reaction efficiency in UV light follows the order microtubes>nanorods>microdiscs>microspheres>multipods. PMID:19959283

Anas, S; Mangalaraja, R V; Ananthakumar, S

2010-03-15

140

Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation...

Rhim, J. S.; Trimmer, R.; Arnstein, P.; Huebner, R. J.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Urban morphology, urban transformations and conservation in Maputo, Mozambique. Lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions. : lessons learnt and transfer of knowledge to other regions.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The notion of home is a relational concept, which reflects the embedded sense of belonging to a certain space. Home is material and imagined and the concept embeds relationships between imagined ideals and specific physical spaces. Home is somewhere in particular; a place invested with meaning through lived experience and culturally defined practices. The analysis of home making processes in Maputo documents how this sense of belonging is created and the research focus on the relationship between the material, symbolic and imagined home. A house turns into a home through inhabitation which involves feelings of security (physical and legal), concepts of family and social networks, relation to neighbourhood and how objects and spaces are invested with symbolic meanings. The study argues that the Maputo peri-urban inhabitants are acting as the de facto city makers with limited, if any, assistance from the state and/or the private sector. Understanding Home Space making is hence key to understanding how Sub-Saharan African cities continuously expand and transform themselves.

Eskemose Andersen, JØrgen

142

Spacetime transformation acoustics  

CERN Document Server

A recently proposed analogue transformation method has allowed the extension of transformation acoustics to general spacetime transformations. We analyze here in detail the differences between this new analogue transformation acoustics (ATA) method and the standard one (STA). We show explicitly that STA is not suitable for transformations that mix space and time. ATA takes as starting point the acoustic equation for the velocity potential, instead of that for the pressure as in STA. This velocity-potential equation by itself already allows for some transformations mixing space and time, but not all of them. We explicitly obtain the entire set of transformations that do not leave its form invariant. It is in these cases that ATA shows its true potential, allowing for building a transformation acoustics method that enables the full range of spacetime transformations. We provide an example of an important transformation which cannot be achieved with STA. Using this transformation, we design and simulate an acous...

García-Meca, C; Barceló, C; Jannes, G; Sánchez-Dehesa, J; Martínez, A

2013-01-01

143

The Transformations of Transformations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

Lin, Francis Y.

2000-01-01

144

Stream Channel Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This sites shows how measurements of channel morphology relate to stream discharge estimates. It also describes other factors to be considered when evaluating this subject such as: the human element, measurement techniques and possible applications of these methods.

Hooke, Janet

145

Spacetime transformation acoustics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A recently proposed analogue transformation method has allowed the extension of transformation acoustics to general spacetime transformations. We analyze here in detail the differences between this new analogue transformation acoustics (ATA) method and the standard one (STA). We show explicitly that STA is not suitable for transformations that mix space and time. ATA takes as starting point the acoustic equation for the velocity potential, instead of that for the pressure as...

Garci?a-meca, C.; Carloni, S.; Barcelo?, C.; Jannes, G.; Sa?nchez-dehesa, J.; Marti?nez, A.

2013-01-01

146

Auroral morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aurora is a radiant manifestation of solar particle emissions and their control by intervening electromagnetic fields. The analogy with a television system was first made, we believe, by Elvey, (1958). The latest concepts of solar-terrestrial control are included in description by Akasofu (1979) showing the phosphor screen as the upper atmosphere with an auroral image produced by particles from a source on the sun, modulated by electric and magnetic fields with the magnetohydrodynamic (MDH) generator formed by electrons and protons from the solar wind across the geomagnetic tail as the power supply. Thus, the size and shape of the aurora must reflect all the forces acting in the auroral particles on their way from the sun to the earth. Auroral morphology, therefore, is the study of the occurence of aurora in space and time for the purpose of describing the origin of solar particels and the forces acting upon them between the time of their production on the sun and their loss in the atmosphere. The advantage of using the aurora as a television monitor of this process over any conceivable system of in situ measurements is obvious when one considers the large number of space vehicles which would be necessary to record the information concentrated in the auroral oval which differs in scale with the magnetosphere by perhaps 106. (orig.)

147

Musical morphology  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Morphologic measures have long been used to determine the patho-anatomical signature of different neurologic disorders. However, these measures can also be used to determine effects of specific learning tasks and quantifiable human abilities on cerebral structure. Musicians provide interesting opportunities for this type of analysis as their various skills, such as rhythmic ability and pitch and harmony discrimination (acquired through years of practicing and playing) can be quantified and compared using distinct morphologic analyses. Here, we review magnetic resonance imaging-based morphologic analyses in the music and neuroscience literature and provide some results from our own analysis of rhythmic ability in a cohort of musicians.

Chakravarty, M Mallar; Vuust, Peter

2009-01-01

148

Television Quiz Show Simulation  

Science.gov (United States)

This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

Hill, Jonnie Lynn

2007-01-01

149

Homemade Laser Show  

Science.gov (United States)

With a laser pointer and some household items, learners can create their own laser light show. They can explore diffuse reflection, refraction and diffraction. The webpage includes a video which shows how to set up the activity and also includes scientific explanation. Because this activity involves lasers, it requires adult supervision.

2012-07-09

150

Index transforms  

CERN Document Server

This book deals with the theory and some applications of integral transforms that involve integration with respect to an index or parameter of a special function of hypergeometric type as the kernel (index transforms). The basic index transforms are considered, such as the Kontorovich-Lebedev transform, the Mehler-Fock transform, the Olevskii Transform and the Lebedev-Skalskaya transforms. The L p theory of index transforms is discussed, and new index transforms and convolution constructions are demonstrated. For the first time, the essentially multidimensional Kontorovich-Lebedev transform is

Iakubovich, Semen B

1996-01-01

151

Functional Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The first seven labs in this course are simply a survey of skeletal morphology in vertebrate animals; this is the first lab of the course that actually applies this understanding to solving a scientific problem. Students measure isolated skeletal elements of vertebrates in order to quantify the differences among members of different locomotor groups. They're asked to formulate hypotheses based on an understanding of physics for the differences among the locomotor categories they're examining, and then they compare their data to those expectations. The activity allows students to understand how paleontologists interpret skeletal morphology to make inferences about the ecology of extinct organisms. This will enable the students to apply their knowledge of skeletal morphology to answering a scientific question. The experience also gives them an opportunity to practice the process of paleontological science, including hypothesis testing and data interpretation.

Samantha Hopkins

152

Laplace Transform Analytical Restructure  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, the Laplace transform definition is implemented without resorting to Adomian decomposition nor Homotopy perturbation methods. We show that the said transform can be simply calculated by differentiation of the original function. Various analytic consequent results are given. The simplicity and efficacy of the method are illustrated through many examples with shown Maple graphs, and transform tables are provided. Finally, a new infinite series representation related to Laplace transforms of trigonometric functions is proposed.

Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem

2013-06-01

153

Obesity in show cats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

Corbee, R J

2014-12-01

154

Plant Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web page serves as a linked table of contents for the museum's supplemental resources on plant morphology. From it, you can access the following illustrated guides with a single click: The Parts of a Soybean Seedling, The Parts of a Corn Seedling, Leaf Arrangement, Leaf Type, Types of Compound Leaves, Leaf Shape, Leaf Margin, and The Parts of a Flower.

155

Topics in mathematical morphology for multivariate images  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This thesis contributes to the field of mathematical morphology and illustrates how multivariate statistics and machine learning techniques can be exploited to design vector ordering and to include results of morphological operators in the pipeline of multivariate image analysis. In particular, we make use of supervised learning, random projections, tensor representations and conditional transformations to design new kinds of multivariate ordering, and morphological filters for color and mult...

Velasco-forero, Santiago

2012-01-01

156

Education Statistics Slide Show  

Science.gov (United States)

Created by Grace York, coordinator of the University of Michigan's Documents Center, the Education Statistics Slide Show is an online presentation demonstrating how to locate, obtain, and manipulate educational data on the Web. The presentation consists of 72 slides and offers instruction on the use of several Websites including the US Census Bureau's American Factfinder site (see the April 2, 1999 Scout Report), the Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Census Mapping site, the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) site, the FEDSTATS site (see the May 30, 1997 Scout Report), and many more. The tutorial presentation also provides ten practice questions and a detailed Webliography.

157

Learning mechanisms of phase transformations through microstructure  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Zirconium alloy which exhibit practically all possible solid state phase transformations offer some unique opportunities for studying the fundamental aspects of phase transformations. Some of the important issues related to phase transformations research are identified and the manner in which studies in zirconium alloys have contributed to the understanding of these issues, is discussed in this paper. Both the types of displacive transformations - sheer dominated and shuffle dominated, are encountered in zirconium alloys. The crystallography and the mechanism of such transformations are discussed, giving special reference to the morphological and sub-structural changes in zirconium martensites and to the fine particle and plate shaped morphologies of the ?-phase. Morphological and crystallographical features of displacive and diffusional transformations have been compared. Several examples of mixed mode transformations, viz., the formation of ?-hydride phase, the active eutectoid decomposition and the formation of ordered ?-phases are cited and their respective mechanisms described. (author)

158

Not a "reality" show.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

2013-01-01

159

Arthropod Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

This Web page serves as a linked table of contents for the museum's supplemental resources on arthropod morphology. From it, you can access the following illustrated guides with a single click: Types of Antennae, Front View of an Insect (Grasshopper) Head, Parts of an Insect (Grasshopper), Parts of a Spider: Dorsal View of a Male Spider, Parts of a Spider: Ventral View of a Female Spider, and Metamorphosis.

160

The Great Cometary Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer, which allows astronomers to scrutinise objects with a precision equivalent to that of a 130-m telescope, is proving itself an unequalled success every day. One of the latest instruments installed, AMBER, has led to a flurry of scientific results, an anthology of which is being published this week as special features in the research journal Astronomy & Astrophysics. ESO PR Photo 06a/07 ESO PR Photo 06a/07 The AMBER Instrument "With its unique capabilities, the VLT Interferometer (VLTI) has created itself a niche in which it provide answers to many astronomical questions, from the shape of stars, to discs around stars, to the surroundings of the supermassive black holes in active galaxies," says Jorge Melnick (ESO), the VLT Project Scientist. The VLTI has led to 55 scientific papers already and is in fact producing more than half of the interferometric results worldwide. "With the capability of AMBER to combine up to three of the 8.2-m VLT Unit Telescopes, we can really achieve what nobody else can do," added Fabien Malbet, from the LAOG (France) and the AMBER Project Scientist. Eleven articles will appear this week in Astronomy & Astrophysics' special AMBER section. Three of them describe the unique instrument, while the other eight reveal completely new results about the early and late stages in the life of stars. ESO PR Photo 06b/07 ESO PR Photo 06b/07 The Inner Winds of Eta Carinae The first results presented in this issue cover various fields of stellar and circumstellar physics. Two papers deal with very young solar-like stars, offering new information about the geometry of the surrounding discs and associated outflowing winds. Other articles are devoted to the study of hot active stars of particular interest: Alpha Arae, Kappa Canis Majoris, and CPD -57o2874. They provide new, precise information about their rotating gas envelopes. An important new result concerns the enigmatic object Eta Carinae. Using AMBER with its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave coming from the nova. The stream of results from the VLTI and AMBER

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

A simple model for some unusual properties of martensitic transformation  

CERN Document Server

We report a detailed numerical investigation of a recently introduced two dimensional model for square-to-rectangle martensitic transformation that explains several unusual features of the martensitic transformation. This model includes inertial effects, dissipation, long-range interaction between the transformed domains and an inhomogeneous stress field to describe the effect of lattice defects which serves as nucleation centers. Both single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation has been studied for single quench situation and thermal cycling. The final stage morphologies of single-site nucleation and multi-site nucleation bear considerable similarity suggesting that the initial distribution of the defects is not important. Thermal cycling using continuous cooling and heating simulations show the existence of hysteresis in the transformation. More importantly, the rate of energy dissipated occurs in the forms of bursts with power law statistics for their amplitudes and durations which explains the result...

Sreekala, S; Ananthakrishna, G; Ahluwalia, Rajeev

2004-01-01

162

River morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Large level changes of the Danube river bed have been observed in the last decades. Since 1966 the water profile for a discharge of 1000 m3 s-1 has decreased by 1 to 2 m in the river Danube downstream of Bratislava and the section close to Komarno. A 1D model MIKE 11 was used to simulate the morphological development over the period from 1974 to 1990, where dredging was also taken into account. Based on the simulation results, it was proven that the river bed degradation was mainly influenced by the river training and dredging. (authors). 10 figs., 1 map, 8 refs

163

Integral transformation and Darboux transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We review Darboux-Crum transformation of Heun's differential equation. By rewriting an integral transformation of Heun's differential equation into a form of elliptic functions, we see that the integral representation is a generalization of Darboux-Crum transformation. We also consider conservation of monodromy with respect to the transformations.

Takemura, Kouichi

2009-01-01

164

Two-step synthesis of witherite and tuning of morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Compared to conventional methods, a simple route is offered for synthesis of BaCO3 with CO2 and least energy consumption. And the morphology of BaCO3 was tuned by controlling reaction conditions. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) were employed to characterize the products, the results showed that the products with various morphologies had the same crystal phase and growth direction. However, the distinct difference of the prepared products were determined by Raman and UV-vis spectra, showing shape-dependent optical properties. The results provide a useful model system for investigating the shape-dependent optical properties of carbonate nanocrystals.

165

Laplace Transform Analytical Restructure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, the Laplace transform definition is implemented without resorting to Adomian decomposition nor Homotopy perturbation methods. We show that the said transform can be simply calculated by differentiation of the original function. Various analytic consequent results are given. The simplicity and efficacy of the method are illustrated through many examples with shown Maple graphs, and transform tables are provided. Finally, a new infinite series representation related to Laplace tr...

Fethi Bin Muhammad Belgacem; Rathinavel Silambarasan

2013-01-01

166

Measure Transformed Independent Component Analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper we derive a new framework for independent component analysis (ICA), called measure-transformed ICA (MTICA), that is based on applying a structured transform to the probability distribution of the observation vector, i.e., transformation of the probability measure defined on its observation space. By judicious choice of the transform we show that the separation matrix can be uniquely determined via diagonalization of several measure-transformed covariance matric...

Todros, Koby; Hero, Alfred O.

2013-01-01

167

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represe...

Anatoli Torokhti; Phil Howlett

2006-01-01

168

Controlled synthesis and characterization of EuF3 with ring-like morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The orthorhombic EuF3 with ring morphology has been synthesized by controlled reaction between Eu(NO3)3.6H2O and KBF4 via a simple hydrothermal route. The microstructures and morphologies of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Time-dependent studies of the reactions have been conducted to reveal the morphological evolution of the ring-like structure. The formation of ring-like structure of EuF3 may involved a phase transformation from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure and the self-assembly of arc building-blocks. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed that the morphology and size of the products had great influence on their emission intensity

169

Controlled synthesis and characterization of EuF{sub 3} with ring-like morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The orthorhombic EuF{sub 3} with ring morphology has been synthesized by controlled reaction between Eu(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O and KBF{sub 4} via a simple hydrothermal route. The microstructures and morphologies of the products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Time-dependent studies of the reactions have been conducted to reveal the morphological evolution of the ring-like structure. The formation of ring-like structure of EuF{sub 3} may involved a phase transformation from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure and the self-assembly of arc building-blocks. The room-temperature photoluminescence spectra showed that the morphology and size of the products had great influence on their emission intensity.

Zhong Haoxiang [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wang Miao [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nantong University, Nantong 226007 (China); Yang Hongling [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Hong Jianming [Analytic Center of Nanjing University, Jiangsu, Nanjing 210093 (China); Huang Qingli [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen Xuetai [Coordination Chemistry Institute, State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)], E-mail: xtchen@netra.nju.edu.cn

2009-01-25

170

Morphological wavelet domain image watermarking  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Current digital watermarking methods based on the discrete wavelet transform use orthogonal wavelet kernels. In this paper, we discuss the use of morphological wavelets, which are a class of non-linear wavelets, in digital watermarking for scalable coded images. Three different scenarios for embedding the watermark, namely, 1) embedding only in the low pass subband (low-low), 2) embedding only in the high pass subbands (low-high, high-low and high-high) and 3) embedding in all subban...

Bhowmik, D.; Abhayaratne, C.

2007-01-01

171

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG) are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of inte...

Rau Aarathi; Kini Hema; Pai Radha

2009-01-01

172

Transformer dimensioning  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aims of the following project has beento make a proposition how to create aspecific kind of transformer. Thefollowing report evaluates the differentimportant variables and contains asuggestion for a possible design. Intheory it's an ordinary transformer that'ssuppose to transform electrical effect toa high voltage line. The design of thetransformer is using an already existingcurrent transformer design and is adjustedto work for it's specific purpose. Theproject also contains the developi...

Nogerius, David

2012-01-01

173

Transforming magnets  

CERN Document Server

Based on the form-invariant of Maxwell's equations under coordinate transformations, we extend the theory of transformation optics to transformation magneto-statics, which can design magnets through coordinate transformations. Some novel DC magnetic field illusions created by magnets (e.g. shirking magnets, cancelling magnets and overlapping magnets) are designed and verified by numerical simulations. Our research will open a new door to designing magnets and controlling DC magnetic fields.

Sun, F

2014-01-01

174

Conformal transformation optics  

Science.gov (United States)

The field of transformation optics shows that media containing gradients in optical properties are equivalent to curved geometries of spacetime for the propagation of light. Conformal transformation optics -- a particular variant of this feature -- can be used to design devices with novel functionalities from inhomogeneous, isotropic dielectric media.

Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

2015-01-01

175

Algorithm to Generate Kekre's Wavelet Transform from Kekre's Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel Kekre’s Wavelet (KW transform which is generated from Kekre’s transform. Kekre’s Wavelet transform can be used for various applications in image processing. Steganography using Kekre’s Wavelet transform is implemented to show one of its applications in this area. The full cover image is transformed usingKekre’s Wavelet transform. Transformed image is then divided into 16 equal non-overlapping blocks. Energy of each block is computed. The system embeds secret data into lower energy blocks of the transformed image. From the experiments and the obtained results the proposed system achieves hiding capacity of 56.25% of the cover image size with 100% retrieval of secret data. The quality of stego image of the proposed system is very close to original one so that the difference is imperceptible to human eye. Moreover the results of Haar ransform, Modified Haar transform and Kekre’s Wavelet transform are compared. It is shown that performance of Kekre’s Wavelet transformis approachable to Haar transform. Since it is possible to generate Kekre’ Wavelet transform matrix of any size, the cover image size need not to be integer power of 2 as in case of Haar transform. Since Kekre’s Wavelet transform is a novel unexplored transform, even if an observer suspects that some covert communication is taking place, it is not possible to extract the secret information because attacker would not know the transform.

DR. H. B. KEKRE

2010-05-01

176

Cell transformation and mutagenesis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This chapter summarizes the studies of the dose-effect relationships of cell transformation and of mutation for heavy ions with various charges, velocities and LET values. In cell transformation studies, carbon particles consistently gave a higher frequency of transformation per viable cell than x rays. For the same cell line, the RBE is about the same for both cell killings and oncogenic transformation for a given quality of ionizing radiation. In cocarcinogenesis studies, neon irradiation showed an enhancement effect on the viral transformation of cells. To explain the enhanced transformation, it has been suggested that radiation produces strand breaks in cellular DNA that promote the attachment of viral genomes during DNA repair synthesis. In mutagenesis studies, high-LET heavy ions could not effectively induce ouabain resistant mutations

177

Carcinogenesis in tissue culture. 29: neoplastic transformation of a normal human diploid cell strain, WI-38, with Co-60 gamma rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

WI-38 normal human diploid fibroblasts were exposed to Co-60 gamma rays 4 times at a total dose of 1400 rads and transformed into neoplastic cells in culture. The transformed WI-38 cells which are growing steadily without showing aging phenomena at the present time showed epithelial-like morphology, abnormal karyology, B-type isoenzyme pattern of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and produced sarcomas when transplanted into cheek pouches of hamsters treated with anti-hamster thymocyte serum.

Namba, M.; Nishitani, K.; Kimoto, T.

1978-08-01

178

Transformation Station  

Science.gov (United States)

Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

Stroud, Mrs.

2010-09-01

179

General ?-transformations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In this paper we introduce a general class of transformations of (all or most of) the class ML(Rd), of d-dimensional Lévy measures on Rd, into itself. We refer to transformations of this type as ? transformations (or Upsilon transformations). Closely associated to these are mappings of the set ID(Rd) of all infinitely divisible laws on Rd into itself. In considerable generality, the mappings are one-to-one, regularising and bi-continuous. Furthermore, in many cases the transformations have a stochastic interpretation in terms of stochastic integrals with respect to Lévy processes.

Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Rosinski, Jan

2008-01-01

180

On Radon transforms on tori  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show injectivity of the X-ray transform and the $d$-plane Radon transform for distributions on the $n$-torus, lowering the regularity assumption in the recent work by Abouelaz and Rouvi\\`ere. We also show solenoidal injectivity of the X-ray transform on the $n$-torus for tensor fields of any order, allowing the tensors to have distribution valued coefficients. These imply new injectivity results for the periodic broken ray transform on cubes of any dimension.

Ilmavirta, Joonas

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiote...

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

2005-01-01

182

ISIS-2 satellite imagery and auroral morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Auroral morphology is emphasized over auroral dynamics in a paper describing conspicuous auroral features picked up by the ISIS-2 scanning photometer. Results of improved programs designed to transform the data into a corrected geomagnetic coordinate frame and generate latitude profiles of auroral intensities at different magnetic local times are reported. The diffuse aurora and its relation to the morphology of discrete aurorae is given special attention.

Anger, C. D.; Murphree, J. S.

1976-01-01

183

Medical Image Segmentation by MarkerControlled Watershed and Mathematical Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segmentation by watershed transform is a fast, robust and widely used in image processing and analysis, but it suffers from over-segmentation. We present in this paper some improvements to this algorithm based on the mathematical morphology in order to get over this difficulty. The performance of this method isvalidated on medical images. The results obtained show the good performance of this approach.

Ahmad El Allaoui

2012-07-01

184

Hadamard Transforms  

CERN Document Server

The Hadamard matrix and Hadamard transform are fundamental problem-solving tools in a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines and technologies, such as communication systems, signal and image processing (signal representation, coding, filtering, recognition, and watermarking), digital logic (Boolean function analysis and synthesis), and fault-tolerant system design. Hadamard Transforms intends to bring together different topics concerning current developments in Hadamard matrices, transforms, and their applications. Each chapter begins with the basics of the theory, progresses to more advanced

Agaian, Sos; Egiazarian, Karen; Astola, Jaakko

2011-01-01

185

Animating Transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

In most introductory linear algebra courses, prominent applications of transformations or mappings are moving (rotating, reflecting, translating), resizing (contracting, expanding), changing the shape (shearing, projecting) objects in the plane. A typical problem in such courses is to write the matrix of a transformation that changes points in such prescribed ways. The goal of this demo is to help students more easily visualize such transformations on a wide class of plane objects.

Roberts, Lila F.; Hill, David R.

2003-01-24

186

Fibonacci thresholding: signal representation and morphological filters  

Science.gov (United States)

A new weighted thresholding concept is presented, which is used for the set-theoretical representation of signals, the producing new signals containing a large number of key features that are in the original signals and the design new morphological filters. Such representation maps many operations of non binary signal and image processing to the union of the simple operations over the binary signals and images. The weighted thresholding is invariant under the morphological transformations, including the basic ones, erosion and dilation. The main idea of using the weighted thresholding is in the choice of the special level of thresholding on which we can concentrate all our attention for the future processing. Together with arithmetical thresholding the so-called Fibonacci levels are chosen because of many interesting properties; one of them is the effective decomposition of the median filter. Experimental results show that the Fibonacci thresholding is much promised and can be used for many applications, including the image enhancement, segmentation, and edge detection.

Grigoryan, Artyom M.; Agaian, Sos S.

2014-02-01

187

Isolation of mutants with aberrant mitochondrial morphology from Arabidopsis thaliana.  

Science.gov (United States)

To identify genes related to plant mitochondrial morphology and dynamics, novel mutants with respect to mitochondrial morphology were isolated from an ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS)-mutated population of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mitochondria were visualized by transforming Arabidopsis with a gene for a fusion protein consisting of GFP and a mitochondria-targeting pre-sequence. From 19,000 M2 populations, 17 mutants were isolated by fluorescent microscopic observations. All mitochondria in these mutants were longer and/or larger than wild-type mitochondria. The approximate chromosomal loci of the mutations of seven mutants that grew well were determined. The mitochondrial phenotypes of six of the mutants were recessive but the mitochondrial phenotype of the seventh mutant was dominant. Chromosomal rough mapping of the seven mutants showed that the mutations occurred at four different loci. At least one of these loci was novel, i.e., it was different from loci of other known mitochondrial morphology mutants of Arabidopsis and different from loci of Arabidopsis homologues of yeast genes related to mitochondrial morphology. PMID:15599060

Feng, Xiaoge; Arimura, Shin-ichi; Hirano, Hiro-Yuki; Sakamoto, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro

2004-10-01

188

Synthesis of Morphology―controlled Niobium Oxide Nanorods Array  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphology―controlled niobium oxide nanorods array were successfully prepared in a mixed NH4F and H2O2 solution by using niobium powder as the starting materials via hydrothermal method. The morphology and composition of niobium oxide film were characterized by X―ray diffraction patterns(XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), respectively. The reaction time and hydrothermal temperature and concentration of NH4F, which affect the final composition and morphology of niobium oxide films, were also investigated in details. The results show that niobium oxide crystal have a strong anisotropy growth in the presence of NH4F and H2O2, which guides the oriented growth of hexagonal nanorods array on the niobium powder surface. The concentration of NH4F play great roles in the formation of the final products, the morphological of niobium oxide film is transformed from polyhedron granule to circular nanorods array and aggregated nanoparticles with the increase of NH4F concentration. Niobium oxide nanorods arrays can be obtained at Nb substrate after hythermal reaction at 150¡?or 10h with adding 0.5g NH4F. A formation mechanism is also proposed.

CHAI Qing-Li, LIU Lei, PAN Hao, CHEN Jie, YU Ang, XU Mei-Gui, TU Luo, ZHOU Xing-Fu

2011-10-01

189

SPONTANEOUS TRANSFORMATION OF CULTURED PORCINE BONE MARROW STROMAL CELLS  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION Recently, the possibility that tumors originate from cancer stem cells (CSCs) has been proposed. Stem cells and CSCs share certain features such as self-renewal and differentiation potential. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) after long-term culture are transformed into malignant cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS BMSC from 6 pigs were isolated and propagated continuously. Cell morphology was observed. Transformation properties were evaluated by means of serum dependence assay, Ki- 67 immunostaining, soft agar colony assay, karyotyping, telomerase activity detection assay and analysis of the expression of p53, Fas and c- Myc genes. Multipotency was investigated by biochemical and histological assays and analysis of gene expression. RESULTS BMSC showed a change in appearance, from the initial spindle shape to a more flatted morphology then to small contact shape. After additional passages, BMSC gradually acquired recovery of proliferating capacity and transformation properties such as anchorage-independent growth, chromosomal abnormality, and abnormal gene expression. The expression of P53 and Fas was decreased, while the expression of c-Myc gene was increased and TGF‚ signaling pathway was upregulated. However, telomerase activity maintained negative during culture. CONCLUSION Porcine BMSC can undergo spontaneous transformation, which provides a useful model to study the mechanisms associated with the tumorigenic potential of adult stem cells.

Zou, Lijin; Zou, Xuenong

190

El Extracto Acuoso de Ruta graveolens del Norte de México Causa Apoptosis y Muestra Efecto Antiproliferativo sobre el Hígado de Rata Wistar: Evidencia Morfológica / Aqueous Extract of Ruta Graveolens From the North of Mexico Causes Apoptosis and Shows Antiproliferative Effect on the Liver of Wistar Rat: Morphological Evidence  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Ruta graveolens es una planta nativa del Mediterráneo Oriental y del área Sur Occidental de Asia, de esta planta se han aislado más de 120 compuestos químicos. En un estudio previo en nuestro laboratorio se observó que un extracto acuoso de R. graveolens causó necrosis y alteraciones morfológicas su [...] gestivas de apoptosis sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. El objetivo del presente estudio, fue evaluar la inducción de apoptosis y el posible efecto antiproliferativo in vivo de un extracto acuso de R. graveolens del norte de México, mediante métodos inmunohistoquímicos. Se utilizaron 25 ratas Wistar y se dividieron en 5 grupos (n=5). El grupo 1 correspondió al grupo control negativo, el grupo 2 o control positivo se trató con 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día. Los grupos 3 y 4 se trataron con 30 y 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día respectivamente. Al grupo 5 se le administraron 100 mg de dexametasona/kg/día combinados con 100 mg de extracto de R. graveolens/kg/día. Las administraciones se realizaron vía intraperitoneal por tres días. Los animales se sacrificaron por dislocación cervical, y se tomaron muestras de hígado que se fijaron en formalina, posteriormente se incluyeron en bloques de parafina. Se obtuvieron cortes histológicos que se tiñeron con el método tricrómico de Masson. También se realizaron pruebas inmunohistoquímicas de TUNEL, anti-bcl-2 y anti-PCNA; además de un estudio morfométrico. Los resultados demuestran por primera vez el potencial apoptósico y antiproliferativo del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens del norte de México, sobre el hígado de rata Wistar. Se sugiere la posibilidad de emplear dosis menores a las administradas en este estudio del extracto acuoso de R. graveolens, para investigar su potencial uso como agente antineoplásico en estudios in vitro con líneas celulares tumorales e/o implantadas en modelos murinos de cáncer. Abstract in english Ruta graveolens, is a native plant of the Eastern Mediterranean and the South Western area of Asia. From this plant, more than 120 chemical compounds have been isolated. In a previous study in our laboratory, we observed that an aqueous extract of R. graveolens, caused necrosis and morphological alt [...] erations suggestive of apoptosis on the liver of Wistar rats. The objective of this study, was to evaluate the induction of apoptosis and a possible antiproliferative effect in vivo of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico, by immunohistochemical methods. 25 Wistar rats were used and divided into 5 groups (n= 5). Group 1 corresponded to negative control group, group 2 or positive control was treated with 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day. Groups 3 and 4 were treated with 30 and 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day respectively. Group 5 received the administration of 100 mg of dexamethasone/kg/day combined with 100 mg of extract of R. graveolens/kg/day. The administrations were by intraperitoneal via for three days. The animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation, liver samples were taken, fixed in formalin and then samples were embedded in paraffin blocks. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Masson trichrome method. Immunohistochemical assays of TUNEL, anti-bcl-2, and anti-PCNA were performed. Also a morphometric study was carried out. Results show for the first time the potential apoptotic and antiproliferative effect of an aqueous extract of R. graveolens from the north of Mexico on the liver of Wistar rats. This suggests the use of lower doses of the extract of R. graveolens, to investigate its potential use as an antineoplastic agent, in studies in vitro with tumor cell lines and/or implanted in murine models of cancer.

Adolfo, Soto-Domínguez; Luis B, Serrano-Gallardo; Rubén, García-Garza; Pablo, Ruíz-Flores; Javier, Morán-Martínez; Martha P, Nava-Hernández; Edith F, Martínez-Pérez.

1340-13-01

191

Isolated Polynucleotides and Methods of Promoting a Morphology in a Fungus  

Science.gov (United States)

The invention includes isolated polynucleotide molecules that are differentially expressed in a native fungus exhibiting a first morphology relative to the native fungus exhibiting a second morphology. The invention includes a method of enhancing a bioprocess utilizing a fungus. A transformed fungus is produced by transforming a fungus with a recombinant polynucleotide molecule. The recombinant polynucleotide molecule contains an isolated polynucleotide sequence linked operably to a promoter. The polynucleotide sequence is expressed to promote a first morphology. The first morphology of the transformed fungus enhances a bioprocess relative to the bioprocess utilizing a second morphology.

Lasure, Linda L. (Fall City, WA) [Fall City, WA; Dai, Ziyu (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

2008-10-21

192

Transformational leadership.  

Science.gov (United States)

This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program® takes an in-depth look at the Magnet® model component transformational leadership. The author examines the expectations for Magnet organizations around this component. What are the qualities that make a nursing leader truly transformational, and what is the best approach to successfully lead a healthcare organization through today's volatile healthcare environment? PMID:22094611

Luzinski, Craig

2011-12-01

193

Lightweight transformer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

1990-05-01

194

An enzymatic function associated with transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic viruses. II. Mammalian fibroblast cultures transformed by DNA and RNA tumor viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chick, hamster, mouse, and rat embryo fibroblast cultures, transformed by either DNA or RNA viruses, show fibrinolytic activity under suitable conditions of growth and in appropriate media; normal counterpart cultures do not. The fibrinolysin is produced by the interaction of two protein factors: one of these, a cell factor, is released by transformed cells and accumulates in the medium when cultures are incubated in the absence of scrum. The second factor, the serum factor, is a specific protein that is present in sera of many avian and mammalian species, including man. Not all sera yield fibrinolysin on interaction with any given transformed cell factor, and the spectrum of activating sera is distinctive for each cell factor. This pattern appears to be determined by the cell type, rather than by the transforming virus. An important role for the fibrinolysin in oncogenic transformation is suggested by the following correlations. (a) The initial appearance of fibrinolysin precedes the morphological change after the transfer to permissive temperatures of chick fibroblast cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV. (b) The initiation of fibrinolysis and of morphological change both require the synthesis of new protein, but not the synthesis of either DNA or rRNA. (c) The activity of the fibrinolysin is correlated with the retention of abnormal morphology in hamster cells transformed by SV-40. (d) The sera of normal chicks effectively activate fibrinolysis with the cell factor from transformed chick cells. In contrast the sera of chicks with RSV tumors do not; these contain an inhibitor of the fibrinolytic activity. PMID:4347288

Ossowski, L; Unkeless, J C; Tobia, A; Quigley, J P; Rifkin, D B; Reich, E

1973-01-01

195

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

Ren, Zhenhua [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Department of Anatomy, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, 230032 (China); Wang, Jiayin; Zhu, Wanwan; Guan, Yunqian; Zou, Chunlin [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Chen, Zhiguo, E-mail: chenzhiguo@gmail.com [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China); Stanford Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine and Department of Neurosurgery, Stanford, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. Alex, E-mail: yaz@bjsap.org [Cell Therapy Center, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Key Laboratory of Neurodegeneration, Ministry of Education, Beijing (China)

2011-12-10

196

Spontaneous transformation of adult mesenchymal stem cells from cynomolgus macaques in vitro  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown potential clinical utility in cell therapy and tissue engineering, due to their ability to proliferate as well as to differentiate into multiple lineages, including osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic specifications. Therefore, it is crucial to assess the safety of MSCs while extensive expansion ex vivo is a prerequisite to obtain the cell numbers for cell transplantation. Here we show that MSCs derived from adult cynomolgus monkey can undergo spontaneous transformation following in vitro culture. In comparison with MSCs, the spontaneously transformed mesenchymal cells (TMCs) display significantly different growth pattern and morphology, reminiscent of the characteristics of tumor cells. Importantly, TMCs are highly tumorigenic, causing subcutaneous tumors when injected into NOD/SCID mice. Moreover, no multiple differentiation potential of TMCs is observed in vitro or in vivo, suggesting that spontaneously transformed adult stem cells may not necessarily turn into cancer stem cells. These data indicate a direct transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs into tumor cells following long-term expansion in vitro. The spontaneous transformation of the cultured cynomolgus monkey MSCs may have important implications for ongoing clinical trials and for models of oncogenesis, thus warranting a more strict assessment of MSCs prior to cell therapy. -- Highlights: ? Spontaneous transformation of cynomolgus monkey MSCs in vitro. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells lack multipotency. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells are highly tumorigenic. ? Transformed mesenchymal cells do not have the characteristics of cancer stem cells.

197

Covariant Transform  

CERN Document Server

The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H_2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others. Keywords: Wavelets, coherent states, group representations, Hardy space, functional calculus, Berezin calculus, Radon transform, Moebius map, maximal function, affine group, special linear group, numerical range, characteristic function, functional model.

Kisil, Vladimir V

2010-01-01

198

Assessment of Morphological Variation in Irish Brassica oleracea Species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study aimed at assessing the morphological variation in 25 accessions of an Irish collection of Brassica oleracea using 44 morphological traits. The morphological traits showed a pronounced variation among accessions. Vegetative preflowering and maturity traits revealed higher variation than seedling traits. Of the 44 morphological descriptors used, 28 were significantly different and proved useful in examining diversity and differentiating among accessions studied. Principal...

El-esawi, Mohamed A.; Paula Bourke; Kieran Germaine; Renee Malone

2012-01-01

199

Lacrimal gland adenoid cystic carcinoma with high-grade transformation to myoepithelial carcinoma: report of a case and review of literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adenoid cystic carcinoma (AdCC) is the most frequent malignant neoplasm of the lacrimal glands. Like its salivary gland counterpart, lacrimal AdCC can rarely undergo high-grade transformation ("dedifferentiation"). We herein report the clinical, radiographic and microscopic findings of a lacrimal gland AdCC with high grade transformation, occurring in a 39-year-old female patient. In contrast to salivary gland AdCC with high-grade transformation, which usually shows a high grade component with "ductal" differentiation, in the case presented, the "dedifferentiated" component showed morphologic and immunohistochemical features of myoepithelial differentiation. PMID:22829347

Argyris, Prokopios P; Pambuccian, Stefan E; Cayci, Zuzan; Singh, Charanjeet; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Koutlas, Ioannis G

2013-03-01

200

Using the Canny edge detector and mathematical morphology operators to detect vegetation patches  

Science.gov (United States)

Numbers and areas and locations of vegetation community patch are the important parameters for vegetation function and structure researches. In this paper, these parameters of vegetation patches are detected using the Canny edge detector and mathematical morphology operators. Firstly, part of a SPOT 5 fusion-ready color image is transformed into the gray image, then, stretched according to the histogram of the gray image in order to enhance the interesting vegetation patches. Secondly, using the Wiener filter to remove the noise and Canny edge detector to find the edges of the targets in the gray image. Finally, vegetation patches are detected based on the mathematical morphology criterion of circle and ellipse object and the centers of the patches are located. The experiments show that integration the Canny edge detector with the algorithms for extracting circle and ellipse object based on mathematical morphology are simple and effective for detecting vegetation patches.

Liu, Qingsheng; Dong, Jinfa; Liu, Gaohuan; Huang, Chong; Xie, Chuanjie

2011-06-01

 
 
 
 
201

Transformation Golf  

Science.gov (United States)

In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

2011-01-01

202

Covariant Transform  

Science.gov (United States)

Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

Kisil, Vladimir V.

2011-03-01

203

Covariant Transform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H{sub 2}, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

Kisil, Vladimir V, E-mail: kisilv@maths.leeds.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

2011-03-01

204

Transformable furniture  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transformable Furniture Master’s Degree Work The theme of the Master’s degree work - “Transformable Furniture” – is a topical issue these days, because the problem of irrational and tasteless furniture as well as interiors still exists. After analysing theories of the development of contemporary material environment as well as philosophical and artistic theories and attitude through the prism of the art and science proportion, the conception of the art playfulness, t...

Kavaliauskaite?, Ieva

2007-01-01

205

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

Science.gov (United States)

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Li, Hong-Yan; Tong, Shang-Liang; Xiang, Jian-Hai

2002-09-01

206

Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

M.Mani Roja

2012-12-01

207

Direct Imaging by Cryo-TEM Shows Membrane Break-up by Phospholipase A2 Enzymatic Activity  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Phospholipid hydrolysis to free fatty acid and l-lyso-phospholipid by water-soluble phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) at the surface of lipid membranes exhibits a poorly understood transition from a low-activity lag phase to a burst regime of rapid hydrolysis. Understanding this kinetic phenomenon may increase our insight into the function of PLA2 under physiological conditions as well as into general interfacial catalysis. In the present study we apply for the first time cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize the PLA2 hydrolysis of phospholipid vesicles with respect to changes in lipid composition and morphology. Our direct experimental results show that the initial reaction conditions are strongly perturbed during the course of hydrolysis, Most strikingly, cryo-TEM reveals that starting in the lag phase, vesicles become perforated and degrade into open vesicles, bilayer fragments, and micelles, This structural instability extends throughout the system in the activity burst regime. In agreement with earlier reported correlations between initial phospholipase activity and substrate morphology, our results suggest that the lag-burst phenomenon reflects a cascade process. The PLA(2)-induced changes in lipid composition transform the morphology which in turn results in an acceleration of the rate of hydrolysis because of a strong coupling between the PLA(2) activity and the morphology of the lipid suspension.

Callisen, Thomas HØnger; Talmon, Y.

1998-01-01

208

Laser-induced chemical transformation of PATP adsorbed on Ag nanoparticles by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-A study of the effects from surface morphology of substrate and surface coverage of PATP.  

Science.gov (United States)

The laser induced transformation of p-aminothiophenol (PATP) to p,p'-dimercaptoazobenzene (DMAB) has attracted intensive interest recently, in which localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) assisted photocatalysis has been demonstrated to play an important role. In this paper, we systematically investigate the factors that influence the reaction for further understanding the mechanism using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The laser-induced formation of DMAB was found to depend on the surface coverage of PATP, the aggregation state of NPs, and the laser power. The disappearance of DMAB Raman signal at very low concentration of Ag NPs reveals that DMAB may only be formed between the neighboring NPs that can provide a suitable distance for the interaction between adsorbed PATP molecules. PMID:25467654

Xu, Jian-Fang; Liu, Guo-Kun

2015-03-01

209

THE PARADOX OF SIGN LANGUAGE MORPHOLOGY.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sign languages have two strikingly different kinds of morphological structure: sequential and simultaneous. The simultaneous morphology of two unrelated sign languages, American and Israeli Sign Language, is very similar and is largely inflectional, while what little sequential morphology we have found differs significantly and is derivational. We show that at least two pervasive types of inflectional morphology, verb agreement and classifier constructions, are iconically grounded in spatiotemporal cognition, while the sequential patterns can be traced to normal historical development. We attribute the paucity of sequential morphology in sign languages to their youth. This research both brings sign languages much closer to spoken languages in their morphological structure and shows how the medium of communication contributes to the structure of languages. PMID:22223926

Aronoff, Mark; Meir, Irit; Sandler, Wendy

2005-06-01

210

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and related plant families. This disease causes anthers of infected plants to be filled with dark-violet fungal spores rather than pollen. Otherwise, their vegetative morphology is within the normal range of healthy plants. Here, we present the results of a herbarium survey showing that a number of type specimens (on which the species name and original description are based) in the genus Silene from Asia are diseased with anther smut. The primary visible disease symptom, namely the dark-violet anthers, is incorporated into the original species descriptions and some of these descriptions have persisted unchanged into modern floras. This raises the question of whether diseased type specimens have erroneously been given unique species names. PMID:14667368

Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

2003-11-01

211

Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed

212

Three-dimensional reconstruction and morphologic characteristics of porous metal fiber sintered sheet  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents an approach to achieve morphological characterizing for complex porous materials based on micro X-ray tomography images, with an example of a novel porous metal fiber sheet produced through solid-state sintering method. The geometrical reconstruction was performed after selection of volume of interest and image processing of anisotropic diffusion smooth. The reconstructed gray level images were then transferred into binary images by adjusting binarization threshold according to the actual porosity. Taking into account the tubular structural feature of the fibers, skeleton extraction algorithm based on the distance transform function was applied and further improved by the scale axis transform method. The skeleton was later pruned and segmented according to the contact points to perform morphological characterizing. Compared with actual manufacturing parameters, the style, length, radius, orientation and tortuosity of fiber segments were discussed. The results show that our proposed method can well describe the actual geometrical and morphological characteristics, which will provide a promising method for the structural description of fibrous networks. - Highlights: • Micro-CT technology was used to achieve the 3D geometrical reconstruction. • Skeleton extraction algorithm was modified to get the medial skeleton. • Skeleton filter operation was adopted to deal with the segmented skeleton. • Useful morphological statistics was obtained through skeleton segments. • Relationship between structure and manufacturing processes was discussed.

Wang, Qinghui [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Huang, Xiang, E-mail: 522250912@qq.com [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhou, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Jingrong [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

2013-12-15

213

Similarity transformations of MAPs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We introduce the notion of similar Markovian Arrival Processes (MAPs and show that the event stationary point processes related to two similar MAPs are stochastically equivalent. This holds true for the time stationary point processes too. We show that several well known stochastical equivalences as e.g. that between the H 2 renewal process and the Interrupted Poisson Process (IPP can be expressed by the similarity transformations of MAPs. In the appendix the valid region of similarity transformations for two-state MAPs is characterized.

Andersen Allan T.

1999-01-01

214

Electron microscopic observations on the morphological and mineralogical changes in feldspar during the weathering process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plagioclase feldspar in anorthositic rocks of Suryun area Korea, occurs predominantly as labradorite and show alteration into clay minerals under a distinct alteration sequence related to the degree of weathering. Under optical microscope, the feldspar shows that the alteration process was initiated by dissolution along microcracks, cleavage and twinning planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the morphological changes in feldspar during various stages of weathering. In the initial stage, selective etching has resulted in the formation of etch pits which on increased weathering have developed into stacks or sheaf structures. This on further weathering transformed into intermixed tubular and platy structures forming halloysite and kaolinite minerals respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also shows occurrence of tubular and platey shape minerals with variable dimensions. EPMA analysis and EDS patterns exhibit consistency with the morphological and mineralogical changes during alteration process of feldspar under weathering conditions. (author)

215

Influence of deposition parameters on morphological properties of biomedical calcium phosphate coatings prepared using electrostatic spray deposition  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to deposit biomedical calcium phosphate (CaP) coatings with a defined surface morphology, the electrostatic spray deposition (ESD) technique was used since this technique offers the possibility to deposit ceramic coatings with a variety of surface morphologies. A scanning electron microscopical study was performed in order to investigate the influence of several deposition parameters on the final morphology of the deposited coatings. The chemical characteristics of the coatings were studied by means of X-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Regarding the chemical coating properties, the results showed that the coatings can be described as crystalline carbonate apatite coatings, a crystal phase which is similar to the mineral phase of bone and teeth. The morphology of CaP coatings, deposited using the ESD technique, was strongly dependent on the deposition parameters. By changing the nozzle-to-substrate distance, the precursor liquid flow rate and the deposition temperature, coating morphologies were deposited, which varied from dense to highly porous, reticular morphologies. The formation of various morphologies was the result of an equilibrium between the relative rates of CaP solute precipitation/reaction, solvent evaporation and droplet spreading onto the substrate surface.

Leeuwenburgh, S.C.G. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, College of Dental Science, Department of Biomaterials, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Wolke, J.G.C. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, College of Dental Science, Department of Biomaterials, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands); Schoonman, J. [Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Jansen, J.A. [University Medical Center Nijmegen, College of Dental Science, Department of Biomaterials, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen (Netherlands)]. E-mail: j.jansen@dent.umcn.nl

2005-01-24

216

Microcavity morphology optimization  

Science.gov (United States)

High spectral mode density of conventional optical cavities is detrimental to the generation of broad optical frequency combs and to other linear and nonlinear applications. In this work we optimize the morphology of high-Q whispering gallery (WG) and Fabry-Perot (FP) cavities and find a set of parameters that allows treating them, essentially, as single-mode structures, thus removing limitations associated with a high density of cavity mode spectra. We show that both single-mode WGs and single-mode FP cavities have similar physical properties, in spite of their different loss mechanisms. The morphology optimization does not lead to a reduction of quality factors of modes belonging to the basic family. We study the parameter space numerically and find the region where the highest possible Q factor of the cavity modes can be realized while just having a single bound state in the cavity. The value of the Q factor is comparable with that achieved in conventional cavities. The proposed cavity structures will be beneficial for generation of octave spanning coherent frequency combs and will prevent undesirable effects of parametric instability in laser gravitational wave detectors.

Ferdous, Fahmida; Demchenko, Alena A.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

2014-09-01

217

A Bijective String Sorting Transform  

CERN Document Server

Given a string of characters, the Burrows-Wheeler Transform rearranges the characters in it so as to produce another string of the same length which is more amenable to compression techniques such as move to front, run-length encoding, and entropy encoders. We present a variant of the transform which gives rise to similar or better compression value, but, unlike the original, the transform we present is bijective, in that the inverse transformation exists for all strings. Our experiments indicate that using our variant of the transform gives rise to better compression ratio than the original Burrows-Wheeler transform. We also show that both the transform and its inverse can be computed in linear time and consuming linear storage.

Gil, Joseph Yossi

2012-01-01

218

Lorentz transformations: Einstein's derivation simplified  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Lorentz transformations for the space-time coordinates of the same event are a direct consequence of the principle of relativity and of Einstein's distant clocks synchronization procedure. In our approach, imposing the linear character of the Lorentz transformations we guess that the transformation equation for the space coordinate has the form x=ax'+cbt'. Imposing the condition that it accounts for the time dilation relativistic effect and taking into account the fact that due to the clock synchronization a la Einstein the space-time coordinates of the same event in the two frames are related by x=ct and x'=ct', we find out expressions for a and b. Dividing the transformation equation for the space coordinate by c we obtain the transformation equation for the time coordinate t=at'+b/cx'. Combining the two transformation equations we obtain directly the inverse Lorentz transformations.

Rothenstein, B; Popescu, Stefan; Rothenstein, Bernhard

2007-01-01

219

Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

Xiaodong Zheng

2010-12-01

220

Clifford Algebra and Space-Time Transformations: Lorentz Transformation and Inertial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We review the Inertial transformation and Lorentz transformation under a new context, by using Clifford Algebra or Geometric Algebra. The apparent contradiction between theses two approach is simply stems from different procedures for clock synchronization associated with different choices of the coordinates used to describe the physical world. We find the physical and coordinates components of both transformations. A important result is that in the case of Inertial transformation the physical components are exactly the Galilean transformations, but the speed of light is not c. Another interesting result is due to the fact the Lorentz transformations lead directly to physical components, and this case the speed of light is c. Finally e show that both scenarios, de-synchronization Einstein theory and synchronized theory, are all mathematically equivalent by means of Clifford Algebra Transformations.

de Oliveira, R; de Campos, V H G

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-06-01

222

Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

Navacchi Oriano

2002-09-01

223

Investigation of Presence Different Surfactant on Morphologies of PbTe Nanostructures  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PbTe nanostructures were prepared by a hydrothermal method on presence of different surfactant. Results show that in constant condition by changing the capping agent the morphology of as-obtained PbTe were revolutionize PbTe nanostructures show a strong photoluminescence peak at 402 nm at room temperature, also optical absorption spectrum of PbTe nanostructures exhibit an extreme blue-shift, which is attributed to the quantum confinement of charge carriers in the nanostructures. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy were used to characterize the as-produced PbTe nanostructures.

Salavati-Niasari M.

2014-08-01

224

Scalar perturbations and conformal transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The non-minimal coupling of gravity to a scalar field can be transformed into a minimal coupling through a conformal transformation. We show how to connect the results of a perturbation calculation, performed around a Friedman-Robertson-Walker background solution, before and after the conformal transformation. We work in the synchronous gauge, but we discuss the implications of employing other frames. (author). 16 refs

225

Whirly 3-Interval Exchange Transformations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Irreducible interval exchange transformations are studied with regarding to whirly, a condition for non-trivial spatial factor. Uniformly whirly transform is defined and claimed to be residue in the automorphism space. First, we will prove that almost all 3-interval exchange transformations are whirly, which is a constructional approach with deep investigation to the Rauzy-Veech Induction. As an extension, we will show that whirly is also a measure theoretical generic proper...

Wu, Yue

2014-01-01

226

Morphological Algorithms For The Analysis Of Pavement Structure  

Science.gov (United States)

The applicability of morphological image processing techniques for the description of condition and analysis of pavement surfaces is examined. Morphological techniques can be used in the measurement of pavement media consisting of grain (aggregates) and binding substances (bituminous or Portland cement mixtures). Measurements of size and size distributions on surface features related to texture and distresses can be obtained via morphological opening and closing transformations and distributions. When correlated with actual physical measurements of such quantities, the presented morphological measures of size and size distributions may prove to be useful in characterizing the surface condition of both asphalt and concrete pavement structures.

Grivas, Dimitri A.; Skolnick, Michael M.

1989-11-01

227

An explanation for the logarithmic connection between linear and morphological system theory  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Dorst/van den Boomgaard and Maragos introduced the slope transform as the morphological eqivalent of the Fourier transform. It formed the basis of a morphological system theory that bears an almost logarithmic relation to linear system theory. This surprising logarithmic connection, however, has not been understood so far. Our article provides an explanation by revealing that morphology in essence is linear system theory in specific algebras. While linear system theory uses the standard plus-...

Burgeth, Bernhard; Weickert, Joachim

2003-01-01

228

The Assembly of Diversity in the Morphologies and Stellar Populations of High-Redshift Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We have studied the evolution in the morphologies, sizes, stellar-masses, colors, and internal color dispersion (ICD) of galaxies at z=1 and 2.3, using a near-IR, flux-limited catalog for the HDF-N. At z=1 most luminous galaxies have morphologies of early-to-mid Hubble-types, and many show transformations between their rest-frame UV-optical morphologies. Galaxies at z=2.3 have compact and irregular morphologies with no clearly evident Hubble-sequence candidates. The mean galaxy size grows from z=2.3 to 1 by 40%, and the density of galaxies larger than 3 kpc increases by 7 times. At z=1, the size-luminosity distribution is broadly consistent with that of local galaxies, with passive evolution. However, galaxies at z=2.3 are smaller than the large present-day galaxies, and must continue to grow in size and stellar mass. We have measured the galaxies' UV-optical ICD, which quantifies differences in morphology and the relative amount of on-going star-formation. The mean and scatter in galaxies' total colors and I...

Papovich, C; Giavalisco, M; Conselice, C J; Ferguson, H C; Papovich, Casey; Dickinson, Mark; Giavalisco, Mauro; Conselice, Christopher J.; Ferguson, Henry C.

2005-01-01

229

Adaption of optical Fresnel transform to optical Wigner transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Enlightened by the algorithmic isomorphism between the rotation of the Wigner distribution function (WDF) and the ?th fractional Fourier transform, we show that the optical Fresnel transform performed on the input through an ABCD system makes the output naturally adapting to the associated Wigner transform, i.e. there exists algorithmic isomorphism between ABCD transformation of the WDF and the optical Fresnel transform. We prove this adaption in the context of operator language. Both the single-mode and the two-mode Fresnel operators as the image of classical Fresnel transform are introduced in our discussions, while the two-mode Wigner operator in the entangled state representation is introduced for fitting the two-mode Fresnel operator.

230

Peptide mixtures can self-assemble into large amyloid fibers of varying size and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptide mixtures spontaneously formed micrometer-sized fibers and ribbons from aqueous solution. Hydrolyzed gliadin produced short, slightly elliptical fibers while hydrolyzed wheat gluten, a mixture of gliadin and glutenin, formed round fibers of similar size. Mixing hydrolyzed gliadin with increasing molar amounts of myoglobin or amylase resulted in longer, wider fibers that transitioned from round to rectangular cross section. Fiber size, morphology, and modulus were controlled by peptide mixture composition. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy results showed that peptides experienced ? to ? transitions forming an elementary cross-? peptide secondary structure, indicative of amyloids. Large fiber formation was observed to be dependent on hydrophobic packing between constituent peptides. A model was developed to show how the fiber morphology was influenced by the peptides in the mixture. PMID:21879764

Ridgley, Devin M; Ebanks, Keira C; Barone, Justin R

2011-10-10

231

Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application

232

Surface-diffusion-driven decay of high-aspect-ratio gratings: Existence of morphologically related classes  

Science.gov (United States)

We present numerical and theoretical results concerning the technologically important process of evolution of high-aspect-ratio profiles due to surface diffusion under thermal treatment. We show how a broad class of initial gratings adopt, after a short transient stage, a typical shape that can be accurately described as a curve whose curvature has only two single Fourier modes as a function of the arc-length parameter. Moreover, we introduce a set of evolution equations for the relevant parameters that accounts very accurately for both morphological and kinetic aspects of the transformation processes for these curves in a wide region in parameter space. Regarding the decay of rectangular gratings, our numerical results show the existence of geometrically related classes that asymptotically approach to the same trajectory in parameter space. Gratings belonging to the same class pass through the same sequence of morphologies before reaching the final equilibrium state.

Madrid, Marcos A.; Salvarezza, Roberto C.; Castez, Marcos F.

2013-06-01

233

Cellulose nanocrystal from pomelo (C. Grandis osbeck) albedo: Chemical, morphology and crystallinity evaluation  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus peel is one of the under-utilized waste materials that have potential in producing a valuable fibre, which are cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal. Cellulose was first isolated from pomelo (C. Grandis Osbeck) albedo by combination of alkali treatment and bleaching process, followed by acid hydrolysis (65% H2SO4, 45 °C, 45min) to produce cellulose nanocrystal. The crystalline, structural, morphological and chemical properties of both materials were studied. Result reveals the crystallinity index obtained from X-ray diffraction for cellulose nanocrystal was found higher than extracted cellulose with the value of 60.27% and 57.47%, respectively. Fourier transform infrared showed that the chemical treatments removed most of the hemicellulose and lignin from the pomelo albedo fibre. This has been confirmed further by SEM and TEM for their morphological studies. These results showed that cellulose and cellulose nanocrystal were successfully obtained from pomelo albedo and might be potentially used in producing functional fibres for food application.

Zain, Nor Fazelin Mat; Yusop, Salma Mohamad; Ahmad, Ishak

2013-11-01

234

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type. One case of primary adenocarcinoma was included in this study, where the adjacent bladder mucosa showed CG. Evaluation of the histological features of CG, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion and differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Rau Aarathi

2009-04-01

235

[The role of actin alteration in the neoplastic transformation].  

Science.gov (United States)

Alteration of cell shape, motility and membrane fluidity which result in the disorganized cell arrangement and orientation, uncontrolled cell growth, and abnormal response to the environment have been considered one of the most striking and universal phenotypes characteristics of neoplastic cells. Cytoplasmic actins, i.e., beta-and gamma-actin, are the major molecules of the cytoskeleton whose function is involved in maintaining and controlling cell morphology, motility and membrane fluidity. In fact, most transformed cells show abnormal and disorganized structure of actin cable network. Thus, it is conceivable that alteration of structure and function of actin or microfilament may lead the cells to express the transformed phenotypes. A new polypeptide recognized in a chemically transformed human fibroblast line was identified as a variant form of actin. mRNA coding for the variant actin was detected only in this particular transformed line. The size and cross-hybridizability with dictyostelium actin cDNA of mRNA coding for the variant actin and complete amino acid sequence of the variant actin indicate that the new variant actin is a mutated beta-actin. Only a single amino acid (glycine) at the position of 245 was substituted by aspartic acid. This substitution corresponds to a GC----AT transition, a point mutation. On the other hand, the highly malignant cell variant was isolated from the transformed line. The mutated beta-actin was further altered in this highly malignant subclone. This further altered mutant beta-actin showed more negative charge, rapid synthetic ratio, and short halflife in the cells. The incorporation of the mutated beta-actin into cytoskeleton was significantly reduced. A hypothesis on the role of alteration of actin and microfilament in oncogenic transformation is proposed. PMID:6538775

Kakunaga, T

1984-03-01

236

Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors  

Science.gov (United States)

The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

2004-01-01

237

Martensitic Transformation in Austenitic Stainless Steels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Martensitic transformation is very important in austenitic stainless steels where the transformation induced plasticity phenomenon provides a combination of good mechanical properties, such as formability and strength. However, the difficulty of predicting the material behaviour is one of the major drawbacks of these steels. In order to model this behaviour it is of great importance to be able to characterize the morphology, crystallography and the amount of different types of martensite. The...

Naraghi, Reza

2009-01-01

238

Transformation of lakes in mires  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been presented relations among different types to lakes with respect to their morphometry, hydrodynamic, hydrochemistry, and biological properties of plants growing under various conditions of water depth, showing methods of their transformations in mires, as they become shallow. It has been explained too, how different lakes may be overgrown by vegetation and transformed in mires.

Stanis?aw Marek

1992-01-01

239

Transformation in fungi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformation with exogenous deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) now appears to be possible with all fungal species, or at least all that can be grown in culture. This field of research is at present dominated by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and two filamentous members of the class Ascomycetes, Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa, with substantial contributions also from fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and another filamentous member of the class Ascomycetes, Podospora anserina. However, transformation has been demonstrated, and will no doubt be extensively used, in representatives of most of the main fungal classes, including Phycomycetes, Basidiomycetes (the order Agaricales and Ustilago species), and a number of the Fungi Imperfecti. The list includes a number of plant pathogens, and transformation is likely to become important in the analysis of the molecular basis of pathogenicity. Transformation may be maintained either by using an autonomously replicating plasmid as a vehicle for the transforming DNA or through integration of the DNA into the chromosomes. In S. cerevisiae and other yeasts, a variety of autonomously replicating plasmids have been used successfully, some of them designed for use as shuttle vectors for Escherichia coli as well as for yeast transformation. Suitable plasmids are not yet available for use in filamentous fungi, in which stable transformation is dependent on chromosomal integration. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, integration of transforming DNA is virtually always by homology; in filamentous fungi, in contrast, it occurs just as frequently at nonhomologous (ectopic) chromosomal sites. The main importance of transformation in fungi at present is in connection with gene cloning and the analysis of gene function. The most advanced work is being done with S. cerevisiae, in which the virtual restriction of stable DNA integration to homologous chromosome loci enables gene disruption and gene replacement to be carried out with greater precision and efficiency than is possible in other species that show a high proportion of DNA integration events at nonhomologous (ectopic) sites. With a little more trouble, however, the methodology pioneered for S. cerevisiae can be applied to other fungi too. Transformation of fungi with DNA constructs designed for high gene expression and efficient secretion of gene products appears to have great commercial potential. PMID:2651864

Fincham, J R

1989-03-01

240

Generalized Fourier-Mukai Transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The paper sets out a generalized framework for Fourier-Mukai transforms and illustrates their use via vector bundle transforms. A Fourier-Mukai transform is, roughly, an isomorphism of derived categories of (sheaves) on smooth varieties X and Y. We show that these can only exist if the first Chern class of the varieties vanishes and, in the case of vector bundle transforms, will exist if and only if there is a bi-universal bundle on XxY which is "strongly simple" in a suitab...

Maciocia, Antony

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Quantum optics of spatial transformation media  

CERN Document Server

Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

Leonhardt, Ulf

2007-01-01

242

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

Anatoli Torokhti

2006-04-01

243

Transformation Experiment Using Bioluminescence Genes of "Vibrio fischeri."  

Science.gov (United States)

Bioluminescence transformation experiments show students the excitement and power of recombinant DNA technology. This laboratory experiment utilizes two plasmids of "Vibrio fischeri" in a transformation experiment. (LZ)

Slock, James

1995-01-01

244

Morphology of galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

245

Rotary Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

246

Continuous cooling transformations and microstructures in a low-carbon, high-strength low-alloy plate steel  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuous-cooling-transformation (CCT) diagram was determined for a high-strength low-alloy plate steel containing (in weight percent) 0.06 C, 1.45 Mn, 1.25 Cu, 0.97 Ni, 0.72 Cr, and 0.42 Mo. Dilatometric measurements were supplemented by microhardness testing, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The CCT diagram showed significant suppression of polygonal ferrite formation and a prominent transformation region, normally attributed to bainite formation, at temperatures intermediate to those of polygonal ferrite and martensite formation. In the intermediate region, ferrite formation in groups of similarly oriented crystals about 1 ?m in size and containing a high density of dislocations dominated the transformation of austenite during continuous cooling. The ferrite grains assumed two morphologies, elongated or acicular and equiaxed or granular, leading to the terms “acicular ferrite” and “granular ferrite,” respectively, to describe these structures. Austenite regions, some transformed to martensite, were enriched in carbon and retained at interfaces between ferrite grains. Coarse interfacial ledges and the nonacicular morphology of the granular ferrite grains provided evidence for a phase transformation mechanism involving reconstructive diffusion of substitutional atoms. At slow cooling rates, polygonal ferrite and Widmanstätten ferrite formed. These latter structures contained low dislocation densities and e-copper precipitates formed by an interphase transformation mechanism.

Thompson, S. W.; Vin, D. J., Col; Krauss, G.

1990-06-01

247

Multistep nature of X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in golden hamster embryo cells: expression of transformed phenotypes and stepwise changes in karyotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the expression of transformed phenotypes and genetic changes associated with the expression of each transformed phenotype after X-ray irradiation. Unirradiated cells grown at a constant growth rate until 8 passages (population doubling number, 15) exhibited little morphological change and ceased to divide thereafter. X-irradiated cells escaped from senescence and showed morphological alteration and anchorage independence after a population doubling number of 20. The acquisition of tumorigenicity in nude mice was observed much later (35 population doublings after irradiation). From cytogenetic analysis, all anchorage-independent clones were consistently found to have trisomy of chromosome 7. Furthermore, cells derived from tumors contained three copies of chromosome 9q in addition to the trisomy of chromosome 7. We have not detected any augmented expression of v-Ha-ras- and v-myc-related oncogenes with RNA dot-blot analysis and could not find activation of any type of oncogenes by NIH3T3 transfection experiments. Our studies demonstrated that X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation is a multistep phenomenon and that the numerical change of specific chromosomes may play an important role in the expression of each transformed phenotype. The results suggest that different endogenous oncogenes, other than the ras gene family and myc oncogene, could be responsible for the progressive nature of neoplastic transformationion

248

Epithelial-mesenchymal interactions and lung branching morphogenesis. Role of polyamines and transforming growth factor ß1  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lung branching morphogenesis is a result of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, which are in turn dependent on extracellular matrix composition and cytokine regulation. Polyamines have recently been demonstrated as able to modify chick embryo skin differentiation. In this work we have examined the effects of putrescine and spermidine during chick embryo lung morphogenesis in organotypic cultures by morphological, histochemical and biochemical examination. To verify the role of polyamines, we used specific inhibitors, such as bis-cyclohexylammonium sulphate and alfa-difluoromethylornithine, and transforming growth factor ß1, an ornithine decarboxylase and polyamine stimulator. Our data show that lung morphogenesis is significantly altered following the induced mesenchymal glycosaminoglycan changes. The increase of mesenchymal glycosaminoglycans is correlated with a stimulation of lung development in the presence of polyamines, and with its inhibition when transforming growth factor ß1 is added to the culture medium. The morphometric data show a uniform increase of both the mesenchyme and epithelial branching with spermidine and putrescine stimulus, whereas the mesenchymal substance alone is significantly increased in apical-median lung sections with transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine lung cultures. Transforming growth factor ß1 and transforming growth factor ß1 + spermidine confirm the blocking of epithelial branching formations and fibroblast activation, and show that polyamines are unable to prevent the blocking of epithelial cells due to the inhibitory effect of transforming growth factor ß1.

G Stabellini

2009-12-01

249

[Transformation of Volvariella volvacea with a thermal hysteresis protein gene by particle bombardment].  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding a thermal hysteresis protein was isolated from the Swedish Arctic insect spruce budworm by RT-PCR amplification. Volvariella volvacea strain V34 was transformed with this cDNA through particle bombardment. PCR detection and Southern blotting analysis show that the thermal hysteresis protein gene is integrated into Volvariella volvacea genome. Cold stress assay reveals that transgenic Volvariella volvacea lines exhibit stronger cold tolerance than host strain. The morphological observation of transgenic Volvariella volvacea lines shows that growth rates of most Volvariella volvacea transformants are significantly slower than that of negative control strain. And hypha of most Volvariella volvacea tansformants is thinner than host strain's hypha. Transformant screening result indicates that three-round of selection procedure with first selection on PDSA solid selective medium followed by second and third selection in PDSB liquid selective medium is favorable to get genuine transformants and to eliminate false transformants. Cold tolerance assay of transgenic Volvariella volvacea F1 generation demonstrates that the progeny of transgenic Volvariella volvacea still possesses stronger cold tolerance than non-transformed host strain. This suggests that the cold tolerant characteristic of transgenic Volvariella volvacea is meiotically stable between generations. PMID:15847160

Guo, Li-qiong; Lin, Jun-fang; Xiong, Sheng; Chen, Shou-cai

2005-02-01

250

EHV transmission line protection using a morphological lifting scheme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel algorithm for ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection relays of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines, using a morphological lifting scheme (MLS). The MLS focuses on identifying the gradient of the wavefront of a traveling wave contaminated by noise. The proposed algorithm can be used for either transient positional or directional protection. It is evaluated through a variety of simulation studies which are carried out on a typical 400 kV EHV transmission system model using the power simulation program PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show that, with the MLS used, the algorithm is capable of providing accurate responses under various fault conditions in comparison with previous algorithms, such as wavelet transform (WT). (author)

Lu, Z.; Ji, T.Y.; Wu, Q.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

251

Morphology development during polymer blending  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We present results on the morphologies of incompatible polymer blends analysed by several techniques (SEM and particle counter after separation). These result show, in the concentration zone just below the inversion phase, the simultaneous presence in the blend of nodular and fibrillar structures. A global interpretation of the phenomena allows us to propose a new relation using the Tomokita notion of fiber stability to predict the phase inversion region.

Luciani, A.; Jarrin, J.; Dewimille, B.

1993-01-01

252

Growth morphology with anisotropic surface kinetics  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphological evolution of crystals growing from an incongruent vapor phase is studied using a Monte Carlo model, and the full range of growth morphologies is recovered. The diffusion in the bulk nutrient and the anisotropy in the interface kinetics are morphologically destabilizing and stabilizing, respectively. For a given set of simulation parameters and lattice symmetries there is a critical size, which scales linearly with the mean free path in the vapor, beyond which a crystal cannot retain its stable, macroscopically faceted growth shape. Surface diffusion stabilizes faceted growth on the shorter scale of the mean surface diffusion length. In simulations with a uniform drift superimposed on the random walk nutrient transport, crystal faces oriented toward the drift show enhanced morphological stability compared to the purely diffusive situation. Rotational drifts with periodic reversal of direction are morphologically stabilizing for all crystal facets.

Xiao, Rong-Fu; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Rosenberger, Franz

1990-01-01

253

PECULIARITIES OF MORPHOLOGICAL VERIFICATION IN BREAST CANCER  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 80 case histories of patients with breast cancer were analyzed. During the preoperative examination with objective and instrumental examination methods used the malignant process was suspected but no morphological verification was received. Physical examination revealed 75% cases of cancer. Roentgenologic evidence of malignant tumor was found in 43.5% women. Ultrasound examination of mammary glands showed that 57.7% of patients had cancer symptoms. Despite the repeated puncture aspiration biopsy, preoperative morphological examination proved to be negative. The reasons of morphological verification failure are connected with technical difficulties and morphological features of tumor structure. Negative malignant process verification necessitated the diagnostic partial mastectomy. To achieve ablasticity ofexcisional biopsyit is necessary to keep 2 cm from the tumor. Staged morphological diagnosis verifies the diagnosis in all patients, allowing to choose the adequate extentof surgical procedures.

L.F. Zhandarova

2008-06-01

254

Smooth muscle ?-actin is a direct target of PLZF: effects on the cytoskeleton and on susceptibility to oncogenic transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Changes in cell morphology and rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton are common features accompanying cell transformation induced by various oncogenes. In this study, we show that promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) binds to the promoter of smooth muscle ?-actin, reducing mRNA and protein levels encoded by this gene and resulting in a reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton. In cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF), this effect on ?-actin expression is correlated wi...

Shi, Jin; Sun, Minghao; Vogt, Peter K.

2010-01-01

255

Growth, morphology, spectral and thermal studies of gel grown diclofenac acid crystals  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal growth of diclofenac acid in silica gel is the first to be reported in literature. The growth parameters were varied to optimize the suitable growth condition. Single crystal X-ray diffraction method was used for the conformation of the crystal structure. Morphology studies showed that the growth is prominent along the b-axis and the prominent face is {002}. Fourier transform infrared spectral study was performed to identify the functional groups present in the crystal. Thermal stability and decomposition of the material were analyzed using thermo calorimetry in the temperature range 30-500 °C.

Ramachandran, E.; Ramukutty, S.

2014-03-01

256

Synthesis, morphology and optical properties of LaFeO3 nanospheres  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

LaFeO3 nanospheres have been successively synthesized via hydrothermal method. Structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared nanopowder were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy. The UV–Vis shows strong absorption at 475 nm which has excellent visible light absorption ability. Band gap energy of the prepared nanosphere was found to be 2.60 eV. The results indicate that the LaFeO3 nanospheres prepared by this method could be a kind of photocatalytic material

257

Growth and morphological characterization of Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention, when in situ composites are concerned. The eutectic alloys are regarded as presenting regular morphology (lamellar and fibrous structures). Besides, when directionally solidified they show high microstructure stability at high temperatures. This work reports a morphological study of an Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloy. The solidification morphology of the alloys was studied both in the as-cast and in the directionally solidified conditions. The samples were first obtained in an arc furnace and then directionally solidified using Bridgman equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 5.0 to 30.0 mm/h. Optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in order to determine the influence of the solidification conditions on the microstructure. The results obtained indicated that the eutectic transformation temperature is near 1347.9 deg. C with formation of Al3(Nb,Cr) and Cr(Al,Nb) phases. Also, it was noted that the Cr(Al,Nb) phase undergoes a polymorphic transformation (?892.3 deg. C) forming the Al(Nb)Cr2 compound, followed by eutectoid decomposition Cr(Al,Nb) ? Al(Nb)Cr2 + Al8Cr5

258

Effects of chloride acclimation on iron oxyhydroxides and cell morphology during cultivation of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Iron oxyhydroxides as the efficient scavengers for heavy metals have been extensively investigated in iron-rich acid sulfate waters in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans (A. ferrooxidans, an especially important chemolithoautotroph for bioleaching and desulfurization of coal). In this study, we observed the morphology and elemental composition of cells in stationary phase and examined the dynamic variation of iron oxyhydroxides produced in cultures of A. ferrooxidans incubated in modified 9K medium initially including 0.15 M of ferrous iron, in the absence/presence of 0.2 M of chloride (NaCl/FeCl(2)). Results showed that chloride acclimation had little effect on cellular morphology and elemental uptake that was mainly related to culture medium. Furthermore, schwertmannite with the typical morphology of aggregated spheres covered by some "pincushions" was precipitated first in bacterial cultures in the favorable pH range of 2.9 ± 0.1 to 2.6 ± 0.1. Some of schwertmannite could be transformed to lozenge-shaped jarosite, due to a successively decreasing of pH values. However, the jarosite transformation represented a lag period of 5 and 4 days in the chloride-rich cultures with sulfate at a low level, compared to the cultures with sulfate at a high level, which could be attributed to the influence of sulfate requirement and chloride acclimation. PMID:21128632

Xiong, Huixin; Guo, Rong

2011-01-01

259

Growth and morphological characterization of Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Directional solidification of eutectic alloys attracts considerable attention, when in situ composites are concerned. The eutectic alloys are regarded as presenting regular morphology (lamellar and fibrous structures). Besides, when directionally solidified they show high microstructure stability at high temperatures. This work reports a morphological study of an Al-Cr-Nb eutectic alloy. The solidification morphology of the alloys was studied both in the as-cast and in the directionally solidified conditions. The samples were first obtained in an arc furnace and then directionally solidified using Bridgman equipment. During the directional solidification process, the growth rates utilized varied from 5.0 to 30.0 mm/h. Optical (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used in order to determine the influence of the solidification conditions on the microstructure. The results obtained indicated that the eutectic transformation temperature is near 1347.9 deg. C with formation of Al{sub 3}(Nb,Cr) and Cr(Al,Nb) phases. Also, it was noted that the Cr(Al,Nb) phase undergoes a polymorphic transformation ({approx}892.3 deg. C) forming the Al(Nb)Cr{sub 2} compound, followed by eutectoid decomposition Cr(Al,Nb) {yields} Al(Nb)Cr{sub 2} + Al{sub 8}Cr{sub 5}.

Souza, S.A. [DEMA/FEM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Rios, C.T. [DEMA/FEM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Coelho, A.A. [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Ferrandini, P.L. [Centro Universitario da FEI, C.P. 85, CEP 09850-901, SP (Brazil); Gama, S. [IFGW, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6165, CEP 13083-970, SP (Brazil); Caram, R. [DEMA/FEM, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, C.P. 6122, CEP 13083-970, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rcaram@fem.unicamp.br

2005-10-27

260

Phase transformations in the powder mixture iron-boron carbide and structure of sintered materials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformations on inter-phase surface in the powder mixture of iron-boron carbide were investigated at 1050-1200 deg C. The structure was examined by means of optical microscopy, magnet-powder metallography and local X-ray spectrum analysis. The investigation results showed the light solid phase, whose morphology was dependent on sintering temperature, was boride. Transformations occurring on interphase surfaces at sintering the powder mixture constituting iron and boron carbide led to complex alterations in the phase composition of the sintered materials. Decarbonization was found to have taken place in the transformation zone of materials sintered at high temperature. The possibility was found of obtaining various structural states with different reinforcement levels, this being in conformity with modern requirements for building materials by powder metallurgy techniques

 
 
 
 
261

Signal processing on graphs: Transforms and tomograms  

CERN Document Server

Using projections on the (generalized) eigenvectors associated to matrices that characterize the topological structure, several authors have constructed generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram transform is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs

Mendes, R Vilela; Araújo, Tanya

2014-01-01

262

Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level.

263

Synthesis of Polyaniline Submicrometer-Sized Tubes with Controllable Morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Polyaniline submicrometer-sized tubes with controllable morphology have been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with the aid of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The products were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of the concentrations of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, reaction temperatures and growth conditions on the morphologies of polyaniline submicrometer-sized tubes have been investigated.

Li Guicun, E-mail: guicunli@qust.edu.cn; Pang Shuping [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Nanostructured Materials (China); Liu Jianhua [College of Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Physics of Department (China); Wang Zhaobo; Zhang Zhikun [Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Key Laboratory of Nanostructured Materials (China)

2006-12-15

264

Synthesis of Polyaniline Submicrometer-Sized Tubes with Controllable Morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyaniline submicrometer-sized tubes with controllable morphology have been synthesized by chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with the aid of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. The products were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of the concentrations of sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate, reaction temperatures and growth conditions on the morphologies of polyaniline submicrometer-sized tubes have been investigated

265

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar+) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 1018 to 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C–C and C–F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux

266

Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 expression associated with gene demethylation confers anoikis resistance in early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although anoikis resistance has been considered a hallmark of malignant phenotype, the causal relation between neoplastic transformation and anchorage-independent growth remains undefined. We developed an experimental model of murine melanocyte malignant transformation, where a melanocyte lineage (melan-a) was submitted to sequential cycles of anchorage blockade, resulting in progressive morphologic alterations, and malignant transformation. Throughout this process, cells corresponding to premalignant melanocytes and melanoma cell lines were established and show progressive anoikis resistance and increased expression of Timp1. In melan-a melanocytes, Timp1 expression is suppressed by DNA methylation as indicated by its reexpression after 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment. Methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension analysis showed increased demethylation in Timp1 in parallel with its expression along malignant transformation. Interestingly, TIMP1 expression has already been related with negative prognosis in some human cancers. Although described as a MMP inhibitor, this protein has been associated with apoptosis resistance in different cell types. Melan-a cells overexpressing Timp1 showed increased survival in suspension but were unable to form tumors in vivo, whereas Timp1-overexpressing melanoma cells showed reduced latency time for tumor appearance and increased metastatic potential. Here, we demonstrated for the first time an increment in Timp1 expression since the early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation, associated to a progressive gene demethylation, which confers anoikis resistance. In this way, Timp1 might be considered as a valued marker for melanocyte malignant transformation. PMID:19956395

Ricca, Tatiana I; Liang, Gangning; Suenaga, Ana Paula M; Han, Sang W; Jones, Peter A; Jasiulionis, Miriam G

2009-12-01

267

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.

2011-01-01

268

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

Science.gov (United States)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO 2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as Nb V and an equivalent amount of Ti IV is transformed to Ti III as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air Ti IV and Nb V cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O 2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb 2O 5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb-O-Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment.

Song, Haiyan; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Vistad, Ørnulv B.; Arstad, Bjørnar; Norby, Poul

2011-12-01

269

The Houdini Transformation: True, but Illusory  

Science.gov (United States)

Molenaar (2003, 2011) showed that a common factor model could be transformed into an equivalent model without factors, involving only observed variables and residual errors. He called this invertible transformation the Houdini transformation. His derivation involved concepts from time series and state space theory. This article verifies the…

Bentler, Peter M.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

2012-01-01

270

Exceptional orthogonal polynomials and the Darboux transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We adapt the notion of the Darboux transformation to the context of polynomial Sturm-Liouville problems. As an application, we characterize the recently described Xm Laguerre polynomials in terms of an isospectral Darboux transformation. We also show that the shape invariance of these new polynomial families is a direct consequence of the permutability property of the Darboux-Crum transformation.

271

A completely covariant approach to transformation optics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics

272

Uniqueness for the continuous wavelet transform  

CERN Document Server

Injectivity of the continuous wavelet transform acting on a square integrable signal is proved under weak conditions on the Fourier transform of the wavelet, namely that it is nonzero somewhere in almost every direction. For a bounded signal (not necessarily square integrable), we show that if the continuous wavelet transform vanishes identically, then the signal must be constant.

Bui, H -Q

2011-01-01

273

Anaplastic Transformation of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies that arise from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). However, the carcinogenic mechanism of anaplastic transformation remains unclear. We describe a case for huge goiter diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma, which underwent thyroidectomy. The final histology showed anaplastic transformation. The clinical and possible etiological aspects are discussed.

Khairy, Gamal

2009-01-01

274

Application of Hadamard transform in IMS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hadamard transform can improve the SNR by increasing the ion duty cycle in IMS. In this paper, the ion spectral signals were processed by Hadamard transform based on the IMS detector hardware platform. The results showed that Hadamard transform can greatly improve the SNR of the IMS detector in contrast with traditional method. (authors)

275

Growth and morphological transformations of Helicobacter pylori in broth media.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Helicobacter pylori, a cause of peptic ulcer disease and certain types of gastric cancers, has usually been cultured on diverse agar-based media, resulting in a requirement for 2 to 4 days of growth at 37 degrees C. We have developed a novel broth medium consisting of a base medium supplemented with 2% newborn calf serum, Mg2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and 1 mg of lysed human erythrocytes per ml. This medium supports rapid growth of H. pylori, with a doubling time of about 50 min. Optimal grow...

Andersen, A. P.; Elliott, D. A.; Lawson, M.; Barland, P.; Hatcher, V. B.; Puszkin, E. G.

1997-01-01

276

On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

2007-01-01

277

Morphological analysis of powders  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Consideration is being given to the technique using raster electron microscope (REM) applied for analyzing morphology of powders of hard alloy production, that is the form of particles and their aggregates, surface structure, morphological fraction composition, the general tendency to agglomeration. The competent character of morphological analysis is shown from the viewpoint of stereology and fruitfulness of its application as the method of investigation and production control. The mentioned technique appeared to be useful for powders of ammonium paratungstate (APT), tungstic acid, tungsten, oxides, metallic tungsten, carbides tungsten, titanium, vanadium and other metals of 4-6 groups, cobalt, iron and nickel.

Chernyavskij, K.S.

1984-01-01

278

Morphological analysis of powders  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Consideration is being given to the technique using raster electron microscope (REM) applied for analyzing morphology of powders of hard alloy production, that is the form of particles and their agregates, surface structure, morphological fraction composition, the general tendency to agglomeration. The competent character of morphological analysis is shown from the viewpoint of stereology and fruitfulness of its application as the method of investigation and production control. The mentioned technique appeared to be useful for powders of ammonium paratungstate (APT), tungstic acid, tungsten, oxides, metallic tungsten, carbides tungsten, titanium, vanadium and other metals of 4-6 groups, cobalt, iron and nickel

279

WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

Guy Courbebaisse

2011-05-01

280

Effect of rapid cooling on polymorphous transformations in pure metals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of cooling rate on polymorphous transformations in titanium, zirconium, iron and cobalt is experimentally studied. In group 5 of polymorphous metals (titanium, zirconium, iron, cobalt) a stepped dependence of the starting temperature of polymorphous transformation on cooling rate is detected. In the case of titanium, zirconium and cobalt to each stage its proper morphology of transformation products corresponds. Experimental data for the metals are in a correspondence with kinetic theory of polymorphous transformations. Stepped kinetics of the polymorphous transformation in iron is partially conditioned by the braking of interface with interstitials which is necessary to take into account when further developing the theory

 
 
 
 
281

Morphology of polycrystalline cassiterite films  

Science.gov (United States)

Polycrystalline cassiterite films have been grown by the hydropyrolytic method from a 10(H2O) + 5(SnCl2 · 2H2O) solution (in weight fractions) on corundum substrates. The crystallization regularities are considered and a comparative analysis of the properties of natural and artificial cassiterite crystals is performed. The surface morphology is investigated and the size of crystalline grains is determined by scanning electron microscopy. X-ray microprobe analysis showed that all films contain tin and oxygen atoms in a ratio corresponding (within the experimental error) to the chemical formula of tin dioxide. It is established that the surface morphology of cassiterite films is characterized by both single crystallites and aggregates of two or more crystals typical of twins. It is suggest that doping can efficiently be used to control the concentration of twins and the stability of their formation.

Tomaev, V. V.; Glazov, A. I.

2014-09-01

282

New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the meth...

Adawi, A.; Awawdeh, F.

2008-01-01

283

Morphological evolution of domains in spinodal decomposition  

Science.gov (United States)

Domain growth in spinodal decomposition is usually described by a single time-evolving length scale. We show that the evolution of morphology of domains is nonmonotonic. The domains elongate rapidly at first and then, with the help of hydrodynamics, return to a more circular shape. The initial elongation phase does not alter with hydrodynamics. A small deviation from critical composition changes the morphology dramatically.

Datt, Charu; Thampi, Sumesh P.; Govindarajan, Rama

2015-01-01

284

Morphological filters for OCR: a performance comparison  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this article is compared the ability of several morphological operators to improve OCR performance when used as preprocessing filters. An experiment on binary and greyscale images using the Tesseract OCR engine and morphological filters acting in complex, graph and vertex spaces has thus been performed and results in a good overall performance of complex and area filters. MSE measures have also been performed to evaluate the denoising ability of these filters, which again shows the good pe...

Mennillo, Laurent; Cousty, Jean; Najman, Laurent

2012-01-01

285

Shape transformations of toroidal vesicles  

CERN Document Server

Morphologies of genus-1 and 2 toroidal vesicles are studied numerically by dynamically triangulated membrane models and experimentally by confocal laser microscopy. Our simulation results reproduce shape transformations observed in our experiments well. At large reduced volumes of the genus-1 vesicles, obtained vesicle shapes agree with the previous theoretical results for axisymmetric shapes: double-necked stomatocyte, discoidal toroid, and circular toroid. However, for small reduced volumes, it is found that a non-axisymmetric discoidal toroid and handled discocyte exist in thermal equilibrium in the parameter range, in which the previous theory predicts axisymmetric shapes. The entropy caused by shape fluctuations slightly modifies the stability of the vesicle shapes.

Sakashita, Ai; Noguchi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

286

The Peculiarities of Martensite Morphology in Nano- and Inhomogeneous Spaces  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The article describes certain experimental situations, in which the small volumes available for the phase transformation can dramatically affect the morphology, substructure of martensite, martensitic transformation itself. Martensitic structures in standalone nanoparticles as well as that one’s embedded in extrinsic matrix, joint nanograins and multiply connected spaces, gradient structures are given consideration. Much attention is paid to the problem of nucleation and propaga...

Monastyrsky G.E.

2013-01-01

287

Induced chromosome rearrangements and morphologic variation in Candida albicans.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have isolated a mutant of Candida albicans that switches between colony morphologies at high frequencies in a strain with several genetic markers. This strain, 1183, has an altered karyotype with two extra chromosomes. The 1183 karyotype is unstable upon passage. Using DNA transformation with the URA3 gene flanked by sequences from the C. albicans repeat sequence 27A, we have marked individual chromosomes of 1183 and 1161, a related smooth, stable strain. Many transformants contained one o...

Barton, R. C.; Scherer, S.

1994-01-01

288

People in different age groups show different hip-joint morphology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It has been suggested that the distribution of the subchondral bone density may be regarded as the expression of the long-term effective stress in a joint, and previous results indicate the regularity of the distribution of subchondral bone density as a function of the passing demands made upon a joint. Computed tomography-osteoabsorptiometry has been developed to visualize the area distribution of subchondral mineralization in the major joints in vivo. The purpose of this study was to displa...

Mu?ller-gerbl, Magdalena; Putz, Reinhard; Kierse, R.

1993-01-01

289

Tungsten powder morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Part of a study which has been undertaken to examine the effects of various experimental variables on the morphologies of the products at different stages in the tungsten powder production sequence is reported. In particular the precipitation process used to produce the ammonium paratungstate, the temperature of reduction and the ratio of hydrogen to water vapor in the reducing atmosphere have been investigated. It was found that the morphology of tungsten powder produced from ammonium paratungstate is related to the original morphology of the paratungstate material. Increasing the temperature of reduction of blue oxide causes a change in the morphology of the resultant metal product. At temperatures up to approximately 7000C, porous particles, of the same overall morphology as the original APT particles, are produced. At 7000C and above, new smaller particles of tungsten are produced but these are joined and retained in the framework of the original APT particle. The change in metal particle morphology is related to a change in the morphology of the oxide WO2 which occurs in the temperature range 700 to 8000C. Controlled reduction in H2/H2O mixtures produces the sub-oxide W18O49 which forms as small interlocking rod-like whiskers. These give the possibility of using chemical control of morphology to produce submicron oxide or metal particles.Freeze-dried APT appears to offer some es.Freeze-dried APT appears to offer some advantages asso-W piated with the degree of separation of both fine W18O49 and fine W particles during processing. ?-W is produced by reduction of a temperature of 5000C, while ?-W is produced by reduction at temperatures of 6000C and above

290

Extrinsic morphology of graphene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Graphene is intrinsically non-flat and corrugates randomly. Since the corrugating physics of atomically-thin graphene is strongly tied to its electronics properties, randomly corrugating morphology of graphene poses significant challenge to its application in nanoelectronic devices for which precise (digital) control is the key. Recent studies revealed that the morphology of substrate-supported graphene is regulated by the graphene-substrate interaction, thus is distinct fro...

Li, Teng

2011-01-01

291

Detection of myocardial ischemia episode using morphological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we propose to use morphological features that are easy to identify to differentiate myocardial ischemic beats from normal beats. In general, myocardial ischemia causes alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) signal such as deviation in the ST segment. When the ST segment level deviates from a certain voltage, the beat would be diagnosing as myocardial ischemia. To emphasize on ST variations, the QRS complex of the ECG signal was first subtracted and replaced with a straight line. Five-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed to decompose the waveform into subband components and the A5 subband, which is most sensitive to the changes in the ST segment, was reconstructed for the calculation of 12 morphological features. The support vector machine (SVM) and the 10-fold cross-validation method were employed to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show high values of 95.20%, 93.29%, and, 93.63% in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, that were demonstrated to outperform the other methods in the literature. PMID:24111439

Fan, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yu; Yu, Sung-Nien; Lin, Jou-Wei

2013-01-01

292

Influence of Strontium on Hydroxyapatite Morphology and Luminescence Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strontium Hydroxyapatite (SrxCa10-x(PO46(OH2, x=0, 3, 5, 10 powder with fluorescence property was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were employed to analyze phase change, characteristics and fluorescence property of samples. The experimental results indicate that the morphology of samples is spherical particle(D=1~2 ?m, and with the amount of strontium changed from 0 to 100mol%, the morphology of spherical particle changes from short nanorods to nanosheets and then long nanorods. The samples show an intense and bright blue emission from 375 nm to 500 nm centered at 432 nm under long-wavelength UV light excitation (351 nm. The PL emission intensity firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the strontium content. When strontium content is 30%, the PL emission intensity reaches the maximum.

ZHAO Xin, WANG De-Ping, QIU Wen-Qing, YE Song

2013-01-01

293

Self-assembly in an evaporating nanofluid droplet: rapid transformation of nanorods into 3D fibre network structures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Upon evaporation, ZnO nanorods in a nanofluid droplet undergo rapid and spontaneous chemical and morphological transformation into centimetre-long Zn(OH)2 fibres, via a mechanism very different from that for coffee rings. We show that the detailed nanostructure and micromorphology in the residual thin film depend intricately on the ambient moisture, nanofluid solvent composition and substrate surface chemistry. Upon thermal annealing, these Zn(OH)2 fibres readily undergo further chemical and morphological transformation, forming nanoporous fibres with the pore size tuneable by temperature. Our results point to a simple route for generating a self-assembled 3D structure with ultralong and nanoporous ZnO/Zn(OH)2 fibres/belts, and may also be of interest to the fields of evaporation controlled dynamic self-assembly, non-equilibrium crystallisation, and flow and fingering instabilities in nanofluids. PMID:24946161

Wu, H; Chen, L X; Zeng, X Q; Ren, T H; Briscoe, Wuge H

2014-08-01

294

Courtship and genetic quality: asymmetric males show their best side  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fluctuating asymmetry (FA), the small random deviations from perfect morphological symmetry that result during development, is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. In many species, FA seems to play a role in mate choice, perhaps because it signals an individual's genetic quality and health. However, the relationship between an individual's FA and behaviour is generally unknown: what do more asymmetric individuals do about their own asymmetry? We now show for the first time that individua...

Gross, Mart R.; Suk, Ho Young; Robertson, Cory T.

2007-01-01

295

Liquid Metal Transformers  

CERN Document Server

The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

2014-01-01

296

Schema Transformation without Database Reorganization  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We argue for avoiding database reorganizations due to schema modification in object-oriented systems, since these are expensive operations and they conflict with reusing existing software components. We show that data independence, which is a neglected concept in object databases, helps to avoid reorganizations in case of capacity preserving and reducing schema transformations. We informally present a couple of examples to illustrate the idea of a schema transformation metho...

Tresch, Markus; Scholl, Marc H.

1993-01-01

297

Backlund transformations and Hamiltonian flows  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this work we show that, under certain conditions, parametric Backlund transformations (BTs) for a finite dimensional integrable system can be interpreted as solutions to the equations of motion defined by an associated non-autonomous Hamiltonian. The two systems share the same constants of motion. This observation lead to the identification of the Hamiltonian interpolating the iteration of the discrete map defined by the transformations, that indeed will be a linear combi...

Zullo, Federico

2012-01-01

298

Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cl...

Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

2012-01-01

299

Pattern Matching under Polynomial Transformation  

CERN Document Server

We consider a class of pattern matching problems where a polynomial transformation can be applied to the pattern at every alignment. Given a pattern of length m and a longer text of length n where both are assumed to contain integer values only, we show O(n log m) algorithms for pattern matching under linear transformations even when wildcard symbols can occur in the input. We then show how to extend the technique to polynomial transformations of arbitrary degree. Next we consider the problem of finding the minimum Hamming distance under polynomial transformation. We show that, for any epsilon > 0, there cannot exist an O(nm^(1-epsilon)) algorithm for additive and linear transformations conditional on the hardness of the classic 3SUM problem. Finally, we consider a version of the Hamming distance problem under additive transformations with a bound k on the maximum distance that need be reported. We give a deterministic O(nk log k) time solution which we then improve by careful use of randomisation to O(n sqrt...

Butman, Ayelet; Clifford, Raphael; Jalsenius, Markus; Lewenstein, Noa; Porat, Benny; Porat, Ely; Sach, Benjamin

2011-01-01

300

Morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to inorganogel and its effect on the properties of alumina particle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study, a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-mediated sol-gel process was developed to synthesize the alumina hydoxide whiskers. During the process, inexpensive inorganic salts were used as precursors and supercritical drying method was used to extract the water in hydrogel. The influences of CMC on the gel formation and the particle morphology were investigated. The results show that the formation of CMC-aluminium hydroxide organic-inorganic hybridgels led to a morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to aluminium hydroxide gel, as a result, the precursor with whiskerious morphology was obtained. Such specific morphology of the precursor delayed phase transformation from transition- to ?-alumina greatly, and the ability resistant to sintering was highly enhanced. At presence of CMC, the acicular alumina calcined at 1200 deg. C for 4 h had surface area of 79.6 m2 g-1, much higher than the spherical sample (50 m2 g-1) without CMC. Because of being straightforward, inexpensive and versatile, the approach could be potentially used to prepare other materials with controllable morphologies and might be potentially extended to mass-production

 
 
 
 
301

On K-transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

C. Nasim

1981-09-01

302

On K-transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

Nasim, C.

1981-01-01

303

Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different morphologies of ?+? microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single ?-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the ? to ? phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the ? phase transformed to colonies of ? at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

304

Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different morphologies of {alpha}+{beta} microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single {beta}-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the {beta} to {alpha} phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the {beta} phase transformed to colonies of {alpha} at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

Dehghan-Manshadi, A; Reid, M H; Dippenaar, R J, E-mail: alidm@uow.edu.a [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500, NSW (Australia)

2010-07-01

305

Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction) with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling. PMID:25249944

Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; De Schutter, Erik

2014-01-01

306

Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation. Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

Benjamin Torben-Nielsen

2014-09-01

307

Highly Porous NiTi with Isotropic Pore Morphology Fabricated by Self-Propagated High-Temperature Synthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

Highly porous NiTi with isotropic pore morphology has been successfully produced by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of elemental Ni/Ti metallic powders. The effects of adding urea and NaCl as temporary pore fillers were investigated on pore morphology, microstructure, chemical composition, and the phase transformation temperatures of specimens. These parameters were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Highly porous specimens were obtained with up to 83% total porosity and pore sizes between 300 and 500 ?m in diameter. Results show pore characteristics were improved from anisotropic to isotropic and pore morphology was changed from channel-like to irregular by adding pore filler powders. Furthermore, the highly porous specimens produced when using urea as a space holder, were of more uniform composition in comparison to NaCl. DSC results showed that a two-step martensitic phase transformation takes place during the cooling cycles and the austenite finish temperature ( A f) is close to human body temperature. Compression test results reveal that the compressive strength of highly porous NiTi is about 155 MPa and recoverable strain about 6% in superelasticity regime.

Hosseini, S. A.; Alizadeh, M.; Ghasemi, A.; Meshkot, M. A.

2013-02-01

308

Thin film morphology of organic electronic materials  

Science.gov (United States)

The crystal orientation and morphology of a polythiophene (pBTTT) and an anthradithiophene (diF-TEADT, a pentacene analog) in thin films have been explored by TEM, SEM, AFM, GISAXD, NEXAFS, polarized FTIR and ellipsometry. The orientation has a striking influence on the performance of thin film transistors. We show that solution casting and annealing conditions have a significant effect on the morphology of pBTTT. Correlations between film surface step morphology and crystal orientation are determined. Interfacial interactions with the substrate (gold, silica, or fluorinated sam) govern the crystal orientation and crystal aggregate morphology of diF-TESADT. Depending on this orientation, the carrier mobility spans from approximately 0.001 cm^2/Vs to 0.4 cm^2/Vs. Epitaxial relationships within crystal aggregates are observed.

Hudson, S. D.; Kline, R. J.; Delongchamp, D. M.; Jurchescu, O. D.; Gundlach, D. J.; Richter, L. J.

2009-03-01

309

Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades  

CERN Document Server

Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

Shafiq, M Zubair

2013-01-01

310

Generalized Fourier transforms classes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

Berntsen, Svend; MØller, Steen

2002-01-01

311

The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

Dr. Ali Al-Zuky

2011-06-01

312

The Morphological Origin of Dwarf Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

Dwarf galaxies (DGs) serve as extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. Their origin is expected to be set as the first units in CDM cosmology. Nevertheless they are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental in uences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has a?ected the evolution. Here we refer to general morphological DG types and review some general processes, most of which deplete gas-rich irregular DGs. Moreover, the variety of pecularities is brie y refered, but cannot be comprehensively analyzed because of limited paper space.

Hensler, Gerhard

2011-01-01

313

Transformation of the Zagreb urban region  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Several aspects of the transformation of theZagreb urban region are considered in this work: change in the region?ssize and form, socio-economic transformation, functional transformation andphysiognomic or morphological transformation. It was established that theregion?s form has changed: it is moving from the classic star-like form,characteristic of the early developmental phase of the urban region, to acircular form. The region has experienced evolution in the developmentalsense and reached a phase of absolute decentralization. The process oftransformation in the region is continuing at full pace, while onlyperipheral, mainly small and poorly linked settlements with an unfavorabledemographic balance and processes are lagging behind.

Milan Ili?

2004-01-01

314

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

CERN Document Server

We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of rank-reduced transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${\\mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${\\mathcal F}_k$, ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ with $k=1,...,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${\\mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,...,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo\\`{e}ve transform. The operations ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ are auxiliary for finding ${\\mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding...

Torokhti, A; Howlett, Phil; Torokhti, Anatoli

2006-01-01

315

An Improved Chirplet Transform and Its Application for Harmonics Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chirplet transform is the generalization form of fast Fourier transform , short-time Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It has the most flexible time frequency window and successfully used in practices. However, the chirplet transform has not inherent inverse transform, and can not overcome the signal reconstructing problem. In this paper, we proposed the improved chirplet transform (ICT and constructed the inverse ICT. Finally, by simulating the harmonic voltages, The power of the improved chirplet transform are illustrated for harmonic detection. The contours clearly showed the harmonic occurrence time and harmonic duration.

Guo-Sheng Hu

2011-07-01

316

Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

Gavrilets, S

1998-01-01

317

Effects of the fourth component and undercooling on morphology of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase under normal casting conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The paper presents some results of the investigation on effects of the fourth component (Ti, C, Sb or Cu and undercooling on the morphology, size and forming process of primary Mg-Zn-Y icosahedral quasicrystal phase (I-phase under normal casting conditions. The result shows that the addition of certain amount of fourth component can transform I-phase morphology from petal-like to spherical. However, I-phase will grow up to petal-like if superfl uous addition of the fourth component applied. It is also found that the solidifi ed morphology of I-phase depends on the stability of spherical I-phase during the subsequent growth, and critical radius of maintaining the spherical I-phase interface relatively stable. Further, mini-sized spherical I-phase can be produced with high content of the fourth component by undercooling. Such fi ndings are benefi cial for industrializing Mgbased quasicrystals.

Bo-Young Hur

2009-11-01

318

A Fast Hermite Transform.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S

2008-12-17

319

A distributional Hardy transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Hardy's F-transform F(t=∫0∞Fv(tyyf(ydy is extended to distributions. The corresponding inversion formula f(x=∫0∞Cv(txtF(tdt is shown to be valid in the weak distributional sense. This is accomplished by transferring the inversion formula onto the testing function space for the generalized functions under consideration and then showing that the limiting process in the resulting formula converges with respect to the topology of the testing function space.

J. N. Pandey

1979-12-01

320

Quantum transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative ?q replaced by ?q with dq = dq/?1-?2(q), where ?2(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above open-quotes quantum transformationclose quotes, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) - E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures ?W and ?Q which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form (?q2 + ?W)? = 0

 
 
 
 
321

Long term morphological modelling  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented, analysed and discussed with respect to the question of realistic representation, time scale and general applicability ofthe model concept.

Kristensen, Sten EsbjØrn Technical University of Denmark,

2010-01-01

322

Relation Between Catalyst-assisted Entanglement Transformation and Multiple-copy Transformation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in [R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005)] that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For purely probabilistic setting we ...

Feng, Yuan; Duan, Runyao; Ying, Mingsheng

2003-01-01

323

On Hurwitz transformations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the R4 ? R3 Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its R8 ? R5 compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory

324

Deviationless geodetic transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a geodetic transformation of two networks (old, new, coordinate deviations come into being at the identical points and the transformated coordinates have to be corrected. A new deviationless method of Helmert and affine transformation is presented in which the definitive coordinates of the transformated points are determined directly using a Gauss-Markoff model.

Sütti Juraj

1997-03-01

325

THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We expfully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

326

Phase Transformation of Rice Husk Ash in the Synthesis of ZSM-5 without Organic Template  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phase transformation of rice husk ash in the synthesis of ZSM-5 without organic template at various crystallization times has been studied. Zeolite has been synthesized using the hydrothermal method at 175 °C with molar ratio 10Na2O : 100SiO2 : 2Al2O3 : 1800H2O with addition of silicalite-1 as seed. Solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, infrared (IR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques. Analysis of the results of XRD and IR spectroscopy indicated that ZSM-5 crystals started to form at 12 h of crystallization time, reaching high crystallinity after 24 h. With a crystallization time of more than 48 h, the ZSM-5 crystals had completely transformed to the more stable quartz phase. The results indicate that phase transformation had occurred, in which an amorphous phase of rice husk ash has been transformed to ZSM-5 crystal phase during the early crystallization stages and continued to transform to disordered ?-cristobalite phase and lastly quartz phase. SEM showed that the morphology of the ZSM-5 crystals was of an irregular hexagonal shape with particle size distribution around 3-7 ?m.

Didik Prasetyoko

2012-11-01

327

Electrical transformers handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook was prepared as a guide for electrical engineers, maintenance personnel and students. The book provided recent information on new transformer trends and technologies. Issues related to transformer testing, monitoring, and design were discussed. Principles for transformer overload protection were presented. Power transformer protection technologies were provided, and new analysis and application guidelines for transformer saturation in industrial applications were discussed. Accuracy ratings for current transformers were presented. Solutions for integrated transformer, feeder, and breaker protection were investigated. Other topics included sweep frequency analysis for transformer applications; neuro-fuzzy techniques for transformer monitoring; and fault zone analysis techniques. A buyer's guide with various new transformer technologies was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

2006-07-01

328

The Funk transform as a Penrose transform  

Science.gov (United States)

The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

1999-01-01

329

Early Anthropogenic Transformation of the Danube-Black Sea System  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea. PMID:22937219

Giosan, Liviu; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Constantinescu, Stefan; Filip, Florin; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Kettner, Albert J.; Thom, Nick

2012-01-01

330

Laser induced structural phase transformation of cobalt oxides nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

Face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) phases of cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanostructures are prepared using thermolysis route at the same reaction temperature 296 degrees C with synthetic approach conditions. These nanostructures show mixture of nearly spherical and nanoflake morphologies. The structural phases of these nanostructures transform to spinel-Co3O4 by application of heat or Raman excitation laser beam power. The absorbance spectra of fcc and hcp-CoO and Co3O4 nanostructures yield significantly higher values of band gap which can be explained by electron confinement. Such results provide new opportunities for optimizing and enhancing the properties and performance of cobalt oxide nanomaterial. PMID:24758071

Ravindra, A V; Behera, B C; Padhan, P

2014-07-01

331

Plant species descriptions show signs of disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is well known that diseases can greatly influence the morphology of plants, but often the incidence of disease is either too rare or the symptoms too obvious for the 'abnormalities' to cause confusion in systematics. However, we have recently come across several misinterpretations of disease-induced traits that may have been perpetuated into modern species inventories. Anther-smut disease (caused by the fungus Microbotryum violaceum) is common in many members of the Caryophyllaceae and rel...

Hood, Michael E.; Antonovics, Janis

2003-01-01

332

Transformed Auto-correlation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A transformed auto-correlation method is presented here, where a received signal is transformed based on a priori reflecting model, and then the transformed signal is cross-correlated to its original one. If the model is correct, after transformation, the reflected signal will be coherent to the transmitted signal, with zero delay. A map of transformed auto-correlation function with zero delay can be generated in a given parametric space. The significant peaks in the map may...

Zhou, Jianfeng; Gao, Yang

2014-01-01

333

Roughness-Controlled Self-Assembly of Mannitol/LB Agar Microparticles by Polymorphic Transformation for Pulmonary Drug Delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Novel roughness-controlled mannitol/LB Agar microparticles were synthesized by polymorphic transformation and self-assembly method using hexane as the polymorphic transformation reagent and spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles as the starting material. As-prepared microparticles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI). The XRD and DSC results indicate that after immersing spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles in hexane, ?-mannitol was completely transformed to ?-mannitol in 1 h, and all the ?-mannitol was transformed to ? form after 14 days. SEM shows that during the transformation the nanobelts on the spray-dried mannitol/LB Agar microparticles become more dispersed and the contour of the individual nanobelts becomes more noticeable. Afterward, the nanobelts self-assemble to nanorods and result in rod-covered mannitol/LB Agar microparticles. FTIR indicates new hydrogen bonds were formed among mannitol, LB Agar, and hexane. SEM images coupled with image analysis software reveal that different surface morphology of the microparticles have different drug adhesion mechanisms. Comparison of ACI results and image analysis of SEM images shows that an increase in the particle surface roughness can increase the fine particle fractions (FPFs) using the rod-covered mannitol microparticles as drug carriers. Transformed microparticles show higher FPFs than commercially available lactose carriers. An FPF of 28.6 ± 2.4% was achieved by microparticles transformed from spray-dried microparticles using 2% mannitol(w/v)/LB Agar as feed solution. It is comparable to the highest FPF reported in the literature using lactose and spray-dried mannitol as carriers. PMID:25423614

Zhang, Fengying; Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Tay, Bao Hui; Mendyk, Aleksander; Shao, Yu-Hsuan; Lau, Raymond

2015-01-01

334

Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor ?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-?. Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-? when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to 125I TGF-?: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted 35S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-? receptor. The TGF-? resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor

335

Seismic Denoising Through Improved Algorithm Curvelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of denoising the seismic data through improved curvelet transform. The curvelet transform is a multi-scale directional transform developed as an improvement over wavelet transform.To reduce the noise or to improve the quality of seismic data we have used two parameters i.e. quantitative and qualitative. For quantity we will compare peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR.Higher the PSNR better the quality of the seismic data. Forqualitywecomparevisualeffectofdata. In this paper we proposed a Curvelet Transformation based seismic data denoising, which is combined with wavelet transform and gabor filter in curvelet domain. The simulation results show that the improved curvelet transform can achieve an almost complete data reconstruction and give comparatively high PSNR which cannot be achieved by conventional methods of denoising.

RENU AWASTHI

2012-09-01

336

Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase 1 Expression Associated with Gene Demethylation Confers Anoikis Resistance in Early Phases of Melanocyte Malignant Transformation1  

Science.gov (United States)

Although anoikis resistance has been considered a hallmark of malignant phenotype, the causal relation between neoplastic transformation and anchorage-independent growth remains undefined. We developed an experimental model of murine melanocyte malignant transformation, where a melanocyte lineage (melan-a) was submitted to sequential cycles of anchorage blockade, resulting in progressive morphologic alterations, and malignant transformation. Throughout this process, cells corresponding to premalignant melanocytes and melanoma cell lines were established and show progressive anoikis resistance and increased expression of Timp1. In melan-a melanocytes, Timp1 expression is suppressed by DNA methylation as indicated by its reexpression after 5-aza-2?-deoxycytidine treatment. Methylation-sensitive single-nucleotide primer extension analysis showed increased demethylation in Timp1 in parallel with its expression along malignant transformation. Interestingly, TIMP1 expression has already been related with negative prognosis in some human cancers. Although described as a MMP inhibitor, this protein has been associated with apoptosis resistance in different cell types. Melan-a cells overexpressing Timp1 showed increased survival in suspension but were unable to form tumors in vivo, whereas Timp1-overexpressing melanoma cells showed reduced latency time for tumor appearance and increased metastatic potential. Here, we demonstrated for the first time an increment in Timp1 expression since the early phases of melanocyte malignant transformation, associated to a progressive gene demethylation, which confers anoikis resistance. In this way, Timp1 might be considered as a valued marker for melanocyte malignant transformation. PMID:19956395

Ricca, Tatiana I; Liang, Gangning; Suenaga, Ana Paula M; Han, Sang W; Jones, Peter A; Jasiulionis, Miriam G

2009-01-01

337

Influence of Copolymer Composition on Morphology Development in Blends  

Science.gov (United States)

Blends involving a crystallizable polyester [poly(hexamethylene adipate) (PHMA)] with an amorphous polyether has been studied. These systems have hydroxyl end groups which can react with diisocyanate in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. These functionalized (isocyanate-terminated) polymer blends form the fundamental structure of polyurethanes. These prepolymers can then be cured at a later stage due to ambient water molecules. Thus the migration of water molecules through the morphology formed needs to be understood well. The morphology development (i.e. phase separation occurring concurrently with crystallization) of nascent polymer blends has been characterized. The morphology of functionalized polymers exhibit very different kinetics due to the presence of the small amount of copolymers formed. The ultimate morphology formed can be ``tuned'' by varying blend composition and crystallization conditions. The structures of prepolymers will be reported. The presence of this copolymer can significantly alter the structural transformation in either binary or ternary blends.

Krishanmoorthy, Jayaraman

2005-03-01

338

Solid state phase transformations in Advanced Steels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In order to achieve progress in Advanced Steels development came more emphasis in solid state phase transformations are received. For achieving the desired mechanical and corrosion resistance properties in Duplex Stainless Steels (DSS), a precise knowledge of the precipitation kinetics of secondary phases, the morphology of the precipitates and effects of the alloying elements on different properties is needed. A complicated chemical composition and the production technology route make each ...

Miranda Pe?rez, Argelia Fabiola

2013-01-01

339

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

2010-04-02

340

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10-4 Pa to 102 Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

 
 
 
 
341

Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

Chen Huanyang [School of Physical Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215006 (China); Chan, C T, E-mail: kenyon@ust.h, E-mail: phchan@ust.h [Department of Physics and the William Mong Institute of NanoScience and Technology, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay (Hong Kong)

2010-03-24

342

Acoustic cloaking and transformation acoustics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this review, we give a brief introduction to the application of the new technique of transformation acoustics, which draws on a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material properties. The technique is formulated for both acoustic waves and linear liquid surface waves. Some interesting conceptual devices can be designed for manipulating acoustic waves. For example, we can design acoustic cloaks that make an object invisible to acoustic waves, and the cloak can either encompass or lie outside the object to be concealed. Transformation acoustics, as an analog of transformation optics, can go beyond invisibility cloaking. As an illustration for manipulating linear liquid surface waves, we show that a liquid wave rotator can be designed and fabricated to rotate the wave front. The acoustic transformation media require acoustic materials which are anisotropic and inhomogeneous. Such materials are difficult to find in nature. However, composite materials with embedded sub-wavelength resonators can in principle be made and such 'acoustic metamaterials' can exhibit nearly arbitrary values of effective density and modulus tensors to satisfy the demanding material requirements in transformation acoustics. We introduce resonant sonic materials and Helmholtz resonators as examples of acoustic metamaterials that exhibit resonant behaviour in effective density and effective modulus. (topical review)

343

Urban Morphological Change Analysis of Dhaka City, Bangladesh, Using Space Syntax  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This article is based on a study of the morphological changes of Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh. The main objective of the research is to study the transformation of urban morphology in Dhaka City from 1947 to 2007. Three sample wards (18, 19 and 72 of Dhaka City Corporation are strategically selected as the study areas. Ward 72 has an indigenous type of organic settlement, whereas ward 19 is a planned area, and ward 18 represents a mixed (both planned and informal type of settlement. In this research, the transformation of urban settlement pattern is examined through space syntax. The results show that the organic settlements (ward 72 are highly integrated both in terms of the local and global syntactic measures (lowest standard deviation for local and global integration, with the highest intelligibility values, and are more connectivity. The scenario is opposite in the case of planned settlements. The characteristics of mixed areas (ward 18 lie in between the organic and planned settlements. Therefore, in summary, it can be stated that the integration, connectivity and intelligibility measures of Dhaka City are found to be high, medium and low for the indigenous, mixed and planned settlement types; respectively.

Bayes Ahmed

2014-12-01

344

Empirical ugri-UBVRc Transformations for Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

We present empirical color transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colors are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy color scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colors which are visible in observed color-color trends. The LVL-based $galaxy$ transformations show no systematic color offsets and reproduce the observed color-color galaxy trends.

Cook, David O; Johnson, Benjamin D; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C; Kennicutt, Robert C; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M; Engelbracht, Charles W

2014-01-01

345

Generalized Tree-Based Wavelet Transform  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we propose a new wavelet transform applicable to functions defined on graphs, high dimensional data and networks. The proposed method generalizes the Haar-like transform proposed in \\cite{gavish2010mwot}, and it is similarly defined via a hierarchical tree, which is assumed to capture the geometry and structure of the input data. It is applied to the data using a multiscale filtering and decimation scheme, which can employ different wavelet filters. We propose a tree construction method which results in efficient representation of the input function in the transform domain. We show that the proposed transform is more efficient than both the 1D and 2D separable wavelet transforms in representing images. We also explore the application of the proposed transform to image denoising, and show that combined with a subimage averaging scheme, it achieves denoising results which are similar to the ones obtained with the K-SVD algorithm.

Ram, Idan; Cohen, Israel

2010-01-01

346

Morphological mutants of garlic  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order. (author)

347

Morphological bilateral filtering  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A current challenging topic in mathematical morphology is the construction of locally adaptive operators; i.e., structuring functions that are dependent on the input image itself at each position. Development of spatially-variant filtering is well established in the theory and practice of Gaussian filtering. The aim of the first part of the paper is to study how to generalize these convolution-based approaches in order to introduce adaptive nonlinear filters that asymptotically correspond to ...

Angulo, Jesus

2013-01-01

348

Morphology of supernova remnants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The difference in morphology between filled and shell type supernova remnants is attributed to differences in the activity of the neutron stars left by the supernovae. Pulsar activity leads to centrally concentrated remnants similar to the Crab. Non-activity as a pulsar results in all of the rotational energy loss going into dipole radiation. The pressure of this radiation creates shell-like objects with hollow interiors such as Cas A

349

Morphological Detection of Malware  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the field of malware detection, method based on syntactical consideration are usually efficient. However, they are strongly vulnerable to obfuscation techniques. This study proposes an efficient construction of a morphological malware detector based on a syntactic and a semantic analysis, technically on control flow graphs of programs (CFG). Our construction employs tree automata techniques to provide an efficient representation of the CFG database. Next, we deal with classic obfuscation o...

Bonfante, Guillaume; Kaczmarek, Matthieu; Marion, Jean-yves

2008-01-01

350

Morphological mutants of garlic  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cloves of garlic (Allium sativuum Linn.) were exposed to gamma rays with various doses and different concentrations of ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), diethyl sulphate (dES) and ethylene imine (EI). In the second and third generations, 16 types of morphological mutants were recorded with varied frequencies. Of all the mutagens used, gamma rays were found to be the most effective in inducing the maximum number of mutations followed EI, EMS and dES in that order.

Choudhary, A.D.; Dnyansagar, V.R. (Nagpur Univ. (India). Dept. of Botany)

1982-01-01

351

A generalized Meijer transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a series of papers [1-6], Kratzel studies a generalized version of the classical Meijer transformation with the Kernel function (stνη(q,ν+1; (stq. This transformation is referred to as GM transformation which reduces to the classical Meijer transform when q=1. He also discussed a second generalization of the Meijer transform involving the Kernel function λν(n(x which reduces to the Meijer function when n=2 and the Laplace transform when n=1. This is called the Meijer-Laplace (or ML transformation. This paper is concerned with a study of both GM and ML transforms in the distributional sense. Several properties of these transformations including inversion, uniqueness, and analyticity are discussed in some detail.

L. Debnath

1985-06-01

352

Nanostructure and morphology modified porous silicon sensors  

Science.gov (United States)

The ability to control and transform the morphology and optical properties of porous silicon (PS) interface arrays can have important implications for displays and sensors. The optoelectronic properties and interaction sensing capabilities of PS can be varied as a function of pore size and pore morphology as dictated by the manipulation of a surface structure which can be controlled with current density, the solution composition of the electrochemical etches used to prepare the pores, and careful post etch surface treatments. These treatments influence the time dependent photoluminescence (PL) emission from PS. The variation of surface structure as it effects the PL from these PS pore arrays is outlined and discussed within the framework of detailed molecular electronic structure calculations which model the excited state structure giving rise to the UV-visible PL emission from PS. Applications varying from displays to sensors to micro-reactors will be considered. Porous silicon interfaces have also been transformed within the framework of nanotechnology to create highly efficient sensors displaying a rapid, reversible, sensitive, and selective response to HCl, NH3, CO, and NO down to the ppb level. Photoluminescence induced metallization is used to obtain a highly efficient, TiO2-xNx nanophotocatalysts, operative and tunable throughout the visible wavelength region, to be used in conjunction with porous silicon hybrid nanopore coated micropores to form novel and efficient solar pumped sensor arrays.

Gole, James L.; Lewis, Stephen E.

2005-03-01

353

Transgenic Pm3b wheat lines show resistance to powdery mildew in the field.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant resistance (R) genes are highly effective in protecting plants against diseases, but pathogens can overcome such genes relatively easily by adaptation. Consequently, in many cases R genes do not confer durable resistance in agricultural environments. One possible strategy to make the use of R genes more sustainable depends on the modification of R genes followed by transformation. To test a possible transgenic use of R genes, we overexpressed in wheat the Pm3b resistance gene against powdery mildew under control of the maize ubiquitin promoter. Four independent transgenic lines were tested in the greenhouse and the field during 3?years. The four lines showed a five- to 600-fold transgene overexpression compared with the expression of the endogenous Pm3b gene in the landrace 'Chul'. Powdery mildew resistance was significantly improved in all lines in the greenhouse and the field, both with naturally occurring infection or after artificial inoculation. Under controlled environmental conditions, the line with the strongest overexpression of the Pm3b gene showed a dramatic increase in resistance to powdery mildew isolates that are virulent on the endogenous Pm3b. Under a variety of field conditions, but never in the greenhouse, three of the four transgenic lines showed pleiotropic effects on spike and leaf morphology. The highest overexpressing line had the strongest side effects, suggesting a correlation between expression level and phenotypic changes. These results demonstrate that the successful transgenic use of R genes critically depends on achieving an optimal level of their expression, possibly in a tissue-specific way. PMID:21438988

Brunner, Susanne; Hurni, Severine; Herren, Gerhard; Kalinina, Olena; von Burg, Simone; Zeller, Simon L; Schmid, Bernhard; Winzeler, Michael; Keller, Beat

2011-10-01

354

Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

2009-01-01

355

Functional Morphology: Philosophy and Methodology  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose of Exercise: Provide students with an appreciation of the importance of using a rigorous scientific approach to the study of functional morphology. Students are asked to intuitively interpret the function of fossil skeletal morphologies. From this they identify a variety of genuine methodologies used in functional morphology, appreciate the importance of using multiple approaches, and realize how easy it is to generate untested hypotheses of function (i.e., adaptive storytelling). Materials: Class breaks up into 4 groups of 4 students. Each is presented with a fossil or shell from an invertebrate animal. The shells provided: (1) modern Nautilus, sliced laterally to show the chamber walls; (2) Archimedes bryozoan, just the helically spiraled core of a colony; (3) fossil scaphopod; and (4) fossil gastropod with spines along the apertural lip. Only the group with the gastropod should know the phylogenic affinity of the fossil: tell this group the shell is of a gastropod. The groups with the Archimedes and the scaphopod are asked to interpret the function of the entire shell; they should not be told whether or not the entire skeleton is represented. The Nautilus group is asked to consider the function of the chamber walls. The group with the gastropod is asked to consider the function of just the spines. Procedure: 1. The groups are asked, based on their intuition, to interpret the function of their shell or structure. (5 mins) 2. Without inquiring about their specific interpretations, the groups are then asked to think about what methodologies, philosophies, or logical approaches were utilized to make functional inferences. (5 mins) 3. Each group reports back. 4. On the board generate a list of the approaches identified. These should reflect many of the formal methods recognized within the discipline. Note how interpretations are tenuous or flawed when based on merely one approach; also note mistaken functions because of wrong assumptions or misapplied methods. (10 mins) 5. Follow this with a short lecture / discussion reviewing the formal methods employed in functional morphology. The following files are uploaded as supportive teaching materials: 1. Lesson plan with the "conceptual change model" outline.

Savarese, Michael

356

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process, the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

Rezende Camila

2011-11-01

357

Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster  

CERN Document Server

We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

2011-01-01

358

POLLEN MORPHOLOGY OF ANDROGRAPHIDEAE (ACANTHACEAE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pollen morphology of Andrographis Wallich, Cystacanthus T. Anderson, Diotacanthus Bentham, Gymnostachyum Nees, Haplanthus Nees and Phlogacanthus Nees from Andrographideae (Acanthaceae) is described and illustrated. Pollen morphological variation is compared to accepted generic limits. Pollen morphology provides additional discrete character support for Andrographis, Diotacanthus, Haplanthus and Phlogacanthus being monophyletic but not for Cystacanthus and Gymnostachyum. Previous attempts to d...

Scotland, R.

1992-01-01

359

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as [...] starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri, Henry; Kamma Celestine, Monde.

2008-03-01

360

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained from metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Ovri Henry

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

The Influence of Ageing on Martensite Morphology in Shape Memory CuZnAl Alloys  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The martensitic transformation behaviour, morphology and microstructures in copper-based shape memory alloys are strongly influenced by the post-quench heat treatments and ageing. Martensitic transformation initiates at a critical temperature and grows by the formation of martensite variants on cooling up to martensite finish temperature. These alloys are metastable at the matrix ?-phase condition, and reversibility of transformation and formation of martensite variants from the matrix are r...

Kayali, N.; O?zgen, S.; Adigu?zel, O.

1997-01-01

362

On discrete cosine transform  

CERN Document Server

The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

Zhou, Jianqin

2011-01-01

363

Finite BRST transformations for the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this Letter we analyse the Bagger–Lambert–Gustavsson (BLG) theory in N=1 superspace. Furthermore, we will construct the BRST transformations for this theory. These BRST transformations will be integrated out to obtain the finite field dependent version of BRST (FFBRST) transformations. We will also analyse the effect of the FFBRST transformations on the effective action. We will thus show that the FFBRST transformations can be used to relate generating functionals of the BLG theory in two different gauges

364

DWARF-GREEN COCONUT FIBERS: A VERSATILE NATURAL RENEWABLE RAW BIORESOURCE. TREATMENT, MORPHOLOGY, AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dwarf-green coconut fibers were modified by alkali treatment and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, as well as thermogravimetric (TGA, mechanical, and dielectric analyses. Changes in composition, structure, and morphology of the coconut fibers were observed after sodium hydroxide treatments due to the removal of lignin, hemicellulose, and other impurities. The XRD data were in agreement with the morphological analysis, where the crystallinity fraction increased with the concentration of alkali solution and fell off above 10%. The infrared spectrometry showed the partial dissolution of hemicellulose, lignin, and pectin, which was clearly identified by the band at 1736 cm-1. Thermogravimetric analysis showed a double degradation process for the untreated dwarf-green coconut fibers, while a single one was observed after the pretreatment. The tensile properties showed an increased elongation at break, modulus, and strength, and the dielectric results showed a decrease of all parameters (permittivity, dielectric loss, and conductivity, reflecting the reduced dipole and ion mobility associated with the loss of amorphous components.

Milena A. Esmeraldo

2010-11-01

365

Imaging methods for elemental, chemical, molecular, and morphological analyses of single cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combining elemental, chemical, molecular, and morphological imaging information from individual cells with a lateral resolution well below 1 x 1 microm(2) is the current technological challenge for investigating the smallest dimensions of living systems. In the race for such analytical performance, several techniques have been successfully developed; some use probes to determine given cellular contents whereas others use possible interactions between cellular matter with light or elements for characterization of contents. Morphological techniques providing information about cell dimensions have, when combined with other techniques, also opened the way to quantitative studies. New analytical opportunities are now being considered in cell biology, combining top-performance imaging techniques, applied to the same biosystem, with microscopy (nm-mum range) techniques providing elemental (micro-X-ray fluorescence, particle-induced X-ray emission, secondary-ion mass spectrometry), chemical (Raman, coherent anti-stokes Raman, Fourier-transform infrared, and near-field), molecular (UV-visible confocal and multiphoton), and morphological (AFM, ellipsometry, X-ray phase contrast, digital holography) information. Dedicated cell-culture methods have been proposed for multimodal imaging in vitro and/or ex vivo. This review shows that in addition to UV-fluorescent techniques, the imaging modalities able to provide interesting information about a cell, with high spatial and time resolution, have grown sufficiently to envisage quantitative analysis of chemical species inside subcellular compartments. PMID:20300737

Petibois, Cyril

2010-07-01

366

Contrast enhancement and image segmentation using a class of morphological nonincreasing filters  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, contrast enhancement and image segmentation are investigated using a class of morphological nonincreasing filters that can be considered toggle mappings. These nonincreasing filters are built using the traditional morphological gradients. These filters have interesting properties and give essential contrast to the images. We apply them sequentially between two or more given parameters in order to obtain intermediate results. This approach improves the control of the filtering process and provides other tools for contrasting images. We presented several new properties and one study of the invariant set of these filters. Using these new propositions, we show that it is possible to obtain better results in image segmentation when we apply the watershed transformation. Also, we propose an algorithm for segmenting images using this class of nonincreasing filters. The method is applied in a geodesic way using two different criteria for segmenting an image. We relate our results with a recent method in mathematical morphology called the flat zone approach and we compare our approach with another method in image processing, the so- called quadtree approach.

Terol Villalobos, Ivan R.; Cruz-Mandujano, Juan A.

1998-07-01

367

Predicting vegetation-stabilized dune morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

The morphology of vegetation-stabilized dune fields on the North American Great Plains mostly comprises parabolic dunes; stabilized barchan and transverse dunes are rare. One notable exception is the Nebraska Sand Hills (NSH), where massive grass-covered barchan and transverse dunes bear proof of former desert-like conditions. We present a hypothesis from a numerical dune field model to explain the vegetation-stabilized morphology of dunes. The model incorporates a growth curve that preferentially grows vegetation in regions of sediment deposition with a sharp drop in growth at the peak depositional tolerance of vegetation, qualitatively matching biological response to erosion and deposition. Simulations on a range of pre-stabilization dune morphologies, from large closely-spaced transverse dunes to small dispersed barchans, indicate that the stabilized morphology is largely determined by the ratio of slipface deposition rate to peak depositional tolerance of vegetation. Conceptually, slipface deposition rate is related to dune height and celerity. By keeping depositional tolerance constant (representing a constant vegetation type and climate) the model shows that large slow-moving dunes have low slipface deposition rates and essentially 'freeze' in place once vegetation is introduced, retaining their pre-vegetation morphology. Small fast-moving dunes have higher slipface deposition rates and evolve into parabolic dunes. We hypothesize that, when barchan and transverse dunes are subjected to a stabilizing climate shift that increases vegetation growth rate, they retain their pre-stabilization morphology if deposition rates are below the depositional tolerance of stabilizing vegetation, otherwise they become parabolic dunes. This could explain why NSH dunes are stabilized in barchan and transverse morphologies while elsewhere on the Great Plains dune fields are dominated by smaller parabolic dunes.

Barchyn, T.; Hugenholtz, C.

2012-04-01

368

Semantic processing during morphological priming: an ERP study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Previous research has yielded conflicting results regarding the onset of semantic processing during morphological priming. The present study was designed to further explore the time-course of morphological processing using event-related potentials (ERPs). We conducted a primed lexical decision study comparing a morphological (LAVAGE - laver [washing - wash]), a semantic (LINGE - laver [laundry - wash]), an orthographic (LAVANDE - laver [lavender - wash]), and an unrelated control condition (HOSPICE - laver [nursing home - wash]), using the same targets across the four priming conditions. The behavioral data showed significant effects of morphological and semantic priming, with the magnitude of morphological priming being significantly larger than the magnitude of semantic priming. The ERP data revealed significant morphological but no semantic priming at 100-250 ms. Furthermore, a reduction of the N400 amplitude in the morphological condition compared to the semantic and orthographic condition demonstrates that the morphological priming effect was not entirely due to the semantic or orthographic overlap between the prime and the target. The present data reflect an early process of semantically blind morphological decomposition, and a later process of morpho-semantic decomposition, which we discuss in the context of recent morphological processing theories. PMID:25020124

Beyersmann, Elisabeth; Iakimova, Galina; Ziegler, Johannes C; Colé, Pascale

2014-09-01

369

Morphological, hydrological, biogeochemical and ecological changes and challenges in river restoration - the Thur River case study  

Science.gov (United States)

River restoration can enhance river dynamics, environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity, but the underlying processes governing the dynamic changes need to be understood to ensure that restoration projects meet their goals, and adverse effects are prevented. In particular, we need to comprehend how hydromorphological variability quantitatively relates to ecosystem functioning and services, biodiversity as well as ground- and surface water quality in restored river corridors. This involves (i) physical processes and structural properties, determining erosion and sedimentation, as well as solute and heat transport behavior in surface water and within the subsurface; (ii) biogeochemical processes and characteristics, including the turnover of nutrients and natural water constituents; and (iii) ecological processes and indicators related to biodiversity and ecological functioning. All these aspects are interlinked, requiring an interdisciplinary investigation approach. Here, we present an overview of the recently completed RECORD (REstored CORridor Dynamics) project in which we combined physical, chemical, and biological observations with modeling at a restored river corridor of the perialpine Thur River in Switzerland. Our results show that river restoration, beyond inducing morphologic changes that reshape the river bed and banks, triggered complex spatial patterns of bank infiltration, and affected habitat type, biotic communities and biogeochemical processes. We adopted an interdisciplinary approach of monitoring the continuing changes due to restoration measures to address the following questions: How stable is the morphological variability established by restoration? Does morphological variability guarantee an improvement in biodiversity? How does morphological variability affect biogeochemical transformations in the river corridor? What are some potential adverse effects of river restoration? How is river restoration influenced by catchment-scale hydraulics and which feedbacks exist on the large scale? Beyond summarizing the major results of individual studies within the project, we show that these overarching questions could only be addressed in an interdisciplinary framework.

Schirmer, M.; Luster, J.; Linde, N.; Perona, P.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Barry, D. A.; Hollender, J.; Cirpka, O. A.; Schneider, P.; Vogt, T.; Radny, D.; Durisch-Kaiser, E.

2014-06-01

370

Crystallographic model for texture and morphology in brazed zones of CANDU fuel  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphology of the beta (b.c.c.) transformed Zircaloy-4 may be treated as a lenticular-twinned martensite. The texture of the beta transformed Zircaloy is a consequence of the degeneration of the (00.1), (10.0) and (10.1) hexagonal into (110) cubic. The crystallographic mechanisms implied in the accommodation of the microscopic Bain strain are: (101.0) prism slip, (10.2) twinning and (10.1)twinning. This degeneration explains the 'parallel plate' and 'basketweave' morphologies observed by microscopy and the texture of the beta transformed tube. The macroscopic Bain strain was calculated and agreed with the dimensional measurements. The deformation mechanisms of the transformed Zircaloy-4 are identified from the new texture and from deformation experiments as twinning and interplatelet glide. The interplatelet glide induces a fragile character of the fracture in the 'parallel plate' morphology. (authors)

371

Morphology control in block copolymer films using mixed solvent vapors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solvent vapor annealing of block copolymer thin films can produce a range of morphologies different from the equilibrium bulk morphology. By systematically varying the flow rate of two different solvent vapors (toluene and n-heptane) and an inert gas, phase maps showing the morphology versus vapor pressure of the solvents were constructed for 45 kg/mol polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane diblock copolymer films of different thicknesses. The final morphology was correlated with the swelling of the block copolymer and homopolymer films and the solvent vapor annealing conditions. Self-consistent field theory is used to model the effects of solvent swelling. These results provide a framework for predicting the range of morphologies available under different solvent vapor conditions, which is important in lithographic applications where precise control of morphology and critical dimensions are essential. PMID:22928726

Gotrik, Kevin W; Hannon, Adam F; Son, Jeong Gon; Keller, Brent; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; Ross, Caroline A

2012-09-25

372

Galaxy Zoo: the independence of morphology and colour  

CERN Document Server

We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for 130352 objects from Galaxy Zoo. The majority of the morphology-density relation is driven by variation in morphological fraction with environment at fixed stellar mass, rather than by the environmental dependence of the stellar mass function. We conclusively show that the colour and morphology bimodalities are largely independent functions of environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments and mostly red in high-density environments. While galaxies with early-type morphology do always have higher red fractions, this is sub-dominant compared to the dependence of red fraction on stellar mass and environment. Only a small part of the colour-density relation thus results from the morphology-density relation. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morph...

Bamford, Steven P; Baldry, Ivan K; Land, Kate; Lintott, Chris J; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Torki, Mehri; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Miller, Christopher J; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Vandenberg, Jan

2008-01-01

373

Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

2014-09-01

374

Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology  

CERN Document Server

Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

Leyton, Michael

2012-01-01

375

28-Channel rotary transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

Mclyman, W. T.

1981-01-01

376

Transforms and Applications Handbook  

CERN Document Server

Highlighting the use of transforms and their properties, this title offers an introduction to signals and systems, including properties of the delta function and some classical orthogonal functions. It then details different transforms, including lapped, Mellin, wavelet, and Hartley varieties

Poularikas, Alexander D

2010-01-01

377

Forced expression of tropomyosin 2 or 3 in v-Ki-ras-transformed fibroblasts results in distinct phenotypic effects.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Transformation of cells in tissue culture results in a variety of cellular changes including alterations in cell growth, adhesiveness, motility, morphology, and organization of the cytoskeleton. Morphological and cytoskeletal changes are perhaps the most readily apparent features of transformed cells. Although a number of studies have documented a decrease in the expression of specific tropomyosin (TM) isoforms in transformed cells, it remains to be determined if the suppression of TM synthes...

Gimona, M.; Kazzaz, J. A.; Helfman, D. M.

1996-01-01

378

Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and transformation.

Ding, Song-Ze, E-mail: dingsongze@hotmail.com [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Michelli-Rivera, Audrey [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Han, Shuang-Yin [Department of Internal Medicine, Henan Provincial People’s Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Wei-Wu Road, Zhengzhou, Henan 450000 (China); Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J. [Graduate Center for Toxicology, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

2013-05-15

379

Bäcklund transformations and Hamiltonian flows  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this work we show that, under certain conditions, parametric Bäcklund transformations for a finite dimensional integrable system can be interpreted as solutions to the equations of motion defined by an associated non-autonomous Hamiltonian. The two systems share the same constants of motion. This observation leads to the identification of the Hamiltonian interpolating the iteration of the discrete map defined by the transformations, which indeed in numerical applications can be considered a linear combination of the integrals appearing in the spectral curve of the Lax matrix. An example with the periodic Toda lattice is given. (paper)

380

Nearly optimal sparse fourier transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time randomized algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time randomized algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). They are the first known...

Hassanieh, Haitham; Indyk, Piotr; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation  

CERN Document Server

Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cloaking devices. Our analysis includes several examples containing different bump geometries that illustrate the proposed methodology.

Ochiai, T

2012-01-01

382

Specifying generator transformers  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

As break downs of production transformers are costly and often result in long outages it is essential for reliability of operation that the transformers are manufactured to be robust. The aim of this M.Sc. thesis is to investigate if deviations should be made from the standard IEC 60076 – Power Transformers in order to describe a robust large power transformer for procurement. The investigation has been conducted in three stages. In the first stage a definition of the term robust was develo...

Eriksson, Markus

2013-01-01

383

The continuous Jacobi transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to define the continuous Jacobi transform as an extension of the discrete Jacobi transform. The basic properties including the inversion theorem for the continuous Jacobi transform are studied. We also derive an inversion formula for the transform which maps L1(R+ into Lw2(−1,1 where w(x=(1−xα(1+xβ.

E. L. Koh

1983-03-01

384

Entangled symplectic wavelet transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

The symplectic wavelet transformation proposed in Opt. Lett. 31, 3432 (2006), which is related to the optical Fresnel transform in the quantum optics version, is developed into an entangled symplectic wavelet transformation (ESWT) after pointing out the contrast between the single-mode Fresnel operator and the entangled Fresnel operator. The ESWT possesses well-behaved properties and corresponds to the entangled Fresnel transform [Phys. Lett. A334, 132 (2005)].

Fan, Hong-Yi; Liu, Shu-Guang

2007-06-01

385

Discrete Analytical Ridgelet Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper, we present a new implementation of the Ridgelet transform based on discrete analytical 2-D lines: the discrete analytical Ridgelet transform (DART). This transform uses the Fourier strategy for the computation of the associated discrete Radon transform. The innovative step of the DART is the construction of discrete analytical lines in the Fourier domain. These discrete analytical lines have a parameter called arithmetical thickness, allowing us to define a DART adapted to a sp...

Carre?, Philippe; Andres, Eric

2004-01-01

386

Transforms, algorithms and applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the sum of a trigonometric series. The main purpose of these notes is to give a brief overview of some Fourier-related transforms, namely: continuous Fourier transform, Fourier series, discrete Fouri...

Soares, M. J.

2003-01-01

387

Morpho-anatomical characterization of mature embryo-derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterize embryogenic rice calli during early induction of somatic embryogenesis of three Brazilian rice cultivars. Herein, we explored embryogenic units (EUs) from 2-week-old cut proliferated calli to verify whether they were suitable for Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze these types of calli during early rice callogenesis in the cultivars BRS Primavera, BRS Bonança, and BRS Caiapó. The characteristics of the embryogenic cells were preserved in the EUs, which showed a globular, compact structure that contained tightly packed cells and thus rendered the cells suitable for transformation. The EUs of BRS Caiapó also maintained the characteristics of the non-embryogenic callus, such as an elongated morphology and a lack of cellular organization. In general, the observations of the histological sections corresponded with those of the SEM images. The histological analysis suggested that all cultivars used in these experiments have morphogenic potential. The EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli maintained their embryogenic features. The EUs were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which exhibited a regeneration frequency of 58 % for transformed hygromycin-resistant cell lines. These results show that EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli are suitable for plant transformation. PMID:24085343

Bevitori, R; Popielarska-Konieczna, M; dos Santos, E M; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Petrofeza, S

2014-05-01

388

[Characterization of Marburg virus morphology].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ebola virus (EBOV) and Marburg virus (MARV) belong to the family Filoviridae. Filoviruses cause severe filovirus hemorrhagic fever (FHF) in humans, with high case fatality rates, and represent potential agents for bioterrorism and biological weapons. It is necessary to keep surveillance of filoviruses, even though there is no report of their isolation and patients in China so far. To characterize MARV morphology, the Lake Victoria marburgvirus--Leiden was stained negatively and observed under a transmission electron microscope which is one of important detection methods for filoviruses in emergencies and bioterrorism. MARV showed pleomorphism, with filamentous, rod-shaped, cobra-like, spherical, and branch-shaped particles of uniform diameter but different lengths. Pleomorphism of negatively stained MARV is summarized in this article, so as to provide useful information for possible electron microscopic identification of filoviruses in China. PMID:25118385

Song, Jing-Dong; Qu, Jian-Guo; Hong, Tao

2014-05-01

389

Morphological analysis of ionomers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report discusses the progress made during the period of April 1st, 1989 and March 31st, 1990. Topics covered are: SANS of Telechelic Ionomers, SANS of Sulfonated Polyurethanes, Effect of Matrix Polarity and Ambient Aging on the Morphology of Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Adhesive Sphere Model for Analysis of SAXS Data from Ionomers, Comparison of Structure-Property Relationships in Carboxylated and Sulfonated Polyurethane Ionomers, Development of a Liquid-like Hard Sphere Model for Deformed Ionomer Samples, and Polymer Synthesis for Proposed Research

390

Vesta's shape and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body. PMID:22582254

Jaumann, R; Williams, D A; Buczkowski, D L; Yingst, R A; Preusker, F; Hiesinger, H; Schmedemann, N; Kneissl, T; Vincent, J B; Blewett, D T; Buratti, B J; Carsenty, U; Denevi, B W; De Sanctis, M C; Garry, W B; Keller, H U; Kersten, E; Krohn, K; Li, J-Y; Marchi, S; Matz, K D; McCord, T B; McSween, H Y; Mest, S C; Mittlefehldt, D W; Mottola, S; Nathues, A; Neukum, G; O'Brien, D P; Pieters, C M; Prettyman, T H; Raymond, C A; Roatsch, T; Russell, C T; Schenk, P; Schmidt, B E; Scholten, F; Stephan, K; Sykes, M V; Tricarico, P; Wagner, R; Zuber, M T; Sierks, H

2012-05-11

391

Molecular Expressions: Electricity and Magnetism - Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This java simulation illustrates the operation of a transformer. The user can change the input voltage and the number of primary and secondary windings. The simulation shows the input and output signal for the transformer. This resource is part of a larger collection on electricity and magnetism by the same authors.

Davidson, Michael

2007-10-23

392

Revisiting Riesz transforms on Heisenberg groups  

CERN Document Server

We characterise higher order Riesz transforms on the Heisenberg group and also show that they satisfy dimension-free bounds under some assumptions on the multipliers. Using transfer- ence theorems, we deduce boundedness theorems for Riesz trans- forms on the reduced Heisenberg group and hence also for the Riesz transforms associated to multiple Hermite and Laguerre ex- pansions.

Sanjay, P K

2011-01-01

393

The Tunneling Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We supplement the Lorentz transform $L(v)$ with a new "Tunneling" transform $T(v)$. Application of this new transform to elementary quantum mechanics offers a novel, intuitive insight into the nature of quantum tunneling; in particular, the so called "Klein Paradox" is discussed.

Hipple, Robert

2014-01-01

394

On some hypergeometric transformations  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

A method that may generate new transformations is mentioned. It is shown that the approach applies to some of the cubic transformations of 3F2, and, moreover, to a quartic and a sextic transformation of 2F1. Regions of validity are established. Many of the results are established by the aid of Maple

Karlsson, Per W.

1999-01-01

395

The Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Based on the newly developed coherent-entangled state representation, we propose the so-called Fresnel—Weyl complementary transformation operator. The new operator plays the roles of both Fresnel transformation (for (a1 ? a2)/?2) and the Weyl transformation (for (a1 + a2)/?2). Physically, (a1 ? a2)/?2 and (a1 + a2)/?2 could be a symmetric beamsplitter's two output fields for the incoming fields a1 and a2. We show that the two transformations are concisely expressed in the coherent-entangled state representation as a projective operator in the integration form

396

New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the method. The results obtained justify the advantage of this methodology. MATLAB 7 was used to carry out the computations.

A. Adawi

2008-01-01

397

A New Formula for the Inverse Wavelet Transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Finding a computationally efficient algorithm for the inverse continuous wavelet transform is a fundamental topic in applications. In this paper, we show the convergence of the inverse wavelet transform.

Sun, Wenchang

2010-01-01

398

Hashimoto transform for stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We show that Hashimoto transformation is applicable to the one dimensional stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation and transforms it to the stochastic generalized heat equation with nonlocal (in space) interaction.

Neklyudov, Misha

2014-01-01

399

A Transformer Class E Amplifier  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a high-efficiency Class E ZVS resonant amplifier a matching and isolation transformer can replace some or even all inductive components of the amplifier thus simplifying the circuit and reducing its cost. In the paper a theoretical analysis, a design example and its experimental verification for a transformer Class E amplifier are presented. In the experimental amplifier with a transformer as the only inductive component in the circuit high efficiency ?MAX = 0.95 was achieved for supply voltage VI = 36 V, maximum output power POMAX = 100 W and the switching frequency f = 300 kHz. Measured parameters and waveforms showed a good agreement with theoretical predictions. Moreover, the relative bandwidth of the switching frequency was only 19% to obtain output power control from 4.8 W to POMAX with efficiency not less than 0.9 in the regulation range.

Mikolajewski Miroslaw

2014-12-01

400

Computer simulation of martensitic transformation under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper reports a computer simulation of martensitic transformation in both Cu-Zn-Al and Fe-Ni-C alloys by a 2-dimensional model. The influence of the imposed stress on the mechanical behaviour, the transformation kinetics, and the microstructure are illustrated for Cu-Zn-Al alloy. The study of transformation kinetics shows the following features: (1) in case of stress-free transformation, both alloys transform in burst, the transformation will go directly to near completion once a band can overcome the energy barrier. (2) the transformation temperature range spreads monotonically as the load is increased from 0 to 500 MPa. (3) Mf is nearly the same for the different tested loading conditions. Even if the assumption of elastic accommodation is not realistic for Fe-Ni-C alloy, we can analyse the influence of the volume change associated with the transformation on the local stress level and on the behaviour of the alloy. This volume change has no notable influence at the earlier stage of the transformation. It becomes larger as the transformed fraction increases. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
401

Bound state transformation walls  

CERN Document Server

In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and tha...

Andriyash, Evgeny; Jafferis, Daniel L; Moore, Gregory W

2010-01-01

402

Effect of RF power and annealing on chemical bonding and morphology of a-CNx thin films as humidity sensor  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Amorphous carbon nitride (a-CNx) thin films were deposited using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (rf-PECVD) technique. A set of a-CNx thin films were prepared using pure methane (CH4) gas diluted with nitrogen (N2) gas. The rf power was varied at 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 W. These films were then annealed at 400 °C in a quartz tube furnace in argon (Ar) gas. The effects of rf power and thermal annealing on the chemical bonding and morphology of these samples were studied. Surface profilometer was used to measure film thickness. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) measurements were used to determine their chemical bonding and morphology respectively. The deposition rate of the films increased constantly with increasing rf power up to 80W, before decreasing with further increase in rf power. Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR) studies showed a systematic change in the spectra and revealed three main peaks included C-N, C=N, C=C and C?N triple bond. C=N and C?N bonds decreased with increased C-N bonds after thermal annealing process. The FESEM images showed that the structure is porous for as-deposited and covered by granule-like grain structure after thermal annealing process was done. The resistance of the a-CNx thin film changed from 23.765 k? to 5.845 k? in the relative humidity range of 5 to 92 % and the film shows a good response and repeatability as a humidity sensing materials. This work showed that rf power and thermal annealing has significant effects on the chemical bonding and surface morphology of the a-CNx films and but yield films which are potential candidate as humidity sensor device

403

The Legendre transform in geometric calculus  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper explores the extension of the Legendre transform from scalar calculus to geometric calculus. In physics, the Legendre transform provides a change of variables to express equations of motion or other physical relationships in terms of the most convenient dynamical quantities for a given experimental or theoretical analysis. In classical mechanics and in field theory, the Legendre transform generates the Hamiltonian function of a system from the Lagrangian function or vice versa. In thermodynamics, the Legendre transform allows thermodynamic relationships to be written in terms of alternative sets of independent variables. In this paper, we review the properties of the Legendre transform in scalar calculus and show how an analogous transformation with similar properties may be constructed in geometric calculus.

McClellan, Gene E.

2013-10-01

404

Transformation Acoustics in Generic Elastic Media  

CERN Document Server

In this work a transformation acoustics scheme for generic elastic media is developed. Our approach starts form the decomposition of the elasticity tensor in terms of its eigentensors, an idea previously used by Norris. While Norris' transformation acoustics is restricted to the special class of so-called pentamode materials, we show that a similar scheme can be defined for the most general elasticity tensor. As in case of Norris' model (and in sharp contrast to transformation optics), the compatibility equations of the transformation medium are not purely algebraic and it is not guaranteed that solutions to these equations exist for any choice of material parameters and coordinate transformation. Nonetheless, it is shown that our scheme yields new cloaking solutions for certain classes of materials. In particular, we present the first application of a transformation based device for a non-scalar wave equation outside of the field of electromagnetics.

Bergamin, Luzi

2012-01-01

405

Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

Ahmed M.A. Haidar

2006-01-01

406

Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

Jianyu Lan

2013-10-01

407

Thermally induced phase transformation of pearl powder.  

Science.gov (United States)

The polymorphic phase transformation of thermally treated pearl powder was investigated by X-ray diffraction and thermoanalytical techniques. The phase transformation was based on quantification of the calcite content at various temperatures using Rietveld refinement analysis. The results show that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite occurred within a temperature range of 360-410 °C, which is 50-100 °C lower than the range for non-biomineralized aragonite. These thermoanalytical results suggest that the phase transformation of pearl aragonite may occur immediately after the thermal decomposition of the organic matrix in the pearl powder. An important finding is that decomposition of the organic matrix may greatly facilitate such transformation by releasing additional space for an easier structural reconstruction during the phase transformation process. PMID:23498231

Zhang, Guoqing; Guo, Yili; Ao, Ju; Yang, Jing; Lv, Guanglie; Shih, Kaimin

2013-05-01

408

Fast generic polar harmonic transforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Generic polar harmonic transforms have recently been proposed to extract rotation-invariant features from images and their usefulness has been demonstrated in a number of pattern recognition problems. However, direct computation of these transforms from their definition is inefficient and is usually slower than some efficient computation strategies that have been proposed for other methods. This paper presents a number of novel computation strategies to compute these transforms rapidly. The proposed methods are based on the inherent recurrence relations among complex exponential and trigonometric functions used in the definition of the radial and angular kernels of these transforms. The employment of these relations leads to recursive and addition chain-based strategies for fast computation of harmonic function-based kernels. Experimental results show that the proposed method is about 10× faster than direct computation and 5× faster than fast computation of Zernike moments using the q-recursive strategy. Thus, among all existing rotation-invariant feature extraction methods, polar harmonic transforms are the fastest. PMID:24835224

Hoang, Thai V; Tabbone, Salvatore

2014-07-01

409

Nahm transform and parabolic minimal Laplace transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We prove that Nahm transform for integrable connections with a finite number of regular singularities and an irregular singularity of rank 1 on the Riemann sphere is equivalent -- up to considering integrable connections as holonomic $\\D$-modules -- to minimal Laplace transform. We assume semi-simplicity and resonance-freeness conditions, and we work in the framework of objects with a parabolic structure. In particular, we describe the definition of the parabolic version of ...

Szabo, Szilard

2007-01-01

410

Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion show developmental plasticity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum. The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

Graham J. Alexander

2011-10-01

411

Morphological disintegration as a mode of morphological evolution of plants  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Morphological disintegration evaluated as a mode of morphological evolution, condition and adaptation of plants to biotopes the conditions of with high humidity. The value of morphological disintegration and autonomization of the parts of organism in these conditions was shown. The life forms of oligoennial plants, as well as of annual aquatic and coastal-aquatic plants were clarified. The spectrum of biomorphes of oligoennial and annual plants of vegetative origin was represented.

Natalya P. Savinykh

2014-04-01

412

Deviations from cooperative growth mode during eutectoid transformation: insights from phase-field approach  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The non-cooperative eutectoid transformation relies on the presence of pre-existing cementite particles in the parent austenitic phase and yields a product, popularly known as the divorced eutectoid. In isothermal conditions, two of the important parameters, which influence the transformation mechanism and determine the final morphology are undercooling (below A1 temperature) and inter-particle spacing. Although, the criteria which governs the morphological transition from l...

Ankit, Kumar; Mukherjee, Rajdip; Mittnacht, Tobias; Nestler, Britta

2014-01-01

413

Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60 ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ?-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described. (J.P.N.)

414

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further temptingly into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. Highlights: ? Single layer Nb-substituted nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered titanates. ? Nb(V) successfully introduced into anatase and rutile solid solutions. ? Anatase obtained from reconstructed nanosheets exhibit enhanced thermal stability. ? Oxygen partial pressure influences the valence of Nb in heat-treated samples. ? Deposition of oriented thin Ti(Nb)O2 layers by spray coating was demonstrated.

415

Transformation from Al3BC phase to doped TiB2 or TiC particles in Al–Ti melts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? The reaction of phase Al3BC with Ti was investigated. ? The transformation leads to the formation of C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC. ? The doped particles show macroporous and lamellar morphologies. ? A model was proposed to illustrate the transformation mechanism. ? Grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy is excellent. -- Abstract: An Al–8B–2C master alloy was added into Al–Ti melts to study the reaction of Al3BC phase with Ti. As a result, a new Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C master alloy was fabricated. The microstructures were studied by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The analysis indicates that C-doped TiB2 and B-doped TiC which show macroporous and lamellar morphologies are transformed from Al3BC. The transformation mechanism is also discussed in this work. Furthermore, the grain refinement performance of the Al–5Ti–0.8B–0.2C on A356 alloy was investigated

416

Kaleidoscopic morphologies from ABC star-shaped terpolymers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Star-shaped terpolymers of the ABC type composed of incompatible polymer components give a variety of ordered structures with mesoscopic length scales depending on their composition ratio. Their peculiar features are summarized in this report. Polymer components adopted are polyisoprene (I), polystyrene (S) and poly(2-vinylpyridine) (P), and many monodisperse samples of the IXSYPZ type were anionically prepared. Firstly our focus is on molecules of the I1.0S1.0Px1 type, where x1 is only a variable. The complex but systematic morphology change was displayed within the range 0.2 ? x1 ? 10, that is, their structures change from spherical plus lamellae structure for I1.0S1.0P0.2 to periodic tilings (0.4 ? x1 ? 1.9), then to lamellae-in-lamella (3.0 ? x1 ? 4.9) and lamellae-in-cylinder (7.9 ? x1 ? 10) structures with increasing x1. Here if we pay attention to the structural variation of the P domain inclusively, it transforms from sphere to cylinder, lamella and then to matrix, which is the same as that for linear polymers. Among them, several periodic Archimedean tiling patterns can be naturally formed when the relative lengths of the three chains are close to one another. Moreover, it has been found that the tiling zone is spread out widely. For example, the series I1.0S1.81.0S1.8Px2 (with 0.8 ? x2 ? 2.9) and the other series I1.0SyP2.0 (with 1.1 ? y ? 2.7) show mostly Archimedean tilings. Additionally, block copolymer/homopolymer blends with a composition of I1.0S2.7P2.5 reveal a quasicrystalline tiling with dodecagonal symmetry. Furthermore, a zinc-blende-type four-branched network structure was created just a little outside of the tiling region for a block copolymer/homopolymer blend of I1.0S2.3P0.8. When some more asymmetry in chain length is introduced, hyperbolic tiling on a gyroid membrane has successfully been constructed for the sample I1.0S1.8P3.2 and it transforms into a hierarchical cylinders-in-lamella structure with further increase in P content to I1.0S1.8P6.4. Thus, kaleidoscopic morphologies have been generated from ABC star-shaped terpolymers and their structural change has turned out to be very sensitive to relative compositions.

417

Relation between catalyst-assisted transformation and multiple-copy transformation for bipartite pure states  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We show that in some cases, catalyst-assisted entanglement transformation cannot be implemented by multiple-copy transformation for pure states. This fact, together with the result we obtained in R. Y. Duan, Y. Feng, X. Li, and M. S. Ying, Phys. Rev. A 71, 042319 (2005), namely that the latter can be completely implemented by the former, indicates that catalyst-assisted transformation is strictly more powerful than multiple-copy transformation. For the purely probabilistic setting we find, however, these two kinds of transformations are geometrically equivalent in the sense that the sets of pure states that can be converted into a given pure state with maximal probabilities not less than a given value have the same closure, regardless of whether catalyst-assisted transformation or multiple-copy transformation is used

418

Evolution of Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Document Server

A strictly empirical review is given of presently available data on the evolution of galaxy morphology. From HST observations of distant galaxies and ground-based observations of nearby ones observed at the same rest-frame wavelength it is found that late-type (Sbc-Sc) galaxies evolve more rapidly with increasing redshift than do early-type (E-Sa-Sab) galaxies. Furthermore the fraction of peculiar objects, that cannot be shoehorned into the Hubble tuning fork classification scheme, increases rapidly with redshift. Unexpectedly it is found that, over a wide range of densities, the fraction of barred galaxies is independent of environment. However, this fraction of barred galaxies appears to decline rapidly with increasing redshift.

Van den Bergh, S

2002-01-01

419

SCMD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the global regulation of cell morphology, a number of groups have recently reported genome-wide screening data for yeast mutants with abnormal morphology. Despite the relatively simple ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells, in the past, cell morphology researchers have processed information on cells manually. These time-consuming, entirely subjective tasks motivated us to develop image-processing software that automatically extracts yeast cells from micrographs and processes them to measu...

Saito, Taro L.; Ohtani, Miwaka; Sawai, Hiroshi; Sano, Fumi; Saka, Ayaka; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yukawa, Masashi; Ohya, Yoshikazu; Morishita, Shinichi

2004-01-01

420

Micro-mold design controls the 3D morphological evolution of self-assembling multicellular microtissues.  

Science.gov (United States)

When seeded into nonadhesive micro-molds, cells self-assemble three-dimensional (3D) multicellular microtissues via the action of cytoskeletal-mediated contraction and cell-cell adhesion. The size and shape of the tissue is a function of the cell type and the size, shape, and obstacles of the micro-mold. In this article, we used human fibroblasts to investigate some of the elements of mold design and how they can be used to guide the morphological changes that occur as a 3D tissue self-organizes. In a loop-ended dogbone mold with two nonadhesive posts, fibroblasts formed a self-constrained tissue whose tension induced morphological changes that ultimately caused the tissue to thin and rupture. Increasing the width of the dogbone's connecting rod increased the stability, whereas increasing its length decreased the stability. Mapping the rupture points showed that the balance of cell volume between the toroid and connecting rod regions of the dogbone tissue controlled the point of rupture. When cells were treated with transforming growth factor-?1, dogbones ruptured sooner due to increased cell contraction. In mold designs to form tissues with more complex shapes such as three interconnected toroids or a hon