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Enhancement of Images using Morphological Transformation  

CERN Document Server

This paper deals with enhancement of images with poor contrast and detection of background. Proposes a frame work which is used to detect the background in images characterized by poor contrast. Image enhancement has been carried out by the two methods based on the Weber's law notion. The first method employs information from image background analysis by blocks, while the second transformation method utilizes the opening operation, closing operation, which is employed to define the multi-background gray scale images. The complete image processing is done using MATLAB simulation model. Finally, this paper is organized as follows as Morphological transformation and Weber's law. Image background approximation to the background by means of block analysis in conjunction with transformations that enhance images with poor lighting. The multibackground notion is introduced by means of the opening by reconstruction shows a comparison among several techniques to improve contrast in images. Finally, conclusions are pres...

Sreedhar, K; 10.5121/ijcsit.2012.4103

2012-01-01

2

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without structural phase transformation are confirmed by recording selected area electron diffraction at various stages. The prepared CdS nanorods have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The importance of this phenomenon is vital for the potential application for CdS such as smart materials. PMID:21711947

Dhage, Sanjay R; Colorado, Henry A; Hahn, Thomas

2011-06-14

3

Morphological variations in cadmium sulfide nanocrystals without phase transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A very novel phenomenon of morphological variations of cadmium sulfide (CdS) nanorods under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) beam was observed without structural phase transformation. Environmentally stable and highly crystalline CdS nanorods have been obtained via a chemical bath method. The energy of the TEM beam is believed to have a significant influence on CdS nanorods and may melt and transform them into smaller nanowires. Morphological variations without structural phase transformation are confirmed by recording selected area electron diffraction at various stages. The prepared CdS nanorods have been characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, TEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The importance of this phenomenon is vital for the potential application for CdS such as smart materials.

Dhage SR; Colorado HA; Hahn T

2011-01-01

4

Morphological changes in atypical bird's foot trefoil plants obtained during genetic transformation by agrobacterium  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atypical plants of bird's foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., Bokor cv) showing altered morphological characters that deviate from a normal phenotype were found after plant regeneration from transformed tissue. It had been obtained by genetic transformation of root sections of seedlings using Agrobacterium tumefaciens vector LBA4404/pBI121 on a medium supplemented with 0.2 mg I-1 BAP. The transformants 2b arid 4a were found to have a greatly atypical habit, including shortened internodes, elongated leaves, regular leaf arrangement along the stem and thicker leaves. Inheritance of altered characters was observed in the first progeny generation, and their genetic origin was considered.

Nikoli? Radomirka R.; Miti? Nevena V.

2003-01-01

5

Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb{sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO{sub 3}) and {alpha}-PbO{sub 2} and {beta}-PbO{sub 2} was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

Lytle, Darren A., E-mail: lytle.darren@epa.gov [United States Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, TTEB, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); White, Colin, E-mail: white.colin@epa.gov [United States Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, TTEB, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.mallikarjuna@epa.gov [Pegasus Technical Services, 46 E Hollister Street, Cincinnati, OH 45219 (United States); Worrall, Adam, E-mail: worralad@email.uc.edu [University of Cincinnati, Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

2009-06-15

6

Crystal and morphological phase transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Herein, we show an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in chlorinated water under laboratory conditions. The study results will give an insight toward understanding how corrosion by-products on lead materials found in drinking water distribution systems develop and breakdown with time. The experiments were conducted to elucidate the morphology of lead (IV) oxide mineral transformation from hydrocerussite and its relationship to color change over a period of time. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to describe the surface morphology, shape and size of lead solids. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was performed to determine the mineral structure of lead solids. Solids analysis results were compared over a 14-day period of time to define changes in the crystal structure and morphology of lead solids. XRD analysis results of freshly synthesized lead solids showed that hydrocerussite, [Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2], was the only lead mineral present. After 14 days, a mixture of cerussite (PbCO3) and ?-PbO2 and ?-PbO2 was present. Lead precipitates, i.e. hydrocerussite changed color from white to reddish brown confirming a transformation of the lead phase with time. This was correlated to a change in morphology from flower shaped crystals to hexagonal bars and submicron particles.

2009-06-15

7

An expanded phylogeny of social amoebas (Dictyostelia) shows increasing diversity and new morphological patterns  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Social Amoebae or Dictyostelia are eukaryotic microbes with a unique life cycle consisting of both uni- and multicellular stages. They have long fascinated molecular, developmental and evolutionary biologists, and Dictyostelium discoideum is now one of the most widely studied eukaryotic microbial models. The first molecular phylogeny of Dictyostelia included most of the species known at the time and suggested an extremely deep taxon with a molecular depth roughly equivalent to Metazoa. The group was also shown to consist of four major clades, none of which correspond to traditional genera. Potential morphological justification was identified for three of the four major groups, on the basis of which tentative names were assigned. Results Over the past four years, the Mycetozoan Global Biodiversity Survey has identified many new isolates that appear to be new species of Dictyostelia, along with numerous isolates of previously described species. We have determined 18S ribosomal RNA gene sequences for all of these new isolates. Phylogenetic analyses of these data show at least 50 new species, and these arise from throughout the dictyostelid tree breaking up many previously isolated long branches. The resulting tree now shows eight well-supported major groups instead of the original four. The new species also expand the known morphological diversity of the previously established four major groups, violating nearly all previously suggested deep morphological patterns. Conclusions A greatly expanded phylogeny of Dictyostelia now shows even greater morphological plasticity at deep taxonomic levels. In fact, there now seem to be no obvious deep evolutionary trends across the group. However at a finer level, patterns in morphological character evolution are beginning to emerge. These results also suggest that there is a far greater diversity of Dictyostelia yet to be discovered, including novel morphologies.

Romeralo Maria; Cavender James C; Landolt John C; Stephenson Steven L; Baldauf Sandra L

2011-01-01

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A nude mouse model of hypertrophic scar shows morphologic and histologic characteristics of human hypertrophic scar.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hypertrophic scar (HSc) is a fibroproliferative disorder that occurs following deep dermal injury. Lack of a relevant animal model is one barrier toward better understanding its pathophysiology. Our objective is to demonstrate that grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in survival of engrafted human skin and murine scars that are morphologically, histologically, and immunohistochemically consistent with human HSc. Twenty nude mice were xenografted with split-thickness human skin. Animals were euthanized at 30, 60, 120, and 180 days postoperatively. Eighteen controls were autografted with full-thickness nude mouse skin and euthanized at 30 and 60 days postoperatively. Scar biopsies were harvested at each time point. Blinded scar assessment was performed using a modified Manchester Scar Scale. Histologic analysis included hematoxylin and eosin, Masson's trichrome, toluidine blue, and picrosirius red staining. Immunohistochemistry included anti-human human leukocyte antigen-ABC, ?-smooth muscle actin, decorin, and biglycan staining. Xenografted mice developed red, shiny, elevated scars similar to human HSc and supported by blinded scar assessment. Autograft controls appeared morphologically and histologically similar to normal skin. Xenografts survived up to 180 days and showed increased thickness, loss of hair follicles, adnexal structures and rete pegs, hypercellularity, whorled collagen fibers parallel to the surface, myofibroblasts, decreased decorin and increased biglycan expression, and increased mast cell density. Grafting split-thickness human skin onto nude mice results in persistent scars that show morphologic, histologic, and immunohistochemical consistency with human HSc. Therefore, this model provides a promising technique to study HSc formation and to test novel treatment options.

Momtazi M; Kwan P; Ding J; Anderson CC; Honardoust D; Goekjian S; Tredget EE

2013-01-01

9

Mechanism of morphology transformation during annealing of nanostructured gold films on glass.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nanostructured, just-percolated gold films were prepared by evaporation on bare glass. Annealing of the films at temperatures close to or higher than the softening temperature of the glass substrate induces morphological transformation to discrete Au islands and gradual embedding of the formed islands in the glass. The mechanism and kinetics of these processes are studied here using a combination of in situ high-temperature optical spectroscopy; ex situ characterization of the island shape by high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM), atomic force microcopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM); and numerical simulations of transmission spectra using the Multiple Multipole Program (MMP) approach. It is shown that the morphological transformation of just-percolated, 10 nm (nominal thickness) Au films evaporated on glass and annealed at 600 °C, i.e., in the vicinity of the substrate glass transition temperature (Tg = 557 °C), proceeds via three processes exhibiting different time scales: (i) fast recrystallization and dewetting, leading to formation of single-crystalline islands (minutes); the initial spectrum characteristic of a continuous Au film is transformed to that of an island film, displaying a surface plasmon (SP) absorption band. (ii) Reshaping and faceting of the single-crystalline islands accompanied by formation of circumferential glass rims around them (first few hours); the overall optical response shows a blue shift of the SP band. (iii) Gradual island embedding in the glass substrate (tens of hours), seen as a characteristic red shift of the SP band. The influence of the annealing atmosphere (air, vacuum) on the embedding process is found to be minor. Numerical modeling of the extinction cross-section corresponding to the morphological transformations during island recrystallization and embedding is in qualitative agreement with the experimental data.

Karakouz T; Tesler AB; Sannomiya T; Feldman Y; Vaskevich A; Rubinstein I

2013-04-01

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Automatic Segmentation of Glottal Space from Video Images Based on Mathematical Morphology and the hough Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocal disorders directly arise from the physical shape of the vocal cords. Videostroboscopic imaging provides doctors with valuable information about the physical shape of the vocal cords and about the way these cords move. Segmentation of the glottal space is necessary in order to characterize morphological disorders of vocal folds. One of the main problems with the methods presented is their low level of accuracy. To solve this problem, an automatic method based on Mathematical Morphology edge detection and the Hough transformation is presented in this article to extract the glottal space from the videostroboscopic images presented. This method and two other popular algorithms, histogram and active contour, are performed on 10 sets of videostroboscopy data from excised larynx experiments to compare their performances in analyzing videostroboscopy images. The accuracy in computing glottal area of these methods are investigated. The results show that our proposed method provides the most accurate and efficient detection, and is applicable when processing low-resolution images. In this paper we used edge detection based on geometric morphology to detecting the edges of vocal cords. Then in the next step the edges that were extracted, using Hough transform change to some lines. After that through using proposed algorithm, we omit the extra lines and extract the glottis.

Davod Aghlmandi; Karim Faez

2012-01-01

11

Automatic Segmentation of Glottal Space from Video Images Based on Mathematical Morphology and the hough Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vocal disorders directly arise from the physical shape of the vocal cords. Videostroboscopic imaging provides doctors with valuable information about the physical shape of the vocal cords and about the way these cords move. Segmentation of the glottal space is necessary in order to characterize morphological disorders of vocal folds. One of the main problems with the methods presented is their low level of accuracy. To solve this problem, an automatic method based on Mathematical Morphology edge detection and the Hough transformation is presented in this article to extract the glottal space from the videostroboscopic images presented. Our method compared with the histogram and active contours methods and the findings showed that our proposed method yields better results.

Davod Aghlmandi; Karim Faez

2012-01-01

12

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 10{sup 13}-10{sup 14} M{sub Sun} and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to <20% among satellites near the centers of groups. This decline is accompanied by a rise in quenched galaxies with intermediate bulge+disk morphologies, and only a weak increase in red bulge-dominated systems. These results show that both color and morphology are influenced by a galaxy's location within a group halo. We suggest that strangulation and disk fading alone are insufficient to explain the observed morphological dependence on environment, and that galaxy mergers or close tidal encounters must play a role in building up the population of quenched galaxies with bulges seen in dense environments at low redshift.

George, Matthew R.; Ma, Chung-Pei [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Vulcani, Benedetta [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Tinker, Jeremy [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Finoguenov, Alexis, E-mail: mgeorge@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

2013-06-20

13

Studies on Morphological Transformation of BALB/3T3-Derived Clones by Murine Leukemia Virus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We have described a cell line, UC1-B, derived spontaneously from BALB/3T3 mouse embryo cells, which, unlike the standard BALB/3T3, are morphologically transformed and produce bizarre viral forms in response to murine leukemia virus. Although UC1-B and BALB/3T3 are morphologically similar, and both f...

Smith, Helene S.; Hackett, Adeline J.; Springer, E. Louise; Riggs, John

14

Induction of different morphologic features of malignant melanoma and pigmented lesions after transformation of murine melanocytes with bFGF-cDNA and H-ras, myc, neu, and E1a oncogenes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant melanomas show a remarkable degree of heterogeneity because of different morphologic features, biologic behavior, and prognosis. In this communication, the authors attempted to correlate morphologic heterogeneity of melanomas with transformation by different activated oncogenes; they studi...

Ramon y Cajal, S.; Suster, S.; Halaban, R.; Filvaroff, E.; Dotto, G. P.

15

Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations. PMID:20067519

Altizer, Sonia; Davis, Andrew K

2010-01-11

16

Populations of Monarch butterflies with different migratory behaviors show divergence in wing morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The demands of long-distance flight represent an important evolutionary force operating on the traits of migratory species. Monarchs are widespread butterflies known for their annual migrations in North America. We examined divergence in wing morphology among migratory monarchs from eastern and western N. America, and nonmigratory monarchs in S. Florida, Puerto Rico, Costa Rica, and Hawaii. For the three N. American populations, we also examined monarchs reared in four common environment experiments. We used image analysis to measure multiple traits including forewing area and aspect ratio; for laboratory-reared monarchs we also quantified body area and wing loading. Results showed wild monarchs from all nonmigratory populations were smaller than those from migratory populations. Wild and captive-reared eastern monarchs had the largest and most elongated forewings, whereas monarchs from Puerto Rico and Costa Rica had the smallest and roundest forewings. Eastern monarchs also had the largest bodies and high measures of wing loading, whereas western and S. Florida monarchs had less elongated forewings and smaller bodies. Among captive-reared butterflies, family-level effects provided evidence that genetic factors contributed to variation in wing traits. Collectively, these results support evolutionary responses to long-distance flight in monarchs, with implications for the conservation of phenotypically distinct wild populations.

Altizer S; Davis AK

2010-04-01

17

Image analysis through feature extraction by using top-hat transform-based morphological contrast operator.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image decomposition and reconstruction is an important way for image analysis. To be effective for image decomposition and reconstruction, a method using extracted features through top-hat transform-based morphological contrast operator (MCOTH) is proposed in this paper. First, the morphological contrast operator constructed using the top-hat transforms is discussed. Then, extracting the bright and dark image features in the result of MCOTH is given. Based on the extracted bright and dark image features, the original images are decomposed into multiscale complete decompositions using multiscale structuring elements. After processing the decomposed images following different application purposes, the final result image can be reconstructed from the processed decomposition images. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed image analysis method through image decomposition and reconstruction, the application of image enhancement and fusion are discussed. The experimental results show that because the proposed image decomposition and reconstruction method reasonably decomposes the original image into complete decomposition with useful image features at different scales, the useful image features could be easily used for different applications. After the useful image features are processed, the final result image could be reconstructed. Moreover, different types of images are used in the experiments of image enhancement and fusion, and the results are effective. Therefore, the proposed image decomposition and reconstruction method in this paper are effective methods for image analysis and could be widely used in different applications.

Bai X

2013-06-01

18

Morphological transformation and proliferation of rat astrocytes as induced by sulfated polysaccharides from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this report, we demonstrate that the sulfated polysaccharide, Haishen (HS), which was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus can induce morphological transformation and proliferation of astrocytes in vitro when combined with basic fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2). Cell morphology showed no change when induced by HS or FGF-2 alone. However, combinational treatment of HS and FGF-2 promoted transformation of normal astrocyte into a stella morphology (stellation), along with an increase in the expression and rearrangement of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Further analysis of HS- and FGF-2-treated cells indicated a reduced percentage of cells in the G0/G1 phase, whereas the cell proliferation index (S phase) was increased. The proportion of 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells increased in response to the combination of HS and FGF-2. With respect to cell cycle signaling, immunoblotting assay demonstrated an accumulation of Cyclin D1. These observations suggest that HS may play a role in astrocyte morphological transformation and proliferation, and this activation requires a synergism with FGF-2.

Sheng X; Zhang N; Song S; Li M; Liang H; Zhang Y; Wang Y; Ji A

2011-09-01

19

Pressure-Induced Morphology-Dependent Phase Transformations of Nanostructured Tin Doxide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Two morphologies of nanostructured tin dioxide (SnO2) (i.e., nanobelts and nanowires) were compressed in diamond anvil cells up to 38 GPa followed by decompression. In situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were employed to monitor the structural transformations. It was found that nanostructured SnO2 behaved drastically differently than bulk material in terms of transformation pressures, phase stability regions and compressibility. These findings provide new insight into the unique pressure behaviours of nanostructured materials and have profound implications for producing controlled structures with new applications achieved by combined pressure-morphology tuning.

2009-01-01

20

Pressure-Induced Morphology-Dependent Phase Transformations of Nanostructured Tin Doxide  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two morphologies of nanostructured tin dioxide (SnO2) (i.e., nanobelts and nanowires) were compressed in diamond anvil cells up to 38 GPa followed by decompression. In situ Raman spectroscopy and synchrotron X-ray diffraction were employed to monitor the structural transformations. It was found that nanostructured SnO2 behaved drastically differently than bulk material in terms of transformation pressures, phase stability regions and compressibility. These findings provide new insight into the unique pressure behaviours of nanostructured materials and have profound implications for producing controlled structures with new applications achieved by combined pressure-morphology tuning.

Dong, Z.; Song, Y

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Analysis of morphological traits of bird's foot trefoil plants cv. Bokor transformed with Agrobacterium rhizogenes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available An efficient method for genetic transformation and shoot regeneration was achieved in bird's foot trefoil cv. Bokor using A. rhizogens. The transformed shoots were regenerated on hairy root segments in high frequency. After rooting and acclimation, transformed To plants were grown in experimental field. Analysis of morphological traits and chemical content in ten unintentionally chosen To bird's foot trefoil plants (genotypes no. 2 and no. 5) was performed. They were compared to those of control non-transformed plants. The traits as a number of stems per plant, length of internodes in longest stem, number of flowers per plant and plan high were very significant differed than the same traits in control plants, while there were no significant differences in the leaf area. No signs of the rol genes genotype and "T" phenotype were present. The transformed plants had significantly higher content of cellulose, while the protein and nitrogen contents of are in the range of control plants.

Nikoli? Radomirka; Miti? Nevena

2005-01-01

22

Global morphological analysis of marine viruses shows minimal regional variation and dominance of non-tailed viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Viruses influence oceanic ecosystems by causing mortality of microorganisms, altering nutrient and organic matter flux via lysis and auxiliary metabolic gene expression and changing the trajectory of microbial evolution through horizontal gene transfer. Limited host range and differing genetic potential of individual virus types mean that investigations into the types of viruses that exist in the ocean and their spatial distribution throughout the world's oceans are critical to understanding the global impacts of marine viruses. Here we evaluate viral morphological characteristics (morphotype, capsid diameter and tail length) using a quantitative transmission electron microscopy (qTEM) method across six of the world's oceans and seas sampled through the Tara Oceans Expedition. Extensive experimental validation of the qTEM method shows that neither sample preservation nor preparation significantly alters natural viral morphological characteristics. The global sampling analysis demonstrated that morphological characteristics did not vary consistently with depth (surface versus deep chlorophyll maximum waters) or oceanic region. Instead, temperature, salinity and oxygen concentration, but not chlorophyll a concentration, were more explanatory in evaluating differences in viral assemblage morphological characteristics. Surprisingly, given that the majority of cultivated bacterial viruses are tailed, non-tailed viruses appear to numerically dominate the upper oceans as they comprised 51-92% of the viral particles observed. Together, these results document global marine viral morphological characteristics, show that their minimal variability is more explained by environmental conditions than geography and suggest that non-tailed viruses might represent the most ecologically important targets for future research.

Brum JR; Schenck RO; Sullivan MB

2013-09-01

23

Secular Evolution and the Morphological Transformation of Cluster and Field Galaxies  

CERN Multimedia

Deep surveys conducted during the past decades have shown that galaxies in the distant universe are generally of more irregular shapes, and are disky in appearance and in their star formation rate, compared to galaxies in similar environments in the nearby universe. Given that the merger rate between z=2 and the local universe is far from adequate to account for this observed morphological transformation rate, an internal mechanism for the morphological transformation of galaxies is to be sought, whose operation can be further aided by environmental factors. The secular evolution mechanism, especially with the discovery of a collisionless dissipation mechanism for stars within the secular evolution paradigm, has provided just such a framework for understanding the morphological evolution of galaxies across the Hubble time. In this paper we will summarize the past theoretical results on the dynamical mechanisms for secular evolution, and highlight new results in the analysis of the observational data, which co...

Zhang, X; Zhang, Xiaolei; Buta, Ronald J.

2006-01-01

24

Phase and morphological transformation of preformed AZ91D magnesium alloys in remelting  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The phase and morphological transformation during the remelting process was investigated by isothermal soaking and rapidly quenching of preformed AZ91D magnesium alloys in semisolid state. It was revealed that the morphological transformation of preformed alloys is crucial to obtain homogenously fine spheroidal grains and affect the final forming ability. The transformation is divided into two stages, local remelting of the whole experiment and partial remelting of the respective grains, which behave as liquid bands and liquid cells structures, respectively. In the partial melting, the lower melting point phase, {beta}-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12}, diffused to the grains boundary and center of the grains and separated to Al{sub 2}Mg and Mg. The Al{sub 2}Mg and Mg phases with lower melting points melt into cells structures. The final microstructure of the remelting experiments is composed of cells structures, spheroidal grains and liquid phase. (orig.)

Mingxu Xia; Hongxing Zheng; Jianguo Li [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ., Shanghai, SH (China); Sen Yuan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an Univ. of Technology, Xi' an (China)

2005-07-01

25

Retinoids have different effects on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of different retinoids on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells has been studied. Retinoic acid and its derivatives were found to induce morphological transformation of hamster embryo cells, and to synergistically increase the transformation frequency when exposed in combination with benzo[a]pyrene. The increase was maintained when the cells were sequentially exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and retinoids in a similar way as observed for tumor promoting phorbol esters. At the same time retinoids were found to strongly decrease anchorage independent growth of a hamster embryo cell line. The present results support previous findings indicating that retinoids may have an enhancing effect on the early stages in carcinogenesis, and an inhibitory effect on the later stages. PMID:4017175

Rivedal, E; Sanner, T

1985-07-01

26

Retinoids have different effects on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of different retinoids on morphological transformation and anchorage independent growth of Syrian hamster embryo cells has been studied. Retinoic acid and its derivatives were found to induce morphological transformation of hamster embryo cells, and to synergistically increase the transformation frequency when exposed in combination with benzo[a]pyrene. The increase was maintained when the cells were sequentially exposed to benzo[a]pyrene and retinoids in a similar way as observed for tumor promoting phorbol esters. At the same time retinoids were found to strongly decrease anchorage independent growth of a hamster embryo cell line. The present results support previous findings indicating that retinoids may have an enhancing effect on the early stages in carcinogenesis, and an inhibitory effect on the later stages.

Rivedal E; Sanner T

1985-07-01

27

On the specific identity of specimens of Phytoseiulus longipes Evans (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) showing different feeding behaviours: morphological and molecular analyses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper focuses on the differentiation of specimens, identified as Phytoseiulus longipes, collected in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and South Africa. Two of these populations are known to feed and develop on Tetranychus evansi, whereas the two others do not. As morphologically similar specimens can sometimes belong to different species and because differences in predatory behaviours exist among the four populations considered, we tested for the presence of cryptic species. Morphological and molecular experiments (12S rDNA) were carried out. The four studied populations of P. longipes could be morphologically differentiated thanks to a combination of characters. However, these morphological differences are very small. The two populations that feed and develop on T. evansi (from Argentina and Brazil) are morphologically closer to each other than to the two other populations. Genetic distances among the four populations of P. longipes were very low, suggesting that despite their different feeding habits, all specimens belong to the same species. However, the populations associated with T. evansi showed some genetic differentiation from those that do not use this pest. This is the first time that this type of differentiation has been reported for the family Phytoseiidae. These results are of primary importance to ensure the success of biological control programs and to develop strains adapted to both crops and prey species.

Tixier MS; Ferrero M; Okassa M; Guichou S; Kreiter S

2010-10-01

28

On the specific identity of specimens of Phytoseiulus longipes Evans (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae) showing different feeding behaviours: morphological and molecular analyses.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper focuses on the differentiation of specimens, identified as Phytoseiulus longipes, collected in four countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile and South Africa. Two of these populations are known to feed and develop on Tetranychus evansi, whereas the two others do not. As morphologically similar specimens can sometimes belong to different species and because differences in predatory behaviours exist among the four populations considered, we tested for the presence of cryptic species. Morphological and molecular experiments (12S rDNA) were carried out. The four studied populations of P. longipes could be morphologically differentiated thanks to a combination of characters. However, these morphological differences are very small. The two populations that feed and develop on T. evansi (from Argentina and Brazil) are morphologically closer to each other than to the two other populations. Genetic distances among the four populations of P. longipes were very low, suggesting that despite their different feeding habits, all specimens belong to the same species. However, the populations associated with T. evansi showed some genetic differentiation from those that do not use this pest. This is the first time that this type of differentiation has been reported for the family Phytoseiidae. These results are of primary importance to ensure the success of biological control programs and to develop strains adapted to both crops and prey species. PMID:20158926

Tixier, M-S; Ferrero, M; Okassa, M; Guichou, S; Kreiter, S

2010-02-17

29

USE OF MORPHOLOGICAL TRANSFORMATION PRINCIPLES IN THE DESIGN OF GARMENTS BY CONFORMANCE TYPES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The work considers the problem of personalized design of garments for various groups of wearers and presents the results of theoretical and experimental research of garments for women elaborated in correlation with the particularities of conformance types by applying the principles of designing products with flexible structure.The analysis of concept of design of products with flexible structure and the determination of design principles contributed to the grounded selection of model system processes. The principle of morphological transformation has been defined as a tool for designing multifunctional products with morphological transformation elements capable of facilitating the flexibility of product, extending their functionality and active use time. Therefore, one may affirm that the implementation of flexible structure products by application of morphological transformation elements is a more efficient way to satisfy the demands of customers and to improve the quality of products, as well as to raise their commercial competitiveness on international market.A set of recommended solutions has been analyzed and systematized, depending on the conformance type. The study of morphological particularities of main conformance types – balanced type, superior type, inferior type, as well as analysis of external shapes of representative bodies facilitated the correct choice of compositional constructive solutions, as well as to obtain products attractive for the wearers. Using the schemes of optical proportioning and optical illusion it became possible to choose the most suitable compositional-constructive solutions of models providing for the best correlation between the proportions of used silhouette and body particularities, as well as to harmonize the external appearance of wearers by the use of morphological transformation and optical illusion elements facilitating the creation of an integer and harmonic image.Therefore, the design of flexible structure products fits in the actual directions of recovering the garment manufacturing companies, contributing also to a wider assortment of products and being at the same time a strategic element of promoting the image of an enterprise in line with the industry innovations.

Irina Tutunaru; Marcela Irovan; Stela Balan; Natalia Le?an

2013-01-01

30

EVIDENCE FOR MORPHOLOGY AND LUMINOSITY TRANSFORMATION OF GALAXIES AT HIGH REDSHIFTS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We study the galaxy morphology-luminosity-environmental relation and its redshift evolution using a spectroscopic sample of galaxies in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. In the redshift range of 0.4 ? z ? 1.0, we detect conformity in morphology between neighboring galaxies. The realm of conformity is confined within the virialized region associated with each galaxy plus dark matter halo system. When a galaxy is located within the virial radius of its nearest neighbor galaxy, its morphology strongly depends on the neighbor's distance and morphology: the probability for a galaxy to be an early type (fE ) increases as it approaches an early-type neighbor, but decreases as it approaches a late-type neighbor. We find that fE evolves much faster in high-density regions than in low-density regions, and that the morphology-density relation becomes significantly weaker at z ? 1. This may be because the rate of galaxy-galaxy interactions is higher in high-density regions, and a series of interactions and mergers over the course of galaxy life eventually transform late types into early types. We find more isolated galaxies are more luminous, which supports luminosity transformation through mergers at these redshifts. Our results are consistent with those from nearby galaxies, and demonstrate that galaxy-galaxy interactions have been strongly affecting the galaxy evolution over a long period of time.

2009-07-20

31

Morphology transformation of hybrid micelles self-assembled from rod-coil block copolymer and nanoparticles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hybrid polymeric micelles self-assembled from a mixture containing poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) block copolymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared. The effect of AuNPs on the self-assembly behavior of PBLG-b-PEG was studied both experimentally by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and laser light scattering and computationally using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. It was found that, the pure PBLG-b-PEG block copolymer self-assembles into long cylindrical micelles. By introducing AuNPs to the stock block copolymer solution, the formed aggregate morphology transforms to spherical micelles. The DPD simulation results well reproduced the morphological transformations observed in the experiments. And the simulation revealed that the main reason for the aggregate morphology transformation is the breakage of ordered packing of PBLG rods in micelle core by the added nanoparticles. Moreover, from the DPD simulations, the distribution information on nanoparticles was obtained. The nanoparticles were found to prefer to locate near the core/shell interface as well as in the core center of the micelles. The combination of experimental and simulation methods lead to a comprehensive understanding of such a complex self-assembly system. PMID:22299635

Cai, Chunhua; Wang, Liquan; Lin, Jiaping; Zhang, Xu

2012-02-17

32

Morphology transformation of hybrid micelles self-assembled from rod-coil block copolymer and nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hybrid polymeric micelles self-assembled from a mixture containing poly(?-benzyl-L-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) block copolymer and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared. The effect of AuNPs on the self-assembly behavior of PBLG-b-PEG was studied both experimentally by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and laser light scattering and computationally using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. It was found that, the pure PBLG-b-PEG block copolymer self-assembles into long cylindrical micelles. By introducing AuNPs to the stock block copolymer solution, the formed aggregate morphology transforms to spherical micelles. The DPD simulation results well reproduced the morphological transformations observed in the experiments. And the simulation revealed that the main reason for the aggregate morphology transformation is the breakage of ordered packing of PBLG rods in micelle core by the added nanoparticles. Moreover, from the DPD simulations, the distribution information on nanoparticles was obtained. The nanoparticles were found to prefer to locate near the core/shell interface as well as in the core center of the micelles. The combination of experimental and simulation methods lead to a comprehensive understanding of such a complex self-assembly system.

Cai C; Wang L; Lin J; Zhang X

2012-03-01

33

Organometallic Pt precursor on graphite substrate: deposition from SC CO2, reduction and morphology transformation as revealed by SFM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Organometallic Pt precursor was deposited on model highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrate from solutions in supercritical carbon dioxide. Morphology transformations during reduction process including real-time observations were studied by scanning force microscopy (SFM). We confirmed that SC CO2 is a promising mediator in deposition process even for rather hydrophobic supports. SFM data show that thermal decomposition of the PtMe2(COD) precursor with subsequent hydrogen post-treatment allows one to obtain rather pure and well-defined Pt nanoparticles with average height above a substrate level of 4.5 ± 0.6 nm.

2012-01-01

34

Kinetics and morphology of product of bainite transformations in the range of swing back  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Dilatometric investigations were carried out during isothermal transformation in high carbon steel in the vicinity of Ms and complementary research with quantitative analysis was made.The time-temperature-transformation diagram was drawn on the base of kinetic curves of austenite transformation at temperatures 403-523 K. Activation energies in all characteristic ranges were determined. Two separate levels of activation energy were found in the area of lower bainite - BD, which is related to the change in growth rates and nucleation rates of bainitic ferrite during advancement of the reaction. A 'butterfly' morphology has been observed in the range of lower bainite with midrib - BDM. The occurrence of this morphology entails deviation from thermodynamics law. It was found that the classical methods used to calculate activation energy would totally neglect the initial ranges of transformations at lower temperatures and the final range at upper temperatures. The application of Johnson-Mehl equation was confined as useful to describe mutually overlaying fragments of phase transitions in the range of swing back. (author)

2002-01-01

35

Morphology evolution and structural transformation of solution-processed methanofullerene thin film under thermal annealing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The film morphology and nanostructure of the soluble fullerene, [6,6]-phenyl-C(61) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), are crucial for its applications in organic thin film devices, such as organic solar cells and organic thin film transistors. In this work, the morphology, structural transformation, and crystallite orientation of PCBM film under thermal annealing as a function of annealing temperature, processing solvents, and solution concentrations are systematically investigated. Crystalline PCBM films with needle-like crystallites, axialitic aggregates, and faceted slices are formed in the annealing process. The axialites, made up of needle-like aggregates, are proposed to be partially developed spherulites frozen at the early growth stage formed through low-angle branching. The faceted slices are found to be PCBM single crystallites with hexagonal packing in the film plane. The film undergoes both amorphous-to-crystalline and crystalline-to-crystalline phase transformations as the annealing temperature is increased. The former transformation, corresponding to the self-organization of disordered PCBM molecules in the kinetically frozen films, occurs at a relative low temperature once the motion of these molecules is thermally activated, whereas the later one, corresponding to the transformation between two thermally stable crystalline phases, occurs when further increasing the annealing temperature. The PCBM crystallites composing these films are found to have an orientation preference normal to the film surface, which can be attributed to the confinement of film thickness for PCBM crystallite growth.

Zheng L; Liu J; Ding Y; Han Y

2011-06-01

36

Transformation and morphology of crystalline phases in the hydrothermal processing of amorphous silica  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation and morphology of crystalline phases have been investigated in the hydrothermal processing of amorphous silica in the ranges of 0.02-0.5% KOH, 200-400 deg.C and 1-360 hr. The hydroxylation of the surface of silica using KOH solution was essential for obtaining a-quartz by hydrothermal processing. Below 300 deg.C, amorphous silica first transformed to SiO{sub 2}-X particles, and then to a-cristobalite. Above 300 deg.C, amorphous silica first transformed to SiO{sub 2}-K particles, and then to b-cristobalite. The synthesis time for obtaining {alpha}-quartz crystal was decreased as increase of temperature and KOH concentration. (author). 12 refs., 8 figs.

Yu, Hyo-Shin; Yang, Dong-Hyo; Rhee, Kang-In; Lee, Churl-Kyoung [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Taejeon(Korea)

2001-04-30

37

Morphological cell transformation of Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells by the cyanotoxin, cylindrospermopsin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is a cyanotoxin which has been implicated in human intoxication and animal mortality. Genotoxic activity of this hepatotoxin is known but its carcinogenic activity remains to be elucidated. In this work, CYN was assessed for its cell-transforming activity using the Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation assay. This in vitro assay is used to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of chemical, physical and biological agents in SHE cells, which are primary, normal, diploid, genetically stable and capable of metabolic activation. We demonstrated that CYN induced a significant increase in morphological cell transformation in SHE cells following a 7-day continuous treatment in the range of non-cytotoxic concentrations 1 x 10(-7)-1 x 10(-2) ng/mL.

Maire MA; Bazin E; Fessard V; Rast C; Humpage AR; Vasseur P

2010-06-01

38

Guest induced morphological transformation from nanospheres to nanowires by hydrogen bond self-assembly.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phosphorescent nanospheres of a carboxyl-functionalized iridium complex ([Ir(ppy)2(Hdcbpy)], ppy: 2-phenylpyridine; Hdcbpy: 4-carboxy-2,2'-bipyridyl-4'-carboxylate) were prepared by a conventional precipitation method. Driven by hydrogen bond interaction between carboxylic groups of the complex and the guest molecule tris(imidazoline), these nanospheres can be transformed into 1-dimensional nanowires in the presence of tris(imidazoline) at the concentration of the iridium complex higher than 4.8 mM, while nanowires change back to nanospheres with the diameter obviously smaller than that of the sole complex of [Ir(ppy)2(Hdcbpy)]. The interaction between carboxylic groups and tris(imidazoline) molecules was confirmed by FT-IR spectra. The structures of the nanowires and nanospheres were further studied by XRD diffraction analysis. With the morphological transformation from nanospheres to nanowires, the phosphorescence of nanostructures was blue shifted from 590 to 564 nm.

Qin L; Yang H; Qin C; Xiang Z; Zhang M; Ding L; Yi T; Yang S

2013-04-01

39

Morphological transformation of calcite crystal growth by prismatic 'acidic' polypeptide sequences  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many of the interesting mechanical and materials properties of the mollusk shell are thought to stem from the prismatic calcite crystal assemblies within this composite structure. It is now evident that proteins play a major role in the formation of these assemblies. Recently, a superfamily of 7 conserved prismatic layer-specific mollusk shell proteins, Asprich, were sequenced, and the 42 AA C-terminal sequence region of this protein superfamily was found to introduce surface voids or porosities on calcite crystals in vitro. Using AFM imaging techniques, we further investigate the effect that this 42 AA domain (Fragment-2) and its constituent subdomains, DEAD-17 and Acidic-2, have on the morphology and growth kinetics of calcite dislocation hillocks. We find that Fragment-2 adsorbs on terrace surfaces and pins acute steps, accelerates then decelerates the growth of obtuse steps, forms clusters and voids on terrace surfaces, and transforms calcite hillock morphology from a rhombohedral form to a rounded one. These results mirror yet are distinct from some of the earlier findings obtained for nacreous polypeptides. The subdomains Acidic-2 and DEAD-17 were found to accelerate then decelerate obtuse steps and induce oval rather than rounded hillock morphologies. Unlike DEAD-17, Acidic-2 does form clusters on terrace surfaces and exhibits stronger obtuse velocity inhibition effects than either DEAD-17 or Fragment-2. Interestingly, a 1:1 mixture of both subdomains induces an irregular polygonal morphology to hillocks, and exhibits the highest degree of acute step pinning and obtuse step velocity inhibition. This suggests that there is some interplay between subdomains within an intra (Fragment-2) or intermolecular (1:1 mixture) context, and sequence interplay phenomena may be employed by biomineralization proteins to exert net effects on crystal growth and morphology.

2007-02-13

40

Tests show ability of vacuum circuit breaker to interrupt fast transient recovery voltage rates of rise of transformer secondary faults  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A Vacuum Circuit Breaker demonstrated its ability to interrupt short circuits with faster than normal rates of rise of Transient Recovery Voltage (TRV) at levels greater than those produced by most transformer secondary faults. Two recent exploratory test programs evaluated the interrupting ability of a 15kV Vacuum Circuit Breaker containing interrupters of the rotating arc type with contacts made from a Chromium-Copper powder metal mixture. The interrupting conditions covered a wide range of currents from 10% to 130% of the 28kA rated short circuit current of the tested circuit breaker and a wide range of TRV rates of rise, including the relatively slow rate of rise, normally used in testing and found in most indoor circuit breaker applications; two faster rates of rise equaling and exceeding those found in a known power plant transformer secondary protection application; and the fastest rates of rise possible in the laboratory which exceed the requirements of most transformer secondary faults. These tests showed that the interrupting performance of the tested Vacuum Circuit Breaker was unaffected by the TRV rate of rise to the fastest rates available in the test lab. Such a Vacuum Circuit Breaker can therefore be used without TRV modifying capacitors to slow down the rate of rise provided by the power system. This ability is particularly important if analysis shows that the expected TRV from a transformer secondary fault has a fast rate of rise beyond the recognized ability of an older circuit breaker to acceptably interrupt.

Smith, R.K. [Westinghouse Science and Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1994-12-31

 
 
 
 
41

Phase transformation and morphological evolution of ion-beam sputtered tin oxide films on silicon substrate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Amorphous tin oxide films were deposited on a silicon substrate by ion-beam sputtering (IBS) using a SnO{sub 2} target. Phase transformation and morphological changes of deposited films at different annealing temperatures were studied by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Crystallization of the as-deposited film started at 350 C and SnO and SnO{sub 2} phases formed at 400 C. Disproportionation of SnO into Sn and SnO{sub 2} was observed at 450 C followed by the oxidation of metallic tin at 550 C. Large volume changes accompanying the oxidation of metallic tin at this temperature caused the partial detachment and formation of heavy wrinkles on the film. These results suggest that the oxygen deficiency of tin oxide films should be avoided by optimizing the deposition process, since a drastic morphological change at the phase transformation to SnO{sub 2} during annealing may destroy the integrity of the thin films and degrade the long-term stability of tin oxide films used as gas sensors at high temperatures.

Choe, Y.S.; Chung, J.H.; Kim, D.S.; Kim, G.H.; Baik, H.K.

1999-07-01

42

Galaxies in X-ray Groups. III. Satellite Color and Morphology Transformations  

CERN Multimedia

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z=0.2-1 with halo masses of 10^13-10^14 M_sun and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on HST imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of ...

George, Matthew R; Bundy, Kevin; Leauthaud, Alexie; Tinker, Jeremy; Wechsler, Risa H; Finoguenov, Alexis; Vulcani, Benedetta

2013-01-01

43

GALAXIES IN X-RAY GROUPS. III. SATELLITE COLOR AND MORPHOLOGY TRANSFORMATIONS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

While the star formation rates and morphologies of galaxies have long been known to correlate with their local environment, the process by which these correlations are generated is not well understood. Galaxy groups are thought to play an important role in shaping the physical properties of galaxies before entering massive clusters at low redshift, and transformations of satellite galaxies likely dominate the buildup of local environmental correlations. To illuminate the physical processes that shape galaxy evolution in dense environments, we study a sample of 116 X-ray selected galaxy groups at z = 0.2-1 with halo masses of 1013-1014 M? and centroids determined with weak lensing. We analyze morphologies based on Hubble Space Telescope imaging and colors determined from 31 photometric bands for a stellar mass-limited population of 923 satellite galaxies and a comparison sample of 16,644 field galaxies. Controlling for variations in stellar mass across environments, we find significant trends in the colors and morphologies of satellite galaxies with group-centric distance and across cosmic time. Specifically at low stellar mass (log (M*/M?) = 9.8-10.3), the fraction of disk-dominated star-forming galaxies declines from >50% among field galaxies to

2013-06-20

44

Poplars with a PtDDM1-RNAi transgene have reduced DNA methylation and show aberrant post-dormancy morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Arabidopsis thaliana DDM1 (Decreased DNA Methylation) gene is necessary for the maintenance of DNA methylation and heterochromatin assembly. In Arabidopsis, ddm1 mutants exhibit strong but delayed morphological phenotypes. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress transcripts of two orthologous DDM1 paralogs in Populus trichocarpa and examined effects on whole plant phenotypes during perennial growth and seasonal dormancy. The RNAi-PtDDM1 transgenic poplars showed a wide range of DDM1 transcript suppression; the most strongly suppressed line had 37.5 % of the expression of the non-transgenic control. Genomic cytosine methylation (mC %) was 11.1 % in the non-transgenic control, compared with 9.1 % for the transgenic event with lowest mC %, a reduction of 18.1 %. An evaluation of greenhouse growth directly after acclimation of in vitro grown plants showed no developmental or growth rate abnormalities associated with the decrease in PtDDM1 expression. However, after a dormancy cycle and growth outdoors, a mottled leaf phenotype appeared in some of the transgenic insertion events that had strongly reduced PtDDM1 expression and DNA methylation. The phenotypic consequences of reduced DDM1 activity and DNA methylation appears to increase with cumulative plant propagation and growth. PMID:23455459

Zhu, Ruoqing; Shevchenko, Olga; Ma, Cathleen; Maury, Stéphane; Freitag, Michael; Strauss, Steven H

2013-02-28

45

Poplars with a PtDDM1-RNAi transgene have reduced DNA methylation and show aberrant post-dormancy morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Arabidopsis thaliana DDM1 (Decreased DNA Methylation) gene is necessary for the maintenance of DNA methylation and heterochromatin assembly. In Arabidopsis, ddm1 mutants exhibit strong but delayed morphological phenotypes. We used RNA interference (RNAi) to suppress transcripts of two orthologous DDM1 paralogs in Populus trichocarpa and examined effects on whole plant phenotypes during perennial growth and seasonal dormancy. The RNAi-PtDDM1 transgenic poplars showed a wide range of DDM1 transcript suppression; the most strongly suppressed line had 37.5 % of the expression of the non-transgenic control. Genomic cytosine methylation (mC %) was 11.1 % in the non-transgenic control, compared with 9.1 % for the transgenic event with lowest mC %, a reduction of 18.1 %. An evaluation of greenhouse growth directly after acclimation of in vitro grown plants showed no developmental or growth rate abnormalities associated with the decrease in PtDDM1 expression. However, after a dormancy cycle and growth outdoors, a mottled leaf phenotype appeared in some of the transgenic insertion events that had strongly reduced PtDDM1 expression and DNA methylation. The phenotypic consequences of reduced DDM1 activity and DNA methylation appears to increase with cumulative plant propagation and growth.

Zhu R; Shevchenko O; Ma C; Maury S; Freitag M; Strauss SH

2013-06-01

46

Crystal and Morphological Phase Transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) in Chlorinated Water  

Science.gov (United States)

Herein, we show that an important transformation of Pb(II) to Pb(IV) under laboratory conditions which is intended to represent in real water flowing system in lead pipes. These results will give an insight in understanding the scale formation in lead pipes and dissolution of lea...

47

Morphological and crystallographic transformation from immature to mature coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphology and crystallographic orientations of coccoliths, Pleurochrysis carterae, at the various growth stages were investigated using electron back-scattered diffraction analyses and scanning electron microscope (SEM) stereo-photogrammetry to understand the developments of two different coccolith units, namely V and R units. SEM observation indicates that the immature coccolith units at the earliest stage were not perfectly fixed on the organic base plates and several units were often lacked. The all units showed platy morphology and often lay parallel to the organic base plate. Their crystal orientations were close to that of the mature R units. With further growth, the platy morphology changes to a trapezoid to anvil-shape for both units, resulting in the interlocking structure of VR units. Morphological analyses present that the edges of the platy crystals parallel to the organic base plate were estimated as <48 1>, and their inner/upper surfaces were estimated as {10 14}. As they interlocked further, R units inclined more outward to develop the inner tube elements with {10 1 4} and then each unit develops differently distal and proximal shield elements, which are respectively estimated as {10 14} in the distal view and {2 1 10} planes in the proximal view. Based on the above results, the formation of different coccolith units and their growth were discussed.

Saruwatari K; Nagasaka S; Ozaki N; Nagasawa H

2011-08-01

48

Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/{mu}m. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with {sup 12}C or {sup 28}Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/{mu}m, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. (author)

Han, Zhen-Bo; Suzuki, Hiromi; Kato, Tomohisa; Ikenaga, Mituo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Radiation Biology Center; Suzuki, Fumio; Suzuki, Masao; Furusawa, Yoshiya

1998-09-01

49

Transformation of cultured fetal rat liver cells by MDAB and phenobarbital. Morphological, biochemical and immunocytochemical characterization of cell lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fetal rat liver cells derived from 19-day gestation rats were exposed in culture to the carcinogen, 3'-methyl-4-dimethyl-aminoazobenzene (MDAB) for 3 days and then maintained in medium supplemented with the tumor promoter, phenobarbital (PB). Tumors developed in immunodeficient mice inoculated with cells derived from cultures which had been maintained for more than 8 weeks. Histologically, three types of tumors could be distinguished. One contained epithelial-like cells, which resembled what has previously been described as 'clear' epithelial cells. The second contained cells which were more basophilic, with prominent nuclei and closely resembled the hepatoma cell line Mc-A-R-777. The third group of tumors possessed cells of both varieties. Cell lines derived from these tumors were then characterized by determining their capacity to synthesize and secrete alpha-fetoprotein, albumin and transferrin by measuring the incorporation of 35S-methionine into immunoprecipitates obtained by reaction with the respective specific antibodies and the content of the respective mRNAs were determined by hybridization to cDNAs. The activity of gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (GGT) and the liver specific enzyme tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), as well as the induction of TAT by dexamethasone was also evaluated. The presence of these markers in some of the cell lines strongly suggests that they are derived from parenchymal cells. In contrast, other cell lines which morphologically resemble 'clear' epithelial cells are negative, suggesting that they may be derived from non-parenchymal epithelial cells which exist in the original culture. However, some epithelial-like cell lines derived from tumors of mixed morphology appear different to those established from tumors which contained only epithelial-like cells. These express low levels of transferrin and tyrosine aminotransferase suggesting that they may be more closely related to hepatocytes than those cells which are derived from tumors which originally comprised only epithelial cells. The absence or presence of liver markers correlates with the morphology of the respective cell lines since transferrin and TAT are only present in significant levels in those lines which comprise cells with a morphology resembling hepatoma cell lines. In cell lines which show mixed morphology, immunocytochemistry reveals that significant amounts of transferrin are only present in the parenchymal-like population. Growth rate measurements show that the faster growing cell lines generally possessed lower levels of transferrin and TAT expression. It can be concluded from these studies that it is possible to transform cells derived from fetal rat liver in culture using a hepatocarcinogen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Yeoh G; Porter I; Arcus M; Douglas A

1989-06-01

50

Cigarette smoke-induced morphological transformation of Bhas 42 cells in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In vitro cell transformation assays detect transformed cells that have acquired the distinct characteristics of malignant cells and thus model one stage of in vivo carcinogenesis. These assays have been proposed as surrogate models for predicting the non-genotoxic carcinogenic potential of chemicals. The Bhas 42 cell transformation assay, a short-term assay that uses v-Ha-ras-transfected Balb/c 3T3 cells, can detect the tumour promoter-like activities of chemicals, but has not previously been used with cigarette smoke. The particulate phase of cigarette smoke (total particulate matter [TPM]) is known to induce tumours in vivo in the mouse skin painting assay. Therefore, we investigated the ability of this Bhas cell assay to form morphologically transformed foci in vitro when repeatedly challenged with TPM from a standard research cigarette. TPM induced a dose-dependent increase in Type III foci, and a significant increase (up to 20-fold) in focus formation at moderately toxic concentrations between 5 and 60µg TPM/ml, with a peak at 20µg/ml. Three batches of TPM were tested in three independent experiments. Precision (repeatability and reproducibility) was calculated by using 0, 5, 10, and 20µg TPM/ml. Repeatability and reproducibility, expressed as the relative standard deviation obtained from the normalised slopes of the dose-response curves, were 17.2% and 19.6%, respectively; the slopes were 0.7402 ± 0.1247, 0.9347 ± 0.1316, and 0.8772 ± 0.1767 (increase factor?ml/mg TPM; mean ± SD) ; and the goodness of fit (r2) of the mean slopes, each derived from n = 6 repeats, was 0.9449, 0.8198, and 0.8344, respectively. This in vitro assay with Bhas 42 cells, which are regarded as already initiated in the two-stage paradigm of carcinogenesis (initiation and promotion), is able to detect cell transformation induced by cigarette smoke in a dose-dependent manner with a high sensitivity and good precision. Because this assay is fast and yields reliable results, it may be useful in product assessment, as well as for further investigation of the non-genotoxic carcinogenic activity of tobacco smoke-related test substances.

Weisensee D; Poth A; Roemer E; Conroy LL; Schlage WK

2013-05-01

51

The use of cystatin C to inhibit epithelial-mesenchymal transition and morphological transformation stimulated by transforming growth factor-beta.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent suppressor of mammary epithelial cell (MEC) proliferation and is thus an inhibitor of mammary tumor formation. Malignant MECs typically evolve resistance to TGF-beta-mediated growth arrest, enhancing their proliferation, invasion, and metastasis when stimulated by TGF-beta. Recent findings suggest that therapeutics designed to antagonize TGF-beta signaling may alleviate breast cancer progression, thereby improving the prognosis and treatment of breast cancer patients. We identified the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C (CystC) as a novel TGF-beta type II receptor antagonist that inhibits TGF-beta binding and signaling in normal and cancer cells. We hypothesized that the oncogenic activities of TGF-beta, particularly its stimulation of mammary epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), can be prevented by CystC. METHOD: Retroviral infection was used to constitutively express CystC or a CystC mutant impaired in its ability to inhibit cathepsin protease activity (namely Delta14CystC) in murine NMuMG MECs and in normal rat kidney (NRK) fibroblasts. The effect of recombinant CystC administration or CystC expression on TGF-beta stimulation of NMuMG cell EMT in vitro was determined with immunofluorescence to monitor rearrangements of actin cytoskeletal architecture and E-cadherin expression. Soft-agar growth assays were performed to determine the effectiveness of CystC in preventing TGF-beta stimulation of morphological transformation and anchorage-independent growth in NRK fibroblasts. Matrigel invasion assays were performed to determine the ability of CystC to inhibit NMuMG and NRK motility stimulated by TGF-beta. RESULTS: CystC and Delta14CystC both inhibited NMuMG cell EMT and invasion stimulated by TGF-beta by preventing actin cytoskeletal rearrangements and E-cadherin downregulation. Moreover, both CystC molecules completely antagonized TGF-beta-mediated morphological transformation and anchorage-independent growth of NRK cells, and inhibited their invasion through synthetic basement membranes. Both CystC and Delta14CystC also inhibited TGF-beta signaling in two tumorigenic human breast cancer cell lines. CONCLUSION: Our findings show that TGF-beta stimulation of initiating metastatic events, including decreased cell polarization, reduced cell-cell contact, and elevated cell invasion and migration, are prevented by CystC treatment. Our findings also suggest that the future development of CystC or its peptide mimetics hold the potential to improve the therapeutic response of human breast cancers regulated by TGF-beta.

Sokol JP; Neil JR; Schiemann BJ; Schiemann WP

2005-01-01

52

The insecticide buprofezin induces morphological transformation and kinetochore-positive micronuclei in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in the absence of detectable DNA damage.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The insecticide buprofezin was examined for its genotoxicity in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of the compound in mammalian cells. Exposure to buprofezin concentrations of 12.5-100 microM did not significantly affect the colony-forming ability of the cells, but did result in increased frequencies of morphologically transformed colonies. Treatment with buprofezin did not cause a detectable induction of DNA repair synthesis, an indicator of DNA damage, but significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei. Immunostaining of the cells with antikinetochore antibody (CREST antibody) showed that essentially all of the buprofezin-induced micronuclei were kinetochore-positive. The results suggest that morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by buprofezin results from an interaction of the compound or a metabolite of it with the mitotic apparatus rather than from DNA damage.

Herrera LA; Ostrosky-Wegman P; Schiffmann D; Chen QY; Ziegler-Skylakakis K; Andrae U

1993-11-01

53

The insecticide buprofezin induces morphological transformation and kinetochore-positive micronuclei in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in the absence of detectable DNA damage.  

Science.gov (United States)

The insecticide buprofezin was examined for its genotoxicity in cultured Syrian hamster embryo cells in order to better understand the mechanisms underlying the genotoxicity of the compound in mammalian cells. Exposure to buprofezin concentrations of 12.5-100 microM did not significantly affect the colony-forming ability of the cells, but did result in increased frequencies of morphologically transformed colonies. Treatment with buprofezin did not cause a detectable induction of DNA repair synthesis, an indicator of DNA damage, but significantly increased the frequency of micronuclei. Immunostaining of the cells with antikinetochore antibody (CREST antibody) showed that essentially all of the buprofezin-induced micronuclei were kinetochore-positive. The results suggest that morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by buprofezin results from an interaction of the compound or a metabolite of it with the mitotic apparatus rather than from DNA damage. PMID:7694128

Herrera, L A; Ostrosky-Wegman, P; Schiffmann, D; Chen, Q Y; Ziegler-Skylakakis, K; Andrae, U

1993-11-01

54

Role of parent phase morphology in governing its metastable phase transformation: an investigation in Zr-1wt%Nb alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The present work has made an attempt to bring out the role of the size of the parent phase on the occurrence of metastable phase transformations like martensitic and omega, with due emphasis to transformation in nanometric dimension. Beta phase, having compositions suitable for martensitic and omega transformations, has been generated in different size ranges and morphology in a Zr-1wt%Nb alloy. The beta phase distribution was in form of patches, present at the grain boundaries and tri-junctions, and needle shaped precipitates, having intragranular distribution. The mechanism of formation of the needle shaped precipitates has been worked out. The transformations inside the beta phase have been monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It could be established that beta precipitates having compositions amenable for martensitic, omega or both the transformations remained untransformed once their size was below a certain limit. A theoretical basis for validating this aspect has also been presented here. (author)

2011-01-01

55

Aorta of young and middle-aged heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia patients shows no functional or morphological impairment assessed by MRI  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sami Soljanlahti1, Taina Autti1, Alpo F Vuorio2, Pekka Keto1, Hannu Turtola3, Kirsi Lauerma11Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Division of Internal Medicine, Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; 3Department of Internal Medicine, North Karelia Central Hospital, Joensuu, FinlandAbstract: In familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) the level of LDL cholesterol is 2–3 times that of the normal population and leads to accelerated atherosclerosis. Improved care for risk factors has decreased cardiovascular mortality of these patients. We studied subclinical atherosclerotic changes with morphologic and functional aortic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in FH patients under the age of 50. 39 DNA test-verified heterozygous FH-North Karelia patients, aged 6–48, 28 of them treated with statins, and 25 healthy controls, aged 12 to 50, underwent aortic MRI, carotid ultrasound (US), and risk-factor assessment. No differences in any of the morphologic or functional aortic parameters appeared between patients and controls. Age and gender were independent predictors of the majority of the morphologic and functional measures. Carotid intima-media thickness assessed by US was greater in patients (0.57 mm ± 0.13 vs 0.48 ± 0.13 mm, p = 0.005) as was cholesterol-years score (243 ± 122 vs 137 ± 74, p < 0.001). Patients had thicker intima-media of the common carotid artery and higher cholesterol burden as indicated by their cholesterol-years score. Despite this, no differences existed in morphologic or functional aortic parameters assessed with MRI. The improved care of cardiovascular risk factors, especially statin treatment, may protect the aorta of FH patients. However, larger confirmatory studies are needed.Keywords: MRI, ultrasound, atherosclerosis, aorta, familial hypercholesterolemia

Sami Soljanlahti; Taina Autti; Alpo F Vuorio; Pekka Keto; Hannu Turtola; Kirsi Lauerma

2008-01-01

56

Application of the Hough transform for the automatic determination of soot aggregate morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a new method for automated identification and measurement of primary particles within soot aggregates as well as the sizes of the aggregates and discuss its application to high-resolution transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of the aggregates. The image processing algorithm is based on an optimized Hough transform, applied to the external border of the aggregate. This achieves a significant data reduction by decomposing the particle border into fragments, which are assumed to be spheres in the present application, consistent with the known morphology of soot aggregates. Unlike traditional techniques, which are ultimately reliant on manual (human) measurement of a small sample of primary particles from a subset of aggregates, this method gives a direct measurement of the sizes of the aggregates and the size distributions of the primary particles of which they are composed. The current version of the algorithm allows processing of high-resolution TEM images by a conventional laptop computer at a rate of 1-2 ms per aggregate. The results were validated by comparison with manual image processing, and excellent agreement was found.

Grishin I; Thomson K; Migliorini F; Sloan JJ

2012-02-01

57

Morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of fission neutrons delivered at different dose rates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Both induction of cell transformation and killing were examined with Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) fibroblasts exposed to low doses of JANUS fission-spectrum neutrons delivered at high (10.3 cGy/min) and low (0.43 and 0.086 cGy/min) dose rates. Second-passage cells were irradiated in mass cultures, then cloned over feeder cells. Morphologically transformed colonies were identified 8-10 days later. Cell killing was independent of dose rate, but the yield of transformation was greater after low-dose-rate irradiations. Decreasing the neutron dose-rate from 10.3 to 0.086 cGy/min resulted in a two- to threefold increase in the yield of transformation for neutron exposures below 50 cGy, and enhancement which was consistently observed in repetitive experiments in different radiosensitive SHE cell preparations. 43 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

1991-01-01

58

Morphology transformation of patterned, uniform and faceted GaN microcrystals  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report on the growth and characterization of patterned and uniformly distributed GaN microcrystals with well-defined facets and epitaxy. The microcrystals were grown on a mask patterned by lithography. The GaN microcrystals were formed by selective-area epitaxy using metal-organic chemical-vapour deposition. The GaN microcrystals have similar sizes and shapes. Each microcrystal consists of an upper and a lower part, which are rotated by 30 deg. Transmission electron microscopy shows that there is a rather clear interface between the two parts of the crystal, suggesting a sudden change in the growth direction. We performed ab initio calculations for the surface energies of hexagonal GaN, and the growth morphology is explained based on surface energy considerations

2008-01-07

59

A variant acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(11;17) (q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphology of classical acute promyelocytic leukemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A subgroup of acute leukemia with morphology resembling acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) shows variant translocations involving RARA and has a different morphology from that of classical APL. The variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA subgroup has been reported to have leukemic cells with regular nuclei, many granules, absence of Auer rods, an increased number of Pelgeroid neutrophils, strong myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) resistance. Here, we report a case of variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphological features of classical APL, including numerous Auer rods and faggot cells. The leukemic cells expressed CD13, CD33, CD117, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and cytoplasmic-MPO on the immunophenotyping study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular studies. To distinguish variant APL cases from classical APL cases, regardless of whether morphologically the findings are consistent with those of classical APL, combining morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular studies before chemotherapy is very important. PMID:21120193

Han, Sang Bong; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Kim, Hee-Je; Han, Kyungja

2010-06-30

60

A variant acute promyelocytic leukemia with t(11;17) (q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphology of classical acute promyelocytic leukemia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A subgroup of acute leukemia with morphology resembling acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) shows variant translocations involving RARA and has a different morphology from that of classical APL. The variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA subgroup has been reported to have leukemic cells with regular nuclei, many granules, absence of Auer rods, an increased number of Pelgeroid neutrophils, strong myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, and all-trans-retinoic-acid (ATRA) resistance. Here, we report a case of variant APL with t(11;17)(q23;q12); ZBTB16-RARA showing typical morphological features of classical APL, including numerous Auer rods and faggot cells. The leukemic cells expressed CD13, CD33, CD117, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, and cytoplasmic-MPO on the immunophenotyping study. The diagnosis was confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular studies. To distinguish variant APL cases from classical APL cases, regardless of whether morphologically the findings are consistent with those of classical APL, combining morphologic, immunophenotypic, cytogenetic, and molecular studies before chemotherapy is very important.

Han SB; Lim J; Kim Y; Kim HJ; Han K

2010-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Morphology transformation from ZnO nanorod arrays to ZnO dense film induced by KCl in aqueous solution  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effect of KCl on the morphology, composition, optical and electrical properties of ZnO nanostructures obtained from aqueous solution method was investigated. Field emission scanning electron microscopy reveals that by increasing the content of KCl in the precursor solution, the morphology of the samples changes from one-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays to two-dimensional dense films. This is accompanied by a decrease of the growth rate and an improvement of the crystal quality. After annealing at 550 deg. C, the optical band gap energy changed from 3.5 to 3.2 eV due to the decrease of Cl impurity, and the defect species had changed from vacancies of oxygen into interstitial oxygen ions. A possible mechanism for the morphology transformation is discussed

2008-11-28

62

Morphological transformation of C3H/10T1/2 CL8 cells by procarcinogens  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the sensitivity of the C3H/10T1/2 CL8 (10T1/2) cell transformation system, the chemical exposure period was increased to a total of 6 days (two consecutive 3-day exposures). Using this modified procedure, we transformed 10T1/2 cells with procarcinogens such as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, benz(a)anthracene, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide which have been negative in the standard 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. However, ..beta..-naphthylamine was inconclusive and 2-acetylaminofluorine was negative in this modified assay system. Results demonstrate that a simple modification of the 10T1/2 cell transformation method can increase the sensitivity to some procarcinogens that require metabolic activation.

Oshiro, Y.; Balwierz, P.S.

1982-01-01

63

Crystallographic, morphological and kinetic studies of the. alpha. -. beta. transformation in the Nb-H system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The group VB bcc metal-hydrogen systems have been extensively studied in the last few years. These studies are relevant to nuclear-reactor technology, superconductivity, and energy-storage devices. The niobium-hydrogen system contains an extensive single-phase solid solution, a region of spinodal decomposition, and several ordered-hydride modifications. A new type of phase transformation was proposed by Rashid and Scott for the VB bcc metal-hydrogen systems. They pointed out that a preferential concentration of hydrogen atoms can occur at stress fields as a result of diffusion, leading to the nucleation of hydride plates at these sites by a shear-type mechanism. In recent papers, the crystallography of the formation of {beta} vanadium and zirconium hydrides has been compared with the predictions of the phenomenological crystallographic theory of martensitic transformations. These papers suggest the mechanism for the transformation from {alpha} vanadium and zirconium the mechanism for the transformation from {alpha} vanadium and zirconium to {beta} vanadium and zirconium is such that the substitutional atoms undergo a martensitic shear while the hydrogen atoms diffuse to their new ordered positions. To extend the validity of this phenomenological approach, the crystallography and substructure of transformations in niobium hydrides were investigated quantitatively in this work.

Ko, C.G.

1988-01-01

64

On the morphology of the directionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interlamellar spacings and microstructural faults of the unidirectionally transformed ?-Cu-In eutectoid are investigated by metallographic methods. In agreement with measurements of Mellor and Chadwick we find widely spread interlamellar spacings. The quality of the microstructure is seriously influenced by the transformation rate. While the alignment of the lamellae is nearly perfect in the central parts of the samples at rates of 0.27 and 0.45 cm/h, the lamellar character is lost at 18 cm/h. Primary crystals of the ?-phase and the delta-phase, eutectoid sub-boundaries, deviations of the lamellae from the main growth direction and periodical growth bands are found as microstructural faults. Moreover the discontinuous coarsening reaction starts at eutectoid grain boundaries. The primary crystals and the growth bands can be explained by influences of the unidirectional solidification which immediately precedes the unidirectional eutectoid transformation. The deviations of the lamellae from main growth direction are caused by irregularities of the transformation front. These are able to migrate on the transformation front transverse to the growth direction. (orig.)

1977-01-01

65

Martensitic transformation under stress in ferrous alloys. Mechanical behaviour and resulting morphologies  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformation plasticity deformation mechanisms are reviewed in the case of ferrous alloys. From experimental data, microstructural observations and numerical simulations the contributions of the different mechanisms are discussed and a schematic diagram of these evolution is proposed depending on the applied stresses and the test condition. (orig.).

1995-01-01

66

Morphological Transformations of Galaxies in the A901/02 Supercluster from STAGES  

CERN Document Server

We present a study of galaxies in the Abell 901/902 Supercluster at z~0.165, based on HST ACS F606W, COMBO-17, Spitzer 24um, XMM-Newton X-ray, and gravitational lensing maps, as part of the STAGES survey. We characterize galaxies with strong externally-triggered morphological distortions and normal relatively undisturbed galaxies, using visual classification and quantitative CAS parameters. We compare normal and distorted galaxies in terms of their frequency, distribution within the cluster, star formation properties, and relationship to dark matter (DM) or surface mass density, and intra-cluster medium (ICM) density. We revisit the morphology density relation, which postulates a higher fraction of early type galaxies in dense environments, by considering separately galaxies with a low bulge-to-disk (B/D) ratio and a low gas content as these two parameters may not be correlated in clusters. We report here on our preliminary analysis.

Heiderman, A L; Bacon, D J; Balogh, M L; Barden, M; Barazza, F D; Bell, E F; Böhm, A; Caldwell, J A R; Gray, M E; ler, B Häu\\ss; Heymans, C; Jahnke, K; Van Kampen, E; Koposov, S; Lane, K; McIntosh, D H; Meisenheimer, K; Peng, C Y; Rix, H -W; Sánchez, S F; Somerville, R; Taylor, A N; Wisotzki, L; Wolf, C; Zheng, X

2008-01-01

67

Morphological transformations in rat thymus under influence of multiplegravitational overloads and after pharmaceutical correction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using light and transmission electron microscopy techniques morphological features of mature male Wistar rats, which were exposed to hypergravity (9 g, 10 minutes, daily, 45times), were investigated. It was revealed, that reaction of thymus on multiple hypergravity resulted in haemodynamic changes and involution of lymphoid tissue according to the adaptive and compensatory reaction of the organ under repeated stress action. Administration of glutargin as an adaptogen under systematic hypergravity overloads provides certain corrective effect. Hypergravity-induced involution changes neither progress, nor totally arrest.

Moroz G.A.

2012-01-01

68

Effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and morphology of martensites  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of self-accommodation and plastic accommodation in martensitic transformations and the displacement vector for lattice deformation are discussed. The authors propose that the formation of an invariant habit plane is connected with the self-accommodation between different martensitic variants and results in the formation of internal twinned martensites; the plastic accommodation, rather than self-accommodation, occurs between parent and new phases when the strength is low or the dislocation density is high for the parent phase and the invariant habit plane is difficult to form, resulting in the formation of dislocation martensites.

Gu, N.; Song, X.; Zhang, J.; Yin, F.; Wang, R. [Hebei Univ. of Technology, Tianjin (China). Dept. of Material Science and Engineering

1995-08-01

69

The transformation of phytolith morphology as the result of their exposure to high temperature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phytoliths are an important component for interpreting the ancient botanical record. However, phytoliths can be altered through heating, either as the result of such activities as firing ceramics, clay molds use for casting metal or in hearths. Phytoliths can also be altered through heating as the result of creating comparative sample from living plants. By heating phytoliths at graduated intervals it was found that different types of phytoliths lost their diagnostic morphological characteristics at significantly different temperatures. The phytoliths used in this study are derived from economically important plants to Chinese archaeology and culture. Given the consistent results of the alteration of different type of phytoliths at specific temperatures it should eventually be possible to use phytolith alterations as a proxy measure of the original firing temperature of ancient objects and features.

Wu Y; Wang C; Hill DV

2012-07-01

70

Adaptive order morphology edge detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, we present an edge detection model by combining order morphology transformation and anti-noise morphology transformation. In the model, we construct three kinds of edge detection operators and apply them in edge detection of some gray images and some urban satellite images with different levels of salt and pepper noise, gaussian noise and mixed noise. The experiment results show that less than 30% noise the edge detection effect by our model is better than that by canny operator and the general order morphology transformation. The conclusion is that our model is feasible for edge detection of the gray image and the satellite remote sensing images.

Yuanni Wang; Fei Ge

2012-01-01

71

TRANSFORMATION  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

72

Transformer  

Science.gov (United States)

This applet is about transformers. The number of turns on the primary and secondary winding, load resistance, frequency and amplitude of the voltage can be set by the user. The voltage and current waveforms are shown. A detailed mathematical analysis along with snap shots of voltage and current waveforms of a real transformer is also provided. This simulation is part of a simulation library.

Ng, Chiu-King

2007-10-16

73

Understanding the influence of alendronate on the morphology and phase transformation of apatitic precursor nanocrystals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Bisphosphonates (BPs) are a class of synthetic pyrophosphate analogs that can prevent the loss of bone mass, given orally to treat postmenopuasal osteoporosis. It is not clear yet if the benefits of BPs include the possibility of affecting bone apatitic precursors transition for bone consolidation except for encouraging osteoclasts to undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, the complexity of the in vivo system makes it difficult to isolate and study such extracellular topographical cues that trigger bone turnover response. Herein, we proposed a wet-chemical approach employing alendronate sodium (AS) as a guide of hydroxyapatite (HA) precursor growth and conversion which was initiated from the nucleantion of octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in a cell membrane-mimicking surfactant micelle aqueous system. The nanocrystal clusters of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and OCP nanocryatals were readily precipitated within a relatively narrow AS concentration range (2-8 ?M). However, such low concentrations of AS seemed to stabilize the more acidic phases, and to delay the transformation into HA, to an extent which increased on increasing AS concentration. In contrast, at a slight higher concentrations (16-32 ?M), AS promoted HA precipitation after ageing for 1h. It was found that the effect of AS on the phase selectivity of apatitic precursors was concentration-dependent within a prolonged ageing time stage (0.5-168 h). The AS-assisted reactions in vitro offer an expedient way to understand the underlying implementarity between bone and BPs for bone consolidation, and to improve our understanding of benefit of BP dosages on bone turnover and trauma healing.

Zhang G; Huang R; Li Z; Yang X; Chen X; Xia W; Sun X; Yang G; Gao C; Gou Z

2012-08-01

74

Transformers  

Science.gov (United States)

All About Circuits is a website that âÂÂprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transformers, is the ninth chapter in Volume II âÂÂAlternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Mutual inductance and basic operation; Step-up and Step-down transformers; Electrical isolation; Phasing; Winding configurations; Voltage Regulation; and finally, Special transformers and applications.. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-03

75

Equine sarcoids: Bovine Papillomavirus type 1 transformed fibroblasts are sensitive to cisplatin and UVB induced apoptosis and show aberrant expression of p53  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Bovine papillomavirus type 1 infects not only cattle but also equids and is a causative factor in the pathogenesis of commonly occurring equine sarcoid tumours. Whilst treatment of sarcoids is notoriously difficult, cisplatin has been shown to be one of the most effective treatment strategies for sarcoids. In this study we show that in equine fibroblasts, BPV-1 sensitises cells to cisplatin-induced and UVB-induced apoptosis, a known cofactor for papillomavirus associated disease, however BPV-1 transformed fibroblasts show increased clonogenic survival, which may potentially limit the therapeutic effects of repeated cisplatin treatment. Furthermore we show that BPV-1 increases p53 expression in sarcoid cell lines and p53 expression can be either nuclear or cytoplasmic. The mechanism and clinical significance of increase/abnormal p53 expression remains to be established.

Finlay Margaret; Yuan ZhengQiang; Morgan Iain M; Campo M; Nasir Lubna

2012-01-01

76

Approximate Bayesian Computation for Astronomical Model Analysis: A Case Study in Galaxy Demographics and Morphological Transformation at High Redshift  

CERN Document Server

"Approximate Bayesian Computation" (ABC) represents a powerful methodology for the analysis of complex stochastic systems for which the likelihood of the observed data under an arbitrary set of input parameters may be entirely intractable-the latter condition rendering useless the standard machinery of tractable likelihood-based, Bayesian statistical inference (e.g. conventional Markov Chain Monte Carlo simulation; MCMC). In this article we demonstrate the potential of ABC for astronomical model analysis by application to a case study in the morphological transformation of high redshift galaxies. To this end we develop, first, a stochastic model for the competing processes of merging and secular evolution in the early Universe; and second, through an ABC-based comparison against the observed demographics of the first generation of massive (M_gal > 10^11 M_sun) galaxies (at 1.5 < z < 3) in the CANDELS/EGS dataset we derive posterior probability densities for the key parameters of this model. The "Sequent...

Cameron, E

2012-01-01

77

Direct characterization of phase transformations and morphologies in moving reaction zones in Al/Ni nanolaminates using dynamic transmission electron microscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? Fast phase transformations are examined in Al/Ni reactive nanolaminates. ? Results visible only by dynamic transmission electron microscopy at ns resolution. ? NiAl forms under 15 ns after reaction front in all three stoichiometries studied. ? DTEM imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in nonequiatomic films. - Abstract: Phase transformations and transient morphologies are examined as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate across Al/Ni nanolaminate films. The rapid evolution of these phases and sub-micrometer morphological features requires nanoscale temporal and spatial resolution that is not available with traditional in situ electron microscopy. This work uses dynamic transmission electron microscopy to identify intermetallic products and phase morphologies, as exothermic formation reactions self-propagate in nanolaminate films grown with 3:2, 2:3 and 1:1 Al/Ni atomic ratios. Single-shot diffraction patterns with 15 ns temporal resolution reveal that the NiAl intermetallic forms within ?15 ns of the reaction front's arrival in all three types of films and is the only intermetallic phase to form, as the reactions self-propagate and quench very rapidly. Time-resolved imaging reveals a transient cellular morphology in the Al-rich and Ni-rich foils, but not in the equiatomic films. The cellular features in the Al-rich and Ni-rich films are attributed to a cooling trajectory through a two-phase field of liquid + NiAl.

2011-01-01

78

[Morphology, cell-cell interactions, and migratory activity of IAR-2 epithelial cells transformed with the RAS oncogene: contribution of cell adhesion protein E-cadherin].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The destruction of stable cell-cell adhesion and the acquisition of the ability to migrate are consistent stages of neoplastic evolution of tumor cells of epithelial origin. We studied the morphologic and mi gration characteristics of epithelial cells of Iar1162 and IAR1170 clones derived from a mixed culture of on cogene N-RasV12-transformed cell line IAR-2. It was found that the mutant oncogene RAS can cause two types of morphological changes in IAR-2 epithelial cells. Cells of one type (IAR1162 clones) underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition: they stopped to express E-cadherin, acquired fibroblast-like morphology, and did not form tight junctions. Cells of the other type (IAR1170 clones) retained a morphology close to the morphology of nontransformed progenitor cells, formed E-cadherin-based adherens junctions and tight junctions, and formed a monolayer in confluent culture. However, in both IAR1162 and IAR1170 cells, the mutant oncogene RAS caused the destruction of marginal actin bundle and the reorganization of cell-cell adherens junctions. RAS-transformed IAR1162 and IAR1170 epithelial cells acquired the ability to migrate on a flat substrate as well as through narrow pores in membranes of migration chambers. A videomicroscopic study of transformed epithelial cell cultures demonstrated the instability of cell-cell contacts and the independent nature of cell migration. IAR 1170 epithelial cells, which had E-cadherin-based adherens junctions, were also able to move as a group (collective migration). 1162D3 cells, which lost the ability to express endogenous E-cadherin as a result of Ras-transformation, were transfected with a plasmid carrying the CDH1. As a result of transfection, clones of cells with different levels of expression of exogenous E-cadherin were obtained. The high level of expression of exogenous E-cadherin in transformed epithelial cells led to a decrease in the rate of migration on a two-dimensional substrate of the cells that were in contact with neighboring cells but almost had no effect on the migration of single cells, at the same time increasing the number of cells that migrated through the pores in migration chambers. Thus, the destruction of marginal actin bundle and the change in the spatial organization of cell-cell adherens junctions, irrespective of the presence or absence of E-cadherin, was accompanied by destruction of stable cell-cell adhesion and the appearance of locomotor activity in Ras-transformed epithelial cells. The retaining of E-cadherin in cell-cell adhesion junctions affects the locomotor activity of transformed epithelial cells and plays an important role in their collective migration.

Zhitniak IIu; Glushankova NA

2011-11-01

79

Transformation of indolent mantle cell lymphoma to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma: case report and review of clinical and morphologic variants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of indolent mantle cell lymphoma with progression to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma 8 years after initial presentation. The first lymph node biopsy showed expanded mantle zones composed of uniformly small B lymphocytes. A cyclin D1 immunohistochemical stain was negative and the patient was observed. Eight years later, the patient developed symptomatic splenomegaly. Microscopic examination of the spleen revealed expanded mantle zones with an increased number of large cells with irregular nuclear contours. Immunohistochemistry for cyclin D1 was positive. A repeat cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining performed on the initial lymph node biopsy was positive, indicating an inadequate initial study. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement studies confirmed clonal identity. A revised diagnosis of indolent mantle cell lymphoma with progression to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma was rendered. The differential diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma, including clinical and morphologic variants, is discussed. PMID:22849733

Kiel, Mark J; Smith, Lauren B

2012-08-01

80

Transformation of indolent mantle cell lymphoma to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma: case report and review of clinical and morphologic variants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of indolent mantle cell lymphoma with progression to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma 8 years after initial presentation. The first lymph node biopsy showed expanded mantle zones composed of uniformly small B lymphocytes. A cyclin D1 immunohistochemical stain was negative and the patient was observed. Eight years later, the patient developed symptomatic splenomegaly. Microscopic examination of the spleen revealed expanded mantle zones with an increased number of large cells with irregular nuclear contours. Immunohistochemistry for cyclin D1 was positive. A repeat cyclin D1 immunohistochemical staining performed on the initial lymph node biopsy was positive, indicating an inadequate initial study. Immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene rearrangement studies confirmed clonal identity. A revised diagnosis of indolent mantle cell lymphoma with progression to pleomorphic mantle cell lymphoma was rendered. The differential diagnosis of mantle cell lymphoma, including clinical and morphologic variants, is discussed.

Kiel MJ; Smith LB

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
81

The gut morphology of the African ice rat, Otomys sloggetti robertsi, shows adaptations to cold environments and sex-specific seasonal variation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We studied the gut morphology of the ice rat Otomys sloggetti robertsi, a non-hibernating murid rodent endemic to the sub-alpine and alpine regions of the southern African Drakensberg and Maluti mountains. The gut structure of O. s. robertsi is well adapted for a high fibre, herbivorous diet, as is the case with other members of its subfamily Otomyinae. Despite the broad similarity in gross gut morphology with mesic- and arid-occurring otomyines, O. s. robertsi has a larger small intestine, caecum, stomach volume and parts of the colon, which we suggest are adaptations for increased energy uptake and/or poor diet quality in alpine environments. However, O. s. robertsi has a smaller larger intestine than other otomyines, perhaps because it occupies a mesic habitat. Seasonal sexual differences occurred, with females increasing dimensions of the stomach, small intestine length, caecum, and large intestine in summer. Sexual asymmetry in gut morphology may be related to increased energy requirements of females during pregnancy and lactation, indicating phenotypic plasticity in response to poor quality vegetation and a shorter growing season in alpine habitats.

Schwaibold U; Pillay N

2003-11-01

82

The gut morphology of the African ice rat, Otomys sloggetti robertsi, shows adaptations to cold environments and sex-specific seasonal variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We studied the gut morphology of the ice rat Otomys sloggetti robertsi, a non-hibernating murid rodent endemic to the sub-alpine and alpine regions of the southern African Drakensberg and Maluti mountains. The gut structure of O. s. robertsi is well adapted for a high fibre, herbivorous diet, as is the case with other members of its subfamily Otomyinae. Despite the broad similarity in gross gut morphology with mesic- and arid-occurring otomyines, O. s. robertsi has a larger small intestine, caecum, stomach volume and parts of the colon, which we suggest are adaptations for increased energy uptake and/or poor diet quality in alpine environments. However, O. s. robertsi has a smaller larger intestine than other otomyines, perhaps because it occupies a mesic habitat. Seasonal sexual differences occurred, with females increasing dimensions of the stomach, small intestine length, caecum, and large intestine in summer. Sexual asymmetry in gut morphology may be related to increased energy requirements of females during pregnancy and lactation, indicating phenotypic plasticity in response to poor quality vegetation and a shorter growing season in alpine habitats. PMID:12925880

Schwaibold, U; Pillay, N

2003-08-19

83

Morphological and Genetic Analyses of Hellebore Leaf Spot Disease Isolates from Different Geographic Origins Show Low Variability and Reveal Molecular Evidence for Reclassification into Didymellaceae  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hellebore leaf spot, caused by Coniothyrium hellebori, is the most common fungal disease of Helleborus species not only in botanical and ornamental gardens but also in nurseries. To correct the current lack of knowledge regarding this widely distributed pathogen, this study investigated 25 C. hellebori isolates collected from different countries in North America and Europe, primarily Germany. The morphology, pathogenicity and molecular genetic relationships on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) of these isolates were studied. RAPD primers produced a total of 394 bands, of which 40% were polymorphic. Genetic distances were calculated, and a dendrogram with bootstrap analysis was constructed by the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster method. All isolates were identified as C. hellebori, the causal agent of the disease. Two C. hellebori subclades were found, which could not be correlated with the geographic origin of the isolate, but with the plant host species and morphological characteristics. Sequence comparisons of the large subunit and internal transcribed spacer loci between C. hellebori and sequences from GenBank revealed that C. hellebori has to be grouped into the Didymellaceae family and rather belongs to Phoma or Microsphaeropsis than to Coniothyrium. This work represents the first study of this plant pathogen causing severe damage in Helleborus stocks and provides important information for the development of future Helleborus resistance breeding strategies.

Meiners J; Winkelmann T

2011-10-01

84

Cytotoxicity and morphological transforming potential of cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts: an in vitro model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract We previously described the behavior of different cobalt forms, i.e., cobalt nanoparticles (CoNP), cobalt microparticles (CoMP) and cobalt ions (Co2+), in culture medium (dissolution, interaction with medium components, bioavailability) as well as their uptake and intracellular distribution in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts (Sabbioni, Nanotoxicology, 2012). Here, we assess the cytotoxicity and morphological transformation of CoNP compared not only to Co2+, but also to CoMP and to released Co products. Cytotoxicity reached maximum at 4 h exposure, with ranking CoMP>CoNP>Co2+. However, if we consider toxicity as a function of intracellular Co, toxicity of the ionic forms seems to prevail over the particles. Co forms other than Co2+ released from particles had toxicity intermediate between particles and ions. Alterations in concentrations of essential elements (Cu, Mg, Zn) in cells exposed to Co particles may contribute to toxicity. Both CoMP and CoNP (but not Co2+ and other released Co forms) induced morphological transformation (CoMP>CoNP). This was dependent on ROS production and lipid peroxidation, as indicated by inhibition of type III foci with ascorbic acid. The present results suggest that the previously demonstrated massive mitochondrial and nuclear Co internalization and DNA adduct formation by CoMP and CoNP (Sabbioni, Nanotoxicology, 2012) induce toxicity and transformation. On the contrary, he role of ions released by particles in culture medium is negligible. Thus, both the chemical and the physical properties of Co particles contribute to cytotoxicity and morphological transformation.

Sabbioni E; Fortaner S; Farina M; Del Torchio R; Olivato I; Petrarca C; Bernardini G; Mariani-Costantini R; Perconti S; Di Giampaolo L; Gornati R; Di Gioacchino M

2013-04-01

85

Morphological transformation of C3H/10T1/2 CL8 cells by alkylating agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The standard method of the C3H/10T1/2 cell transformation assay cannot adequately detect alkylating agents. A modification of the standard procedure as described by Bertram and Heidelberger using a large number of synchronized cells and high levels of toxicity was evaluated for transformation using several alkylating agents. By using this method, N-methyl-N' -nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), beta-propiolactone (BPL), methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 1,3-propane sultone (PS) transformed these cells. However, methyl iodide (MI) failed to induce any transformed foci.

Oshiro Y; Balwierz PS; Molinary SV

1981-12-01

86

Morphological transformation induced by chemical carcinogens is enhanced by the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D/sub 3/, 1. cap alpha. ,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The active metabolite of vitamin D/sub 3/, 1..cap alpha..,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/) was found to increase the frequency of morphologically transformed colonies induced by chemical carcinogens in the hamster embryo cell transformation assay. Treatment of the embryo cells with either benzo(a)pyrene, (+/-) 7..beta..,8..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-9..cap alpha..,10..cap alpha..-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo(a)pyrene or N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine for 3 days followed by treatment of the cells with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ for 4 days resulted in an increase in the transformation frequency compared to cells treated with the carcinogen only. Reversing the order of the treatment (i.e., incubating the cells with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ prior to benzo(a)pyrene treatment) did not result in such an enhancement. Vitamin D/sub 3/ and 24,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, another metabolite of this vitamin, also enhanced the frequency of cell transformation but were less potent than 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Pyrene, which is not carcinogenic, did not induce transformed colonies, nor did the combination of pyrene and 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ treatment result in the development of such colonies. Benzo(e)pyrene (B(e)P), which is considered as either an inactive or weak carcinogen, was also ineffective in inducing transformed colonies. However, in the two-stage protocol when B(e)P was used with 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, the authors observed a significant number of transformed colonies. These studies demonstrate that 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ resembles phorbol 12-myristate 12-acetate in its capacity to enhance morphological transformation in carcinogen-treated hamster embryo cells. These results suggest that this vitamin D/sub 3/ metabolite may act as a natural promoter of carcinogenesis in fibroblastic cells.

Jones, C.A.; Callaham, M.F.; Huberman, E.

1984-03-01

87

Morphology changes in bainite formed under stress  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transmission electron microscopy observations of isothermal bainite transformed under constant stress show a change in the bainite morphology: longer and coarser ferrite units of diverse appearance are formed. At 450 deg. C the bainite unit with a favorable crystal orientation in regard to the easily activated slip systems has grown to a very large size and shows a strong deflection of crystal orientation. Results are discussed with regard to transformation plasticity mechanisms and transformation kinetics.

2006-01-01

88

Morphological transformation of C3H/10T1/2 CL8 cells by procarcinogens. [Mice  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In order to increase the sensitivity of the C3H/10T1/2 CL8(10T 1/2) cell transformation system, we increased the chemical exposure period to a total of 6 days (two consecutive 3-day exposures). Using this modified procedure, we transformed 10T1/2 cells with procarcinogens such as aflatoxin B/sub 1/, benz(a)anthracene, and 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide which have been negative in the standard 10T1/2 cell transformation assay. However, ..beta..-naphthylamine was inconclusive and 2-acetylaminofluorine was negative in this modified assay system. Our results demonstrate that a simple modification of the 10T1/2 cell transformation method can increase the sensitivity to some procarcinogens that require metabolic activation.

Oshiro, Y.; Balwierz, P.S.

1982-01-01

89

Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. ...

Dulinska, J.; Setkowicz, Z.; Janeczko, K.; Sandt, C.; Dumas, P.; Uram, L.; Gzielo-Jurek, K.; Chwiej, J.

90

Phase transformation and morphology of the intermetallic compounds formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in aging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The morphology and phase transformation of the intermetallic compounds (IMCs) formed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface in a solid-state reaction have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The monoclinic ?'-Cu6Sn5 transforms to the hexagonal ?-Cu6Sn5 and the orthorhombic Cu5Zn8 transforms to the body-centered cubic (bcc) ?-Cu5Zn8 as aged at 180 deg. C. The scallop-shaped Cu6Sn5 layer is retained after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h. In the solid-state reaction, Ag is repelled from ?'-Cu6Sn5 and reacts with Sn to form Ag3Sn, and the Cu5Zn8 layer decomposes. Kirkendall voids are not observed at the Sn-9Zn-3.5Ag/Cu interface even after aging at 180 deg. C for 1000 h.

2008-06-30

91

Cloning of a G-protein-coupled receptor that shows an activity to transform NIH3T3 cells and is expressed in gastric cancer cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present study was directed towards the identification of novel factors involved in the transformation process leading to the formation of gastric cancer. A cDNA library from human gastric cancer cells was constructed using a retroviral vector. Functional cloning was performed by screening for transformation activity in transduced NIH3T3 cells. Six cDNA clones were isolated, including one encoding the elongation factor 1alpha subunit, which was already known to play a role in tumorigenesis. One cDNA (clone 56.2), which was repeatedly isolated during the course of screening, encoded a protein identical to a G-protein-coupled receptor protein, GPR35. In addition, another cDNA clone (72.3) was found to be an alternatively spliced product of the GPR35 gene, whereby 31 amino acids were added to the N-terminus of GPR35. Hence, the proteins encoded by clones 56.2 and 72.3 were designated GPR35a and GPR35b, respectively. RT-PCR experiments revealed that GPR35 gene expression is low or absent in surrounding non-cancerous regions, while both mRNAs were present in all of the gastric cancers examined. The level of 72.3-encoded mRNA was consistently significantly higher than that of 56.2 encoded mRNA. An expression pattern similar to that observed in gastric cancers was detected in normal intestinal mucosa. Based on the apparent transformation activities of the two GPR35 clones in NIH3T3 cells, and the marked up-regulation of their expression levels in cancer tissues, it is speculated that these two novel isoforms of GPR35 are involved in the course of gastric cancer formation.

Okumura S; Baba H; Kumada T; Nanmoku K; Nakajima H; Nakane Y; Hioki K; Ikenaka K

2004-02-01

92

Cloning of a G-protein-coupled receptor that shows an activity to transform NIH3T3 cells and is expressed in gastric cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study was directed towards the identification of novel factors involved in the transformation process leading to the formation of gastric cancer. A cDNA library from human gastric cancer cells was constructed using a retroviral vector. Functional cloning was performed by screening for transformation activity in transduced NIH3T3 cells. Six cDNA clones were isolated, including one encoding the elongation factor 1alpha subunit, which was already known to play a role in tumorigenesis. One cDNA (clone 56.2), which was repeatedly isolated during the course of screening, encoded a protein identical to a G-protein-coupled receptor protein, GPR35. In addition, another cDNA clone (72.3) was found to be an alternatively spliced product of the GPR35 gene, whereby 31 amino acids were added to the N-terminus of GPR35. Hence, the proteins encoded by clones 56.2 and 72.3 were designated GPR35a and GPR35b, respectively. RT-PCR experiments revealed that GPR35 gene expression is low or absent in surrounding non-cancerous regions, while both mRNAs were present in all of the gastric cancers examined. The level of 72.3-encoded mRNA was consistently significantly higher than that of 56.2 encoded mRNA. An expression pattern similar to that observed in gastric cancers was detected in normal intestinal mucosa. Based on the apparent transformation activities of the two GPR35 clones in NIH3T3 cells, and the marked up-regulation of their expression levels in cancer tissues, it is speculated that these two novel isoforms of GPR35 are involved in the course of gastric cancer formation. PMID:14965362

Okumura, Shun-ichiro; Baba, Hiroko; Kumada, Tatsuro; Nanmoku, Koji; Nakajima, Hirofumi; Nakane, Yasushi; Hioki, Koshiro; Ikenaka, Kazuhiro

2004-02-01

93

Synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared and Raman microspectroscopy study showing an increased frequency of creatine inclusions in the rat hippocampal formation following pilocarpine-induced seizures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present work, synchrotron radiation Fourier-transform infrared (SRFTIR) and Raman microspectroscopies were used to evaluate a possible role of creatine in the pathogenesis and progress of pilocarpine-evoked seizures and seizure-induced neurodegenerative changes in the rat hippocampal tissue. The main goal of this study was to identify creatine deposits within the examined brain area, to analyze their frequency in epileptic animals and naive controls and to examine correlations between the number of inclusions in the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats and the quantitative parameters describing animal behavior during 6-h observation period after pilocarpine injection. The presence of creatine in the brain tissue was confirmed based on the vibrational bands specific for this compound in the infrared and Raman spectra. These were the bands occurring at the wavenumbers around 2800, 1621, 1398, and 1304 cm(-1) in IR spectra and around 1056, 908 and 834 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra. Creatine was detected in eight of ten analyzed epileptic samples and in only one of six controls under the study. The number of deposits in epileptic animals varied from 1 to 100 and a relative majority of inclusions were detected in the area of the Dentate Gyrus and in the multiform hippocampal layer. Moreover, the number of creatine inclusions was positively correlated with the total time of seizure activity.

Dulinska J; Setkowicz Z; Janeczko K; Sandt C; Dumas P; Uram L; Gzielo-Jurek K; Chwiej J

2012-03-01

94

Morphological and chemical changes in dentin after using endodontic agents: Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy study  

Science.gov (United States)

We examine the morphological and chemical changes in the pulp chamber dentin after using endodontic agents by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy (FT-Raman), and micro energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (?EDXRF). Thirty teeth were sectioned exposing the pulp chamber and divided by six groups (n=5): NT-no treatment; CHX-2% chlorhexidine; CHXE-2% chlorhexidine+17% EDTA E-17% EDTA; SH5-5.25% NaOCl; SH5E-5.25% NaOCl+17% EDTA. The inorganic and organic content was analyzed by FT-Raman. ?EDXRF examined calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) content as well as Ca/P ratio. Impressions of specimens were evaluated by SEM. Data were submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (pNT=SH5E>CHX>E>CHXE). CHXE and E presented the highest Ca/P ratio values compared to the other groups (pEndodontic agents change the inorganic and organic content of pulp chamber dentin. NaOCl used alone, or in association with EDTA, was the most effective agent considering chemical and morphological approaches.

Pascon, Fernanda Miori; Kantovitz, Kamila Rosamilia; Soares, Luís Eduardo Silva; Santo, Ana Maria do Espírito; Martin, Airton Abraha~o.; Puppin-Rontani, Regina Maria

2012-07-01

95

Influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers orientation relationship and variants morphology during ? ? ? phase transformation in a near ? titanium alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: ? We studied prior ? deformation and cooling rate influence on Burgers OR obeying. ? Stress/strain elastic anisotropy at grain-scale were evaluated by CPFEM simulation. ? External factors have no significant influence on the Burgers OR respecting. ? Strain and cooling rate has a significant influence on morphologies of ? variants. ? Elastic anisotropy but not the mean value significantly affect Burgers OR obeying. - Abstract: High temperature compression deformation studies of Ti–6Al–2Zr–1Mo–1V titanium alloy in full ? phase region with different strains/strain rates and then with subsequent varied cooling rates were performed to understand the microstructure evolution. Crystal orientation information and microstructure morphology of all tested samples were investigated by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) measurements. The crystal orientations of prior high temperature ? grains were estimated by reconstructing the retained ? phase at room temperature. The theoretical crystal orientations of all possible ? variants within an investigated prior ? grain were calculated according to the Burgers orientation relationship (OR) between parent and product phase. The calculated and experimental results were then compared and analyzed. The influences of deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate on the Burgers OR between prior ? matrix and precipitated ? phase were investigated. Full discussions have been conducted by combination of crystal plasticity finite element method (CP-FEM) grain-scale simulation results. The results indicate that external factors (such as deformation strain, strain rate and cooling rate) have a slight influence on the obeying of Burgers OR rule during ? ? ? phase transformation. However, strain rate and cooling rate have a significant effect on the morphology of precipitated ? phase.

2012-07-15

96

Crystal Structure of cis-[PtCl2(PyCN)2] (PyCN = 4-Cyanopyridine) Showing Temperature Dependent Single-Crystal-to-Single-Crystal Transformation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Platinum mononuclear complex, cis-[PtCl2(PyCN)2] (1, PyCN = 4-cyanopyridine), has been synthesized and characterized by single-crystal X-ray analysis. Compound 1 crystallizes as yellow plates from the reaction of a mixture of K2PtCl4 and PyCN (=1:2) in H2O, that was left to stand at room temperature with the addition of Me2CO. Compound 1 forms the square-planar coordination geometry around the Pt atom coordinated to two Cl– ions and two pyridines of PyCN ligands in cis position. Single crystal of 1 shows the temperature dependent phase transition around 140 K, where the crystal space groups change from P21/c (high temperature) to  (low temperature), which is caused by the stabilization of intermolecular interaction.

Kazuhiro Uemura

2013-01-01

97

A Phalaenopsis variety with floral organs showing C class homeotic transformation and its revertant may enable Phalaenopsis as a potential molecular genetic material.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Orchidaceae is one of the most famous garden plants, and improvement of the orchid is very important in horticulture field. However, molecular information is largely unknown. We found a Phalaenopsis variety harboring floral organs showing C class homeotic change. Column is composed of the anthers with the receptive stigmatic surface just underneath them in wild type. However the C class variety produced column with sepal or petal like structure at the abaxial side. This is the typical abnormality as C class mutants in plants. Further, wild type looking revertant was found from the meristem tissue cultured population. This result strongly indicates the existence of active transposable element in Phalaenopsis genome. This transposon may enable Phalaenopsis as a good material for molecular genetic analysis in Orchidaceae.

Ejima C; Kobayashi Y; Honda H; Shimizu N; Kiyohara S; Hamasaki R; Sawa S

2011-01-01

98

Surface morphology characterization of pentacene thin film and its substrate with under-layers by power spectral density using fast Fourier transform algorithms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Surface morphology of pentacene thin films and their substrates with under-layers is characterized by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The power values of power spectral density (PSD) for the AFM digital data were determined by the fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithms instead of the root-mean-square (rms) and peak-to-valley value. The PSD plots of pentacene films on glass substrate are successfully approximated by the k-correlation model. The pentacene film growth is interpreted the intermediation of the bulk and surface diffusion by parameter C of k-correlation model. The PSD plots of pentacene film on Au under-layer is approximated by using the linear continuum model (LCM) instead of the combination model of the k-correlation model and Gaussian function. The PSD plots of SiO2 layer on Au under-layer as a gate insulator on a gate electrode of organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) have three power values of PSD. It is interpreted that the specific three PSD power values are caused by the planarization of the smooth SiO2 layer to rough Au under-layer.

2007-05-15

99

Galaxy Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Hidden in the bewildering details of galaxy morphology are clues to how galaxies formed and have evolved over a Hubble time. This article reviews the phenomenology of galaxy morphology and classification using an extensive set of illustrations to delineate as many types as possible and to show how different types connect to various physical processes and characteristics. The old classification systems are refined, and new types introduced, as the explosion in available morphological data has modified our views on the structure and evolution of galaxies.

Buta, Ronald J.

100

Effect of lattice defects and temperature transition rates on the deuteride (hydride) particle morphology and phase transformation thermal hysteresis in niobium  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements have been performed to investigate deuteride particle morphology and the phase transformation temperature hysteresis in low-concentration Nb-D alloys. Deformation either by cold rolling and or by previous deuteride cycling induced a coarse deuteride particle distribution. This observation is attributed to a more heterogeneous precipitation process facilitated by the dislocation defects and/or dislocation substructure. Deuteride precipitation in the deformed samples was observed immediately upon crossing the incoherent solvus during temperature reduction, again consistent with dislocation-aided nucleation. Deuteride dissolution was observed at the very onset of heating for the cold-rolled material, an observation unique among the samples characterized here. This is attributed to the availability of elastic accommodation energy for deuteride particles embedded in the severely work-hardened host matrix. In other words, the elastic energy assists dissolution, consistent with a theoretical model developed by Puls (1984 Acta Metall. 32 1259-69). The effect of temperature reduction transition rates was also investigated. Rapid, direct cooling (at 2-3 K min-1) resulted in a much finer deuteride particle distribution - a factor of 200 increase in the particle number density and a factor of ten reduction in characteristic particle size compared to well annealed single crystal Nb. The thermal hysteresis was also affected by the temperature transition rates, with a significant reduction of the hysteresis for the slowest cooling rates. This implies that at least part of the recorded hysteresis in the well annealed material is dependent on the temperature transition rate. (author)

1999-09-27

 
 
 
 
101

Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Galaxy morphology has many structures that are suggestive of various processes or stages of secular evolution. Internal perturbations such as bars can drive secular evolution through gravity torques that move gas into the central regions and build up a flattened, disk-like central bulge, or which may convert an open spiral pseudoring into a more closed ring. Interaction between individual components of a galaxy, such as between a bar and a dark halo, a bar and a central mass concentration, or between a perturbation and the basic state of a stellar disk, can also drive secular transformations. In this series of lectures, I review many aspects of galaxy morphology with a view to delineating some of the possible evolutionary pathways between different galaxy types.

Buta, Ronald J

2013-01-01

102

Evaluation of three Polymerase chain reaction tests targeting morphological transforming region II, UL-83 gene and glycoprotein O gene for the detection of Human Cytomegalovirus genome in clinical specimens of immunocompromised patients in Chennai, India  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) continues to be an important cause of morbidity and occasional mortality in immunocompromised patients. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the most sensitive and commonly used method for the assessment of HCMV infection in the immunocompromised patients at risk from severe associated clinical manifestations. However, there is little consistency in the qualitative PCR used for different regions of HCMV genome. Therefore, the performance of three Qualitative PCR tests to detect HCMV genome in clinical specimens from immunocompromised patients was evaluated. With pp65 antigenemia assay as the "gold standard", nested PCR for morphological transforming region II (mtr II) and glycoprotein O (gO) gene and uniplex PCR for UL 83 gene were applied on 92 consecutive clinical specimens obtained from 74 immunocompromised patients with clinically suspected HCMV disease. Virus isolation was attempted on 12 clinical specimens from six pp65 antigenemia positive patients. Based on the pp 65 antigenemia results as "gold standard", the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value for each PCR was calculated. Results The PCR targeting mtr II region showed a higher sensitivity (100%) and negative predictive value (100%) than the other two PCRs in detecting HCMV DNA from clinical specimens obtained from different immunocompromised patient population of Chennai region, India. Conclusion The results suggests that the optimal method of detection of HCMV DNA could be achieved by PCR using primer sequences targeting mtr II region of genome of HCMV in Chennai region, India.

Sowmya P; Madhavan HN; Therese KL

2006-01-01

103

Atypical Pituitary Adenoma With Neurocytic Transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Here, we report an example of an atypical prolactin-producing pituitary adenoma showing clear morphologic and immunohistochemical evidence of neurocytic transformation. Its features support the concept that neoplastic neuroendocrine cells, in this case adenohypophyseal cells, are capable of neuronal differentiation and broaden the morphologic spectrum of such rare tumors. Our findings have implications with respect to the nosology of neuronal tumors of the adenohypophysis.

Rotondo F; Bernardo MC; Scheithauer BW; Latif S; Bogaev C; Sav A; Kovacs K

2012-08-01

104

Differential morphology and image processing.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

Maragos P

1996-01-01

105

Morphologic transformation of human breast epithelial cells MCF-10A: dependence on an oxidative microenvironment and estrogen/epidermal growth factor receptors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background MCF-10A, immortalized but non-transformed human breast epithelial cells, are widely used in research examining carcinogenesis. The studies presented here were initiated with the observation that MCF-10A cells left in continuous culture for prolonged periods without re-feeding were prone to the development of transformed foci. We hypothesized that the depletion of labile culture components led to the onset of processes culminating in the observed cell transformation. The purpose of this study was to define the factors which promoted transformation of this cell line. Results Changes in levels of phenol red (PHR), hydrocortisone (HC), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) with or without estrogen treatment indicated that both oxidative stress- and estrogen receptor alpha (ER?)-mediated pathways contribute to cell transformation. Gene array and Western blotting analyses of cells maintained in our laboratory and of those from other sources documented detectable ER? and ERbeta (ER?) in this ER?-negative cataloged cell line. Results also indicate the possibility of a direct association of EGF receptor (EGFR) and ER? in these cells as well as the formation and high induction of a novel ternary complex that includes ER? (ER?/ER?/EGFR) in cells grown under conditions facilitating transformation. Conclusions Our studies resulted in the development of a growth protocol where the effects of chronic, physiologically relevant alterations in the microenvironment on cellular transformation were examined. From our results, we were able to propose a model of transformation within the MCF-10A cell line in which oxidative stress, ER and EGFR play essential roles. Overall, our work indicates that the immediate microenvironment of cells exerts powerful growth cues which ultimately determine their transformation potential.

Yusuf Rita; Frenkel Krystyna

2010-01-01

106

Complex ridgelets for the extraction of morphological features on engineering surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this paper, a complex ridgelets transform, which provides approximate shift invariance analysis of line singularities, is proposed to extract morphological features with linear or directional/objective property, by taking a Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) on the projections of the Finite Radon Transform (FRAT). The Numerical experiments show the remarkable potential of this methodology to analyse engineering and bioengineering surfaces with liner scratches in comparison to wavelet-based methods developed in our pervious work

2005-01-01

107

Three-dimensional Morphological Analysis for Geological Bodies and Application  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To address the spatial Morphological analysis of complex geological bodies in stereoscopic quantitative prediction of concealed ore bodies, a three-dimensional morphological analysis method for geological bodies based on 3-dimensional raster model under visualization environment was put forward by combining mathematical morphology with Euclidean distance transform theory. Firstly, the 3-dimensional visualization models for geological bodies were constructed on the basis of the 3-dimensional geological modeling (3DGM) technology; Secondly, the algorithm for extracting the surface shape trend of geological body with the 3-dimensional raster model was proposed by using mathematical morphology filtering. By the combination of morphological filtering, global set operation and three-dimensional Euclidean distance transform, the models for the quantitative analysis and hierarchical extraction of the shape undulance were established. Lastly, as a case study, the three-dimensional morphological analysis method was applied in analyzing quantitatively the Xinwuli magmatic body in Fenghuangshan ore field in Tongling, Anhui Province. By means of the calculation model of Euclidean distance field, the quantitative extraction of the shape trend and shape undulance as well as the angle between geological interface and trend surface, as the quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors, were achieved after building the 3D raster models of the magmatic body. The results show that the morphological analysis method is feasible to calculate various morphological parameters of complex geological bodies and extract quantitative indexes of geological ore-controlling factors successfully for stereoscopic quantitative predication of concealed ore bodies.

Yanhong Zou; Xiancheng Mao; Wenfeng Xi

2011-01-01

108

Morphological attributes and production components of potato cv. Baronesa and its transformed genotype/ Atributos morfológicos e componentes de produção de batata, cv. Baronesa e seu genótipo transformado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Plantas de batata, cv. Baronesa, resistentes ao PVY foram obtidas mediante transformação genética com gene que codifica para a proteína do capsídeo do vírus. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo comparar os atributos morfológicos e os componentes de produção da cv. Baronesa e de suas plantas geneticamente modificadas, em condições de casa de vegetação. Desse modo, a altura da parte aérea, comprimento da raiz e número médio de folhas foram determinados em (more) seis épocas a intervalos regulares de 14 dias após o plantio, enquanto, volume, comprimento, largura e massa fresca dos tubérculos foram medidos na colheita final, aos 84 dias após o plantio. Não houve diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os dois genótipos, no que concerne aos atributos morfológicos e nem nos componentes de produção. Abstract in english The aim of this paper was to compare the morphological attributes and production components of the wild-type Baronesa cultivar potato with those of Baronesa potato plants that have been genetically modified using the potato virus Y coat protein (CP) gene. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions (Biosecurity Quality Certificate n. 081/98 issued by the National Biosecurity Technical Committee) at the Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas-RS. The sh (more) oot and root lengths and the mean leaf number were determined six times at 14-day intervals after sowing; the length, width and fresh weight of the tubers were measured during the last harvest, which occurred 84 days after sowing. There were no statistical differences between the two genotypes with respect to morphological attributes or production components.

Pohl, Simone; Lopes, Nei Fernandes; Braga, Eugenia Jacira Bolacel; Danielowski, Rodrigo; Silva, Ilda Mariclei de Castro da; Peters, Jose Antonio

2011-12-01

109

Characterization of the procera tomato mutant shows novel functions of the SlDELLA protein in the control of flower morphology, cell division and expansion, and the auxin-signaling pathway during fruit-set and development.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

procera (pro) is a tall tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant carrying a point mutation in the GRAS region of the gene encoding SlDELLA, a repressor in the gibberellin (GA) signaling pathway. Consistent with the SlDELLA loss of function, pro plants display a GA-constitutive response phenotype, mimicking wild-type plants treated with GA?. The ovaries from both nonemasculated and emasculated pro flowers had very strong parthenocarpic capacity, associated with enhanced growth of preanthesis ovaries due to more and larger cells. pro parthenocarpy is facultative because seeded fruits were obtained by manual pollination. Most pro pistils had exserted stigmas, thus preventing self-pollination, similar to wild-type pistils treated with GA? or auxins. However, Style2.1, a gene responsible for long styles in noncultivated tomato, may not control the enhanced style elongation of pro pistils, because its expression was not higher in pro styles and did not increase upon GA? application. Interestingly, a high percentage of pro flowers had meristic alterations, with one additional petal, sepal, stamen, and carpel at each of the four whorls, respectively, thus unveiling a role of SlDELLA in flower organ development. Microarray analysis showed significant changes in the transcriptome of preanthesis pro ovaries compared with the wild type, indicating that the molecular mechanism underlying the parthenocarpic capacity of pro is complex and that it is mainly associated with changes in the expression of genes involved in GA and auxin pathways. Interestingly, it was found that GA activity modulates the expression of cell division and expansion genes and an auxin signaling gene (tomato AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR7) during fruit-set.

Carrera E; Ruiz-Rivero O; Peres LE; Atares A; Garcia-Martinez JL

2012-11-01

110

In situ x-ray diffraction of an arc weld showing the phase transformations of Ti and Fe as a function of position in the weld performed at a synchrotron  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The synchrotron x-ray source provides a unique opportunity to observe {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} processes. The formation of the {open_quotes}short-lived{close_quotes} intermediate species, Ta{sub 2}C, during the combustion synthesis of TaC, has been observed and reported by monitoring the Bragg diffraction peaks of the reactants and products. Similarly, the synthesis of the ferroelectric material, BaTiO{sub 3}, and subsequent phase transformation from cubic to tetragonal have also been investigated. These experiments would not have been possible without the high incident x-ray flux available at a synchrotron source. The physical and mechanical properties of a weld join are highly independent upon the thermal history of the weld. Factors such as grain size, which increases with annealing, influence the tensile strength of the weld. This work presents the results of an investigation of the phase changes in two materials, titanium and stainless steel, which occur during the welding process. 4 refs., 3 figs.

Wong, J.; Elmer, J.W.; Waide, P.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

1994-12-31

111

Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

Zamora S; Smith AB

2012-01-01

112

Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids. PMID:21653588

Zamora, S; Smith, A B

2011-06-08

113

Mathematical morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoret

Najman, Laurent

2013-01-01

114

Martensitic and order-disorder transformations in Ti45Pd45Ni10 alloy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformation sequence and behavior in Ti45Pd45Ni10 alloy (numbers indicate at.%) have been investigated. The solution treated alloy shows reverse martensitic transformation from B19 to B2 structure, B2 to long period stacking order (LPSO) structure, LPSO to B2 structure and precipitation of Ti3(PdNi)4 and Ti2(PdNi)3 phases successively upon heating. The above transformation sequence is confirmed by electrical resistivity measurements and in situ electron diffraction experiments. The martensitic transformation is suppressed by the formation of LPSO phase. Morphology and crystallography of the LPSO phase are also discussed briefly.

2006-11-25

115

Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes.

Majumdar S; Garai S; Jha S

2011-05-01

116

Genetic transformation of Bacopa monnieri by wild type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes stimulates production of bacopa saponins in transformed calli and plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have developed an efficient transformation system for Bacopa monnieri, an important Indian medicinal plant, using Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains LBA 9402 and A4. Transformed roots induced by strain LBA 9402 spontaneously dedifferentiated to callus while excised roots induced by strain A4 spontaneously showed induction of shoot buds within 10 days. PCR and RT-PCR analysis revealed the presence and expression of the rolAB and rolC genes at the transcription level in pRi A4 transformed cultures indicating that the TL-DNA was integrated retained and expressed in the A4-Ri transformed shoots. Transformed calli showed the presence of rolAB or rol A, TR and ags genes. Transformed plants showed morphological features typically seen in transgenic plants produced by A. rhizogenes. Growth and biomass accumulation was significantly higher in the transformed shoots (twofold) and roots (fourfold) than in the non-transformed (WT) plants. In pRi A4-transformed plants, the content of bacopasaponin D, bacopasaponin F, bacopaside II and bacopaside V was enhanced significantly as compared to WT plants of similar age while bacoside A3 and bacopasaponin C content was comparable with that of WT plants. Significant increase in content of five bacopa saponins could be detected in pRi 9402-transformed callus cultures. There is an overall stimulatory effect on accumulation of bacopa saponins in transformed plants and cells of B. monnieri establishing the role of endogenous elicitation by Ri T-DNA of A. rhizogenes. PMID:21350825

Majumdar, Sukanya; Garai, Saraswati; Jha, Sumita

2011-02-25

117

Generalized transforms and convolutions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper, using the concept of a generalized Feynman integral, we define a generalized Fourier-Feynman transform and a generalized convolution product. Then for two classes of functionals on Wiener space we obtain several results involving and relating these generalized transforms and convolutions. In particular we show that the generalized transform of the convolution product is a product of transforms. In addition we establish a Parseval's identity for functionals in each of these classes.

Timothy Huffman; Chull Park; David Skoug

1997-01-01

118

Dynamics of genetic and morphological variability within Neandertals.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Paleogenomics may suggest changes to the way anthropologists have discussed the dynamics and morphological diversity among Neandertals. Genetic comparisons show that later Neandertals had relatively low autosomal genetic variation compared to recent humans. The known mitochondrial sample from Neandertals covers a broader geographic and temporal range, and shows greater diversity. This review addresses how genetic data compare to morphological and archaeological evidence about Neandertal variation and dynamics. Traditional views emphasized the morphological differences between western and eastern Neandertal populations, and between early and later Neandertals. Genomes broadly support these groupings, without resolving the outstanding question of the affinities of specimens from southwest Asia. However, the pattern of genetic variation appears to reject a long, in situ transformation of Neandertal groups over time, suggesting instead a more rapid process of regional dispersal and partial population replacement. Archaeological indicators sample dynamics on a much finer timescale than morphological or genetic evidence, and point to dispersal and turnover among Neandertals on a regional scale. In this way, genetic evidence may provide a bridge between the timescales relevant to morphological and archaeological comparisons. New ways of looking at the morphology of Neandertals may yield a better picture of their interactions and movements.

Hawks J

2012-01-01

119

Quantification of crystal morphology  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Morphological measurement constitutes an important experimental subject in crystal growth and materials science, and is currently receiving renewed attention because of the rapid advances occurring in computer technology, coupled with the concomitant sharp reductions in the cost of digital image processing. Image processing applied to the quantification of microstructural images is currently being used in our laboratory to increase the understanding of interfacial dynamics during crystal growth and to analyze the kinetics of microstructural evolution. Quantification of microstructural and crystal growth morphologies, such as the measurement of dendritic tip radii, crystallite size distributions, and crystallite shapes, provides the geometric foundation needed for interpreting interfacial dynamics during crystal growth and an objective description of morphogenesis accompanying solid-liquid and solid-solid phase transformations. Automated methods employed, and, in part, developed by the authors to measure these morphological and kinetic parameters, using advanced statistical and stereological methods, are reviewed in this paper. Some of the techniques disclosed here are currently being refined even further to achieve improved precision in the quantification of crystal growth morphology

Glicksman, M.E.; Koss, M.B.; Fradkov, V.E.; Rettenmayr, M.E.; Mani, S.S. (Materials Engineering Dept., Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York (United States))

1994-03-15

120

Effect of Boron on the Isothermal Bainite Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of Boron on the isothermal bainitic transformation in low-C, lean-alloyed steel was investigated. B clearly affected both the transformation kinetics and the morphology of isothermally transformed bainite. The effect of B was more noticeable in the high-temperature range of the bainitic transformation. The microstructure of bainite formed at 773 K (500 °C) consisted of a bainitic ferrite matrix and the martensite/austenite constituent. While the martensite/austenite constituent had an elongated morphology in B-free steel, the martensite/austenite constituents in the B-added steel had a granular morphology. Two types of bainite unit nucleation were considered: the initial nuclei and the nuclei formed on previously formed units. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis showed that the initial bainitic ferrite nuclei were formed at austenite grain boundaries with a Kurdjumov-Sachs (K-S) crystallographic orientation relationship with respect to one of the neighboring austenite grains, revealing the importance of interfacial energy reduction in the nucleation stage. The nuclei of the bainite transformation in the B-added steel were confined to the austenite grain interior, and the bainitic ferrite nuclei had crystallographic orientations limited to K-S variants within the same Bain variant. The characteristic bainite microstructure in B-added steel is due to the inhibition of the bainitic ferrite nucleation at austenite grain boundaries.

Song, Taejin; De Cooman, Bruno Charles

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
121

The Diane Rehm Show  

Science.gov (United States)

The Diane Rehm Show has its origins in a mid-day program at WAMU in Washington, D.C. Diane Rehm came on to host the program in 1979, and in 1984 it was renamed "The Diane Rehm Show". Over the past several decades, Rehm has played host to hundreds of guests, include Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Julie Andrews, and President Bill Clinton. This website contains an archive of her past programs, and visitors can use the interactive calendar to look through past shows. Those visitors looking for specific topics can use the "Topics" list on the left-hand side of the page, or also take advantage of the search engine. The show has a number of social networking links, including a Facebook page and a Twitter feed.

122

Reality, ficción o show  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa ?Protagonistas de novela? y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión ?trash?, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

Sandra Ruíz Moreno

2002-01-01

123

Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms  

CERN Multimedia

The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

Torre, Amalia

2011-01-01

124

Appell Transformation and Canonical Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The interpretation of the optical Appell transformation, as previously elaborated in relation to the free-space paraxial propagation under both a rectangular and a circular cylindrical symmetry, is reviewed. Then, the caloric Appell transformation, well known in the theory of heat equation, is shown to be amenable for a similar interpretation involving the Laplace transform rather than the Fourier transform, when dealing with the 1D heat equation. Accordingly, when considering the radial heat equation, suitably defined Hankel-type transforms come to be involved in the inherent Appell transformation. The analysis is aimed at outlining the link between the Appell transformation and the canonical transforms.

Amalia Torre

2011-01-01

125

Not a "reality" show.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

Wrong T; Baumgart E

2013-01-01

126

Contact transformations for difference schemes  

CERN Document Server

We define a class of transformations of the dependent and independent variables in an ordinary difference scheme. The transformations leave the solution set of the system invariant and reduces to a group of contact transformations in the continuous limit. We use a simple example to show that the class is not empty and that such "contact transformations for discrete systems" genuinely exist.

Levi, Decio; Winternitz, Pavel

2011-01-01

127

Transformations of Difference Equations I  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We consider a general weighted second-order difference equation. Two transformations are studied which transform the given equation into another weighted second order difference equation of the same type, these are based on the Crum transformation. We also show how Dirichlet and non-Dirichlet boundary conditions transform as well as how the spectra and norming constants are affected.

Currie Sonja; Love AnneD

2010-01-01

128

Integral transformation and Darboux transformation  

CERN Document Server

We review Darboux-Crum transformation of Heun's differential equation. By rewriting an integral transformation of Heun's differential equation into a form of elliptic functions, we see that the integral representation is a generalization of Darboux-Crum transformation. We also consider conservation of monodromy with respect to the transformations.

Takemura, Kouichi

2009-01-01

129

Integral Transforms  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

These notes give a short introduction to the theory of integral transforms in Lebesguespaces, which are associated with hypergeometric functions as their kernels. We deal witha class of the so-called Kontorovich-Lebedev type integral transforms. It includes, inparticular, the familiar Kontorovich-Lebedev, Mehler-Fock, Olevskii and Lebedev transforms.

Semyon B. Yakubovich

130

Methods of the Straightening Transformation and Analysis of Outer Contours of Objects in Medical Image Recognition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The article presents an algorithm of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects, allowing to transform biological structures of interest, visible in medical images, from two-dimensional space of the image into two-dimensional graph, representing contours of the straightened object with its possible outer morphological changes, indicating the progress of pathological processes. The developed method is based on a sequence of geometric transformations of the analyzed objects in the image, and its operation was described in detail and illustrated by examples of transfonnation of main pancreatic ducts, appearing in X-ray images acquired by ERCP, as well as by graphs showing outer morphology of blood vessels in the fundus of the eye. The proposed method is universal, and due to the fact that the transformation preserves and exposes pathologic morphological changes, such as abnormal lateral branches, local dilatations or projections it can also be used in the recognition and analysis of other structure images acquired by various techniques of computer tomography, e.g. cerebral vessels, bile ducts, coronary vessels or fragments of gastrointestinal tract. The graphs of the structures of interest obtained as a result of the transformation straightening outer contours of objects are a starting point for the recognition of morphological changes, important for diagnosis, using syntactic methods of pattern recognition.

Marek R. Ogiela

1999-01-01

131

Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies  

CERN Document Server

Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

Hensler, Gerhard

2012-01-01

132

Digital Morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Have you ever wanted to look into the shape and structure of a suckermouth armored catfish? Well, the Digital Morphology website makes that possible. Created as part of the National Science Foundation Digital Library at The University of Texas at Austin, this library includes hundreds of 2D and 3D visualizations of the internal and external structure of living and extinct vertebrates, and a number of invertebrates as well. These images are generated by a X-ray CT scanner, which has greater resolution and penetrating power than a conventional medical diagnostic CAT scanner. Visitors can browse the library by scientific name, common name, or the popular What's New? area. The homepage includes eight different overview pages, which provide narrative essays and images of dinosaurs, tapirs, bats, and primates. The site also has a Learn More section which provides additional material on X-ray CT's and the science behind 3D printing.

2012-03-23

133

Efficient malignant transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts by genomic DNA from Walker carcinoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

DNA isolated from Walker carcinoma ascites cells was transfected into primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REF), selecting transformed cells by growth in soft agar after prolonged propagation in monolayer. Both high molecular weight genomic DNA and a partially purified mitochondrial DNA fraction were able to transform REF with high efficiency, whereas pure mitochondrial DNA failed to elicit a transformed phenotype. Hybridization experiments showed that the mitochondrial DNA fraction contained DNA species of presumably extramitochondrial origin. Colonies were cloned into morphologically transformed, foci-forming, immortalized cell lines, showing different degrees of chromosomal alterations, tumorigenicity, and production of cell growth factors. These results indicate that although REF are refractory to genomic neoplastic DNA or to single cloned oncogenes in the absence of enhancers, they can be efficiently transformed by chromosomal DNA from a highly malignant tumor under conditions selecting against the remaining normal cells.

Arvelo F; Perez JL; Antuna O; Gonzalez-Cadavid NF

1988-05-01

134

Efficient malignant transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts by genomic DNA from Walker carcinoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA isolated from Walker carcinoma ascites cells was transfected into primary rat embryo fibroblasts (REF), selecting transformed cells by growth in soft agar after prolonged propagation in monolayer. Both high molecular weight genomic DNA and a partially purified mitochondrial DNA fraction were able to transform REF with high efficiency, whereas pure mitochondrial DNA failed to elicit a transformed phenotype. Hybridization experiments showed that the mitochondrial DNA fraction contained DNA species of presumably extramitochondrial origin. Colonies were cloned into morphologically transformed, foci-forming, immortalized cell lines, showing different degrees of chromosomal alterations, tumorigenicity, and production of cell growth factors. These results indicate that although REF are refractory to genomic neoplastic DNA or to single cloned oncogenes in the absence of enhancers, they can be efficiently transformed by chromosomal DNA from a highly malignant tumor under conditions selecting against the remaining normal cells. PMID:3389748

Arvelo, F; Perez, J L; Antuna, O; Gonzalez-Cadavid, N F

135

Solidification and the ?/? phase transformation of steels in relation to casting defects  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Many advanced steels fall within the peritectic composition range, which are notoriously difficult to cast due to cracking and breakout problems in the continuous casting process especially at high casting speeds. In this study an attempt was made to obtain practical understanding of the solidification and the ??? phase transformation of various commercial steels using high-temperature laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Under rapid cooling conditions the transformation morphology showed a massive-type of transition rather than a classical diffusion-controlled transformation.

2012-01-12

136

Investigation of phase transformation in an Fe-Mn-Cr  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, morphologic, magnetic and thermal properties of Fe-12Mn-0.5Cr alloy, in which martensite and bainite phase transformations are observed, have been investigated using various physical characterisation methods. In Fe-12Mn-0.5Cr alloy, the transformation of austenite phase to martensite and bainite formation were captured using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Moessbauer Spectroscopy was used to determine volume fraction of both martensite and bainite formed in austenite phase. As a result, unlike austenite, which has a paramagnetic behaviour, bainite and martensite phases showed ferromagnetic. Some thermal properties and bainite or martensite start temperature of the sample have been determined by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). DSC results show that during the transformation from austenite to martensite or bainite crystallographic phase an exothermic heat flow and on the other hand from bainite or martensite to austenite an endothermic heat flow was observed

2002-01-01

137

[Study on reflectance spectra morphological character of the hyperspectral mixed pixels at different component proportion].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Under the experimental condition, the hyperspectral reflectance spectra of the mixed pixel of lotus and water body were acquired using the multi-angles dichotic reflex platform and ASD spectrum instrument. The reflectance spectral morphological character index variation of the hyperspectral mixed pixel at different component proportion was analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: the correlation between these morphological indexes was obvious, and the best morphological index was chosen by removing the index whose R2 was greater than 0.5 (R is correlation coefficient); the variation of different morphological index was obvious; the cluster analysis shows that there was a critical value in the progress of the transformation from the pure pixel (water) to mixed pixel. If the proportion was less than the critical value, the reflectance spectra reflected the reflection characteristics of pure pixel; otherwise, it was the reflection of characteristics of mixed pixel.

Zhu F; Gong HL; Sun TL; Hou J; Guo XM; Guo L

2013-07-01

138

Adenosine triphosphate restoration and discocytic transformation of stored human erythrocytes.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Erythrocytes in human blood stored for 120 days were collected by centrifugation after dispersion in buffered physiological saline. The aged erythrocytes thus collected were incubated with inosine, adenine, glucose or other media, and their shapes and ATP levels were studied by scanning electron microscopy and a luciferine-luciferase method. The aged erythrocytes incubated in a mixture of adenine and inosine markedly regained their ATP levels, and also showed a marked transformation from spiked spherocytes to normal discocytes. Incubation with inosine alone restored ATP levels of the aged erythrocytes to some extent, but did not result in morphological rejuvenation. Incubation in a mixture of citrate and glucose caused morphological rejuvenation, though it restored ATP levels less effectively than incubation in inosine alone. Incubation with adenine alone neither restored ATP levels nor resulted in morphological rejuvenation of the stored erythrocytes.

Watanabe,Shinsaku; Yamamoto,Ryosuke; Ogata,Masana; Murakami,Takuro

1985-01-01

139

Superconducting transformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A multinational ABB research team has designed and built a 330-kVA single-phase superconducting test transformer. The low-temperature superconductors used for the transformer's two windings are cooled to -269 C with the help of liquid helium. Tests performed on the transformer at ABB Corporate Research in Vaesteraas, Sweden, have produced encouraging results and provide new knowledge about how superconductivity can be applied in AC power systems. (orig.)

Hoernfeldt, S. (ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteraas (Sweden)); Albertsson, O. (ABB Corporate Research, Vaesteraas (Sweden)); Koenig, F. (ABB Corporate Research, Baden (Switzerland)); Bonmann, D. (ABB Transformatoren GmbH, Mannheim (Germany))

1994-01-01

140

The richest superclusters. I. Morphology  

CERN Multimedia

We study the morphology of the richest superclusters from the catalogues of superclusters of galaxies in the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey and compare the morphology of real superclusters with model superclusters in the Millennium Simulation. We use Minkowski functionals and shapefinders to quantify the morphology of superclusters: their sizes, shapes, and clumpiness. We generate empirical models of simple geometry to understand which morphologies correspond to the supercluster shapefinders. We show that rich superclusters have elongated, filamentary shapes with high-density clumps in their core regions. The clumpiness of superclusters is determined using the fourth Minkowski functional $V_3$. In the $K_1$-$K_2$ shapefinder plane the morphology of superclusters is described by a curve which is characteristic to multi-branching filaments. We also find that the differences between the fourth Minkowski functional $V_3$ for the bright and faint galaxies in observed superclusters are larger than in simulated superclu...

Einasto, M; Liivam"agi, L J; Einasto, J; Tago, E; Martínez, V J; Starck, J -L; Müller, V; Hein"am"aki, P; Nurmi, P; Gramann, M; Hütsi, G

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Invertible Darboux Transformations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available For operators of many different kinds it has been proved that (generalized) Darboux transformations can be built using so called Wronskian formulae. Such Darboux transformations are not invertible in the sense that the corresponding mappings of the operator kernels are not invertible. The only known invertible ones were Laplace transformations (and their compositions), which are special cases of Darboux transformations for hyperbolic bivariate operators of order 2. In the present paper we find a criteria for a bivariate linear partial differential operator of an arbitrary order d to have an invertible Darboux transformation. We show that Wronkian formulae may fail in some cases, and find sufficient conditions for such formulae to work.

Ekaterina Shemyakova

2013-01-01

142

Contact transformations for difference schemes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We define a class of transformations of the dependent and independent variables in an ordinary difference scheme. The transformations leave the solution set of the system invariant and reduces to a group of contact transformations in the continuous limit. We use a simple example to show that the class is not empty and that such ‘contact transformations for discrete systems’ genuinely exist. (fast track communication)

2012-01-20

143

mage Denoising Basedon Curvelet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wavelet transform has a visible lack in analyzing the image edge characteristics of curve and line, while the Curvelet transform which developed from the wavelet transform contains more directional information, and has better approximation and sparisity description of the smooth and edge parts. This paper first introduces the concepts of the first and second generation curvelet transform,and the fast discrete implementation algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform, Then make image denoising experiments in using wavelet transform and fast discrete algorithm of the second generation curvelet transform. In the experiments, we use the Wrap(Wrapping-based transform) algorithms to realize curvelet transform, which adds a wrap step to the USFFT(unequally-spaced fast fourier transforms) method, this method maps the random region to the affined region of the origin through one-to-one periodicity technique. Comparing the results of the wavelet transform denosing and curvelet transform denosing experiments shows that the second generation discrete curvelet transform has a better visual effective than wavelet transform in the image denoising, in addition, PSNR is improved in a certain extent, too.

LIU Guang-dong; CHEN A-lin

2009-01-01

144

Quantum transformations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show that the quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation can be written in the classical form with the spatial derivative {partial_derivative}{sub q} replaced by {partial_derivative}{sub q} with dq = dq/{radical}1{minus}{beta}{sup 2}(q), where {beta}{sup 2}(q) is strictly related to the quantum potential. This can be seen as the opposite of the problem of finding the wave function representation of classical mechanics as formulated by Schiller and Rosen. The structure of the above {open_quotes}quantum transformation{close_quotes}, related to the recently formulated equivalence principle, indicates that the potential deforms space geometry. In particular, a result by Flanders implies that both W(q) = V(q) {minus} E and the quantum potential Q are proportional to the curvatures {kappa}{sub W} and {kappa}{sub Q} which arise as natural invariants in an equivalence problem for curves in the projective line. In this formulation the Schroedinger equation takes the geometrical form ({partial_derivative}{sub q}{sup 2} + {kappa}{sub W}){psi} = 0.

Faraggi, A.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Institute for Fundamental Theory; Matone, M. [Univ. of Padova (Italy). Dept. of Physics G. Galilei

1998-01-09

145

Morphological comparison of axenic amastigogenesis of trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amastigogenesis occurs first when metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine urine differentiate into amastigotes inside mammalian host cells and a secondary process when tissue-derived trypomastigotes invade new cells and differentiate newly to amastigotes. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared the morphological patterns manifested by trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during their axenic-transformation to amastigotes in acidic medium at 37°C. We show here that in culture MEMTAU medium, secondary and primary axenic amastigogenesis display different morphologies. As already described, we also observed a high differentiation rate of trypomastigotes into amastigotes. Conversely, the transformation rate of in vitro-induced-metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes was significantly slower and displayed distinct patterns of transformation that seem environment-dependent. Morphological comparisons of extracelullar and intracellular amastigotes showed marked similarities, albeit some differences were also detected. SDS-PAGE analyses of protein and glycoprotein from primary and axenic extracelullar amastigotes showed similarities in glycopeptide profiles, but variations between their proteins demonstrated differences in their respective macromolecular constitutions. The data indicate that primary and axenic secondary amastigogenesis of T. cruzi may be the result of different developmental processes and suggest that the respective intracellular mechanisms driving amastigogenesis may not be the same.

Navarro María C; De Lima Ana R; Askue José; Contreras Víctor T

2003-01-01

146

Morphological comparison of axenic amastigogenesis of trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Amastigogenesis occurs first when metacyclic trypomastigotes from triatomine urine differentiate into amastigotes inside mammalian host cells and a secondary process when tissue-derived trypomastigotes invade new cells and differentiate newly to amastigotes. Using scanning electron microscopy, we compared the morphological patterns manifested by trypomastigotes and metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi during their axenic-transformation to amastigotes in acidic medium at (more) 37°C. We show here that in culture MEMTAU medium, secondary and primary axenic amastigogenesis display different morphologies. As already described, we also observed a high differentiation rate of trypomastigotes into amastigotes. Conversely, the transformation rate of in vitro-induced-metacyclic trypomastigotes to amastigotes was significantly slower and displayed distinct patterns of transformation that seem environment-dependent. Morphological comparisons of extracelullar and intracellular amastigotes showed marked similarities, albeit some differences were also detected. SDS-PAGE analyses of protein and glycoprotein from primary and axenic extracelullar amastigotes showed similarities in glycopeptide profiles, but variations between their proteins demonstrated differences in their respective macromolecular constitutions. The data indicate that primary and axenic secondary amastigogenesis of T. cruzi may be the result of different developmental processes and suggest that the respective intracellular mechanisms driving amastigogenesis may not be the same.

Navarro, María C; De Lima, Ana R; Askue, José; Contreras, Víctor T

2003-01-01

147

Transformation Golf  

Science.gov (United States)

In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

2011-01-01

148

An enzymatic function associated with transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic viruses. II. Mammalian fibroblast cultures transformed by DNA and RNA tumor viruses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chick, hamster, mouse, and rat embryo fibroblast cultures, transformed by either DNA or RNA viruses, show fibrinolytic activity under suitable conditions of growth and in appropriate media; normal counterpart cultures do not. The fibrinolysin is produced by the interaction of two protein factors: one of these, a cell factor, is released by transformed cells and accumulates in the medium when cultures are incubated in the absence of scrum. The second factor, the serum factor, is a specific protein that is present in sera of many avian and mammalian species, including man. Not all sera yield fibrinolysin on interaction with any given transformed cell factor, and the spectrum of activating sera is distinctive for each cell factor. This pattern appears to be determined by the cell type, rather than by the transforming virus. An important role for the fibrinolysin in oncogenic transformation is suggested by the following correlations. (a) The initial appearance of fibrinolysin precedes the morphological change after the transfer to permissive temperatures of chick fibroblast cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV. (b) The initiation of fibrinolysis and of morphological change both require the synthesis of new protein, but not the synthesis of either DNA or rRNA. (c) The activity of the fibrinolysin is correlated with the retention of abnormal morphology in hamster cells transformed by SV-40. (d) The sera of normal chicks effectively activate fibrinolysis with the cell factor from transformed chick cells. In contrast the sera of chicks with RSV tumors do not; these contain an inhibitor of the fibrinolytic activity.

Ossowski L; Unkeless JC; Tobia A; Quigley JP; Rifkin DB; Reich E

1973-01-01

149

An enzymatic function associated with transformation of fibroblasts by oncogenic viruses. II. Mammalian fibroblast cultures transformed by DNA and RNA tumor viruses.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chick, hamster, mouse, and rat embryo fibroblast cultures, transformed by either DNA or RNA viruses, show fibrinolytic activity under suitable conditions of growth and in appropriate media; normal counterpart cultures do not. The fibrinolysin is produced by the interaction of two protein factors: one of these, a cell factor, is released by transformed cells and accumulates in the medium when cultures are incubated in the absence of scrum. The second factor, the serum factor, is a specific protein that is present in sera of many avian and mammalian species, including man. Not all sera yield fibrinolysin on interaction with any given transformed cell factor, and the spectrum of activating sera is distinctive for each cell factor. This pattern appears to be determined by the cell type, rather than by the transforming virus. An important role for the fibrinolysin in oncogenic transformation is suggested by the following correlations. (a) The initial appearance of fibrinolysin precedes the morphological change after the transfer to permissive temperatures of chick fibroblast cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV. (b) The initiation of fibrinolysis and of morphological change both require the synthesis of new protein, but not the synthesis of either DNA or rRNA. (c) The activity of the fibrinolysin is correlated with the retention of abnormal morphology in hamster cells transformed by SV-40. (d) The sera of normal chicks effectively activate fibrinolysis with the cell factor from transformed chick cells. In contrast the sera of chicks with RSV tumors do not; these contain an inhibitor of the fibrinolytic activity. PMID:4347288

Ossowski, L; Unkeless, J C; Tobia, A; Quigley, J P; Rifkin, D B; Reich, E

1973-01-01

150

Morphology of UO{sub 2}  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The sintering of UO{sub 2} green pellets is influenced by the morphology of the crystallites. This study predicts equilibrium and growth morphologies of UO{sub 2} crystallites, based on five different interatomic potential models that were derived in order to understand properties of the bulk material. It was found that despite the differences between these models, all result in essentially the same morphologies. The equilibrium morphology of UO{sub 2} is an octahedron, showing only {l_brace}111{r_brace} faces. The growth morphology is a truncated octahedron, exhibiting {l_brace}111{r_brace} and {l_brace}200{r_brace} facets. (orig.)

Abramowski, M.; Grimes, R.W. [Imperial Coll. of Science and Technology, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Materials; Owens, S. [Research and Technology, BNFL, Springfields Works, Salwick (United Kingdom)

1999-10-01

151

Transforming giants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

152

Transforming giants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

Kanter RM

2008-01-01

153

Iris Recognition using Orthogonal Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iris Recognition is a biometric recognition technique in which features of the iris are used to uniquely identify individuals. Iris recognition has over the years emerged as one of the most accuratebiometric techniques as opposed to other biometric techniques like face, signature and fingerprint. First, the iris image is pre processed using canny edge detector using a Gaussian filter. The iris edge and the pupil edge are extracted using image morphological operation, image opening. After normalization of red, green and blue components of the colour iris using Euclidean distance method, they are combined to form the localized colour iris. For feature vectors extraction, orthogonal transforms like discrete cosine transform, discrete sine transform and discrete Fourier transform have been considered. The proposed iris recognition system is very time efficient and it takes less than 1 second to grant authentication.

M.Mani Roja; Dr.Sudhir Sawarkar

2012-01-01

154

Morphology of ductus deferens  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The study offers a morphological basis for the vasovasotomy and transplantation of the ductus deferens. The regional anatomy of the ductus deferensa was observed in 30 (60 sides) adult male cadavers. The results showed that the length of the left ductus deferens was 344.00±0.76 (285.00--436.00) mm and that of the right one 347.40±0.74 (295.00--440.50) mm, and that there was no significant difference between the left and right ductus deferens. The wall of the ductus deferencs was thick and richy supplied with the blood, which was beneficial to the vasovasotomy and transplantation of the ductus deferencs.

Lu Boshi; Liu Zhonghua; Zhu Jiming; Pang Chuanwu

1998-01-01

155

Birational transformations of weighted graphs  

CERN Document Server

We introduce the notion of a standard weighted graph and show that every weighted graph has an essentially unique standard model. Moreover we classify birational transformations between such models. Our central result shows that these are composed of elementary transformations. The latter ones are defined similarly to the well known elementary transformations of ruled surfaces. In a forthcoming paper, we apply these results in the geometric setup to obtain standard equivariant completions of affine surfaces with an action of certain algebraic groups. We show that these completions are unique up to equivariant elementary transformations.

Flenner, H; Zaidenberg, M G; Flenner, Hubert; Kaliman, Shulim; Zaidenberg, Mikhail

2005-01-01

156

Harmonic cancellation characteristics of specially connected transformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Specially connected transformers such as V-V, Scott and Le-Blanc transformers are used to convert a three-phase supply into one or two single-phase supplies. These transformers are commonly used in the electro locomotive traction systems. This paper investigates the harmonic cancellation characteristics of such transformers. The results show that when two harmonic-producing loads are connected to each single-phase side of the transformers, the harmonics produced by the loads will cancel out at the primary sides of the transformers. The amount of cancellation is affected by transformer type and harmonic order. The study is performed for seven types of specially connected transformers. (author)

Mazin, Hooman Erfanian; Xu, Wilsun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

2009-12-15

157

Generalization of Conformal Transformations  

CERN Document Server

Conformal transformations of a Euclidean (complex) plane have some kind of completeness (sufficiency) for the solution of many mathematical and physical-mathematical problems formulated on this plane. There is no such completeness in the case of Euclidean, pseudo-Euclidean and polynumber spaces of dimension greater than two. In the present paper we show that using the concepts of analogical geometries allows us to generalize conformal transformations not only to the case of Euclidean or pseudo-Euclidean spaces, but also to the case of Finsler spaces, analogous to the spaces of affine connectedness. Examples of such transformations in the case of complex and hypercomplex numbers H_4 are presented. In the general case such transformations form a group of transitions, the elements of which can be viewed as transitions between projective Euclidean geometries of a distinguished class fixed by the choice of metric geometry admitting affine coordinates. The correlation between functions realizing generalized conform...

Garas'ko, G I

2005-01-01

158

[Biochemistry of neoplastic transformation: changes at the molecular level which affect the form and regulation of cell growth. Possible relation between other processes  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work summarizes the molecular modifications taking place after neoplastic transformation leading to changes in morphology and growth. Cytoskeleton and microtubules are involved in cell morphology changes, and abnormalities of growth regulation are implicated in cell transformation.

Avila J

1983-01-01

159

Abundant expression in vascular tissue of plant TAF10, an orthologous gene for TATA box-binding protein-associated factor 10, in Flaveria trinervia and abnormal morphology of Arabidopsis thaliana transformants on its overexpression.  

Science.gov (United States)

TAF10 is one of the TATA box-binding protein-associated factors (TAFs), which constitute the TFIID complex. We isolated a plant TAF10 ortholog from a Flaveria trinervia cDNA library, and named it ftTAF10. The ftTAF10 polypeptide contains a histone-fold motif, which is highly conserved among the TAF10s of other organisms. A transiently expressed green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was translocated into the nuclei of onion epidermal cells, suggesting that the ftTAF10 functions in nuclei. The transcript level was higher in stems and roots than in leaves, and in situ hybridization of F. trinervia seedlings revealed that the ftTAF10 transcript is accumulated abundantly in vascular tissues of hypocotyls, in the central cylinder of roots, and slightly in bundle sheath cells of leaves. Overexpression of ftTAF10 in Arabidopsis under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter caused two kinds of abnormal morphology, limitation of the indeterminate inflorescence and production of deformed leaves. These results indicate the possibility that ftTAF10 is a plant 'selective TAF' involved in the expression of a subset of vascular abundant genes, and that its appropriate gene expression is necessary for normal development. PMID:15659449

Furumoto, Tsuyoshi; Tamada, Yosuke; Izumida, Atsushi; Nakatani, Hiromi; Hata, Shingo; Izui, Katsura

2005-01-19

160

Effect of the coating morphology on the drug release from engineered drug-polymer nanocomposites.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ElectroNanospray process (Nanocopoeia, Inc) transforms drugs and polymers into many nanoscale material states including powders, liquids, encapsulated particles, and coatings. This enabling technology platform allows application of polymers and drugs to the surface of medical devices such as coronary stents in a single-stage process. Modification of ElectroNanospray process parameters resulted in surface coatings with rich morphologies ranging in appearance from smooth and heterogeneous to highly porous and rough (open matrix). The traditional approach of measuring percent release over time by HPLC shows that the drug release profiles change significantly with coating morphology. In this study, we employed high resolution imaging techniques such as SEM, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Confocal Raman Microscopy to elucidate the drug release process on these coatings in situ, indicating a correlation of release kinetics with coating morphology. PMID:19963916

Dong, Jinping; Frethem, Chris; Haugstad, Greg; Hoerr, Robert A; Foley, John D; Matuszewski, Michael J; Puskas, Judit E

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isozyme pattern and morphology of three marine fish cell lines  

Science.gov (United States)

Three continuous marine fish cell lines of FG (i.e., Flounder Gill) from flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus) gill, SPH (i.e., Sea Perch Heart) from sea perch ( Lateolabrax japonicus) heart and RSBF (i.e., Red Sea Bream Fin) from red sea bream ( Pagrosomus major) fin, were characterized by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme and morphological analysis. The LDH isozyme patterns of these three cell lines and their corresponding tissues of origin were investigated and compared. The results showed: (1) No difference was found in the LDH isozyme patterns of FG and flounder gill tissue. However, the LDH isozyme patterns of SPH and RSBF were significantly different from their corresponding tissues of origin; (2) LDH isozyme patterns of FG, SPH and RSBF were markedly different from each other and could serve as genetic markers for species identification and detection of cross contamination. Morphological change analysis of these three cell lines in comparison to their original tissues indicated that FG cells still appeared epithelioid without morphological transformation. However, morphological changes were found in SPH and RSBF compared to their original tissues. Therefore, the cellular morphology was still plastic in the relatively stable culture conditions, and it was possible that change of LDH patterns was related to morphological changes of fish cells in vitro.

Guo, Hua-Rong; Zhang, Shi-Cui; Li, Hong-Yan; Tong, Shang-Liang; Xiang, Jian-Hai

2002-09-01

162

MMP1, MMP9, and COX2 Expressions in Promonocytes Are Induced by Breast Cancer Cells and Correlate with Collagen Degradation, Transformation-Like Morphological Changes in MCF-10A Acini, and Tumor Aggressiveness  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumor-associated immune cells often lack immune effector activities, and instead they present protumoral functions. To understand how tumors promote this immunological switch, invasive and noninvasive breast cancer cell (BRC) lines were cocultured with a promonocytic cell line in a Matrigel-based 3D system. We hypothesized that if communication exists between tumor and immune cells, coculturing would result in augmented expression of genes associated with tumor malignancy. Upregulation of proteases MMP1 and MMP9 and inflammatory COX2 genes was found likely in response to soluble factors. Interestingly, changes were more apparent in promonocytes and correlated with the aggressiveness of the BRC line. Increased gene expression was confirmed by collagen degradation assays and immunocytochemistry of prostaglandin 2, a product of COX2 activity. Untransformed MCF-10A cells were then used as a sensor of soluble factors with transformation-like capabilities, finding that acini formed in the presence of supernatants of the highly aggressive BRC/promonocyte cocultures often exhibited total loss of the normal architecture. These data support that tumor cells can modify immune cell gene expression and tumor aggressiveness may importantly reside in this capacity. Modeling interactions in the tumor stroma will allow the identification of genes useful as cancer prognostic markers and therapy targets.

Chimal-Ramirez, G. K.; Espinoza-Sanchez, N. A.; Utrera-Barillas, D.; Benitez-Bribiesca, L.; Velazquez, J. R.; Arriaga-Pizano, L. A.; Monroy-Garcia, A.; Reyes-Maldonado, E.; Dominguez-Lopez, M. L.; Pina-Sanchez, Patricia; Fuentes-Panana, E. M.

2013-01-01

163

A Bijective String Sorting Transform  

CERN Multimedia

Given a string of characters, the Burrows-Wheeler Transform rearranges the characters in it so as to produce another string of the same length which is more amenable to compression techniques such as move to front, run-length encoding, and entropy encoders. We present a variant of the transform which gives rise to similar or better compression value, but, unlike the original, the transform we present is bijective, in that the inverse transformation exists for all strings. Our experiments indicate that using our variant of the transform gives rise to better compression ratio than the original Burrows-Wheeler transform. We also show that both the transform and its inverse can be computed in linear time and consuming linear storage.

Gil, Joseph Yossi

2012-01-01

164

Superconducting transformer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings.

Murphy, J.H.

1982-06-22

165

Multistep nature of X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation in golden hamster embryo cells: expression of transformed phenotypes and stepwise changes in karyotypes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We have examined the expression of transformed phenotypes and genetic changes associated with the expression of each transformed phenotype after X-ray irradiation. Unirradiated cells grown at a constant growth rate until 8 passages (population doubling number, 15) exhibited little morphological change and ceased to divide thereafter. X-irradiated cells escaped from senescence and showed morphological alteration and anchorage independence after a population doubling number of 20. The acquisition of tumorigenicity in nude mice was observed much later (35 population doublings after irradiation). From cytogenetic analysis, all anchorage-independent clones were consistently found to have trisomy of chromosome 7. Furthermore, cells derived from tumors contained three copies of chromosome 9q in addition to the trisomy of chromosome 7. We have not detected any augmented expression of v-Ha-ras- and v-myc-related oncogenes with RNA dot-blot analysis and could not find activation of any type of oncogenes by NIH3T3 transfection experiments. Our studies demonstrated that X-ray-induced neoplastic transformation is a multistep phenomenon and that the numerical change of specific chromosomes may play an important role in the expression of each transformed phenotype. The results suggest that different endogenous oncogenes, other than the ras gene family and myc oncogene, could be responsible for the progressive nature of neoplastic transformation

1989-04-15

166

Physiochemical phase transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas Condensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We present results of the studies of structural and chemical transformations in Co/CoO nanoparticles prepared by inert gas condensation. The effect of the morphology and agglomeration on the phase transformation reaction path in self-oxidation and in controlled reduction processes are discussed in detail. As-prepared samples show self-oxidation related to the non-core/shell morphology of the particles. Annealing of particles at 250 deg. C in reducing atmosphere leads to the oxidation of the particles showing coexistence of CoO and Co3O4 structures. This is explained by the diffusion of oxygen from the amorphous oxide surface to the bulk of the nanoparticles. Upon increasing the reaction temperature beyond 250 deg. C, reductive transformation of the samples occurs systematically, from CoO/Co3O4 to CoO to Co (HCP + FCC) and eventually to Co (FCC). We have presented X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and magnetic data to track the structural and chemical transformation paths. We found strong correlation between structural and magnetic properties. Thermodynamic stability as a function of reaction temperature on the phase/chemical transformation is also discussed.

2009-08-15

167

Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. RESULTS: Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

Mezzetti B; Pandolfini T; Navacchi O; Landi L

2002-09-01

168

Genetic transformation of Vitis vinifera via organogenesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Efficient transformation and regeneration methods are a priority for successful application of genetic engineering to vegetative propagated plants such as grape. The current methods for the production of transgenic grape plants are based on Agrobacterium-mediated transformation followed by regeneration from embryogenic callus. However, grape embryogenic calli are laborious to establish and the phenotype of the regenerated plants can be altered. Results Transgenic grape plants (V. vinifera, table-grape cultivars Silcora and Thompson Seedless) were produced using a method based on regeneration via organogenesis. In vitro proliferating shoots were cultured in the presence of increasing concentrations of N6-benzyl adenine. The apical dome of the shoot was removed at each transplantation which, after three months, produced meristematic bulk tissue characterized by a strong capacity to differentiate adventitious shoots. Slices prepared from the meristematic bulk were used for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of grape plants with the gene DefH9-iaaM. After rooting on kanamycin containing media and greenhouse acclimatization, transgenic plants were transferred to the field. At the end of the first year of field cultivation, DefH9-iaaM grape plants were phenotypically homogeneous and did not show any morphological alterations in vegetative growth. The expression of DefH9-iaaM gene was detected in transgenic flower buds of both cultivars. Conclusions The phenotypic homogeneity of the regenerated plants highlights the validity of this method for both propagation and genetic transformation of table grape cultivars. Expression of the DefH9-iaaM gene takes place in young flower buds of transgenic plants from both grape cultivars.

Mezzetti Bruno; Pandolfini Tiziana; Navacchi Oriano; Landi Lucia

2002-01-01

169

Electrical transformer handbook  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This handbook is a valuable user guide intended for electrical engineering and maintenance personnel, electrical contractors and electrical engineering students. It provides current information on techniques and technologies that can help extend the life of transformers. It discusses transformer testing, monitoring, design, commissioning, retrofitting and other elements involved in keeping electrical transformers in safe and efficient operation. It demonstrates how a power transformer can be put to use and common problems faced by owners. In addition to covering control techniques, testing and maintenance procedures, this handbook covers the power transformer; control electrical power transformer; electrical power transformer; electrical theory transformer; used electrical transformer; down electrical step transformer; electrical manufacturer transformer; electrical picture transformer; electrical transformer work; electrical surplus transformer; current transformer; step down transformer; voltage transformer; step up transformer; isolation transformer; low voltage transformer; toroidal transformer; high voltage transformer; and control power transformer. The handbook includes articles from leading experts on overcurrent protection of transformers; ventilated dry-type transformers; metered load factors for low-voltage, and dry-type transformers in buildings. The maintenance of both dry-type or oil-filled transformers was discussed with reference to sealing, gaskets, oils, moisture and testing. The adoption of dynamic load practices was also discussed along with the reclamation or recycling of used lube oil, transformer dielectric fluids and aged solid insulation. A buyer's guide and directory of transformer manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

Hurst, R.W.; Horne, D. (eds.)

2005-07-01

170

Transformative learning.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed.

Nemec PB

2012-12-01

171

Transformative learning.  

Science.gov (United States)

The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

Nemec, Patricia B

2012-12-01

172

Bacterial Transformation Lab  

Science.gov (United States)

The "glowing genes" activity on this engaging website shows students the process of bacterial transformation, a specific type of genetic engineering. This online activity supplements a hands-on lab at the Dolan DNA Learning Center's Harlem DNA Lab, in which plasmids, or tiny loops of DNA that contain genes, are inserted into a harmless strain of E.coli.

Dolan DNA Learning Center * (Dolan DNA Learning Center;)

2010-05-27

173

Transformation-enhancing activity of gelatin-binding fragments of fibronectin.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Studies have established that cryoprecipitates of the plasma of tumor patients contain a biological activity enhancing morphological cell transformation (transformation-enhancing factor; TEF) in cultures of chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with temperature-sensitive mutants of Rous sarcoma virus....

De Petro, G; Barlati, S; Vartio, T; Vaheri, A

174

Electron microscopic observations on the morphological and mineralogical changes in feldspar during the weathering process  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Plagioclase feldspar in anorthositic rocks of Suryun area Korea, occurs predominantly as labradorite and show alteration into clay minerals under a distinct alteration sequence related to the degree of weathering. Under optical microscope, the feldspar shows that the alteration process was initiated by dissolution along microcracks, cleavage and twinning planes. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) displays the morphological changes in feldspar during various stages of weathering. In the initial stage, selective etching has resulted in the formation of etch pits which on increased weathering have developed into stacks or sheaf structures. This on further weathering transformed into intermixed tubular and platy structures forming halloysite and kaolinite minerals respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) also shows occurrence of tubular and platey shape minerals with variable dimensions. EPMA analysis and EDS patterns exhibit consistency with the morphological and mineralogical changes during alteration process of feldspar under weathering conditions. (author)

2003-01-01

175

Three-Mode Nonlinear Bogoliubov Transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

We introduce the three-mode nonlinear Bogoliubov transformations based on the work of Siena et al. (Phys. Rev. A 64:063803, 2001) and Ying Wu (Phys. Rev. A 66:025801, 2002) about nonlinear Bogoliubov transformations. We show that three-mode nonlinear Bogoliubov transformations can be constructed by the combination of two unitary transformations, a coordinate-dependent displacement followed by the standard squeezed transformation. Such decomposition turns all the nonlinear canonic coordinate-dependent Bogoliubov transformations into essentially linear problems as we shall prove and hence greatly facilitate calculations of the properties and the quantities related to the nonlinear transformations.

Ren, Gang; Song, Tong-Qiang

2008-05-01

176

Leaf Vein Extraction Based on Gray-scale Morphology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Leaf features play an important role in plant species identification and plant taxonomy. The type of the leaf vein is an important morphological feature of the leaf in botany. Leaf vein should be extracted from the leaf in the image before discriminating its type. In this paper a new method of leaf vein extraction has been proposed based on gray-scale morphology. Firstly, the color image of the plant leaf is transformed to the gray image according to the hue and intensity information. Secondly, the gray-scale morphology processing is applied to the image to eliminate the color overlap in the whole leaf vein and the whole background. Thirdly, the linear intensity adjustment is adopted to enlarge the gray value difference between the leaf vein and its background. Fourthly, calculate a threshold with OSTU method to segment the leaf vein from its background. Finally, the leaf vein can be got after some processing on details. Experiments have been conducted with several images. The results show the effectiveness of the method. The idea of the method is also applicable to other linear objects extraction.

Xiaodong Zheng; Xiaojie Wang

2010-01-01

177

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial/ Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporanei (more) dade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização. Abstract in english As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's deat (more) h, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Millan, Marília Pereira Bueno

2006-06-01

178

Reality shows: uma abordagem psicossocial Reality shows: a psychosocial approach  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde os primórdios da civilização, o ser humano mostra necessidade de representar cenicamente seus dramas pessoais e vicissitudes existenciais. O "reality show" é uma das versões pós-modernas da encenação da vida humana. Este artigo, por meio de uma pesquisa bibliográfica, analisa criticamente as relações existentes entre o "reality show" e aspectos psicossociais do comportamento humano. Conclui-se que tais programas televisivos são o retrato da contemporaneidade, ou seja, revelam a morte do sujeito, a fugacidade das experiências vividas, a desvalorização da história e o culto à imagem e à superficialidade. Por meio da sedução do espectador, mobilizam-se aspectos primitivos de seu psiquismo, fazendo com que ele se sinta narcisicamente poderoso e onipotente e se acredite dono do destino dos participantes do programa. Sugerem-se novos estudos que contribuam para a reflexão crítica e maior conscientização.As from the earliest period of civilization, human beings have shown their need to perform their personal dramas and existential vicissitudes on stage. The reality show is one of the postmodern versions of human life staging. Based on a bibliographical research, this article analyzes on a critical basis the relations between the reality show and psychosocial aspects of human behavior. Such TV programs portray contemporaneous life, that is, they disclose the subject's death, the fugacity of life experiences, the history devaluation and the cult of image and superficiality. By seducing the spectator, the reality show mobilizes primitive aspects of the spectator's psychism, thereby making him feel narcissistically powerful and omnipotent, and able to decide the participants' fate. New studies that contribute to critical considerations and deeper consciousness would be advisable.

Marília Pereira Bueno Millan

2006-01-01

179

Coreopsis plant named Show Stopper  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new and distinct Coreopsis plant named 'Show Stopper' characterized by prolific bloom of red purple daisy-type inflorescences, each about 5 cm wide, with excellent perennial survival, and a large mounding plant.

KORLIPARA HARINI

180

Faceting of Nanocrystals during Chemical Transformation: FromSolid Silver Spheres to Hollow Gold Octahedra  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sustained progress in nanocrystal synthesis has enabled recent use of these materials as inorganic, macromolecular precursors that can be chemically transformed into new nanostructures. The literature now contains several cases with chemical transformations being accompanied by varying degrees of modification of properties, including crystal structure and particle shape. As a recent example, we demonstrated that as-synthesized metallic nanocrystals yield, upon oxidation, nanostructures with modified morphologies such as hollow particles. This morphological change derives from directional material flows due to differing diffusivities for the reacting atomic species, in a nanoscale version of the well-known Kirkendall Effect. This general methodology has since been extended by other groups to produce nanostructures with various compositions and shapes. We demonstrate that performing a replacement reaction on single crystalline Ag nanospheres of {approx}10 nm in diameter in an organic solvent produces hollow Au nanocrystals with an octahedral shape. Different from those Au shells made by starting with Ag particles about one order of magnitude larger, which largely reproduce that of the sacrificial Ag counterparts, the hollow nanocrystals obtained in this work show significant changes in the external morphology from the spherical Ag precursors. This evolution of a faceted external morphology during chemical transformation is made possible by the enhanced role of surface effects in our smaller nanocrystals. The competition between the Au atom deposition and Ag atom dissolution on various nanocrystal surfaces is believed to determine the final octahedral shape of the hollow Au nanocrystals. Simultaneous achievement of surface-mediated shape control and a hollow morphology in a one-pot, single-step synthetic procedure in this study promises an avenue to finer tuning of particle morphology, and thus physical properties such as surface plasmon resonance.

Yin, Yadong; Erdonmez, Can; Alivisatos, A. Paul

2006-06-23

 
 
 
 
181

The electric transformer fight  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper relates the historical events that have followed the invention of the electric transformer by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs at the end of the 19th century. This historical event is taken as an example to demonstrate that a technical solution which appears evident a posteriori encounters severe difficulties to compel recognition. Experts firmly installed and supported by influential people can stop or delay a solution provided by an outsider. The transformer case shows also that a new technical system is not only the application of a theory, but it involves a mutation of scientific concepts. (J.S.). 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Ramunni, G. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 (France)

1996-01-01

182

Generalized field-transforming metamaterials  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

Tretyakov, Sergei A; Nefedov, Igor S; Alitalo, Pekka [Department of Radio Science and Engineering/SMARAD Center of Excellence, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 3000, FI-02015 TKK (Finland)], E-mail: sergei.tretyakov@tkk.fi

2008-11-15

183

Generalized field-transforming metamaterials  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper, we introduce a generalized concept of field-transforming metamaterials, which perform field transformations defined as linear relations between the original and transformed fields. These artificial media change the fields in a prescribed fashion in the volume occupied by the medium. We show what electromagnetic properties of transforming medium are required. The coefficients of these linear functions can be arbitrary scalar functions of position and frequency, which makes the approach quite general and opens a possibility to realize various unusual devices.

2008-01-01

184

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

Anatoli Torokhti; Phil Howlett

2006-01-01

185

A characterization of Fourier transforms  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this paper is to show that, in various situations, the only continuous linear map that transforms a convolution product into a pointwise product is a Fourier transform. We focus on the cyclic groups $\\Z/nZ$, the integers $\\Z$, the Torus $\\T$ and the real line. We also ask a related questi...

Jaming, Philippe

186

Seidel elements and Mirror transformations  

CERN Multimedia

The goal of this article is to give a precise relation between the mirror symmetry transformation of Givental and the Seidel elements for a smooth projective toric variety $X$ with $-K_X$ nef. We show that the Seidel elements entirely reconstruct the mirror transformation and mirror coordinates.

Gonzalez, Eduardo

2011-01-01

187

Sonication-triggered instantaneous gel-to-gel transformation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two new peptide-based isomers containing cholesterol and naphthalic groups have been designed and synthesized. We found that the position of L-alanine in the linker could tune the gelation properties and morphologies. The molecule with the L-alanine residue positioned in the middle of the linker (1b) shows better gelation behavior than that with L-alanine directly linked to the naphthalimido moiety (1a). As a result, a highly thermostable organogel of 1b with a unique core-shell structure was obtained at high temperature and pressure in acetonitrile. Moreover, the gels of 1a and 1b could undergo an instantaneous gel-to-gel transition triggered by sonication. Ultrasound could break the core-shell microsphere of 1b and the micelle structure of 1a into entangled fibers. By studying the mechanism of the sonication-triggered gel-to-gel transition process of these compounds, it can be concluded that ultrasound has a variety of effects on the morphology, such as cutting, knitting, unfolding, homogenizing, and even cross-linking. Typically, ultrasound can cleave and homogenize pi-stacking and hydrophobic interactions among the gel molecules and then reshape the morphologies to form a new gel. This mechanism of morphology transformation triggered by sonication might be attractive in the field of material storage and controlled release.

Yu X; Liu Q; Wu J; Zhang M; Cao X; Zhang S; Wang Q; Chen L; Yi T

2010-08-01

188

Transformational Plasmon Optics  

CERN Multimedia

Transformation optics has recently attracted extensive interest, since it provides a novel design methodology for manipulating light at will. Although transformation optics in principle embraces all forms of electromagnetic phenomena on all length scales, so far, much less efforts have been devoted to near-field optical waves, such as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to the tight confinement and strong field enhancement, SPPs are widely used for various purposes at the subwavelength scale. Taking advantage of transformation optics, here we demonstrate that the confinement as well as propagation of SPPs can be managed in a prescribed manner by careful control of the dielectric material properties adjacent to a metal. Since the metal properties are completely unaltered, it provides a straightforward way for practical realizations. We show that our approach can assist to tightly bound SPPs over a broad wavelength band at uneven and curved surfaces, where SPPs would normally suffer significant scattering lo...

Liu, Yongmin; Barta, Guy; Zhang, Xiang

2010-01-01

189

The morphology and semantics of expressive affixes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This dissertation focuses on two aspects of expressive affixes: their morphological/typological properties and their semantics. With regard to the former, it shows that the expressive morphology of many languages (including Bantu, West Atlantic, Walman, Sanskrit, English, Romance, Slavic, and oth...

Fortin, Antonio; Maiden, Martin; Asudeh, Arshia

190

Transformation plasticity in ductile solids  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

Olson, G.B.

1993-02-01

191

Mass Dependent Galaxy Transformation Mechanisms In The Complex Environment Of SuperGroup Abell 1882  

Science.gov (United States)

We have constructed a detailed photometric and spectrometric map of the SuperGroup environment of Abell 1882, using multi-wavelength data from MMT, SDSS, NED, GAMA, GMOS, Spitzer and GALEX. We have traced transformations in color, morphological properties, specific star formation rate and birthrate parameter for 526 spectrometrically classified galaxies in a wide range of density and radial locations in Abell 1882. Our results show that the system exhibits mass dependent evolutionary mechanisms primarily along the feeding filaments in the SuperGroup environment. The behavior in color and galaxy density suggests that the post-starburst galaxies with stellar masses above and below 109.5 solar masses show different environmental mechanisms. We see the galaxy transformations as far out as 11 Mpc from the assumed center of this complex structure, still leaving the dominant transformation process ambiguous at least for galaxies with mass > 109.5 solar masses.

Sengupta, Aparajita; Keel, W. C.; Morrison, G. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Smith, B. M.

2013-06-01

192

Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

Joly, E.

2004-01-01

193

Quantum optics of spatial transformation media  

CERN Document Server

Transformation media are at the heart of invisibility devices, perfect lenses and artificial black holes. In this paper, we consider their quantum theory. We show how transformation media map quantum electromagnetism in physical space to QED in empty flat space.

Leonhardt, Ulf

2007-01-01

194

Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Phyllodes tumor of the breast is a rare fibroepithelial lesion and particularly uncommon in adolescent girls. It is thought to arise from the periductal rather than intralobular stroma. Usually, it is seen as a well-defined mass. Phyllodes tumor showing intraductal growth is extremely rare. Here we report a girl who has a phyllodes tumor with intraductal growth.

Makidono A; Tsunoda H; Mori M; Yagata H; Onoda Y; Kikuchi M; Nozaki T; Saida Y; Nakamura S; Suzuki K

2013-07-01

195

Lorentz Transformations  

CERN Multimedia

This paper describes a particularly didactic and transparent derivation of basic properties of the Lorentz group. The generators for rotations around an arbitrary axis and boosts along an arbitrary direction, as well as their commutation relations, are written as functions of the components of the unit vectors that define the axis of rotation and direction of the boost. For finite values of the the angle of rotation or the boost's velocity, collectively denoted by V, the existence of an exponential expansion for the coordinate transformation's matrix (in terms V and the generators) requires that the matrix's derivative with respect to V, be equal to the product of this matrix with the generator. This condition can only be satisfied if the transformation is additive as it is indeed the case for rotations, whereas velocities are not additive in Relativity. If it is assumed, however, that for boosts such an expansion exists, with V = V(v), v being the velocity, and if the above condition is imposed on the boost'...

Durney, Bernard R

2011-01-01

196

Comparison of malignant transformation of cells vitro induced by high LET and low LET radiations  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objectives: To compare the characteristics of malignant transformation of the adult Wistar rat lung fibroblast cell line (WAL-F1) in vitro induced by high LET (238Pu alpha particles, 5.25 MeV) and low LET (X-rays 180 kV) radiations. Methods: A model of cell transformation in vitro was used; the changes of morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cell induced by two types of radiations were observed; the carcinogenesis of transformed cells in vivo was studied. Results: The results showed that the morphological and biological characteristics of transformed cells were basically similar. However, there were some differences between biological effects of cell transformation induced by these radiation types: (1) The model of cell surviving curve for alpha particles was a single hit and single target model with a D0 value of 0.172 Gy, while that for X-rays was a single hit and multi-target model with a D0 value of 1.66 Gy; (2) the iso-effect dose of proliferative ability, chromosome aberration rate, and colony-forming rate for X-rays were 10 times higher than these for alpha particles; (3) the latent period of cell transformation for alpha particles was delayed about 4-5 passages as compared with that for X-rays; and (4) the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for alpha particles versus X-rays was approximately 6.0 at an alpha dose of 0.5 Gy. Conclusion: The results suggest that the high LET radiation showed higher carcinogenic effect in vitro on cells than low LET radiation did.

1997-01-01

197

Quantifying Morphological Computation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The field of embodied intelligence emphasises the importance of the morphology and environment with respect to the behaviour of a cognitive system. The contribution of the morphology to the behaviour, commonly known as morphological computation, is well-recognised in this community. We believe that the field would benefit from a formalisation of this concept as we would like to ask how much the morphology and the environment contribute to an embodied agent’s behaviour, or how an embodied agent can maximise the exploitation of its morphology within its environment. In this work we derive two concepts of measuring morphological computation, and we discuss their relation to the Information Bottleneck Method. The first concepts asks how much the world contributes to the overall behaviour and the second concept asks how much the agent’s action contributes to a behaviour. Various measures are derived from the concepts and validated in two experiments that highlight their strengths and weaknesses.

Keyan Zahedi; Nihat Ay

2013-01-01

198

Morphological evaluation of cystitis glandularis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cystitis cystica and cystitis glandularis (CG) are relatively common appearances in the urinary bladder though CG may occasionally mimic a neoplasm. Microscopically, two types of CG are recognized, the usual type and intestinal type. This study was undertaken to study the morphology of CG and to highlight the differences in morphology between CG and adenocarcinoma. Eleven cases of CG were seen, of which 3 cases showed predominantly CG, usual type and eight cases showed CG of intestinal type. One case of primary adenocarcinoma was included in this study, where the adjacent bladder mucosa showed CG. Evaluation of the histological features of CG, especially intestinal type helps in correct categorization of this lesion and differentiation from adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

Rau Aarathi; Kini Hema; Pai Radha

2009-01-01

199

ENVITEC shows off air technologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

McIlvaine, R.W.

1995-08-01

200

Ferrite morphology and variations in ferrite content in austenitic stainless steel welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four distinct ferrite morphologies have been identified in type 308 stainless steel multipass welds: vermicular, lacy, acicular, and globular. The first three ferrite types are related to transformations following solidification and the fourth is related to the shape instability of the residual ferrite. An earlier study showed that most of the ferrite observed in austenitic stainless steel welds contaning a duplex structure may be identified as residual primary ferrite resulting from incomplete delta ..-->.. ..gamma.. transformation during solidification and/or residual ferrite after Widmanstaetten austenite precipitation in primary ferrite. These modes of ferrite formation can be used to explain observed ferrite morphologies in austenitic stainless steel welds. Variations in ferrite content within the weld were related to weld metal composition, ferrite morphology, and dissolution of ferrite resulting from thermal cycles during subsequent weld passes. An investigation of the type 308 stainless steel filler metal solidified over cooling rates ranging from 7 to 1600/sup 0/C/s showed that the cooling rate of the weld metal within the freezing range of the alloy affects the amount of ferrite in the microstructure very litte. However, the scale of the solidification substructure associated with various solidification rates may influence the ferrite dissolution kinetics.

David, S.A.; Hanzelka, S.E.; Haltom, C.P.

1981-07-01

 
 
 
 
201

Ferrite morphology and variations in ferrite content in austenitic stainless steel welds  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Four distinct ferrite morphologies have been identified in Type 308 stainless steel multipass welds: vermicular, lacy, acicular, and globular. The first three ferrite types are related to transformations following solidfication and the fourth is related to the shape instability of the residual ferrite. An earlier study showed that most of the ferrite observed in austenitic stainless steel welds containing a duplex structure may be identified as residual primary ferrite resulting from incomplete delta ..-->.. ..gamma.. transformation during solidification and/or residual ferrite after Widmanstatten austenite precipitation in primary ferrite. These modes of ferrite formation can be used to explain observed ferrite morphologies in austenitic stainless steel welds. Variations in ferrite content within the weld were also related to weld metal composition, ferrite morphology, and dissolution of ferrite resulting from thermal cycles during subsequent weld passes. An investigation of the Type 308 stainless steel filler metal solidified over cooling rates ranging from 7 to 1600/sup 0/C/s (44.6 to 2912/sup 0/F/s) showed that the cooling rate of the weld metal within the freezing range of the alloy affects the amount of ferrite in the microstructure very little. However, the scale of the solidification substructure associated with various solidification rates may influence the ferrite dissolution kinetics.

David, S.A.

1981-04-01

202

Morphology of galaxies  

CERN Document Server

The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

Wadadekar, Yogesh

2012-01-01

203

Effect of silk sericin on morphology and structure of calcium carbonate crystal  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, silk sericin was employed to regulate the mineralization of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). CaCO3 composite particles were prepared by the precipitation reaction of sodium carbonate with calcium chloride solution in the presence of silk sericin. The as-prepared samples were collected at different reaction time to study the crystallization process of CaCO3 by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that silk sericin significantly affected the morphology and crystallographic polymorph of CaCO3. With increasing the reaction time, the crystal phase of CaCO3 transferred from calcite dominated to vaterite dominated mixtures, while the morphology of CaCO3 changed from disk-like calcite crystal to spherical vaterite crystal. These studies showed the potential of silk sericin used as a template molecule to control the growth of inorganic crystal.

Zhao, Rui-Bo; Han, Hua-Feng; Ding, Shao; Li, Ze-Hao; Kong, Xiang-Dong

2013-06-01

204

Peptide mixtures can self-assemble into large amyloid fibers of varying size and morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Peptide mixtures spontaneously formed micrometer-sized fibers and ribbons from aqueous solution. Hydrolyzed gliadin produced short, slightly elliptical fibers while hydrolyzed wheat gluten, a mixture of gliadin and glutenin, formed round fibers of similar size. Mixing hydrolyzed gliadin with increasing molar amounts of myoglobin or amylase resulted in longer, wider fibers that transitioned from round to rectangular cross section. Fiber size, morphology, and modulus were controlled by peptide mixture composition. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy results showed that peptides experienced ? to ? transitions forming an elementary cross-? peptide secondary structure, indicative of amyloids. Large fiber formation was observed to be dependent on hydrophobic packing between constituent peptides. A model was developed to show how the fiber morphology was influenced by the peptides in the mixture. PMID:21879764

Ridgley, Devin M; Ebanks, Keira C; Barone, Justin R

2011-09-09

205

Peptide mixtures can self-assemble into large amyloid fibers of varying size and morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Peptide mixtures spontaneously formed micrometer-sized fibers and ribbons from aqueous solution. Hydrolyzed gliadin produced short, slightly elliptical fibers while hydrolyzed wheat gluten, a mixture of gliadin and glutenin, formed round fibers of similar size. Mixing hydrolyzed gliadin with increasing molar amounts of myoglobin or amylase resulted in longer, wider fibers that transitioned from round to rectangular cross section. Fiber size, morphology, and modulus were controlled by peptide mixture composition. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy results showed that peptides experienced ? to ? transitions forming an elementary cross-? peptide secondary structure, indicative of amyloids. Large fiber formation was observed to be dependent on hydrophobic packing between constituent peptides. A model was developed to show how the fiber morphology was influenced by the peptides in the mixture.

Ridgley DM; Ebanks KC; Barone JR

2011-10-01

206

Morphological characterization of furfuraldehyde resins adsorbents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sugar cane is one of the most traditional plantation cultivated crops in large areas in Brazil. The State University of the North of Rio de Janeiro, UENF, is currently engaged in a program aimed to exploit the potentialities of sugar cane industry as a self sustained non-polluting enterprise. One of the projects being carried out at the UENF is the transformation of sugar cane bagasse in precursor materials for the industry of furan derivatives such as the furfuraldehyde resins obtained by acid catalysis. The possibility of employing acid catalyzed furfuraldehyde resins as selective adsorbents has arisen during a comprehensive study of physical-chemical adsorption properties of these materials. The morphology of these resins depend on the synthesis method. Scanning Electron Microscopic studies of these materials which were synthesized, in bulk (FH-M) and solution (FH-D), showed differences in surface density and particle size. Using mercury porosimeter techniques and BET adsorption methods, it was found different pore size distributions and a decrement in surface area when solvent was employed in the synthesis process. By thermogravimetric analysis it was found similar weight losses (6%) of water adsorption and a small differences in thermal stabilities.

Sanchez, R.; Monteiro, S.N. [State Univ. of the North of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); D`Almeida, J.R. [Rio de Janeiro-Catholic Univ. (Brazil)

1996-12-31

207

Multiscale top-hat selection transform based infrared and visual image fusion with emphasis on extracting regions of interest  

Science.gov (United States)

To effectively combine regions of interest in original infrared and visual images, an adaptively weighted infrared and visual image fusion algorithm is developed based on the multiscale top-hat selection transform. First, the multiscale top-hat selection transform using multiscale structuring elements with increasing sizes is discussed. Second, the image regions of the original infrared and visual images at each scale are extracted by using the multiscale top-hat selection transform. Third, the final fusion regions are constructed from the extracted multiscale image regions. Finally, the final fusion regions are combined into a base image calculated from the original images to form the final fusion result. The combination of the final fusion regions uses the adaptive weight strategy, and the weights are adaptively obtained based on the importance of the extracted features. In the paper, we compare seven image fusion methods: wavelet pyramid algorithm (WP), shift invariant discrete wavelet transform algorithm (SIDWT), Laplacian pyramid algorithm (LP), morphological pyramid algorithm (MP), multiscale morphology based algorithm (MSM), center-surround top-hat transform based algorithm (CSTHT), and the proposed multiscale top-hat selection transform based algorithm. These seven methods are compared over five different publicly available image sets using three metrics of spatial frequency, mean gradient, and Q. The results show that the proposed algorithm is effective and may be useful for the applications related to the infrared and visual image fusion.

Bai, Xiangzhi; Chen, Xiaowu; Zhou, Fugen; Liu, Zhaoying; Xue, Bindang

2013-09-01

208

Casimir experiments showing saturation effects  

CERN Multimedia

We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a 87 Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can exp...

Sernelius, Bo E

2009-01-01

209

Morphology and Speech  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a morphological component in a speech recognitionarchitecture for German dealing with the recognition of compounds fromtheir individual constituents. The specification of our morphological modelallows for variation in functionality, e.g. the reconstruction of split compounds,of lexicalised, and of non-lexicalised (unknown) compounds. Animplementation and evaluation results for split compounds are presented.

Guido Drexel Dafydd Gibbon; Harald Lungen; Martina Pampel; Frederek Althoff; Christoph Schillo; Interaktive Phonologische

210

Optimal size of wind turbine transformer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the past decade considerable efforts have been put into the efficiency of wind turbines. Almost every component in wind turbines has been the object of optimization. Still, when it comes to grid connection the transformer is very often oversized. In this paper the cost price of transformers is compared with the cost of transformer losses. The transformer losses are calculated from the wind probability curve and the power curve of the wind turbine. The temperature and thereby the lifetime of the transformer are calculated based on the IEC 354. The results show that an optimal transformer kVa is 20% lower than the rated power of the wind turbine.

Larsson, Aake [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

1999-09-01

211

Magnetic bead detection using nano-transformers.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel scheme to detect magnetic beads using a nano-scale transformer with a femtoweber resolution is reported. We have performed a Faraday's induction experiment with the nano-transformer at room temperature. The transformer shows the linear output voltage responses to the sinusoidal input current. When magnetic beads are placed on the transformer, the output responses are increased by an amount corresponding to the added magnetic flux from the beads when compared with the case of no beads on the transformer. In this way, we could determine whether magnetic beads are on top of the transformer in a single particle level. PMID:20972313

Kim, Hyung Kwon; Hwang, Jong Seung; Hwang, Sung Woo; Ahn, Doyeol

2010-10-25

212

Relay protection of generator station service transformers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Generator station service transformers also called unit auxiliary transformers, are subjected to very rigorous short circuit duty. These faults fall generally into three areas: Faults within the transformers themselves, low-side faults between the transformer and the low-side bank breakers, and faults on the station service supply buses. The purpose of this paper is to show how station service transformers should be protected, and why any protective scheme can only be effective if these transformers are properly specified for UAT service.

Griffin, C.H.

1982-08-01

213

Martensitic and order-disorder transformations in Ti{sub 45}Pd{sub 45}Ni{sub 10} alloy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation sequence and behavior in Ti{sub 45}Pd{sub 45}Ni{sub 10} alloy (numbers indicate at.%) have been investigated. The solution treated alloy shows reverse martensitic transformation from B19 to B2 structure, B2 to long period stacking order (LPSO) structure, LPSO to B2 structure and precipitation of Ti{sub 3}(PdNi){sub 4} and Ti{sub 2}(PdNi){sub 3} phases successively upon heating. The above transformation sequence is confirmed by electrical resistivity measurements and in situ electron diffraction experiments. The martensitic transformation is suppressed by the formation of LPSO phase. Morphology and crystallography of the LPSO phase are also discussed briefly.

Nagasako, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)]. E-mail: makoto.nagasako@nifty.com; Nishida, M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan); Murakami, Y. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Shindo, D. [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

2006-11-25

214

EHV transmission line protection using a morphological lifting scheme  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This paper presents a novel algorithm for ultra-high-speed (UHS) protection relays of extra high voltage (EHV) transmission lines, using a morphological lifting scheme (MLS). The MLS focuses on identifying the gradient of the wavefront of a traveling wave contaminated by noise. The proposed algorithm can be used for either transient positional or directional protection. It is evaluated through a variety of simulation studies which are carried out on a typical 400 kV EHV transmission system model using the power simulation program PSCAD/EMTDC. The simulation results show that, with the MLS used, the algorithm is capable of providing accurate responses under various fault conditions in comparison with previous algorithms, such as wavelet transform (WT). (author)

Lu, Z.; Ji, T.Y.; Wu, Q.H. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

2009-10-15

215

Illumination Compensation for 2-D Barcode Recognition Basing Morphologic  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Improvement of image quality has been highly demanded in digital imaging systems. This study presents a novel illumination normalization approach for 2-D barcode recognition under varying lighting conditions. MMs (Morphological transformations) are employed to original images using big scale multiple SEs (structuring elements). Then we make use of entropy to fuse images. The performance of proposed methodology is illustrated through the processing of images with different kinds of 2-D barcodes under different backgrounds. The experimental results show that this approach can process different kinds of 2-D barcodes under varying lighting conditions adaptively. Compared with other conventional methods, our proposed approach does a better job in processing 2-D barcode under non-uniform illumination.

Jian-Hua Li; Yi-Wen Wang; Yi Chen; Meng Zhang

2013-01-01

216

Morphology and photocatalysis of mesoporous titania thin films annealed in different atmosphere for degradation of methyl orange  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of different annealing atmosphere on the morphology and photocatalytic activity of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} thin films by dip-coating technique is investigated. The annealing temperature and atmosphere causes significant change of the morphology, thermal stability, photoluminescence, and photocatalytic properties of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films. As-prepared mesoporous thin films have an amorphous structure that is transformed to crystalline TiO{sub 2} with well-maintained mesoporous structure at 450 C in various annealing atmosphere except that the mesoporous structure is fully destroyed for films annealed in air. Films annealed in N{sub 2} show the enhanced UV photodegradation of methyl orange (MO) resulting from the enhanced crystallinity in these films evidenced by XRD and Raman spectra. These findings can be used to tailor the structure and morphology of mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films and thus improve their photocatalytic activity for efficient removal of dye effluents in wastewater. (orig.)

Ma, Qing; Qin, Tian Pang; Weng, Lv Qian [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Liu, Shao Jun [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China); Central South University, State Key Laboratory for Powder Metallurgy, Changsha (China); Dong, Wen Yi [Harbin Institute of Technology, Division of Urban and Civil Engineering, Shenzhen Graduate School, Shenzhen (China)

2011-07-15

217

Transformation to Lienard form  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We show that certain two-dimensional differential systems can be transformed to a system of Li'{e}nard type. This enables known criteria for the existence of a centre for Li'{e}nard systems to be exploited, so extending the range of techniques which are available for proving that conditions which are known to be necessary for a centre are also sufficient.

W. A. Albarakati; N. G. Lloyd; J. M. Pearson

2000-01-01

218

A Completely Covariant Approach to Transformation Optics  

CERN Document Server

We show that the Plebanski based approach to transformation optics overlooks some subtleties in the electrodynamics of moving dielectrics that restricts its applicability to a certain class of transformations. An alternative, completely covariant, approach is developed that is more generally applicable and provides a clearer picture of transformation optics.

Thompson, R T; Frauendiener, J

2010-01-01

219

THE CONTINUOUS SCHWARTZ-CHRISTOFFEL TRANSFORMS CSCT  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper shows a method, developped by the authors, to transform series of curvilinear segments, which intersect at angles of non zero magnitude, into real axis, as a complex function transform.The method initiates from the Schwarz-Christofel transformation an generalizes it.. Examples of how to c...

Rechea Alberola, Manuel; Basset Salom, Luisa

220

Uniqueness for the continuous wavelet transform  

CERN Multimedia

Injectivity of the continuous wavelet transform acting on a square integrable signal is proved under weak conditions on the Fourier transform of the wavelet, namely that it is nonzero somewhere in almost every direction. For a bounded signal (not necessarily square integrable), we show that if the continuous wavelet transform vanishes identically, then the signal must be constant.

Bui, H -Q

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Morphological Scale-Space Preserving Transforms in Many Dimensions  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The theory of an image decomposition that we refer to as a sieve, isdeveloped for images defined in any finite number of dimensions. Thedecomposition has many desirable properties including the preservationof scale-space causality and the localisation of sharp-edged objects in thetransformation domain. The decomposition has the additional propertiesof manipulability, which means that it is easy to construct pattern recognitionsystems, and scale-calibration which means that it may be used foraccurate measurement.1 IntroductionThe use of scale-space for the analysis of images is well established and there isan emerging interest in incorporating scale-space processors as part of high-levelcomputer vision tasks ([1] and [2] for example).Scale-space vision is usually associated with diffusion based systems [3, 4,5] in which the image forms the initial conditions for a discretization of thediffusion equation r2I = I t =D. In linear scale-space processors the diffusionpa...

J. Andrew Bangham; Richard Harvey; Paul D. Ling; Richard V. Aldridge

222

On infinitesimal increase of volumes of morphological transforms  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Let B (“black”) and W (“white”) be disjoint compact test sets in the d-dimensional Euclidean space and consider the volume of all its simultaneous shifts keeping B inside and W outside a compact set A. If the union of B and W is rescaled by a factor tending to zero, then the rescaled volume converges to a value determined by the surface area measure of A and the support functions of B and W, provided that A is regular enough (e.g. polyconvex). An analogous formula is obtained for the case when the conditions "B in A" and "W in complement(A)" are replaced with prescribed threshold volumes of B in A and W in the complement of A. Applications in stochastic geometry are discussed. Firstly, the hit distribution function of a random set with an arbitrary compact structuring element B is considered. Its derivative at 0 is expressed in terms of the rose of directions and B. An analogue result holds for the hit-or-miss function. Secondly, in a design based setting, different random digitizations of a deterministic set A are treated. It is shown how the number of configurations in such a digitization is related to the surface area measure of A as the lattice distance converges to zero.

Kiderlen, Markus; Rataj, Jan

2007-01-01

223

Effect of Ce addition on martensitic transformation behavior of TiNi shape memory alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effect of cerium addition on the martensitic transformation behavior and microstructure of Ti{sub 50-x/2}Ni{sub 50-x/2}Ce{sub x} (x=0, 0.5, 2, 5 and 10at.%) alloys have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the addition of cerium affects the martensitic transformation temperature obviously. With the increase of Ce content, the phase transformation temperatures first increase rapidly and then decrease slightly, which may be attributed to the change of the Ni/Ti ratio in matrix. Moreover, the dispersed Ce-riched second particles with various morphologies are observed in TiNiCe alloys. (orig.)

Liu Ailian; Meng Xianglong; Cai Wei; Zhao Liancheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Harbin Inst. of Tech. (China)

2005-07-01

224

Cell transformation assays for prediction of carcinogenic potential: state of the science and future research needs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cell transformation assays (CTAs) have long been proposed as in vitro methods for the identification of potential chemical carcinogens. Despite showing good correlation with rodent bioassay data, concerns over the subjective nature of using morphological criteria for identifying transformed cells and a lack of understanding of the mechanistic basis of the assays has limited their acceptance for regulatory purposes. However, recent drivers to find alternative carcinogenicity assessment methodologies, such as the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive, have fuelled renewed interest in CTAs. Research is currently ongoing to improve the objectivity of the assays, reveal the underlying molecular changes leading to transformation and explore the use of novel cell types. The UK NC3Rs held an international workshop in November 2010 to review the current state of the art in this field and provide directions for future research. This paper outlines the key points highlighted at this meeting.

Creton S; Aardema MJ; Carmichael PL; Harvey JS; Martin FL; Newbold RF; O'Donovan MR; Pant K; Poth A; Sakai A; Sasaki K; Scott AD; Schechtman LM; Shen RR; Tanaka N; Yasaei H

2012-01-01

225

WAVELET TRANSFORM AND LIP MODEL  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The Fourier transform is well suited to the study of stationary functions. Yet, it is superseded by the Wavelet transform for the powerful characterizations of function features such as singularities. On the other hand, the LIP (Logarithmic Image Processing) model is a mathematical framework developed by Jourlin and Pinoli, dedicated to the representation and processing of gray tones images called hereafter logarithmic images. This mathematically well defined model, comprising a Fourier Transform "of its own", provides an effective tool for the representation of images obtained by transmitted light, such as microscope images. This paper presents a Wavelet transform within the LIP framework, with preservation of the classical Wavelet Transform properties. We show that the fast computation algorithm due to Mallat can be easily used. An application is given for the detection of crests.

Guy Courbebaisse; Frederic Trunde; Michel Jourlin

2002-01-01

226

Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally.

Makeev, Maxim A. E-mail: makeev@baton.phys.lsu.edu; Cuerno, Rodolfo; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

2002-12-01

227

Morphology of ion-sputtered surfaces  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We derive a stochastic nonlinear continuum equation to describe the morphological evolution of amorphous surfaces eroded by ion bombardment. Starting from Sigmund's theory of sputter erosion, we calculate the coefficients appearing in the continuum equation in terms of the physical parameters characterizing the sputtering process. We analyze the morphological features predicted by the continuum theory, comparing them with the experimentally reported morphologies. We show that for short time scales, where the effect of nonlinear terms is negligible, the continuum theory predicts ripple formation. We demonstrate that in addition to relaxation by thermal surface diffusion, the sputtering process can also contribute to the smoothing mechanisms shaping the surface morphology. We explicitly calculate an effective surface diffusion constant characterizing this smoothing effect and show that it is responsible for the low temperature ripple formation observed in various experiments. At long time scales the nonlinear terms dominate the evolution of the surface morphology. The nonlinear terms lead to the stabilization of the ripple wavelength and we show that, depending on the experimental parameters, such as angle of incidence and ion energy, different morphologies can be observed: asymptotically, sputter eroded surfaces could undergo kinetic roughening, or can display novel ordered structures with rotated ripples. Finally, we discuss in detail the existing experimental support for the proposed theory and uncover novel features of the surface morphology and evolution, that could be directly tested experimentally

2002-01-01

228

Flightlessness affects cranial morphology in birds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Flightless birds belonging to phylogenetically distant clades share several morphological features in the pectoral and pelvic apparatus. There are indications that skull morphology is also influenced by flightlessness. In this study we used a large number of flightless species to test whether flightlessness in modern birds does indeed affect cranial morphology. Discriminant analyses and variation partitioning show evidence for a relationship between skull morphology and the flightless condition in birds. A possible explanation for the change in cranial morphology can be linked to the reduced selective force for light-weight skulls in flightless birds. This makes an increase in muscle mass, and therefore an enlargement of muscle insertion areas on the skull, possible. We also compared the ontogenetic trajectory of Gallus with the adult morphology of a sample of flightless species to see whether the apomorphic features characterizing the skull of flightless birds share the same developmental basis, which would indicate convergent evolution by parallelism. Skull morphology (expressed as principal component scores) of palaeognathous flightless birds (ratites) is dissimilar (higher scores) to juvenile stages of the chicken and therefore seem peramorphic (overdeveloped). Principal component scores of adult neognathous flightless birds fall within the range of chicken development, so no clear conclusions about the ontogenetic trajectories leading to their sturdier skull morphology could be drawn.

Gussekloo SW; Cubo J

2013-04-01

229

[In vitro transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by four chemicals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this paper, the early passage diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were used as the source of target. Four chemicals were appraised in SHE transformation test to determine whether they were carcinogens or not. They were (1) 2-benzoyl-hydrazono-1,3-diethiolane(BHD) (technical product); (2) isoprothiolane (pure product); (3) isoprothiolane (technical product); (4) benzene-abstracts from coal smoke of coke oven (benzene-abstracts). The results showed that morphological transformation was not observed when cells were not treated or treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, BHD, pure isoprothiolane and the technical product of isoprothiolane. The highest concentration had considerable cytotoxicity. In the groups of positive control (1.0 microgram/ml 3-methyl-cholanthrene, 10.0 micrograms/ml benzo (a) pyrene) and benzene-abstracts, we could observe colonies with random or criss-cross orientation and dense piling-up of cells. According to well known positive criteria, the benzene-abstracts can induce SHE cells morphological transformation. The other three chemicals can not induce SHE cells transformation.

Zhang ZZ; Zeng XG; Guo JT; Sun ML; Zhang XL

1989-03-01

230

[In vitro transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by four chemicals].  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, the early passage diploid Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells were used as the source of target. Four chemicals were appraised in SHE transformation test to determine whether they were carcinogens or not. They were (1) 2-benzoyl-hydrazono-1,3-diethiolane(BHD) (technical product); (2) isoprothiolane (pure product); (3) isoprothiolane (technical product); (4) benzene-abstracts from coal smoke of coke oven (benzene-abstracts). The results showed that morphological transformation was not observed when cells were not treated or treated with dimethyl sulfoxide, BHD, pure isoprothiolane and the technical product of isoprothiolane. The highest concentration had considerable cytotoxicity. In the groups of positive control (1.0 microgram/ml 3-methyl-cholanthrene, 10.0 micrograms/ml benzo (a) pyrene) and benzene-abstracts, we could observe colonies with random or criss-cross orientation and dense piling-up of cells. According to well known positive criteria, the benzene-abstracts can induce SHE cells morphological transformation. The other three chemicals can not induce SHE cells transformation. PMID:2793154

Zhang, Z Z; Zeng, X G; Guo, J T; Sun, M L; Zhang, X L

1989-03-01

231

Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation  

CERN Document Server

The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general unitary-reduction operation. With a postselection of the measurement outcomes, the probabilistic NOT gate yields perfectly complements of the input states. We prove that one can realize probabilistically the NOT gate of the input states secretly chosen from a certain set $S=\\{|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,..., |\\Psi_n>\\}$ if and only if $|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,...,$ and $|\\Psi_n>$ are linearly independent. We also generalize the probabilistic NOT transformation to the conjugate transformation in the multi-level quantum system. The lower bound of the best p...

Yan, Fengli; Yan, Zhichao

2012-01-01

232

Modulation of structure, morphology and wettability of polytetrafluoroethylene surface by low energy ion beam irradiation  

Science.gov (United States)

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) films were irradiated under vacuum with 3 keV Argon ions (Ar+) and fluences ranging from 0.5 × 1018 to 2 × 1018 ions/cm2. Ion induced PTFE surface modifications of structural, morphological and wettability nature were studied by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. FTIR analysis indicated defluorination of PTFE due to the rupture of C-C and C-F bonds. The values of droplet contact angle of the irradiated samples decreased gradually with the increasing ion flux, and were found to be very sensitive to the environmental humidity under which the measurements were made. The experimental results show that the surface chemical bond, morphology, and wettability of irradiated PTFE samples depend closely on the argon ion flux.

Atta, Ali; Fawzy, Yasser H. A.; Bek, Alpan; Abdel-Hamid, Hassan M.; El-Oker, Mohamed M.

2013-04-01

233

Morphological evolution of Si nanowires upon lithiation: a first-principles multiscale model.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Silicon is a promising anode material for high-capacity Li-ion batteries. Recent experiments show that lithiation of crystalline silicon nanowires leads to highly anisotropic morphologies. This has been interpreted as due to anisotropy in equilibrium interface energies, but this interpretation does not capture the dynamic, nonequilibrium nature of the lithiation process. Here, we provide a comprehensive explanation of experimentally observed morphological changes, based on first-principles multiscale simulations. We identify reaction paths and associated structural transformations for Li insertion into the Si {110} and {111} surfaces and calculate the relevant energy barriers from density functional theory methods. We then perform kinetic Monte Carlo simulations for nanowires with surfaces of different orientations, which reproduce to a remarkable degree the experimentally observed profiles and the relative reaction front rates.

Cubuk ED; Wang WL; Zhao K; Vlassak JJ; Suo Z; Kaxiras E

2013-05-01

234

Mechanisms for Galaxy Transformation in the Complex Environment of SuperGroup Abell 1882  

Science.gov (United States)

We present our results from a multi-wavelength study of galaxy transformations in the outskirts of SuperGroup Abell 1882, a highly filamentary and clumpy structure caught in the early stages of coalescing into a Coma-like cluster. Our data have been drawn from MMT, GMOS, WIYN, SDSS, SARA, CFHT, GALEX, Spitzer and Chandra. Clusters grow by accretion through filaments, and these accreted galaxies undergo transformations due to environmental effects. Radial locations of these transformations in cluster outskirts can be mapped to a time sequence. In relaxed clusters, several evolutionary mechanisms take effect on similar spatial and temporal scales, thus making it almost impossible to disentangle different local and global mechanisms. A SuperGroup, on the other hand, has shallower Dark Matter potential. Here, the accreting galaxies are subjected to evolutionary mechanisms over larger time and spatial scales. This separates processes that are otherwise superimposed in rich cluster-filament interfaces. We have studied transformations in Specific Star Formation Rate, birth rate parameter, color and morphological properties of 342 spectroscopically confirmed member galaxies of Abell 1882, as they make their journey through the feeding filaments into the high density core of the structure, as a function of their local galaxy density and structure-centric distance. Our results show that significant transformations in galaxies begin to occur much before the galaxies reach the X-ray gas environments of the dense groups. This indicates that ram pressure stripping is unlikely driver of early galaxy transformations in proto-clusters.

Sengupta, Aparajita; Keel, W. C.; Morrison, G. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Smith, B.

2013-01-01

235

Adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure show subtle alterations in striatal surface morphology and frontal cortical volumes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Published structural neuroimaging studies of prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) in humans have yielded somewhat inconsistent results, with several studies reporting no significant differences in brain structure between exposed subjects and controls. Here, we sought to clarify some of these discrepancies by applying methodologies that allow for the detection of subtle alterations in brain structure. Methods We applied surface-based anatomical modeling methods to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to examine regional changes in the shape and volume of the caudate and putamen in adolescents with prenatal cocaine exposure (n?=?40, including 28 exposed participants and 12 unexposed controls, age range 14 to 16 years). We also sought to determine whether changes in regional brain volumes in frontal and subcortical regions occurred in adolescents with PCE compared to control participants. Results The overall volumes of the caudate and putamen did not significantly differ between PCE participants and controls. However, we found significant (P Conclusions Prenatal cocaine exposure may lead to subtle and regionally specific patterns of regional dysmorphology in the striatum and volumetric changes in the frontal lobes. The localized and bidirectional nature of effects may explain in part the contradictions in the existing literature.

Roussotte Florence; Soderberg Lindsay; Warner Tamara; Narr Katherine; Lebel Catherine; Behnke Marylou; Davis-Eyler Fonda; Sowell Elizabeth

2012-01-01

236

Galaxy morphology and classification  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A brief discussion of the de Vaucouleurs revised Hubble classification system is given, with special emphasis on ring and lens morphologies. The possible physical interpretations of each dimension of the system are summarized. 64 refs

1989-01-01

237

Morphological neural networks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1996-12-31

238

On K-transform  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

C. Nasim

239

On K-transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Using a combination of infinite order linear differential operators and integral operators, the inversion of K-transform is established. Inversion procedures for Laplace transform and Potential transform are derived as special cases.

C. Nasim

1981-01-01

240

Generalized Fourier transforms classes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The Fourier class of integral transforms with kernels $B(\\omega r)$ has by definition inverse transforms with kernel $B(-\\omega r)$. The space of such transforms is explicitly constructed. A slightly more general class of generalized Fourier transforms are introduced. From the general theory follows that integral transform with kernels which are products of a Bessel and a Hankel function or which is of a certain general hypergeometric type have inverse transforms of the same structure.

Berntsen, Svend; MØller, Steen

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Galaxy Transformations  

Science.gov (United States)

This webpage has descriptions and animations from numerical simulations of colliding galaxies. Normal observation shows interacting galaxies apparently frozen in the midst of billion-year-long collisions. These movies transcend a limited view of time by indicating the past and future of such encounters. The webpage examines interactions between galaxies, paths of different orbits, and theories of structure.

Barnes, Joshua E.

2007-09-21

242

Detection of myocardial ischemia episode using morphological features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we propose to use morphological features that are easy to identify to differentiate myocardial ischemic beats from normal beats. In general, myocardial ischemia causes alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) signal such as deviation in the ST segment. When the ST segment level deviates from a certain voltage, the beat would be diagnosing as myocardial ischemia. To emphasize on ST variations, the QRS complex of the ECG signal was first subtracted and replaced with a straight line. Five-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed to decompose the waveform into subband components and the A5 subband, which is most sensitive to the changes in the ST segment, was reconstructed for the calculation of 12 morphological features. The support vector machine (SVM) and the 10-fold cross-validation method were employed to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show high values of 95.20%, 93.29%, and, 93.63% in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, that were demonstrated to outperform the other methods in the literature.

Fan CH; Hsu Y; Yu SN; Lin JW

2013-07-01

243

Detection of myocardial ischemia episode using morphological features.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we propose to use morphological features that are easy to identify to differentiate myocardial ischemic beats from normal beats. In general, myocardial ischemia causes alterations in electrocardiographic (ECG) signal such as deviation in the ST segment. When the ST segment level deviates from a certain voltage, the beat would be diagnosing as myocardial ischemia. To emphasize on ST variations, the QRS complex of the ECG signal was first subtracted and replaced with a straight line. Five-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) followed to decompose the waveform into subband components and the A5 subband, which is most sensitive to the changes in the ST segment, was reconstructed for the calculation of 12 morphological features. The support vector machine (SVM) and the 10-fold cross-validation method were employed to evaluate the performance of the method. The results show high values of 95.20%, 93.29%, and, 93.63% in sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy, respectively, that were demonstrated to outperform the other methods in the literature. PMID:24111439

Fan, Cheng-Hsiang; Hsu, Yu; Yu, Sung-Nien; Lin, Jou-Wei

2013-07-01

244

Influence of Strontium on Hydroxyapatite Morphology and Luminescence Characteristics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Strontium Hydroxyapatite (SrxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2, x=0, 3, 5, 10) powder with fluorescence property was successfully synthesized by a facile hydrothermal process. X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectra, field emission scanning electron microscope and photoluminescence excitation and emission spectra were employed to analyze phase change, characteristics and fluorescence property of samples. The experimental results indicate that the morphology of samples is spherical particle(D=1~2 ?m), and with the amount of strontium changed from 0 to 100mol%, the morphology of spherical particle changes from short nanorods to nanosheets and then long nanorods. The samples show an intense and bright blue emission from 375 nm to 500 nm centered at 432 nm under long-wavelength UV light excitation (351 nm). The PL emission intensity firstly increases and then decreases with increasing the strontium content. When strontium content is 30%, the PL emission intensity reaches the maximum.

ZHAO Xin, WANG De-Ping, QIU Wen-Qing, YE Song

2013-01-01

245

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals. PMID:24059041

Ma, Donghua; Zheng, Xuyuan; Wang, Zhen

2013-08-01

246

[Detection of epileptic spike wave in EEG signals based on morphological component analysis].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper proposed a morphological component analysis (MCA) method, which is based on sparse representation, to detect the spike wave in electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. It takes the advantage of MCA being able to extract the background waves and the spike waves from the EEG signals, respectively,as the dictionaries and chooses the discrete cosine transform (DCT) and the daubechies order 4 wavelet (db4) transformation as the dictionaries of MCA to detect the spike waves from the epileptic EEG. The experiment results showed that the MCA could detect epileptic spike waves in EEG signals very effectively, and it yielded high selectivity of 89.01% and sensitivity of 90.71%. As a feature extraction/decomposition algorithm, MCA can be used to extract the spike waves from EEG signals.

Ma D; Zheng X; Wang Z

2013-08-01

247

Morphological and phase stability of zinc blende, amorphous and mixed core-shell ZnS nanoparticles.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles are of interest for their luminescent and catalytic properties which are being considered for the next generation of optical, electronic and photovoltaic devices. However, ZnS nanoparticles undergo reversible and irreversible phase transformations under ambient conditions, so a detailed understanding of the nanomorphology is critical in ensuring these desirable properties can be controlled and maintained. Anticipating the structure and transformations in ZnS nanoparticles experimentally is difficult, since selectivity among competing phases, shapes and sizes is intrinsically linked. Presented here are the results of first principle computer simulations and advanced theoretical modelling used to investigate the relationship between size and shape in determining the crystallinity of ZnS nanoparticles. We find that the equilibrium morphology is characterised by {220} facets, irrespective of the size of the particle, but that the presence of different high energy facets introduced kinetically may significantly influence the zinc blende to amorphous ZnS transformation size, as well as the agglomeration behaviour. In addition to this, we model the relationship between transformation size, morphology and the ratio of crystalline core to amorphous shell and show that at small sizes, a core-shell crystalline/amorphous structure is thermodynamically favourable.

Barnard AS; Feigl CA; Russo SP

2010-10-01

248

Ecological radiation with limited morphological diversification in salamanders.  

Science.gov (United States)

A major goal of evolutionary biology is to explain morphological diversity among species. Many studies suggest that much morphological variation is explained by adaptation to different microhabitats. Here, we test whether morphology and microhabitat use are related in plethodontid salamanders, which contain the majority of salamander species, and have radiated into a striking diversity of microhabitats. We obtained microhabitat data for 189 species that also had both morphometric and phylogenetic data. We then tested for associations between morphology and microhabitat categories using phylogenetic comparative methods. Associations between morphology and ecology in plethodontids are largely confined to a single clade within one subfamily (Bolitoglossinae), whereas variation in morphology across other plethodontids is unrelated to microhabitat categories. These results demonstrate that ecological radiation and morphological evolution can be largely decoupled in a major clade. The results also offer a striking contrast to lizards, which typically show close relationships between morphology and microhabitat. PMID:22268991

Blankers, Thomas; Adams, D C; Wiens, J J

2012-01-24

249

Ecological radiation with limited morphological diversification in salamanders.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A major goal of evolutionary biology is to explain morphological diversity among species. Many studies suggest that much morphological variation is explained by adaptation to different microhabitats. Here, we test whether morphology and microhabitat use are related in plethodontid salamanders, which contain the majority of salamander species, and have radiated into a striking diversity of microhabitats. We obtained microhabitat data for 189 species that also had both morphometric and phylogenetic data. We then tested for associations between morphology and microhabitat categories using phylogenetic comparative methods. Associations between morphology and ecology in plethodontids are largely confined to a single clade within one subfamily (Bolitoglossinae), whereas variation in morphology across other plethodontids is unrelated to microhabitat categories. These results demonstrate that ecological radiation and morphological evolution can be largely decoupled in a major clade. The results also offer a striking contrast to lizards, which typically show close relationships between morphology and microhabitat.

Blankers T; Adams DC; Wiens JJ

2012-04-01

250

The role of GRASPs in morphological alterations of Golgi apparatus: mechanisms and effects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The Golgi apparatus (GA) is a pivotal organelle in cell metabolism, functioning not only in the processing and transportation of cargoes but also in ion homeostasis, cell apoptosis, and stress sensing. We are interested in the intricate role of GA and the recently present novel concept of 'GA stress'. GA shows various morphological alterations in many neurodegenerative diseases and cell apoptosis induced by biochemical reagents, mechanisms in which oxidative stress is strongly involved. In turn, the structural changes and morphological alterations of the GA could also transduce stress signals. Therefore, besides the biochemical changes, more attention should be paid to the morphological alterations of the GA itself during pathological processes and diseases. The Golgi reassembly and stacking proteins (GRASPs) have been identified as important components acting in the transformation of Golgi structure, and they may thus affect the Golgi functions and cell behavior. In this review, we will discuss the intricate role of the GRASPs in remodeling the GA morphology and focus on their mechanisms and effects in the processes of Golgi stacking, mitosis, cell apoptosis, and cargo secretion. We would also like to provide a further prospective of their potential biological values in neurodegenerative diseases.

Ji G; Ji H; Mo X; Li T; Yu Y; Hu Z

2013-09-01

251

The IHS Transformations Based Image Fusion  

CERN Multimedia

The IHS sharpening technique is one of the most commonly used techniques for sharpening. Different transformations have been developed to transfer a color image from the RGB space to the IHS space. Through literature, it appears that, various scientists proposed alternative IHS transformations and many papers have reported good results whereas others show bad ones as will as not those obtained which the formula of IHS transformation were used. In addition to that, many papers show different formulas of transformation matrix such as IHS transformation. This leads to confusion what is the exact formula of the IHS transformation?. Therefore, the main purpose of this work is to explore different IHS transformation techniques and experiment it as IHS based image fusion. The image fusion performance was evaluated, in this study, using various methods to estimate the quality and degree of information improvement of a fused image quantitatively.

Al-Wassai, Firouz Abdullah; Al-Zuky, Ali A

2011-01-01

252

Combined Reduced-Rank Transform  

CERN Multimedia

We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of rank-reduced transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${\\mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${\\mathcal F}_k$, ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ with $k=1,...,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${\\mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,...,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo\\`{e}ve transform. The operations ${\\mathcal Q}_k$ and ${\\boldsymbol{\\phi}}_k$ are auxiliary for finding ${\\mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${\\mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding...

Torokhti, A; Howlett, Phil; Torokhti, Anatoli

2006-01-01

253

Some Musings on Galaxy Morphology  

CERN Multimedia

Careful inspection of large-scale photographs of Shapley-Ames galaxies seems to show a smooth transition between the morphological characteristics of galaxies located on the narrow red, and on the broad blue, sequences in the galaxian color-magnitude diagram. In other words there does not appear to be a dichotomy between blue and red galaxies. Both the colors and the morphologies of galaxies are found to correlate strongly with their environments. Red and early-type Shapley-Ames galaxies are dominant in clusters, whereas blue late-type star forming objects dominate the general field. Interestingly the colors and morphologies of galaxies in small groups resemble the field and differ from those in clusters. As noted by Baade the presence of dust and star formation are very closely correlated, except in a few galaxies that probably had unusual evolutionary histories. Over the entire range from S0 to Sc there is no significant difference between the integrated colors of normal and barred objects suggesting that t...

Bergh, Sidney van den

2007-01-01

254

Ferrite Morphology and Variations in Ferrite Content in Austenitic Stainless Steel Welds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four distinct ferrite morphologies have been identified in type 308 stainless steel multipass welds: vermicular, lacy, acicular, and globular. The first three ferrite types are related to transformations following solidification and the fourth is related ...

S. A. David S. E. Hanzelka C. P. Haltom

1981-01-01

255

An Improved Chirplet Transform and Its Application for Harmonics Detection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The chirplet transform is the generalization form of fast Fourier transform , short-time Fourier transform, and wavelet transform. It has the most flexible time frequency window and successfully used in practices. However, the chirplet transform has not inherent inverse transform, and can not overcome the signal reconstructing problem. In this paper, we proposed the improved chirplet transform (ICT) and constructed the inverse ICT. Finally, by simulating the harmonic voltages, The power of the improved chirplet transform are illustrated for harmonic detection. The contours clearly showed the harmonic occurrence time and harmonic duration.

Guo-Sheng Hu; Feng-Feng Zhu

2011-01-01

256

On the use of the Stockwell transform for image compression  

Science.gov (United States)

In this paper, we investigate the use of the Stockwell Transform for image compression. The proposed technique uses the Discrete Orthogonal Stockwell Transform (DOST), an orthogonal version of the Discrete Stockwell Transform (DST). These mathematical transforms provide a multiresolution spatial-frequency representation of a signal or image. First, we give a brief introduction for the Stockwell transform and the DOST. Then we outline a simplistic compression method based on setting the smallest coefficients to zero. In an experiment, we use this compression strategy on three different transforms: the Fast Fourier transform, the Daubechies wavelet transform and the DOST. The results show that the DOST outperforms the two other methods.

Wang, Yanwei; Orchard, Jeff

2009-02-01

257

Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Different morphologies of ?+? microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single ?-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the ? to ? phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the ? phase transformed to colonies of ? at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

2010-07-01

258

Effect of microstructural morphology on the mechanical properties of titanium alloys  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Different morphologies of {alpha}+{beta} microstructures were obtained in a commercial Ti-6Al-4V alloy by cooling at different rates from the single {beta}-phase region into the two phase region. The effect of such morphologies on mechanical properties was studied using hot compression tests in a Gleeble thermomechanical simulator. A variety of complex morphologies could be obtained since the cooling rate has a significant influence on the {beta} to {alpha} phase transformation and the resulting morphological development. While most of the {beta} phase transformed to colonies of {alpha} at high cooling rates, it was possible to obtain a complex mixture of a colonies, grain boundary a and lamellar structure by decreasing the cooling rate. These complex morphologies each exhibited distinctive mechanical properties and characteristic dynamic phase transformation behaviour during deformation as a function of strain rate.

Dehghan-Manshadi, A; Reid, M H; Dippenaar, R J, E-mail: alidm@uow.edu.a [Faculty of Engineering, University of Wollongong, Wollongong 2500, NSW (Australia)

2010-07-01

259

Morphology and Speech Technology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes a morphological component in a speech recognitionarchitecture for German dealing with the recognition of compounds fromtheir individual constituents. The specification of our morphological modelallows for variation in functionality, e.g. the reconstruction of split compounds,of lexicalised, and of non-lexicalised (unknown) compounds. Animplementation and evaluation results for split compounds are presented.11This paper was originally published in Proceedings of the 2nd ACL-SIGPHON Workshop onComputational Phonology and Speech Technology, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1996,pp. 25-301 Motivation and GoalsThis paper deals with the design of a morphological component for a speech recognitionsystem originally comprising a stochastic word recognition component plusa prosody component that provides word hypotheses graphs (WHGs, or word latticesaccording to the specification in [12]) as its output to a syntax/semanticscomponent. The recognizer ...

Harald Lungen; Martina Pampel; Guido Drexel Dafydd Gibbon; Frederek Althoff; Christoph Schillo; Interaktive Phonologische

260

Morphological Modeling Of Neurons  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphological Modeling of Neurons. (August 1995)Kishore Mulchandani, B.S., University of RoorkeeChair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Bruce H. McCormickA formal representation of neuron morphology, adequate for the geometric modelingof manually-traced neurons, is presented. The concept of a stochastic L-systemis then introduced and the critical distribution functions governing the stochastic generationof dendritic and axonal trees are defined. Experiments with various stochasticL-system models for pyramidal, motoneuron, and Purkinje cells are reported whichgenerate synthetic neurons with promising proximity to neurons in the neurobiologyliterature. A neuron morphology modeler is designed and implemented whichprovides a methodology for iterative refinement of the stochastic L-system model.ivACKNOWLEDGMENTSI thank Dr. Bruce H. McCormick for introducing me to the L-systems, mycolleagues Sandeep Tewari, David Batte and Gregory Schmidt for their suggestions,and Brent Burton, ...

Bruce H. Mccormick; Donald K. Friesen; Jianer Chen; Donald H. House; Richard A. Volz

 
 
 
 
261

On Hurwitz transformations  

CERN Multimedia

A bibliography on the Hurwitz transformations is given. We deal here, with some details, with two particular Hurwitz transformations, viz, the \\grq \\to \\grt Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation and its \\grh \\to \\grc compact extension. These transformations are derived in the context of Fock-Bargmann-Schwinger calculus with special emphasis on angular momentum theory.

Hassan, M H; Hassan, M Hage; Kibler, M

1994-01-01

262

The Morphological Origin of Dwarf Galaxies  

CERN Multimedia

Dwarf galaxies (DGs) serve as extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. Their origin is expected to be set as the first units in CDM cosmology. Nevertheless they are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental in uences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has a?ected the evolution. Here we refer to general morphological DG types and review some general processes, most of which deplete gas-rich irregular DGs. Moreover, the variety of pecularities is brie y refered, but cannot be comprehensively analyzed because of limited paper space.

Hensler, Gerhard

2011-01-01

263

Transformers in wind power plants; Transformatorer i vindkraftanlaeggningar  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the last few years a number of transformers in wind turbines have been damaged. Transformer breakdowns have occurred on different brands (manufacturer) of wind turbines and transformers. The only connection is that all breakdowns seem to occur on dry insulated transformers. Manufacturers using liquid filled transformers don't seem to have any problems. This study show that the dry type transformers used have not been constructed to handle the external environment or the electrical environment wind turbines offer. Dry type transformer manufacturer claims that breakdowns depend on incorrect specifications. That in turn must depend on lack of knowledge of the environment these transformers will face. Both the wind turbine manufacturers and the transformer manufacturers seem to be without this knowledge. At installation of dry-type transformers the following question should be raised: which type of environmental have the room (space) where the transformer shall be installed? which type of environmental class should the transformer fulfil? which type of climate class should the transformer fulfil? which type of fire class should the transformer fulfil? which type of isolation class should the transformer fulfil? The steps need to be taken to prevent breakdowns on dry type transformers seem to be clumsy and expensive. There are motives for more wind turbine manufacturers to use liquid filled transformers instead of dry type transformers. Examples on liquids used in transformers are mineral oil, silicone oil, synthetic- and natural fatty acid esters.

Larsson, Aake; Svensson, Maarten [SwedPower AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

2004-12-01

264

Interfacial interaction and morphology of EVOH and ionomer blends by scanning thermal microscopy and its correlation with barrier characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a blend, the interfacial interaction between the component phases can be effectively utilized to bring about homogeneous mixing and unique performances. While in conventional blends, preserving the morphology of the melt mixed state is unfeasible because of the strong thermodynamic tendency of the components to phase separate, herein, we report the intermolecular interaction of two hydrogen bonded polymers such as a barrier polymer poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) with an ionic polymer in their blends, which work symbiotically to achieve the desirable characteristics. We demonstrate the creation of a unique ellipsoid microfibrilliar morphology and melt exfoliation of one polymer in the blends through intermolecular interaction and achieve high oxygen barrier characteristics. Scanning thermal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm the presence of such unique morphology. The interfacial interaction and formation of interphase was evident from the local thermal analysis results combined with photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PA-FTIR). PA-FTIR confirms the chemical nature of the interaction, while the differential scanning calorimetry results indicate modification of the EVOH phase by the ionomer. The shift of Tg and broadening of the tan delta curve is evident from dynamic mechanical analysis confirming the interaction of the blend components. The blend B(60) with microfibrillar morphology shows fourfold drop in oxygen permeability indicating the role of interfacial interaction and desired morphology. PMID:18439030

Shelat, Kinnari J; Dutta, Naba K; Choudhury, Namita R

2008-04-26

265

Interfacial interaction and morphology of EVOH and ionomer blends by scanning thermal microscopy and its correlation with barrier characteristics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In a blend, the interfacial interaction between the component phases can be effectively utilized to bring about homogeneous mixing and unique performances. While in conventional blends, preserving the morphology of the melt mixed state is unfeasible because of the strong thermodynamic tendency of the components to phase separate, herein, we report the intermolecular interaction of two hydrogen bonded polymers such as a barrier polymer poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) with an ionic polymer in their blends, which work symbiotically to achieve the desirable characteristics. We demonstrate the creation of a unique ellipsoid microfibrilliar morphology and melt exfoliation of one polymer in the blends through intermolecular interaction and achieve high oxygen barrier characteristics. Scanning thermal microscopy and scanning electron microscopy investigations confirm the presence of such unique morphology. The interfacial interaction and formation of interphase was evident from the local thermal analysis results combined with photoacoustic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (PA-FTIR). PA-FTIR confirms the chemical nature of the interaction, while the differential scanning calorimetry results indicate modification of the EVOH phase by the ionomer. The shift of Tg and broadening of the tan delta curve is evident from dynamic mechanical analysis confirming the interaction of the blend components. The blend B(60) with microfibrillar morphology shows fourfold drop in oxygen permeability indicating the role of interfacial interaction and desired morphology.

Shelat KJ; Dutta NK; Choudhury NR

2008-05-01

266

Morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to inorganogel and its effect on the properties of alumina particle  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study, a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-mediated sol-gel process was developed to synthesize the alumina hydoxide whiskers. During the process, inexpensive inorganic salts were used as precursors and supercritical drying method was used to extract the water in hydrogel. The influences of CMC on the gel formation and the particle morphology were investigated. The results show that the formation of CMC-aluminium hydroxide organic-inorganic hybridgels led to a morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to aluminium hydroxide gel, as a result, the precursor with whiskerious morphology was obtained. Such specific morphology of the precursor delayed phase transformation from transition- to {alpha}-alumina greatly, and the ability resistant to sintering was highly enhanced. At presence of CMC, the acicular alumina calcined at 1200 deg. C for 4 h had surface area of 79.6 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, much higher than the spherical sample (50 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}) without CMC. Because of being straightforward, inexpensive and versatile, the approach could be potentially used to prepare other materials with controllable morphologies and might be potentially extended to mass-production.

Teng Fei [Laboratory of Natural Gas Utilization and Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China) and State Key Laboratory of Catalysis; Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang Junwei [Laboratory of Natural Gas Utilization and Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Tian Zhijian [Laboratory of Natural Gas Utilization and Applied Catalysis, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China)]. E-mail: tianz@dicp.ac.cn

2005-01-25

267

Morphology and thermodynamic properties of a copolymer with an electronically conducting block: poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide).  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on the synthesis and morphology of a block copolymer, poly(3-(2'-ethylhexyl)thiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3EHT-b-PEO), that conducts both electrons and ions. We show that in the melt state the P3EHT-b-PEO chains self-assemble to produce traditional nanoscale morphologies such as lamellae and gyroid. This is in contrast to a majority of previous studies on copolymers with electronically conducting blocks wherein a nanofibrillar morphology is obtained. Our approach enables estimation of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?. The segregation strength between the two blocks is controlled through the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). For the salt-free sample, the gyroid morphology, obtained in the melt state, is transformed into lamellae below the melting temperature of the P3EHT block. This is due to the "breaking out" of the crystalline phase. For the salt-containing sample, P3EHT-b-PEO has a lamellar morphology in both melt and crystalline states (confined crystallization). PMID:22839306

Patel, Shrayesh N; Javier, Anna E; Beers, Keith M; Pople, John A; Ho, Victor; Segalman, Rachel A; Balsara, Nitash P

2012-08-01

268

Morphology and thermodynamic properties of a copolymer with an electronically conducting block: poly(3-ethylhexylthiophene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report on the synthesis and morphology of a block copolymer, poly(3-(2'-ethylhexyl)thiophene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (P3EHT-b-PEO), that conducts both electrons and ions. We show that in the melt state the P3EHT-b-PEO chains self-assemble to produce traditional nanoscale morphologies such as lamellae and gyroid. This is in contrast to a majority of previous studies on copolymers with electronically conducting blocks wherein a nanofibrillar morphology is obtained. Our approach enables estimation of the Flory-Huggins interaction parameter, ?. The segregation strength between the two blocks is controlled through the addition of lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI). For the salt-free sample, the gyroid morphology, obtained in the melt state, is transformed into lamellae below the melting temperature of the P3EHT block. This is due to the "breaking out" of the crystalline phase. For the salt-containing sample, P3EHT-b-PEO has a lamellar morphology in both melt and crystalline states (confined crystallization).

Patel SN; Javier AE; Beers KM; Pople JA; Ho V; Segalman RA; Balsara NP

2012-09-01

269

Morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to inorganogel and its effect on the properties of alumina particle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this study, a carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-mediated sol-gel process was developed to synthesize the alumina hydoxide whiskers. During the process, inexpensive inorganic salts were used as precursors and supercritical drying method was used to extract the water in hydrogel. The influences of CMC on the gel formation and the particle morphology were investigated. The results show that the formation of CMC-aluminium hydroxide organic-inorganic hybridgels led to a morphology transcription process from CMC micelles to aluminium hydroxide gel, as a result, the precursor with whiskerious morphology was obtained. Such specific morphology of the precursor delayed phase transformation from transition- to ?-alumina greatly, and the ability resistant to sintering was highly enhanced. At presence of CMC, the acicular alumina calcined at 1200 deg. C for 4 h had surface area of 79.6 m2 g-1, much higher than the spherical sample (50 m2 g-1) without CMC. Because of being straightforward, inexpensive and versatile, the approach could be potentially used to prepare other materials with controllable morphologies and might be potentially extended to mass-production

1160-01-00

270

Modeling Morphology of Social Network Cascades  

CERN Document Server

Cascades represent an important phenomenon across various disciplines such as sociology, economy, psychology, political science, marketing, and epidemiology. An important property of cascades is their morphology, which encompasses the structure, shape, and size. However, cascade morphology has not been rigorously characterized and modeled in prior literature. In this paper, we propose a Multi-order Markov Model for the Morphology of Cascades ($M^4C$) that can represent and quantitatively characterize the morphology of cascades with arbitrary structures, shapes, and sizes. $M^4C$ can be used in a variety of applications to classify different types of cascades. To demonstrate this, we apply it to an unexplored but important problem in online social networks -- cascade size prediction. Our evaluations using real-world Twitter data show that $M^4C$ based cascade size prediction scheme outperforms the baseline scheme based on cascade graph features such as edge growth rate, degree distribution, clustering, and dia...

Shafiq, M Zubair

2013-01-01

271

Bogoliubov Transformations and Entanglement of Two Fermions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We show that Bogoliubov transformations, widely used in quantum field theory, can be also useful in quantum information theory. Namely, we show that the problem of the choice of tensor product decomposition in the system of two fermions can be analysed with the help of Bogoliubov transformations of creation and annihilation operators. (author)

2007-01-01

272

The Bianchi-Darboux transform of L-isothermic surfaces  

CERN Document Server

We study an analogue of the classical Bianchi-Darboux transformation for L-isothermic surfaces in Laguerre geometry, the Bianchi-Darboux transformation. We show how to construct the Bianchi-Darboux transforms of an L-isothermic surface by solving an integrable linear differential system. We then establish a permutability theorem for iterated Bianchi-Darboux transforms.

Musso, E

2000-01-01

273

Nanostructured catalysts for organic transformations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The development of green, sustainable and economical chemical processes is one of the major challenges in chemistry. Besides the traditional need for efficient and selective catalytic reactions that will transform raw materials into valuable chemicals, pharmaceuticals and fuels, green chemistry also strives for waste reduction, atomic efficiency and high rates of catalyst recovery. Nanostructured materials are attractive candidates as heterogeneous catalysts for various organic transformations, especially because they meet the goals of green chemistry. Researchers have made significant advances in the synthesis of well-defined nanostructured materials in recent years. Among these are novel approaches that have permitted the rational design and synthesis of highly active and selective nanostructured catalysts by controlling the structure and composition of the active nanoparticles (NPs) and by manipulating the interaction between the catalytically active NP species and their support. The ease of isolation and separation of the heterogeneous catalysts from the desired organic product and the recovery and reuse of these NPs further enhance their attractiveness as green and sustainable catalysts. This Account reviews recent advances in the use of nanostructured materials for catalytic organic transformations. We present a broad overview of nanostructured catalysts used in different types of organic transformations including chemoselective oxidations and reductions, asymmetric hydrogenations, coupling reactions, C-H activations, oxidative aminations, domino and tandem reactions, and more. We focus on recent research efforts towards the development of the following nanostructured materials: (i) nanostructured catalysts with controlled morphologies, (ii) magnetic nanocomposites, (iii) semiconductor-metal nanocomposites, and (iv) hybrid nanostructured catalysts. Selected examples showcase principles of nanoparticle design such as the enhancement of reactivity, selectivity and/or recyclability of the nanostructured catalysts via control of the structure, composition of the catalytically active NPs, and/or nature of the support. These principles will aid researchers in the rational design and engineering of new types of multifunctional nanocatalysts for the achievement of green and sustainable chemical processes. Although the past decade has brought many advances, there are still challenges in the area of nanocatalysis that need to be addressed. These include loss of catalytic activity during operation due to sintering, leaching of soluble species from the nanocatalysts under harsh reaction conditions, loss of control over well-defined morphologies during the scale-up synthesis of the nanocomposites, and limited examples of enantioselective nanocatalytic systems. The future of nanocatalyst research lies in the judicious design and development of nanocomposite catalysts that are stable and resistant to sintering and leaching, and yet are highly active and enantioselective for the desired catalytic organic transformations, even after multiple runs. The successful generation of such multifunctional nanocatalysts especially in tandem, domino, or cascade reactions would provide a powerful tool for the establishment of green and sustainable technologies.

Chng LL; Erathodiyil N; Ying JY

2013-08-01

274

Phase Transformation of Rice Husk Ash in the Synthesis of ZSM-5 without Organic Template  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phase transformation of rice husk ash in the synthesis of ZSM-5 without organic template at various crystallization times has been studied. Zeolite has been synthesized using the hydrothermal method at 175 °C with molar ratio 10Na2O : 100SiO2 : 2Al2O3 : 1800H2O with addition of silicalite-1 as seed. Solids were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Analysis of the results of XRD and IR spectroscopy indicated that ZSM-5 crystals started to form at 12 h of crystallization time, reaching high crystallinity after 24 h. With a crystallization time of more than 48 h, the ZSM-5 crystals had completely transformed to the more stable quartz phase. The results indicate that phase transformation had occurred, in which an amorphous phase of rice husk ash has been transformed to ZSM-5 crystal phase during the early crystallization stages and continued to transform to disordered ?-cristobalite phase and lastly quartz phase. SEM showed that the morphology of the ZSM-5 crystals was of an irregular hexagonal shape with particle size distribution around 3-7 ?m.

Didik Prasetyoko; Neneng Ayunanda; Hamzah Fansuri; Djoko Hartanto; Zainab Ramli

2012-01-01

275

Indoor transformer alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several options are available for the prospective buyer of small power transformers for indoor applications: mineral oil, silicone liquid, aliphatic hydrocarbons, esters, or dry type transformers. A comparative evaluation is presented for these different types of transformer. Factors affecting economics of the transformer include the installation and maintenance costs, as well as the basic unit cost. Details are provided of flammability characteristics of various insulation systems, temperature performance of transformer winding insulation systems, and performance of liquid cooled and dry type 15 kV, 2,000 kVA transformers. Installation costs are tabulated for 15 kV class indoor transformers, including transformer, accessories, catch basin, curbs, insurance, and coordination. The overload capabilities of the different transformer types are compared. 5 tabs.

Patel, D

1990-11-01

276

A systolic algorithm for Euclidean distance transform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Euclidean distance transform is one of the fundamental operations in image processing. It has been widely used in computer vision, pattern recognition, morphological filtering, and robotics. This paper proposes a systolic algorithm that computes the Euclidean distance map of an N x N binary image in 3N clocks on 2N(2) processing cells. The algorithm is designed so that the hardware resources are reduced; especially no mulitipliers are used and, thus, it facilitates VLSI implementation.

Miyazawa M; Zeng P; Iso N; Hirata T

2006-07-01

277

Size- and shape-dependent phase transformations in wurtzite ZnS nanostructures.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the equilibrium morphologies of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the wurtzite phase as a function of size, determined using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations and a shape-dependent thermodynamic model predicting the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle. We investigate the relative stabilities of a variety of nanoparticle shapes based on the wurtzite structure and show how the aspect ratio of wurtzite nanorods moderates the size-dependent phase transformation to the zinc blende phase. We find that while wurtzite nanoparticles are thermodynamically unstable with respect to the low energy rhombic dodecahedron morphology in the zinc blende phase at all sizes, shape- and size-dependent phase transformations occur when other zinc blende morphologies are present. Despite popular synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles in the wurtzite phase, an in-depth thermodynamic study relating to the relative stability of wurtzite shapes and comparison with the zinc blende phase does not exist. Therefore this is the first thermodynamic study describing how shape can determine the solid phase of zinc sulfide nanostructures, which will be of critical importance to experimental applications of nanostructured zinc sulfide, where phase and shape determines properties. PMID:22722225

Feigl, Christopher A; Barnard, Amanda S; Russo, Salvy P

2012-06-22

278

Size- and shape-dependent phase transformations in wurtzite ZnS nanostructures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper describes the equilibrium morphologies of zinc sulfide nanoparticles in the wurtzite phase as a function of size, determined using ab initio Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations and a shape-dependent thermodynamic model predicting the Gibbs free energy of a nanoparticle. We investigate the relative stabilities of a variety of nanoparticle shapes based on the wurtzite structure and show how the aspect ratio of wurtzite nanorods moderates the size-dependent phase transformation to the zinc blende phase. We find that while wurtzite nanoparticles are thermodynamically unstable with respect to the low energy rhombic dodecahedron morphology in the zinc blende phase at all sizes, shape- and size-dependent phase transformations occur when other zinc blende morphologies are present. Despite popular synthesis of zinc sulphide nanoparticles in the wurtzite phase, an in-depth thermodynamic study relating to the relative stability of wurtzite shapes and comparison with the zinc blende phase does not exist. Therefore this is the first thermodynamic study describing how shape can determine the solid phase of zinc sulfide nanostructures, which will be of critical importance to experimental applications of nanostructured zinc sulfide, where phase and shape determines properties.

Feigl CA; Barnard AS; Russo SP

2012-07-01

279

Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube  

CERN Document Server

Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

Gavrilets, S

1998-01-01

280

Early anthropogenic transformation of the Danube-Black Sea system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Over the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea.

Giosan L; Coolen MJ; Kaplan JO; Constantinescu S; Filip F; Filipova-Marinova M; Kettner AJ; Thom N

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

On discrete cosine transform  

CERN Document Server

The discrete cosine transform (DCT), introduced by Ahmed, Natarajan and Rao, has been used in many applications of digital signal processing, data compression and information hiding. There are four types of the discrete cosine transform. In simulating the discrete cosine transform, we propose a generalized discrete cosine transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases. A new type of discrete cosine transform is proposed and its orthogonality is proved. Finally, we propose a generalized discrete W transform with three parameters, and prove its orthogonality for some new cases.

Zhou, Jianqin

2011-01-01

282

Cutaneous neoplasms showing EWSR1 rearrangement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rearrangements of the EWSR1 gene are found in an increasing number of human neoplasms, including several tumors that can involve the skin: Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, angiomatoid (malignant) fibrous histiocytoma, myoepithelioma of soft tissue, and clear cell sarcoma. Although these tumors share this common genetic link, they have very different clinical features, morphology, immunophenotype, and sometimes fusion gene partners; these will be the subjects of this review.

Boland JM; Folpe AL

2013-03-01

283

Cutaneous neoplasms showing EWSR1 rearrangement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rearrangements of the EWSR1 gene are found in an increasing number of human neoplasms, including several tumors that can involve the skin: Ewing sarcoma/primitive neuroectodermal tumor, angiomatoid (malignant) fibrous histiocytoma, myoepithelioma of soft tissue, and clear cell sarcoma. Although these tumors share this common genetic link, they have very different clinical features, morphology, immunophenotype, and sometimes fusion gene partners; these will be the subjects of this review. PMID:23399793

Boland, Jennifer M; Folpe, Andrew L

2013-03-01

284

Chemical transformation of cultured skin fibroblasts from humans genetically predisposed to cancer.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adenomatosis of the colon and rectum (ACR) is an inherited form of cancer. Assuming that phenotypic expressions that appear in cell strains reflect its biological abnormalities, the study of cultured skin fibroblasts derived from individuals with an inherited form of cancer such as ACR provides a unique study for analysis of the oncogenic process. Growth disorders and increased susceptibility to tumor promoters and to transformation by an oncogenic RNA tumor virus have been demonstrated in these skin fibroblasts. We found that human skin fibroblasts (PF) derived from ACR individuals were sensitive to a chemical carcinogen. Cells treated only with various levels of N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) underwent morphological alteration. The morphologically altered cells formed large cell aggregates when suspended in liquid growth medium above an agar base and grew to high saturation densities but did not form colonies in soft agar. Transformed cells were resistant to rechallenge of MNNG (1 microgram/ml) and showed prolonged life span compared to those untreated cells. However, no tumors were produced when cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. Data suggest that neoplastic transformation of these skin cells by chemical carcinogens is a multi-phase process.

Rhim JS; Arnstein P; Huebner RJ

1981-01-01

285

THE RISE AND FALL OF PASSIVE DISK GALAXIES: MORPHOLOGICAL EVOLUTION ALONG THE RED SEQUENCE REVEALED BY COSMOS  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The increasing abundance of passive 'red-sequence' galaxies since z ? 1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show in detail, that, the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red-sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (?10 Msun) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with M * ?11 Msun increases, but not as fast as red-sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z ? 1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. Based on these trends, we estimate that as much as 60% of galaxies transitioning onto the red sequence evolve through a passive disk phase. The origin of passive disks therefore has broad implications for our understanding of how star formation shuts down. Because passive disks tend to be more bulge-dominated than their star-forming counterparts, a simple fading of blue disks does not fully explain their origin. We explore the strengths and weaknesses of several more sophisticated explanations, including environmental effects, internal stabilization, and disk regrowth during gas-rich mergers. While previous work has sought to explain color and morphological transformations with a single process, these observations open the way to new insight by highlighting the fact that galaxy evolution may actually proceed through several separate stages.

2010-08-20

286

Extraction of MHD signal using wavelet transform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Mirnov signal with interference is a nonstationary signal, from which the MHD signal is not effectively extracted using the Fourier transform. A method of wavelet transform for processing the disturbed Mirnov signal is presented. Analyses in theory and experimental results show that the interference is removed effectively and the MHD signal can be extracted from the disturbed Mirnov signal based-on the time-frequency analysis of wavelet transform

2001-01-01

287

Resource-Bound Quantification for Graph Transformation  

CERN Multimedia

Graph transformation has been used to model concurrent systems in software engineering, as well as in biochemistry and life sciences. The application of a transformation rule can be characterised algebraically as construction of a double-pushout (DPO) diagram in the category of graphs. We show how intuitionistic linear logic can be extended with resource-bound quantification, allowing for an implicit handling of the DPO conditions, and how resource logic can be used to reason about graph transformation systems.

Torrini, Paolo; 10.4204/EPTCS.22.2

2010-01-01

288

Ethanol mediated enhancement in bacterial transformation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english In molecular biology, transformation using E. coli as a host plays a key role in synthesizing gene libraries. The present study demonstrated a new ethanol-based method for transformation of plasmid DNA to E. coli. Ethanol at 10% concentration (v/v) showed best results. Further, as compared with traditional CaCl2 method, the transformation rate, using protocol outlined in this study, was very high, suggesting amenable for further applications.

Sharma, Arun Dev; Singh, Jaspreet; Gill, Prabhjot Kaur

2007-01-01

289

Stream Cipher Using Optical Affine Transformation  

Science.gov (United States)

In this chapter, a method for generating a sequence of pseudorandom patterns using two-dimensional affine transformation is presented. The method is called the pseudorandom pattern generation with affine transformation (PPGA). A parallel affine-transform feedback system is introduced as the platform of the PPGA. As an example of the application, a stream cipher is described. The procedure to implement the PPGA is explained with an evaluation of the results. Experimental result of optical implementation show the capabilities of the method.

Tanida, Jun; Sasaki, Toru

290

High frequency regeneration via direct somatic embryogenesis and efficient Agrobacterium- mediated genetic transformation of tobacco.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A direct somatic embryogenesis protocol was developed for four cultivars of Nicotiana species, by using leaf disc as an explant. Direct somatic embryogenesis of Nicotiana by using BAP and IAA has not been investigated so far. This method does not require formation of callus tissues which leads to somaclonal variations. The frequency of somatic embryogenesis was strongly influenced by the plant growth hormones. The somatic embryos developing directly from explant tissue were noticed after 6 d of culture. Somatic embryogenesis of a high frequency (87-96%) was observed in cultures of the all four genotypes (Nicotiana tabacum, N. benthamiyana, N. xanthi, N. t cv petihavana). The results showed that the best medium for direct somatic embryogenesis was MS supplemented with 2.5 mg/l, 0.2 mg/l IAA and 2% sucrose. Subculture of somatic embryos onto hormone free MS medium resulted in their conversion into plants for all genotypes. About 95% of the regenerated somatic embryos germinated into complete plantlets. The plants showed morphological and growth characteristics similar to those of seed-derived plants. Explants were transformed using Agrobacterium tumifacious LBA4404 plasmid pCAMBIA1301 harboring the GUS gene. The regenerated transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR analysis and histochemical GUS assay. The transformation efficiency obtained by using the Agrobacterium- mediated transformation was more than 95%. This method takes 6 wk to accomplish complete transgenic plants through direct somatic embryogenesis. The transgenic plantlets were acclimatized successfully with 98% survival in greenhouse and they showed normal morphological characteristics and were fertile. The regeneration and transformation method described herein is very simple, highly efficient and fast for the introduction of any foreign gene directly in tobacco through direct somatic embryogenesis.

Pathi K; Tula S; Tuteja N

2013-03-01

291

Scanning photoelectron microscopy study of the laser-induced transformations of polycrystalline CdTe films  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We have used pulsed-laser treatment to provide highly localized chemical reactions in the near-surface region of polycrystalline CdTe thin films. Using scanning photoelectron microscopy, the lateral changes in the composition and morphology of the films as a function of the irradiation conditions and of the distance from the center of the laser beam were characterized. Results show that the films undergo thermal-induced heterogeneity in the morphology and in the lateral distribution of the elements and chemical phases due to local melting and dissociation of the film. This transformation leads to a local increase of the conductivity and enrichment with elemental Te. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

Nelson, Art J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Danailov, M. [Laser Laboratory, International Center for Theoretical Physics, 34100 Trieste, (Italy); Gregoratti, L. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste, (Italy); Marsi, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste, (Italy); Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, Area Science Park, 34012 Trieste, (Italy)

2000-04-01

292

Finite BRST Transformations for the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavasson Theory  

CERN Multimedia

In this paper we analyse the Bagger-Lambert-Gustavasson (BLG) theory in $\\mathcal{N} =1$ superspace. Furthermore, we will construct the BRST transformations for this theory. These BRST transformations will be integrated out to obtain the finite field dependent version of BRST (FFBRST) transformations. We will also analyse the effect of the FFBRST transformations on the effective action. We will thus show that the FFBRST transformations can be used to relate generating functionals of the BLG theory in two different gauges.

Faizal, Mir; Upadhyay, Sudhaker

2012-01-01

293

Transformer PCB management  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Potential problems of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-filled transformers are discussed. Policies for handling PCB-filled transformers, stressing personnel protection, risk analysis and safeguards against spills are proposed. Various options for their removal, disposal and replacement are reviewed.

1998-01-01

294

Predicting transformers oil parameters  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this paper different configurations of artificial neural networks are applied to predict various transformers oil parameters. The prediction is performed through modeling the relationship between the transformer insulation resistance extracted from the Megger test and the breakdown strength, inte...

Shaban, K.; El-Hag, A.; Matveev, A.

295

On the Watson Transformation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Watson transformation occurs in the problem of diffraction of electromagnetic waves by a perfectly conducting sphere. The series arising from a Watson transformation involves a set of complex valued functions which satisfy the orthogonality relations ...

E. Fischer

1966-01-01

296

Superantenna made of transformation media  

CERN Document Server

We show how transformation media can make a superantenna that is either completely invisible or focuses incoming light into a needle-sharp beam. Our idea is based on representating three-dimensional space as a foliage of sheets and performing two-dimensional conformal maps on each sheet

Leonhardt, Ulf

2008-01-01

297

Superantenna made of transformation media  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We show how transformation media can make a superantenna that is either completely invisible or focuses incoming light into a needle-sharp beam. Our idea is based on representing three-dimensional space as a foliage of sheets and performing two-dimensional conformal maps on each sheet.

Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomas [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk

2008-11-15

298

Chemical transformation of cultured human skin fibroblasts derived from individuals with hereditary adenomatosis of the colon and rectum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chemical transformation of cultured human skin fibroblasts (PF) derived from individuals with hereditary adenomatosis of the colon and rectum is reported. Cells treated only with various levels of N-methyl-N'-nitro N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) underwent morphological alteration. The morphologically altered cells formed large aggregates when suspended in liquid growth medium above an agar base and grew to high saturation densities. One altered (MNNG, 1.0 microgram/ml) cell culture formed colonies in soft agar. Transformed cells were resistant to rechallenge of MNNG (l microgram/ml) and showed a more prolonged life-span compared to the untreated cells. Altered cells became heteroploid cells. However, no progressively growing tumors were produced when cells were inoculated subcutaneously into nude mice. The data suggest that chemical carcinogens alone may not induce neoplastic transformation of fibroblasts from humans genetically predisposed to cancer and that neoplastic transformation of these skin cells by chemical carcinogens might require the presence of a tumor promotor and the use of an immuno-privileged site in the nude mouse system.

Rhim JS; Huebner RJ; Arnstein P; Kopelovich L

1980-11-01

299

Mitochondrial morphology and cardiovascular disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mitochondria are dynamic and are able to interchange their morphology between elongated interconnected mitochondrial networks and a fragmented disconnected arrangement by the processes of mitochondrial fusion and fission, respectively. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are regulated by the mitocho...

Ong, Sang-Bing; Hausenloy, Derek J.

300

Partial reversion of the transformed phenotype in HRAS-transfected tumorigenic cells by transfer of a human gene  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The transformed phenotype of rat FE-8 cells transfected by an activated human HRAS gene was suppressed upon fusion with normal cells. An experimental approach was developed to identify and isolate a human gene capable of suppressing the transforming activity of the HRAS oncogene in FE-8 cells. Genomic DNA from human placenta was introduced into FE-8 cells by cotransfection with the plasmid pY3 conferring hygromycin B resistance. Transfectants were selected in medium containing hygromycin B. HRAS-transformed FE-8 cells showed an increased sensitivity toward ouabain when compared to their normal counterparts. Therefore, the population of transfected hygromycin B-resistant cells was treated with ouabain to eliminate cells with a transformed phenotype. Ouabain selection resulted in a small number of cell clones exhibiting a more normal phenotype. The clones had lost the morphology of transformed cells and required anchorage for growth. The tumorigenicity of transfectants in nude mice was reduced by not completely abolished. FE-8 revertants continued to express the p21 RAS protein. Human repetitive sequences contained in the DNA of a secondary transfectant were used for isolation of the suppressor gene from reverted FE-8 cells. The cloned DNA fragment was transfected into tumorigenic FE-8 cells and conferred a partial reversion of the transformed phenotype.

Schaefer, R.; Iyer, J.; Iten, E.; Nirkko, A.C.

1988-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Partial reversion of the transformed phenotype in HRAS-transfected tumorigenic cells by transfer of a human gene  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformed phenotype of rat FE-8 cells transfected by an activated human HRAS gene was suppressed upon fusion with normal cells. An experimental approach was developed to identify and isolate a human gene capable of suppressing the transforming activity of the HRAS oncogene in FE-8 cells. Genomic DNA from human placenta was introduced into FE-8 cells by cotransfection with the plasmid pY3 conferring hygromycin B resistance. Transfectants were selected in medium containing hygromycin B. HRAS-transformed FE-8 cells showed an increased sensitivity toward ouabain when compared to their normal counterparts. Therefore, the population of transfected hygromycin B-resistant cells was treated with ouabain to eliminate cells with a transformed phenotype. Ouabain selection resulted in a small number of cell clones exhibiting a more normal phenotype. The clones had lost the morphology of transformed cells and required anchorage for growth. The tumorigenicity of transfectants in nude mice was reduced by not completely abolished. FE-8 revertants continued to express the p21 RAS protein. Human repetitive sequences contained in the DNA of a secondary transfectant were used for isolation of the suppressor gene from reverted FE-8 cells. The cloned DNA fragment was transfected into tumorigenic FE-8 cells and conferred a partial reversion of the transformed phenotype.

1988-01-01

302

Transformation thermomechanics of SMAs  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Transformation thermomechanics, which investigates the thermomechanical behavior of materials in the process of transformations, is developed for the shape memory alloys. A unified approach is explained from the macroscopic point of view. The uniaxial stress-strain-temperature hystereses are simulated under static and cyclic load conditions. Experimental results of the transformation start conditions in an Fe-based shape memory alloy are explained in relation to the transformation condition introduced in the theory. (orig.)

2000-01-01

303

Transformation thermomechanics of SMAs  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Transformation thermomechanics, which investigates the thermomechanical behavior of materials in the process of transformations, is developed for the shape memory alloys. A unified approach is explained from the macroscopic point of view. The uniaxial stress-strain-temperature hystereses are simulated under static and cyclic load conditions. Experimental results of the transformation start conditions in an Fe-based shape memory alloy are explained in relation to the transformation condition introduced in the theory. (orig.)

Tanaka, K. [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering

2000-07-01

304

Fast linear canonical transforms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The linear canonical transform provides a mathematical model of paraxial propagation though quadratic phase systems. We review the literature on numerical approximation of this transform, including discretization, sampling, and fast algorithms, and identify key results. We then propose a frequency-division fast linear canonical transform algorithm comparable to the Sande-Tukey fast Fourier transform. Results calculated with an implementation of this algorithm are presented and compared with the corresponding analytic functions.

Healy JJ; Sheridan JT

2010-01-01

305

Fractional Darboux Transformations  

CERN Document Server

In this paper we utilize the covariance of Ricatti equation with respect to linear fractional transformations to define classes of conformally equivalent second order differential equations. This motivates then the introduction of fractional Darboux transformations which can be recognized also as generalized Cole-Hopf transformations. We apply these transformations to find Schrodinger equations with isospectral potentials and to the linearization of some new classes of nonlinear partial differential equations.

Humi, M

2002-01-01

306

Ice films follow structure zone model morphologies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Ice films deposited at temperatures of 6-220 K and at low pressures in situ in a cryo-environmental scanning electron microscope show pronounced morphologies at the mesoscale consistent with the structure zone model of film growth. Water vapour was injected directly inside the chamber at ambient pressures ranging from 10{sup -4} Pa to 10{sup 2} Pa. Several different substrates were used to exclude the influence of their morphology on the grown films. At the lowest temperatures the ice, which under these conditions is amorphous on the molecular scale, shows the mesoscale morphologies typical of the low-temperature zones of the structure zone model (SZM), including cauliflower, transition, spongelike and matchstick morphologies. Our experiments confirm that the SZM is independent of the chemical nature of the adsorbate, although the intermolecular interactions in water (hydrogen bonds) are different to those in ceramics or metals. At higher temperatures, on the other hand, where the ice is hexagonal crystalline on the molecular scale, it displays a complex palmlike morphology on the mesoscale.

Cartwright, Julyan H.E. [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Escribano, Bruno, E-mail: bruno.escribano.salazar@gmail.co [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Sainz-Diaz, C. Ignacio [Instituto Andaluz de Ciencias de la Tierra, CSIC-Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)

2010-04-02

307

Shellwise Mackay Transformation in Iron Nanoclusters  

Science.gov (United States)

Structure and magnetism of iron clusters with up to 641 atoms have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations including full geometric optimizations. Body-centered cubic (bcc) isomers are found to be lowest in energy when the clusters contain more than about 100 atoms. In addition, another stable conformation has been identified for magic-number clusters, which lies well within the range of thermal energies as compared to the bcc isomers. Its structure is characterized by a close-packed particle core and an icosahedral surface, while intermediate shells are partially transformed along the Mackay path between icosahedral and cuboctahedral geometry. The gradual transformation results in a favorable bcc environment for the subsurface atoms. For Fe55, the shellwise Mackay-transformed morphology is a promising candidate for the ground state.

Rollmann, Georg; Gruner, Markus E.; Hucht, Alfred; Meyer, Ralf; Entel, Peter; Tiago, Murilo L.; Chelikowsky, James R.

2007-08-01

308

Shellwise Mackay transformation in iron nanoclusters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Structure and magnetism of iron clusters with up to 641 atoms have been investigated by means of density functional theory calculations including full geometric optimizations. Body-centered cubic (bcc) isomers are found to be lowest in energy when the clusters contain more than about 100 atoms. In addition, another stable conformation has been identified for magic-number clusters, which lies well within the range of thermal energies as compared to the bcc isomers. Its structure is characterized by a close-packed particle core and an icosahedral surface, while intermediate shells are partially transformed along the Mackay path between icosahedral and cuboctahedral geometry. The gradual transformation results in a favorable bcc environment for the subsurface atoms. For Fe55, the shellwise Mackay-transformed morphology is a promising candidate for the ground state.

Rollmann G; Gruner ME; Hucht A; Meyer R; Entel P; Tiago ML; Chelikowsky JR

2007-08-01

309

[Epithelial metaplasia in gastric or intestinal type and malignant transformation in mucinous ovarian tumors  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

By using HE, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry stainings, 64 cases of mucinous tumors of ovaries including 24 benign, 29 borderline and 11 malignant cases were studied. The epithelial lining was divided into 4 types, namely: cervical, intermediate, gastric and intestinal types. According to the morphological and histochemical characteristics the intermediate type epithelium might be a transitional form between the cervical type and the gastric or intestinal metaplastic type. Argyrophil cells appeared only in the gastric or intestinal type epithelium, and malignant transformation was also to be detected in these 2 types. The constituents and amounts of mucin showed obvious difference among these four types of epithelium. The amount of neutral mucin was prominently decreased during the process of malignant transformation of the intestinal type epithelium and the expression of sulphomucin was also slightly predominant than the sialo-mucin's, but these changes were not noticed during the malignant change of gastric type epithelium.

Chen G; Wang ZM

1992-06-01

310

[Epithelial metaplasia in gastric or intestinal type and malignant transformation in mucinous ovarian tumors].  

Science.gov (United States)

By using HE, histochemistry and immunohistochemistry stainings, 64 cases of mucinous tumors of ovaries including 24 benign, 29 borderline and 11 malignant cases were studied. The epithelial lining was divided into 4 types, namely: cervical, intermediate, gastric and intestinal types. According to the morphological and histochemical characteristics the intermediate type epithelium might be a transitional form between the cervical type and the gastric or intestinal metaplastic type. Argyrophil cells appeared only in the gastric or intestinal type epithelium, and malignant transformation was also to be detected in these 2 types. The constituents and amounts of mucin showed obvious difference among these four types of epithelium. The amount of neutral mucin was prominently decreased during the process of malignant transformation of the intestinal type epithelium and the expression of sulphomucin was also slightly predominant than the sialo-mucin's, but these changes were not noticed during the malignant change of gastric type epithelium. PMID:1335847

Chen, G; Wang, Z M

1992-06-01

311

Evaluation of the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of ferrite: martensite microalloyed steels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The influence of starting point microstructures on the transformation mechanisms and mechanical properties of a micro alloyed steel after annealing in the alpha + gamma region have been investigated. Three different microstructures: austenite, pearlite in a ferrite matrix and martensite were used as starting point microstructures for the production of dual (alpha + ) phase structures in the test steel. Photomicrographs obtained f (more) rom metallographic examination of the heat treated samples were used as criteria for the assessment of results obtained from impact toughness and hardness testing. The results obtained showed that the transformation mechanisms and hence the morphology of ferrite - martensite microalloyed steels are strongly influenced by their initial microstructural details. Ferrite - martensite structures produced via the intercritical quench (IQ) treatment, with martensite as the starting point microstructure, have the best combination of hardness and impact energy.

Henry, Ovri; Monde, Kamma Celestine

2008-03-01

312

Transforming quantum operations: quantum supermaps  

CERN Multimedia

We introduce the concept of {\\em quantum supermap}, describing the most general transformation that maps an input quantum operation into an output quantum operation. Since quantum operations include as special cases quantum states, effects, and measurements, quantum supermaps describe all possible transformations between elementary quantum objects (quantum systems as well as quantum devices). After giving the axiomatic definition of supermap, we prove a realization theorem, which shows that any supermap can be physically implemented as a simple quantum circuit. Applications to quantum programming, cloning, discrimination, estimation, information-disturbance trade-off, and tomography of channels are outlined.

Chiribella, G; Perinotti, P

2008-01-01

313

Carpet cloaking and Laplace transformation  

CERN Multimedia

Recently, researchers have proposed several carpet cloaking designs that are able to hide a real object under a bump in a way that it is perceived as a flat ground plane. Here, we present a method to design two-dimensional isotropic carpet cloaking devices using Laplace transformation. We show that each functional form of a Laplace transformation corresponds to a different carpet cloaking design. Therefore, our approach allows us to systematically design a rich variety of cloaking devices. Our analysis includes several examples containing different bump geometries that illustrate the proposed methodology.

Ochiai, T

2012-01-01

314

Fourier transforms of UD integrals  

CERN Multimedia

UD integrals published by N. Usyukina and A. Davydychev in 1992-1993 are integrals corresponding to ladder-type Feynman diagrams. The results are UD functions $\\Phi^{(L)},$ where $L$ is the number of loops. They play an important role in N=4 supersymmetic Yang-Mills theory. The integrals were defined and calculated in the momentum space. In this paper the position space representation of UD functions is investigated. We show that Fourier transforms of UD functions are UD functions of space-time intervals but this correspondence is indirect. For example, the Fourier transform of the second UD integral is the second UD integral.

Kondrashuk, Igor

2008-01-01

315

SCMD: Saccharomyces cerevisiae Morphological Database  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To study the global regulation of cell morphology, a number of groups have recently reported genome-wide screening data for yeast mutants with abnormal morphology. Despite the relatively simple ellipsoidal shape of yeast cells, in the past, cell morphology researchers have processed information on c...

Saito, Taro L.; Ohtani, Miwaka; Sawai, Hiroshi; Sano, Fumi; Saka, Ayaka; Watanabe, Daisuke; Yukawa, Masashi; Ohya, Yoshikazu

316

Morphological changes induced by class III chitin synthase gene silencing could enhance penicillin production of Penicillium chrysogenum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chitin synthases catalyze the formation of ?-(1,4)-glycosidic bonds between N-acetylglucosamine residues to form the unbranched polysaccharide chitin, which is the major component of cell walls in most filamentous fungi. Several studies have shown that chitin synthases are structurally and functionally divergent and play crucial roles in the growth and morphogenesis of the genus Aspergillus although little research on this topic has been done in Penicillium chrysogenum. We used BLAST to find the genes encoding chitin synthases in P. chrysogenum related to chitin synthase genes in Aspergillus nidulans. Three homologous sequences coding for a class III chitin synthase CHS4 and two hypothetical proteins in P. chrysogenum were found. The gene which product showed the highest identity and encoded the class III chitin synthase CHS4 was studied in detail. To investigate the role of CHS4 in P. chrysogenum morphogenesis, we developed an RNA interference system to silence the class III chitin synthase gene chs4. After transformation, mutants exhibited a slow growth rate and shorter and more branched hyphae, which were distinct from those of the original strain. The results also showed that the conidiation efficiency of all transformants was reduced sharply and indicated that chs4 is essential in conidia development. The morphologies of all transformants and the original strain in penicillin production were investigated by light microscopy, which showed that changes in chs4 expression led to a completely different morphology during fermentation and eventually caused distinct penicillin yields, especially in the transformants PcRNAi1-17 and PcRNAi2-1 where penicillin production rose by 27 % and 41 %, respectively.

Liu H; Zheng Z; Wang P; Gong G; Wang L; Zhao G

2013-04-01

317

Morphological analysis of vibrational hyperspectral imaging data.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study demonstrates the use of standard morphological image processing techniques to reduce the hyperspectral image data of samples, containing discrete particles or domains, to a single average spectrum per particle. The processing is automated and successful even when the particles are in contact. Focal Plane Array, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance images of biological cells are used as an example dataset. The large number of spectra in the image (~40,000) can be intelligently averaged to ~100 mean spectra, approximately one per cell, greatly simplifying further analysis. As well as reducing the data, the morphological analysis provides useful information, such as the size of each cell, and allows every spectrum associated with each cell to be identified and analysed independently of the full dataset. Using these methods, combined with principal components analysis, consistent spectral differences are found between the spectra of the whole cells and a cell region approximately corresponding to the nucleus. These spectral differences compare well with previous IR measurements on whole CALU-1 cells and their isolated nuclei, but with a simpler sample preparation. The algorithm created to analyse the CALU-1 cells has been applied to a second cell line (NL20), which has a very different growth morphology, to demonstrate that this processing method is applicable to varied samples with little or no modification. PMID:23001149

Filik, Jacob; Rutter, Abigail V; Sulé-Suso, Josep; Cinque, Gianfelice

2012-12-21

318

Morphological analysis of vibrational hyperspectral imaging data.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study demonstrates the use of standard morphological image processing techniques to reduce the hyperspectral image data of samples, containing discrete particles or domains, to a single average spectrum per particle. The processing is automated and successful even when the particles are in contact. Focal Plane Array, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorbance images of biological cells are used as an example dataset. The large number of spectra in the image (~40,000) can be intelligently averaged to ~100 mean spectra, approximately one per cell, greatly simplifying further analysis. As well as reducing the data, the morphological analysis provides useful information, such as the size of each cell, and allows every spectrum associated with each cell to be identified and analysed independently of the full dataset. Using these methods, combined with principal components analysis, consistent spectral differences are found between the spectra of the whole cells and a cell region approximately corresponding to the nucleus. These spectral differences compare well with previous IR measurements on whole CALU-1 cells and their isolated nuclei, but with a simpler sample preparation. The algorithm created to analyse the CALU-1 cells has been applied to a second cell line (NL20), which has a very different growth morphology, to demonstrate that this processing method is applicable to varied samples with little or no modification.

Filik J; Rutter AV; Sulé-Suso J; Cinque G

2012-12-01

319

Quantified HI Morphology V: HI Disks in the Virgo Cluster  

CERN Document Server

We explore the quantified morphology of atomic hydrogen (HI) disks in the Virgo cluster. These galaxies display a wealth of phenomena in their Hi morphology, e.g., tails, truncation and warps. These morphological disturbances are related to the ram-pressure stripping and tidal interaction that galaxies undergo in this dense cluster environment. To quantify the morphological transformation of the HI disks, we compute the morphological parameters of CAS, Gini, and M20 and our own GM for 51 galaxies in 48 HI column density maps from the VIVA project. Some morphological phenomena can be identified in this space of relatively low resolution HI data. Truncation of the HI disk can be cleanly identified via the Concentration parameter (C<1) and Concentration can also be used to identify HI deficient disks (1morphological parameters, applied to (optical) images of galaxies. We find that some selection criteria (Gini-M20, Asymmetry, a...

Holwerda, B W; de Blok, W J G; van Driel, W

2011-01-01

320

Computer-controlled experiments with a transformer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The transformer is a key device for electrical energy transfer. It displays a unique collection of basic physical phenomena; therefore, the transformer is an invaluable educational resource. With a data-acquisition system, the characteristics of a transformer are obtainable in a short time, and exhaustive illustrations can be displayed on the screen of a computer. The experiments give the students deeper understanding of fundamental physical phenomena and show how physical laws work in power engineering. Learning about the transformer should not be an exclusive privilege of students of electrical engineering; students of physics would also be interested in such laboratory experiments.

2006-07-01

 
 
 
 
321

High voltage pulse transformer for PFL charging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An air core spiral strip transformer with 0.8 of coupling coefficient, which can operate in pulse high voltage, has been researched and manufactured. The experiments showed that output voltage of transformer rose up to about 500 kV at an input 40 kV. The elementary theoretical analysis of the transformer has been carried out. This kind of transformer has characteristics of compact construction, small volume and excellent electric performance. It has been used to charge of water Blumlein line of accelerator. In the vacuum diode of accelerator, high voltage pulse of 500 kV, 40 kA with 80 ns (FWHM) has been obtained

2003-01-01

322

Generalized phase transformations of spinor fields  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this paper some generalized four parameter phase transformations of a Dirac spinor are considered. It is shown that a corresponding compensating transformation of the electromagnetic field which restores the invariance of the Dirac-Maxwell equation might exist, provided some consistency conditions are satisfied by the parameters of the transformations. These transformations are used further to consider the Maxwell equations under the assumption that a Bosonization takes place. Only one of the considered cases proves to have a solution (the other cases show to be trivial) which although unphysical is obtained explicitly. (author). 10 refs

1993-01-01

323

New Approach to Compute Integral Transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Integral transforms find special applicability within scientific and mathematical disciplines. A powerful and efficient homotopy methodology in evaluating integrals arises in integral transforms was presented. The method depends on solving a related first order linear differential equation by homotopy analysis method HAM. The Laplace transform, Fourier transform and the moment generating function of the standard normal distribution were used as test examples to show the efficiency of the method. The results obtained justify the advantage of this methodology. MATLAB 7 was used to carry out the computations.

A. Adawi; F. Awawdeh

2008-01-01

324

Mixing on Rank-One Transformations  

CERN Document Server

We prove that mixing on rank-one transformations is equivalent to the spacer sequence being slice-ergodic. Slice-ergodicity, introduced in this paper, generalizes the notion of ergodic sequence to the uniform convergence of ergodic averages (as in the mean ergodic theorem) over subsequences of partial sums. We show that polynomial staircase transformations satisfy this condition and therefore are mixing.

Creutz, D; Creutz, Darren; Silva, Cesar E.

2006-01-01

325

A note on Fourier-Mukai transform  

CERN Document Server

In this note, we consider the problem on the preservation of stability under the Fourier-Mukai transforms. We first show that the Fourier-Mukai transform on an abelian surface does not always preserve the stability, even for a $\\mu$-stable vector bundle. We next provide some positive results on this problem.

Yoshioka, K

2001-01-01

326

Chemical and morphological characterization of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a delignification process for enhanced enzymatic digestibility  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass to produce multi-products such as ethanol and other biomaterials has become a dynamic research area. Pretreatment technologies that fractionate sugarcane bagasse are essential for the successful use of this feedstock in ethanol production. In this paper, we investigate modifications in the morphology and chemical composition of sugarcane bagasse submitted to a two-step treatment, using diluted acid followed by a delignification process with increasing sodium hydroxide concentrations. Detailed chemical and morphological characterization of the samples after each pretreatment condition, studied by high performance liquid chromatography, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, is reported, together with sample crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility. Results Chemical composition analysis performed on samples obtained after different pretreatment conditions showed that up to 96% and 85% of hemicellulose and lignin fractions, respectively, were removed by this two-step method when sodium hydroxide concentrations of 1% (m/v) or higher were used. The efficient lignin removal resulted in an enhanced hydrolysis yield reaching values around 100%. Considering the cellulose loss due to the pretreatment (maximum of 30%, depending on the process), the total cellulose conversion increases significantly from 22.0% (value for the untreated bagasse) to 72.4%. The delignification process, with consequent increase in the cellulose to lignin ratio, is also clearly observed by nuclear magnetic resonance and diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy experiments. We also demonstrated that the morphological changes contributing to this remarkable improvement occur as a consequence of lignin removal from the sample. Bagasse unstructuring is favored by the loss of cohesion between neighboring cell walls, as well as by changes in the inner cell wall structure, such as damaging, hole formation and loss of mechanical resistance, facilitating liquid and enzyme access to crystalline cellulose. Conclusions The results presented herewith show the efficiency of the proposed method for improving the enzymatic digestibility of sugarcane bagasse and provide understanding of the pretreatment action mechanism. Combining the different techniques applied in this work warranted thorough information about the undergoing morphological and chemical changes and was an efficient approach to understand the morphological effects resulting from sample delignification and its influence on the enhanced hydrolysis results.

Rezende Camila; de Lima Marisa; Maziero Priscila; deAzevedo Eduardo; Garcia Wanius; Polikarpov Igor

2011-01-01

327

Speech Recognition using Transform Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for isolated English word recognition based on transform method. This isolated word recognition method consists of two phases, feature extraction phase and recognition phase. In feature extraction, discrete Fourier transform and discrete cosine transform is used for extracting the features of speech samples and feature vector of different dimensions is obtained. In Recognition phase, Euclidean distance is calculated between test sample feature vector and all reference speech samples. Speech sample with minimum average distance is selected. For testing, 30 different words are used, spoken by male and female both, 25 utterances of each word are recorded. Results are compared with different feature vector dimensions. Experimental results showed that the maximum recognition rate of 94% is obtained.

H. B. Kekre; Archana B. Patankar; Grishma Sharma

2012-01-01

328

Note: Tesla transformer damping.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unexpected heavy damping in the two winding Tesla pulse transformer is shown to be due to small primary inductances. A small primary inductance is a necessary condition of operability, but is also a refractory inefficiency. A 30% performance loss is demonstrated using a typical "spiral strip" transformer. The loss is investigated by examining damping terms added to the transformer's governing equations. A significant alteration of the transformer's architecture is suggested to mitigate these losses. Experimental and simulated data comparing the 2 and 3 winding transformers are cited to support the suggestion. PMID:22852736

Reed, J L

2012-07-01

329

Transformer PCB management  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The potential problems of owning polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) transformers were identified and some solutions for their removal, disposal and replacement were presented. PCBs have been banned from electrical equipment in Canada since 1977 when the extent of their environmental damage was identified. However, numerous PCB containing transformers still exist throughout the Canadian mining industry. This presentation reviewed several PCB remediation options including: (1) reuse of existing transformers, (2) askarel filled transformers, (3) recycling of PCB transformers, and (4) turnkey projects. PCB handling policies and procedures were also described.

Heid, K. [Magna Group of Companies, Regina, SK (Canada)

1998-12-31

330

The locus of tool-transformation costs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transformations of hand movements by tools such as levers or electronic input devices can invoke performance costs compared to untransformed movements. This study investigated by means of the Psychological Refractory Period (PRP) paradigm at which stage of information processing such tool-transformation costs arise. We used an inversion transformation, that is, the movement of the operating hand was transformed into a spatially incompatible movement of a lever. As a basic tool-transformation effect, the initiation of inverted tool movements was delayed compared to noninverted movements. Experiment 1 suggested a central (or postcentral) locus of this tool-transformation effect and ruled out a (precentral) perceptual locus. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed the central locus and ruled out a later, motor-related stage of processing. The results show that spatially incompatible tool movements delay a capacity-limited stage of information processing, often referred to as response selection.

Kunde W; Pfister R; Janczyk M

2012-06-01

331

Finite Element Analysis of a Contactless Transformer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Inductively coupling power transfer is an emerging technique, which enables power transfer to loads through air. The contactless transformer is the key component of it, and the design of a transformer is a time-consuming work with a large number of tests. In this paper, a design method of contactless transformer with finite element analysis is presented. First the contactless transformer model is deduced from Maxwell Equations, and the self inductance and mutual inductance computational equations are given as well. Then the magnetic field distributions of contactless transformer with different air gaps are presented by simulation of MAXWELL ANSOFT. Furthermore, the skin and proximity effects are analyzed as well. At last, the results are compared with the experimental results with the same dimension and material. The analyses show that there has a good agreement with each other. So by this method, the design period of a contactless transformer will be shorter than before

Jianyu Lan; Houjun Tang; Xin Gen

2013-01-01

332

Fast fourier transform on hypercube parallel computers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Fast Fourier Transform appears frequently in scientific computing. Therefore, it is desirable to implement it efficiently on parallel computeres. In this thesis, we investigate several different aspects of parallel Fast Fourier Transform implementation techniques for distributed-memory message-passing systems such as hypercube multiprocessors. Various Fast Fourier Transform algorithms are described using a matrix notation. An error analysis is presented that considers the effect of different methods used in the computation of the Fourier Transform coefficients as well as accumulated roundoff. New implementations of one and two-dimensional Fast Fourier Transforms are presented along with comparisons with existing methods. New algorithms for symmetric transforms are also developed, and the results show excellent speedup when implemented on the Intel iPSC hypercube.

Chu, C.Y.

1988-01-01

333

Making sense of the Legendre transform  

Science.gov (United States)

The Legendre transform is a powerful tool in theoretical physics and plays an important role in classical mechanics, statistical mechanics, and thermodynamics. In typical undergraduate and graduate courses the motivation and elegance of the method are often missing, unlike the treatments frequently enjoyed by Fourier transforms. We review and modify the presentation of Legendre transforms in a way that explicates the formal mathematics, resulting in manifestly symmetric equations, thereby clarifying the structure of the transform. We then discuss examples to motivate the transform as a way of choosing independent variables that are more easily controlled. We demonstrate how the Legendre transform arises naturally from statistical mechanics and show how the use of dimensionless thermodynamic potentials leads to more natural and symmetric relations.

Zia, R. K.; Redish, Edward F.; Mckay, Susan R.

2011-08-31

334

Evaluation of Transformer Magnetizing Core Loss  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Loss in transformer core is the electrical power lost in terms of heat within the core of transformer, when core is subjected to AC magnetizing force. It is composed of several types of losses such as Hysterics loss, eddy current loss within individual laminations and inter-laminar losses that may arise if laminations are not sufficiently insulated from each other. To assess the level of no load loss relative to the occurrence of an inaccurate manufacturing of transformer core, a quantitative measure is often considered. The objective of this research is to study the magnetic behavior of transformer core and compare the performance of building factor is comparable to the calculated values. Open circuit tests were conducted on 1000 kVA transformer with 90°T-joint and 45° mitred corners joint to determine the efficiency of the transformer. The results showed that the building factor is useful index in assessing the impact on the core.

Ahmed M.A. Haidar; S. Taib; I. Daut; S. Uthman

2006-01-01

335

Phase transformation at Lilliput  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Recent theoretical development show that during phase transformations, occurring in a small system, heat capacity can become negative momentarily. This phenomenon can be explained easily: when you want to create a bubble of gas in a liquid or a drop of liquid in a gas you have to pay the price of the interface, it means that you have to provide the system with the surface energy of the bubble or of the drop. This energy need is made at the expense of the thermal motion and in a small system this contribution is not negligible and implies a decrease in temperature. Recently negative values of heat capacity have been reported in multi-fragmentation nuclear reactions, the author presents experimental data in gold and xenon collisions with respectively gold and tin targets. (A.C.)

2001-01-01

336

Bound state transformation walls  

CERN Multimedia

In four dimensional N=2 supergravity theories, BPS bound states near marginal stability are described by configurations of widely separated constituents with nearly parallel central charges. When the vacuum moduli can be dialed adiabatically until the central charges become anti -parallel, a paradox arises. We show that this paradox is always resolved by the existence of "bound state transformation walls" across which the nature of the bound state changes, although the index does not jump. We find that there are two distinct phenomena that can take place on these walls, which we call recombination and conjugation. The latter is associated to the presence of singularities at finite distance in moduli space. Consistency of conjugation and wall-crossing rules near these singularities leads to new constraints on the BPS spectrum. Singular loci supporting massless vector bosons are particularly subtle in this respect. We argue that the spectrum at such loci necessarily contains massless magnetic monopoles, and tha...

Andriyash, Evgeny; Jafferis, Daniel L; Moore, Gregory W

2010-01-01

337

Stable transformation of Trypanosoma brucei.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have further analyzed parameters affecting stable transformation of Trypanosoma brucei. Linear DNA was much more efficient than circular DNA and in the vast majority of transformants analyzed the plasmid DNA had inserted into the chromosomes by homologous recombination. The presence of non-homologous (vector) DNA at one or both ends of linear constructs inhibited transformation efficiency. Less than 1 kb of homologous flanking sequence was sufficient for efficient targeting of a marker gene into the tubulin gene array. When transformants with a single neomycin phosphotransferase (neo(r)) gene replacing a beta-tubulin gene were selected for higher levels of G418 resistance, the neo(r) gene was amplified and spread through the tubulin gene cluster. The additional neo(r) gene copies were adjacent in the tubulin gene array and were added to the array rather than replacing beta-tubulin genes. These results are compatible with asymmetric post-replication recombination (unequal sister chromatid exchange) as the mechanism for neo(r) gene amplification. Starting with a circular construct containing the neo(r) gene between tubulin intergenic regions, we obtained a single transformant that maintained the neo(r) genes as an extrachromosomal plasmid. We show this plasmid to consist of a circular pentamer of the input construct. All other attempts to derive a shuttle vector that replicates extrachromosomally in T. brucei were unsuccessful. Our experiments extend previous observations suggesting that T. brucei has a strong preference for chromosomal insertion of exogenous DNA by homologous recombination.

ten Asbroek AL; Mol CA; Kieft R; Borst P

1993-05-01

338

Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Abstract to the Vietnam Forum on Lifelong Learning: Building a Learning Society Hanoi, 7-8 December 2010 Network 2: Competence development as Workplace Learning Title of proposal: Workplaces as Transformative Learning Spaces Author: Elina Maslo, dr. paed., University of Latvia, elina@latnet.lv Key words: learning, lifelong learning, adult learning, workplace learning, transformative learning spaces During many years of research on lifelong foreign language learning with very different groups of learners, we found some criteria, which make learning process successful. Since then we tried to find some other examples on “successful learning” from the formal, informal and non-formal learning environments, trying to prove those criteria. This presentation provides a view on to new examples on transformative learning spaces we discovered doing research on Workplace Learning in Latvia as a part of the ASEM LLL Hub network 2 Survey on Workplace Learning in Asia and Europe. We will present the work of researchers on the survey as the first transformative learning space and workplace learning we discovered in the enterprises in Latvia as a second example on the transformative learning space. We will try to show, that there are some universal criteria, which makes learning process successful in those two very different learning examples.

Maslo, Elina

339

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention.

Ding SZ; Yang YX; Li XL; Michelli-Rivera A; Han SY; Wang L; Pratheeshkumar P; Wang X; Lu J; Yin YQ; Budhraja A; Hitron AJ

2013-05-01

340

Epithelial-mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. PMID:23518002

Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J

2013-03-19

 
 
 
 
341

Vesta's shape and morphology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vesta's surface is characterized by abundant impact craters, some with preserved ejecta blankets, large troughs extending around the equatorial region, enigmatic dark material, and widespread mass wasting, but as yet an absence of volcanic features. Abundant steep slopes indicate that impact-generated surface regolith is underlain by bedrock. Dawn observations confirm the large impact basin (Rheasilvia) at Vesta's south pole and reveal evidence for an earlier, underlying large basin (Veneneia). Vesta's geology displays morphological features characteristic of the Moon and terrestrial planets as well as those of other asteroids, underscoring Vesta's unique role as a transitional solar system body.

Jaumann R; Williams DA; Buczkowski DL; Yingst RA; Preusker F; Hiesinger H; Schmedemann N; Kneissl T; Vincent JB; Blewett DT; Buratti BJ; Carsenty U; Denevi BW; De Sanctis MC; Garry WB; Keller HU; Kersten E; Krohn K; Li JY; Marchi S; Matz KD; McCord TB; McSween HY; Mest SC; Mittlefehldt DW; Mottola S; Nathues A; Neukum G; O'Brien DP; Pieters CM; Prettyman TH; Raymond CA; Roatsch T; Russell CT; Schenk P; Schmidt BE; Scholten F; Stephan K; Sykes MV; Tricarico P; Wagner R; Zuber MT; Sierks H

2012-05-01

342

Morphology Of Cultured Cells Of Glioblastoma Multiforme  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to asses the morphology of cultured glioblastoma multiforme cells obtained from five patients. Established tissue cultures of malignant astrocytoma cells showed polymorphic characters phenotypically. There were various types of tumor cells including ovoid cytoplasm with multiple processes, elongated unipolar and bipolar, spindle, bizarre in shape, and large flat cell as well as multinucleated gigantic form. As the passage of the tissue culture of glioblastoma multiforme continued, their cell morphology became more similar in appearance. In the present study, the glioblastoma multiforme cells in vitro included heterogeneous subpopulations of tumor cells, which may explain why the treatment modalities remain insufficient in clinics.

Ramazan DURMAZ

2007-01-01

343

Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas

1986-01-01

344

Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA-induced malignant transformation of NIH 3T3 cells  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A biological function for human papillomavirus 16 (HPV 16) DNA was demonstrated by transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. HPV 16 DNA has been found frequently in genital cancer and has been classified as a papillomavirus on the basis of DNA homology. A recombinant HPV 16 DNA (pSHPV16d), which contains a head-to-tail dimer of the full-length HPV 16 genome, induced morphologic transformation; the transformed cells were tumorigenic in nude mice. Expression of transforming activity was unique because of the long latency period (more than 4 weeks) required for induction of morphologic transformation and because the transfected DNA existed primarily in a multimeric form with some rearrangement. Furthermore, virus-specific RNAs were expressed in the transformants. The transformation of NIH 3T3 cells provides a model for analyzing the functions of HPV 16, which is associated with cervical carcinomas.

Yasumoto, S.; Burkhardt, A.L.; Doniger, J.; DiPaolo, J.A.

1986-02-01

345

Biomolecular surface construction by PDE transform.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This work proposes a new framework for the surface generation based on the partial differential equation (PDE) transform. The PDE transform has recently been introduced as a general approach for the mode decomposition of images, signals, and data. It relies on the use of arbitrarily high order PDEs to achieve the time-frequency localization, control the spectral distribution, and regulate the spatial resolution. The present work provides a new variational derivation of high order PDE transforms. The fast Fourier transform is utilized to accomplish the PDE transform so as to avoid stringent stability constraints in solving high order PDEs. As a consequence, the time integration of high order PDEs can be done efficiently with the fast Fourier transform. The present approach is validated with a variety of test examples in two and three-dimensional settings. We explore the impact of the PDE transform parameters, such as the PDE order and propagation time, on the quality of resulting surfaces. Additionally, we utilize a set of 10 proteins to compare the computational efficiency of the present surface generation method and the MSMS approach in Cartesian meshes. Moreover, we analyze the present method by examining some benchmark indicators of biomolecular surface, i.e., surface area, surface enclosed volume, solvation free energy and surface electrostatic potential. A test set of 13 protein molecules is used in the present investigation. The electrostatic analysis is carried out via the Poisson-Boltzmann equation model. To further demonstrate the utility of the present PDE transform based surface method, we solve the Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations with a PDE transform surface of a protein. Second order convergence is observed for the electrostatic potential and concentrations. Finally, to test the capability and efficiency of the present PDE transform based surface generation method, we apply it to the construction of an excessively large biomolecule, a virus surface capsid. Virus surface morphologies of different resolutions are attained by adjusting the propagation time. Therefore, the present PDE transform provides a multiresolution analysis in the surface visualization. Extensive numerical experiment and comparison with an established surface model indicate that the present PDE transform is a robust, stable and efficient approach for biomolecular surface generation in Cartesian meshes.

Zheng Q; Yang S; Wei GW

2012-03-01

346

Wettability of porous polydimethylsiloxane surface: morphology study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two methods used for producing porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces. In the first method, PDMS films without photosensitizer was exposed to CO2-pulsed laser at room temperature, as the excitation source. In the second method applying NaCl solid particles to the external surface layer before it is cured. In this study the morphology, wettability and surface chemical characteristics have been investigated. These surfaces have been studied by performing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. To evaluate the surface wettability, the water drop contact angle was measured. SEM photomicrographs and ATR-FTIR spectra and water drop contact angle measurement show that the morphology of these surfaces change to a uniform porous surface and wettability decreased. Results indicated that the porosity and morphology are important factor in wettability of PDMS surface and laser irradiation cause ordering in molecular chains onto the PDMS surface and this surface is a superhydrophobic compared to the virgin PDMS surface.

2005-04-15

347

Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60 ?-rays  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ?-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described. (J.P.N.)

1981-01-01

348

Neoplastic transformation of human diploid fibroblasts treated with chemical carcinogens and Co-60. gamma. -rays  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two fibroblast cell strains derived from human embryonic lungs (WI-38 and IMR-90) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with Co-60 ..gamma..-rays. Four other fibroblast cell strains (two from human embryonic liver and the other two from human adult skin) were transformed into neoplastic cells by treatment with 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4NQO). The transformation was obtained by repeated treatments with these carcinogenic agents, but not by a single treatment in a variety of experimental conditions. These results suggest that transformation of normal human cells might be a multistep process. All of the transformed cell lines had the following characteristics: 1) epithelial-like morphology; 2) unlimited growth potential; 3) abnormal karyotype; 4) increased saturation cell density; 5) low serum requirement for growth; 6) elevated colony formation in soft agar; 7) growth capability in theophylline containing medium; 8) increase of the B(H) subunit of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozyme; and 9) loss of large external transformation sensitive (LETS) protein. The first three characteristics (morphological changes, unlimited growth and abnormal karyotype) are proposed to be sufficient to conclude that neoplastic transformation of normal human fibroblasts has occurred. In order to conduct quantitative transformation experiments with human fibroblasts, criteria of the morphology of transformed colonies were defined. Advantages and disadvantages in the use of normal human fibroblasts for transformation studies are discussed. Finally, future problems in transformation of human cells are described.

Namba, M.; Nishitani, K.; Fukushima, F.; Kimoto, T. (Kawasaki Medical School, Kurashiki, Okayama (Japan)); Utsunomiya, J.

1981-01-01

349

Morphological Quantification of Surface  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Morphological granulometric moments have proven useful forquantification and classification of image texture. This paper proposesusing granulometries to provide a comprehensive description of surfaceroughness. To support this proposition it demonstrates that granulometricsurface description includes much of the information carried by conventionalroughness measures. It does so by using granulometric momentsas inputs to a linear system to estimate six conventional surfaceroughness measures. The analysis is based on simulations in the frameworkof the Boolean-random-function model for surfaces. Features areobtained from both opening and closing granulometries. The granulometriesare generated by computationally efficient one-dimensional linearand triangular structuring elements. This permits fast implementation usingspecial-purpose algorithms. Estimators with granulometric inputs aredesigned on training data and applied to test data to analyze their effectivenessas estimators of conventional roughness measures. This isdone for both simulated and real images. 2003 Society of Photo-Optical InstrumentationEngineers. [DOI: 10.1117/1.1570825]Subject terms: estimation; granulometry; morphology; surface roughness; texture.Paper 020112 received Mar. 27, 2002; revised manuscript received Sep. 26,2002, and Nov. 20, 2002; accepted for publication Nov. 20, 2002.

Member Spie; Edward R. Dougherty; Fellow Spie

350

On the relationship between the macroevolutionary trajectories of morphological integration and morphological disparity.  

Science.gov (United States)

How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity-the large-scale variety of organismal designs-are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns, corresponding to more heterogeneously structured matrices of correlation among traits. Particularly, increased covariation is observed between subsets of characters from the dorsal cup and from the arms. These analyses show that morphological disparity is not dependent on the overall degree of evolutionary integration but rather on the way integration is distributed among traits. Hence, temporal changes in disparity dynamics are likely constrained by reorganizations of the modularity of the crinoid morphology and not by changes in the variability of individual traits. The differences in integration patterns explain the more stereotyped morphologies of post-Palaeozoic crinoids and, from a broader macroevolutionary perspective, call for a greater attention to the distributional heterogeneities of constraints in morphospace. PMID:23691115

Gerber, Sylvain

2013-05-17

351

On the relationship between the macroevolutionary trajectories of morphological integration and morphological disparity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity-the large-scale variety of organismal designs-are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns, corresponding to more heterogeneously structured matrices of correlation among traits. Particularly, increased covariation is observed between subsets of characters from the dorsal cup and from the arms. These analyses show that morphological disparity is not dependent on the overall degree of evolutionary integration but rather on the way integration is distributed among traits. Hence, temporal changes in disparity dynamics are likely constrained by reorganizations of the modularity of the crinoid morphology and not by changes in the variability of individual traits. The differences in integration patterns explain the more stereotyped morphologies of post-Palaeozoic crinoids and, from a broader macroevolutionary perspective, call for a greater attention to the distributional heterogeneities of constraints in morphospace.

Gerber S

2013-01-01

352

On the Relationship between the Macroevolutionary Trajectories of Morphological Integration and Morphological Disparity  

Science.gov (United States)

How does the organization of phenotypes relate to their propensity to vary? How do evolutionary changes in this organization affect large-scale phenotypic evolution? Over the last decade, studies of morphological integration and modularity have renewed our understanding of the organizational and variational properties of complex phenotypes. Much effort has been made to unravel the connections among the genetic, developmental, and functional contexts leading to differential integration among morphological traits and individuation of variational modules. Yet, their macroevolutionary consequences on the dynamics of morphological disparity–the large-scale variety of organismal designs–are still largely unknown. Here, I investigate the relationship between morphological integration and morphological disparity throughout the entire evolutionary history of crinoids (echinoderms). Quantitative analyses of interspecific patterns of variation and covariation among characters describing the stem, cup, arm, and tegmen of the crinoid body do not show any significant concordance between the temporal trajectories of disparity and overall integration. Nevertheless, the results reveal marked differences in the patterns of integration for Palaeozoic and post-Palaeozoic crinoids. Post-Palaeozoic crinoids have a higher degree of integration and occupy a different region of the space of integration patterns, corresponding to more heterogeneously structured matrices of correlation among traits. Particularly, increased covariation is observed between subsets of characters from the dorsal cup and from the arms. These analyses show that morphological disparity is not dependent on the overall degree of evolutionary integration but rather on the way integration is distributed among traits. Hence, temporal changes in disparity dynamics are likely constrained by reorganizations of the modularity of the crinoid morphology and not by changes in the variability of individual traits. The differences in integration patterns explain the more stereotyped morphologies of post-Palaeozoic crinoids and, from a broader macroevolutionary perspective, call for a greater attention to the distributional heterogeneities of constraints in morphospace.

Gerber, Sylvain

2013-01-01

353

The Rise and Fall of Passive Disk Galaxies: Morphological Evolution Along the Red Sequence Revealed by COSMOS  

CERN Multimedia

The increasing abundance of passive "red sequence" galaxies since z=1-2 is mirrored by a coincident rise in the number of galaxies with spheroidal morphologies. In this paper, however, we show that in detail the correspondence between galaxy morphology and color is not perfect, providing insight into the physical origin of this evolution. Using the COSMOS survey, we study a significant population of red sequence galaxies with disk-like morphologies. These passive disks typically have Sa-Sb morphological types with large bulges, but they are not confined to dense environments. They represent nearly one-half of all red-sequence galaxies and dominate at lower masses (log Mstar < 10) where they are increasingly disk-dominated. As a function of time, the abundance of passive disks with log Mstar < 11 increases, but not as fast as red sequence spheroidals in the same mass range. At higher mass, the passive disk population has declined since z~1, likely because they transform into spheroidals. We estimate that...

Bundy, K; Carollo, C M; Ellis, R S; Drory, N; Hopkins, P; Salvato, M; Leauthaud, A; Koekemoer, A M; Murray, N; Ilbert, O; Oesch, P; Ma, C -P; Capak, P; Pozzetti, L; Scoville, N

2009-01-01

354

Low-flammability transformer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

For a number of decades, low-fire-risk transformers for installation in factories, offices, and flats etc. have been either a dry type of transformer in which all materials are non-flammable or a liquid filled type of transformer using askarel polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) as the liquid. The latter type offered economic and electrical advantages over the dry type of the day. These askarels are no longer in favor and askerel-filled transformers are no longer made. An overview of alternative liquids on sale today is provided. The properties and use of PCB-containing askarels are summarized. For new installations, dry-type transformers are first reviewed. Then liquids which are available in the United Kingdom (UK) for use as transformer impregnants and coolants are surveyed, with in each case information on their composition, properties, handling, flammability, use in transformers and the characteristics of transformers using them, and their suitability as retrofill liquids. The final sections relate to flammability testing of materials and of complete transformers or simulated transformers.

Dickson, M.R.

1987-04-01

355

Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer; Analyse av havarert HVDC transformator  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

Hestad, Oeystein; Linhjell, Dag

2006-02-15

356

Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating, the thermal transformation into anatase and further to rutile is retarded. This suppression of the phase transition upon higher valent substitution may promote technological applications of anatase thin films, hereunder development of films with TCO properties. Depending on the oxygen partial pressure during the transformation, the Nb-substitution into TiO2 provokes different defect situations and also electronic properties. At reducing conditions, Nb is incorporated as NbV and an equivalent amount of TiIV is transformed to TiIII as evidenced by XPS. Magnetic susceptibility data show accordingly paramagnetic behavior. For samples heated in air TiIV and NbV cations prevail, the latter is compensated by cation vacancies. 93Nb MAS NMR data prove that Nb is finely dispersed into the transformed (Ti,Nb)O2 oxide matrices without sign of Nb2O5 (nano)precipitates. The Nb–O–Ti bonds and defects at cation sites are considered key factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. - Graphical abstract: Layered Nb-titanates are appropriate precursors for formation of highly oriented Nb-substituted anatase thin films via delamination, reconstruction and subsequent heat treatment. Highlights: ? Single layer Nb-substituted nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered titanates. ? Nb(V) successfully introduced into anatase and rutile solid solutions. ? Anatase obtained from reconstructed nanosheets exhibit enhanced thermal stability. ? Oxygen partial pressure influences the valence of Nb in heat-treated samples. ? Deposition of oriented thin Ti(Nb)O2 layers by spray coating was demonstrated.

2011-01-01

357

Surface morphology and microstructure of Sm1+xBa2-xCu3Oy thin films including self-organized columnar pinning centers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We investigated the influence of the BZO nanorods on the surface morphologies of conventional PLD-SmBCO film and the SmBCO film prepared by a low-temperature growth (LTG) technique, developed by us as a novel crystal growth method. Dynamic force microscope (DFM) images showed that growth modes in SmBCO including BZO nanorods films were transformed from spiral growth mode into the 2D nucleation and growth mode. Moreover, observations using the DFM showed growth steps of the PLD- and LTG-SmBCO. Plan-view transmission electron microscope (TEM) images suggested that the BZO pinned the growth of the SmBCO layer.

2009-10-15

358

Nearly Optimal Sparse Fourier Transform  

CERN Document Server

We consider the problem of computing the k-sparse approximation to the discrete Fourier transform of an n-dimensional signal. We show: * An O(k log n)-time algorithm for the case where the input signal has at most k non-zero Fourier coefficients, and * An O(k log n log(n/k))-time algorithm for general input signals. Both algorithms achieve o(n log n) time, and thus improve over the Fast Fourier Transform, for any k = o(n). Further, they are the first known algorithms that satisfy this property. Also, if one assumes that the Fast Fourier Transform is optimal, the algorithm for the exactly k-sparse case is optimal for any k = n^{\\Omega(1)} . We complement our algorithmic results by showing that any algorithm for computing the sparse Fourier transform of a general signal must use at least \\Omega(k log(n/k)/ log log n) signal samples, even if it is allowed to perform adaptive sampling.

Hassanieh, Haitham; Katabi, Dina; Price, Eric

2012-01-01

359

Do dwarf chameleons (Bradypodion) show developmental plasticity?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Developmental plasticity results from environmental influences on the phenotype of an organism during its development, and its effects are irreversible. The phenomenon of phenotype–genotype uncoupling (plasticity) causes problems in species delineations, and has been suggested as a cause underlying a mismatch between morphology and genetics between the Natal Midlands dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion thamnobates) and the KwaZulu dwarf chameleon (Bradypodion melanocephalum). The two species are morphologically distinct, but are very poorly distinguished genetically. It has been hypothesized that B. melanocephalum and B. thamnobates may be phenotypically plastic populations of the same species, since environmental conditions, the driving force behind developmental plasticity, varies between the distributions of these two allopatric taxa.We raised juveniles of both species under identical controlled laboratory conditions. Two treatments were used. These varied in both habitat structure and temperature, each approximating conditions that one of the species would encounter naturally. Although not specifically controlled or monitored, all other environmental factors (e.g. humidity, light and wind) were standardized since chameleons were raised in the artificial conditions created in environmental chambers. If taxa are developmentally plastic, phenotypes would reflect treatment conditions, irrespective of specific associations. Neither B. thamnobates  nor B. melanocephalum  were phenotypically plastic over the environmental differences tested; species developed into the expected phenotypes, irrespective of treatment conditions. The low genetic difference between B. thamnobates and B. melanocephalum may indicate their recent divergence from a common ancestor or the mitochondrial gene fragments (ND2 and 16S) used in previously published phylogenetic analyses of the genus may not be representative of divergence for the genome as a whole.

Ashadee K. Miller; Graham J. Alexander

2011-01-01

360

A transcriptome map of cellular transformation by the fos oncogene  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The c-fos gene was originally identified as the cellular homolog of the oncogene v-fos carried by the Finkel-Biskis-Jenkins and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly murine osteogenic sarcoma retroviruses. Sustained expression of fos is sufficient to induce cellular transformation in vitro and tumorigenesis in vivo. Fos functions as a component of the AP-1 transcription factor complex to regulate gene transcription and several differentially expressed genes have been identified in cells transformed by fos. We have extended these studies by constructing a cellular system for conditional transformation by v-fos. Using Affymetrix-based DNA microarray technology, we analyzed transcriptional changes over the course of transformation and reversion in an inducible v-fos system. Results Microarray analyses of temporal gene expression during the process of v-fos mediated cellular transformation and morphological reversion revealed a remarkably dynamic transcriptome. Of the more than 8000 genes analyzed in this study, 3766 genes were categorized into 18 gene-expression patterns by using self-organizing map analysis. By combining the analysis of gene expression profiles in stably transformed cells with the analysis of sequential expression patterns during conditional transformation, we identified a relatively small cohort of genes implicated in v-fos mediated cellular transformation. Conclusion This approach defines a general conditional cell transformation system that can be used to study the endogenous transcription regulatory mechanisms involved in transformation and tumorigenesis. In addition, this study is the first reported analysis of dynamic changes in gene expression throughout experimentally controlled morphological transformation mediated by v-fos.

Ordway Jared M; Fenster Steven D; Ruan Hong; Curran Thomas

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Basal lamina formation by normal and transformed mouse mammary epithelial cells duplicated in vitro.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cells from low-passage (LP) cultures of a mouse mammary epithelial line (NMuMG cells) form a basal lamina when they are cultured on a type I collagen gel substratum. A high-passage (HP) strain of this line maintained the morphologic, serologic, and karyologic properties of the LP cells. For the determination of whether transformation of the NMuMG cells might lead to defects in the basal lamina, cells from LP cultures were compared in vivo and in vitro with cells of HP cultures for tumorigenicity, growth characteristics, and ability to form a lamina. The LP NMuMG cells had a typical epithelial morphology and showed no cytologic evidence of cancer. They formed an ultrastructurally normal continuous basal lamina in vivo when they were injected into athymic nude mice. In contrast, the HP cells were pleomorphic and highly invasive when injected into nude mice where they showed frequent and large basal lamina defects. These cells also accumulated only traces of lamina-like materials when cultured on a collagen gel, indicating that neoplastic transformation had markedly reduced the ability of NMuMG cells to form a basal lamina both in vivo and in vitro. Because the collagen gel culture system duplicated the in vivo situation with regard to basal lamina integrity, the basis for this lack of in vitro basal lamina formation may be physiologically relevant for the mechanism of malignant invasion.

David G; Van der Schueren B; Bernfield M

1981-09-01

362

The Hough transform estimator  

CERN Multimedia

This article pursues a statistical study of the Hough transform, the celebrated computer vision algorithm used to detect the presence of lines in a noisy image. We first study asymptotic properties of the Hough transform estimator, whose objective is to find the line that ``best'' fits a set of planar points. In particular, we establish strong consistency and rates of convergence, and characterize the limiting distribution of the Hough transform estimator. While the convergence rates are seen to be slower than those found in some standard regression methods, the Hough transform estimator is shown to be more robust as measured by its breakdown point. We next study the Hough transform in the context of the problem of detecting multiple lines. This is addressed via the framework of excess mass functionals and modality testing. Throughout, several numerical examples help illustrate various properties of the estimator. Relations between the Hough transform and more mainstream statistical paradigms and methods are ...

Goldenshluger, A; Goldenshluger, Alexander; Zeevi, Assaf

2004-01-01

363

Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics. PMID:12789502

Saini, R; Sonia; Jaiwal, P K; Jaiwal, S

2003-03-22

364

Stable genetic transformation of Vigna mungo L. Hepper via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vigna mungo is one of the large-seeded grain legumes that has not yet been transformed. We report here for the first time the production of morphologically normal and fertile transgenic plants from cotyledonary-node explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying binary vector pCAMBIA2301, the latter of which contains a neomycin phosphotransferase ( nptII) gene and a beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene ( uidA) interrupted with an intron. The transformed green shoots, selected and rooted on medium containing kanamycin, tested positive for nptII and uidA genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. These shoots were established in soil and grown to maturity to collect the seeds. Mechanical wounding of the explants prior to inoculation with Agrobacterium, time lag in regeneration due to removal of the cotyledons from explants and a second round of selection at the rooting stage were found to be critical for transformation. Analysis of T(0) plants showed the expression and integration of uidA into the plant genome. GUS activity in leaves, roots, flowers, anthers and pollen grains was detected by histochemical assay. PCR analysis of T(1) progeny revealed a Mendelian transgene inheritance pattern. The transformation frequency was 1%, and 6-8 weeks were required for the generation of transgenics.

Saini R; Sonia; Jaiwal PK; Jaiwal S

2003-06-01

365

Character transformations and their functional significance as a key to the evolution of hystricognath Rodentia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hystricognathi represent a monophyletic taxon within Rodentia. Since phylogenetically analyzed morphological systems are essential for revealing evolutionary processes, this study identifies evolutionary character transformations on the stem lineage of Hystricognathi as derived from the author's own work and the literature. Data so far indicate that evolutionary transformations in the rostral head region, the loss of tactile ability in the outer nasal skin and the mobile arrangement of the associated cartilage, were allied with a switch from omnivorous to herbivorous and fiber-rich nutrition. Additional character transformations in the skull assist in digesting such food. Structures associated with reproduction and placentation show a remarkable pro portion of derived character conditions: the chorioallantoic placenta has a ring-shaped organization and growth structure which optimizes the capacity for passive diffusion, a subplacenta occurred as a specialized region responsible for placental invasion and the inverted yolk sac facilitates substance exchange with the main placenta. Finally, precocial newborns evolved as a derived condition within Rodentia. All things considered, a mode of reproduction is indicated, which does not demand excessive additional energy intake by the mother and is in accordance with her low energetic diet. Hystricognathi possess major character transformations that represent prerequisites for their successful radiation at the time when more open ecosystems and grasslands evolved during Earth history. The analysis resulted in the reconstruction of a life-near picture of the hystricognath stem species pattern with high explanatory power in terms of changes in space and time and their interdependence with biodiversity.

Andrea Mess

2011-01-01

366

Optimal zone coding using the slant transform  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Discrete orthogonal transforms (DOTs) are widely used in digital signal processing, image coding and compression, systems theory, communication, and control. A special representative of the class of DOTs with nonsinusoidal basis functions is the slant transform, which is distinguished by the presence of a slanted vector with linearly decreasing components in its basis. The slant transform of fourth and eighth orders was introduced in 1971 by Enomoto and Shibata especially for efficient representation of the video signal in line sections with smooth variation of brightness. It has been used for television image coding. Pratt, Chen, and Welch generalized the slant transform to vectors of any dimension N = 2{sup n} and two-dimensional arrays, and derived posterior estimates of reconstruction error with zonal image compression (the zones were chosen by trial and error) for various transforms. These estimates show that, for the same N and the same compression ratio {tau}, the slant transform is inferior to the Karhunen - Loeve transform and superior to Walsh and Fourier transforms. In this paper, we derive prior estimates of the reconstruction error for the slant transform in zone coding and suggest an optimal technique for zone selection.

Zadiraka, V.K.; Evtushenko, V.N.

1995-03-01

367

Comparative study on ? energy spectrum denoise by fourier and wavelet transforms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper introduces the basic principle of wavelet and Fourier transforms, applies wavelet transform method to denoise ? energy spectrum of 60Co and compares it with Fourier transform method. The result of simulation with MATLAB software tool showed that as compared with traditional Fourier transform, wavelet transform has comparatively higher accuracy for ? energy spectrum denoising and is more feasible to ? energy spectrum denoising. (authors)

2007-01-01

368

Analysis of disabled HVDC transformer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] An examination of three windings from a disabled Hvdc transformer. The windings were dismantled at the company ABB Drammen. Test were taken and brought to Trondheim for further analysis. Of the three windings, two were strongly contaminated by copper sulphite while the last one recently had been replaced after a previous breakdown and only showed small signs of copper sulphite contamination. The following analyses have been conducted: visual observation of copper sulphite contamination on the conductors/paper, electron microscope analysis of the surface of selected bits of paper, measuring of the conducing ability by means of examining paper samples of varying degrees of contamination, and GC-AED and combustion analysis of the disabled transformer's oil and the oil from a 'healthy' transformer. The visual examination showed a strong contamination of the upper (hot) parts of the windings as well as two areas just below the middle of the windings. The contamination was especially strong under the buttons and between the conductors where the oil flow is reduced compared to the areas where the paper is in direct contact with free flow of oil. The degree of contamination on the paper proved to be directly correlated to the electric conducing ability through the paper and the amount of copper and sulphur measured in the electron microscope analysis. Copper sulphite grows through the paper, but the 'contamination' between the layers of paper is fastest through the gaps. When copper sulphite grows through the paper via the gaps, a current causes carbonisation of the paper in the area, and finally a short circuit between the windings. A comparison between the two oil samples that were analyzed by GC-AED and combustion analysis showed that the two oils probably were similar to begin with. The total amount of sulphur components in the oil from the disabled transformer has thus increased during the lifetime of the transformer. The new sulphur components have probably been formed in the reaction between the oil and the sulphur containing materials in the transformer. Alternatively, some of the sulphur may have been 'consumed' in the 'healthy' transformer, the limited amount of sulphur that was found was less than expected (ml)

2006-01-01

369

The HCP To BCC Phase Transformation in Ti Characterized by Nanosecond Electron Microscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general class of martensitic phase transformations occurs by a rapid lattice-distortive mechanism, where kinetics and morphology of the transformation are dominated by the strain energy. Since transformation is diffusionless, phase fronts propagate through a crystal with great speed that can approach the speed of sound. We have observed a particular example of this class of phase transformation, the hexagonal close packed (HCP) to body centered cubic (BCC) transformation in titanium that is driven by a rapid increase in temperature. We have used a novel nanosecond electron microscope (the dynamic transmission electron microscope, DTEM) to acquire diffraction and imaging information on the transformation, which is driven in-situ by nanosecond laser irradiation. Using nanosecond exposure times that are possible in the DTEM, data can be collected about the transient events in these fast transformations. We have identified the phase transformation with diffraction patterns and correlated the time of the phase transformation with calculated conditions in the sample.

Campbell, G; LaGrange, T; King, W; Colvin, J; Ziegler, A; Browning, N; Kleinschmidt, H; Bostanjoglo, O

2005-06-21

370

On Krawtchouk Transforms  

CERN Multimedia

Krawtchouk polynomials appear in a variety of contexts, most notably as orthogonal polynomials and in coding theory via the Krawtchouk transform. We present an operator calculus formulation of the Krawtchouk transform that is suitable for computer implementation. A positivity result for the Krawtchouk transform is shown. Then our approach is compared with the use of the Krawtchouk transform in coding theory where it appears in MacWilliams' and Delsarte's theorems on weight enumerators. We conclude with a construction of Krawtchouk polynomials in an arbitrary finite number of variables, orthogonal with respect to the multinomial distribution.

Feinsilver, Philip

2011-01-01

371

Ultrastructural studies of the mycelium-to yeast transformation of Sporothrix schenckii.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fine details of the internal and external morphology of the in vitro mycelial phase (MP) to yeastlike phase (YP) transition of the dimorphic fungal pathogen Sporothrix schenckii are shown in electron micrographs of ultrathin sections. Morphological transformation at the ultrastructural level was obs...

Garrison, R G; Boyd, K S; Mariat, F

372

A metal mixture induces transformation upon antioxidant depletion in a hepatic cell line.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Metals are ubiquitous soil, air, and water pollutants. A mixture of arsenic cadmium and lead, in particular, has commonly been found in the vicinity of smelter areas. The mixture of As-Cd-Pb has been shown to be carcinogenic, and transforming potential and oxidative stress have been proposed as principal mechanisms involved in this process. The aim of this work was to explore the role of the antioxidant barrier in the establishment of cell transformation upon chronic exposure to a metal mixture containing 2 ?M NaAsO(2), 2 ?M. CdCl(2), and 5 ?M Pb(C(2)H(3)O(2))(2)?3H(2)O in WRL-68 cells-a non-transformed human hepatic cell line. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this study, we used a WRL-68 cell model of human embryonic hepatic origin treated with antioxidant inhibitors (L-Buthionine-sulfoxamine and aminotriazole) to test the role of the antioxidant barrier in the establishment of cell transformation upon chronic exposure to a metal mixture of As-Cd-Pb (2 ?M NaAsO(2), 2 ?M CdCl(2) and 5 ?M Pb(C(2)H(3)O(2))(2)?3H(2)O). We evaluated oxidative damage markers, including reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and genotoxicity, as well as antioxidant response markers, including glutathione concentration, catalase activity, and superoxide dismutase activity, wich promote morphological transformation, which can be quantified by foci formation. RESULTS: As expected, we found an increase in the intracellular concentration of the metals after treatment with the metal mixture. In addition, treatment with the metal mixture in addition to inhibitors resulted in a large increase in the intracellular concentration of cadmium and lead. Our results describe the generation of reactive oxygen species, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and oxidative damage to macromolecules that occurred exclusively in cells that were morphologically transformed upon exposure to a metal mixture and antioxidant barrier inhibition. CONCLUSION: Our results show the importance of the antioxidant barrier role in the protection of cellular integrity and the transformation potential of this metal mixture via free radicals.

Sánchez-Valle V; Valverde M; Carrizale L; Mejía J; Zepeta N; Rojas E

2013-03-01

373

Unsupervised Learning of Morphology for English and Inuktitut  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a simple unsupervised techniquefor learning morphology by identifying hubsin an automaton. For our purposes, a hub is anode in a graph with in-degree greater thanone and out-degree greater than one. We createa word-trie, transform it into a minimalDFA, then identify hubs. Those hubs markthe boundary between root and suffix,achieving similar performance to more complexmixtures of techniques.

Howard Johnson; Joel Martin

374

Quantified H I morphology - VII. Star formation and tidal influence on local dwarf H I morphology  

Science.gov (United States)

Scale-invariant morphology parameters applied to atomic hydrogen maps (H I) of galaxies can be used to quantify the effects of tidal interaction or star formation on the interstellar matter (ISM). Here we apply these parameters, concentration, asymmetry, smoothness, Gini, M20, and the GM parameter, to two public surveys of nearby dwarf galaxies, the Very Large Array-ANGST and Local Irregulars That Trace Luminosity Extremes-The H I Nearby Galaxy Survey, to explore whether tidal interaction or the ongoing or past star formation is a dominant force shaping the H I disc of these dwarfs. Previously, H I morphological criteria were identified for ongoing spiral-spiral interactions. When we apply these to the irregular dwarf population, they either select almost all or none of the population. We find that only the asymmetry-based criteria can be used to identify very isolated dwarfs (i.e. these have a low tidal indication). Otherwise, there is little or no relation between the level of tidal interaction and the H I morphology. We compare the H I morphology to three star formation rates based on either H?, far-ultraviolet or the resolved stellar population, probing different star formation time-scales. The H I morphology parameters that trace the inequality of the distribution, the Gini, GM, and M20 parameters, correlate weakly with all these star formation rates. This is in line with the picture that local physics dominates the ISM appearance and not tidal effects. Finally, we compare the Sloan Digital Sky Survey measures of star formation and stellar mass to the H I morphological parameters for all four H I surveys. In the two lower resolution H I surveys (12 arcsec), there is no relation between star formation measures and H I morphology. The morphology of the two high-resolution H I surveys (6 arcsec), the asymmetry, smoothness, Gini, M20, and GM do show a link to the total star formation, but a weak one.

Holwerda, B. W.; Pirzkal, N.; de Blok, W. J. G.; Blyth, S.-L.

2013-10-01

375

Multidisciplinary transformer fault analysis on a large solar plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A large solar plant in Europe has experienced more than twenty SP transformers failures in less than six months. A multidisciplinary fault analysis based on the following activities was carried out: transformers inspection, on-site measurements, network simulations, transformers manufacturing audit as well as dielectric and water content tests on insulation material taken from failed transformers. This paper shows the multidisciplinary approach utilized for the transformers fault analysis that has allowed the identification of the root causes, including those addressable to operations, system integration and transformer manufacturing. (orig.)

Cappai, Giuseppe; Trevisan, Leonardo [Weidmann Electrical Technology AG, Chiasso (Switzerland). Electromagnetic Services; Heinrich, Bernhard [Weidmann Electrical Technology AG, Rapperswil (Switzerland). High Voltage Technology

2012-07-01

376

Selenate inhibits adipogenesis through induction of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) signaling.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Selenium is essential for many aspects of human health. While selenium is known to protect against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the role of selenium in adipose development is unknown. Here we show that selenate at non-toxic concentration exhibits an anti-adipogenic function in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, selenate induced a morphological change of these cells from fibroblast-like to spindle cell shape. However, other forms of selenium, including selenite and methylseleninic acid, showed either toxic or no effect on adipogenesis and morphology change of preadipocytes. The effects of selenate on adipogenesis and cell morphology change were blunted by the treatment with SB431542, a specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) receptor, neutralization TGF-?1 by its antibody, and knockdown of TGF-?1 in preadipocytes, suggesting a requirement of TGF-? signaling for the anti-adipogenic function of selenate. Among tested forms of selenium, selenate appears to be an effective activator of TGF-?1 expression in preadipocytes. These results indicate that selenate is a novel dietary micromineral that activates TGF-?1 signaling in preadipocytes and modulates adipogenesis.

Kim CY; Kim GN; Wiacek JL; Chen CY; Kim KH

2012-10-01

377

Selenate inhibits adipogenesis through induction of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) signaling.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selenium is essential for many aspects of human health. While selenium is known to protect against cancer and cardiovascular diseases, the role of selenium in adipose development is unknown. Here we show that selenate at non-toxic concentration exhibits an anti-adipogenic function in vitro and ex vivo. In addition, selenate induced a morphological change of these cells from fibroblast-like to spindle cell shape. However, other forms of selenium, including selenite and methylseleninic acid, showed either toxic or no effect on adipogenesis and morphology change of preadipocytes. The effects of selenate on adipogenesis and cell morphology change were blunted by the treatment with SB431542, a specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) receptor, neutralization TGF-?1 by its antibody, and knockdown of TGF-?1 in preadipocytes, suggesting a requirement of TGF-? signaling for the anti-adipogenic function of selenate. Among tested forms of selenium, selenate appears to be an effective activator of TGF-?1 expression in preadipocytes. These results indicate that selenate is a novel dietary micromineral that activates TGF-?1 signaling in preadipocytes and modulates adipogenesis. PMID:22974981

Kim, Choon Young; Kim, Gyo-Nam; Wiacek, Julie L; Chen, Chih-Yu; Kim, Kee-Hong

2012-09-04

378

Steganography based on Contourlet Transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this paper we present a steganographic technique based on Contourlet transform (CTT). The proposed technique uses a self-synchronizing variable length code to encode the original message which has been proved better than Huffman code in terms of power energy. The secret data then is embedded in the high frequency sub-bands obtained by applying CTT to the cover-image using variable LSB method and Thresholding method. The Contourlet transform is more suitable for data hiding applications as Contourlet gives more edges. Moreover more data can be hidden in the high frequency regions without perceptibility distorting the original image. Experimental results show that the original message and original image both can be recovered form stego-image accurately. The results are compared with existing steganographic techniques [10-12] based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Slantlet Transform (SLT). It is known that SLT is a better candidate for signal compression compared to the DWT based scheme and it can provide better time localization. Experimental results have confirmed CTT based method gives better imperceptibility and better embedding rate than the DWT.

Sushil Kumar; S.K. Muttoo

2011-01-01

379

Fourier Cosine and Sine Transform on fractal space  

CERN Document Server

In this paper, we establish local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine Transforms on fractal space, considered some properties of local fractional Cosine and Sine Transforms, show applications of local fractional Fourier Cosine and Sine transform to local fractional equations with local fractional derivative.

Chen, Guang-Sheng

2011-01-01

380

A transformation system for the hypotrichous ciliate Stylonychia mytilus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a transformation system for the ciliate Stylonychia mytilus. The neomycin resistance gene from Escherichia coli transposon Tn5, which codes for the enzyme phosphotransferase and confers resistance to the antibiotic G 418, was ligated into macronuclear ;gene-size' DNA molecules. Using this recombinant DNA for transformation experiments we show that the gene is replicated and expressed in transformed cells.

Wünning IU; Lipps HJ

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Copula and semicopula transforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We characterize the transformation, defined for every copula C, by Ch(x,y):=h[−1](C(h(x),h(y))), where x and y belong to [0,1] and h is a strictly increasing and continuous function on [0,1]. We study this transformation also in the class of quasi-copulas and semicopulas.

Fabrizio Durante; Carlo Sempi

2005-01-01

382

On an integral transform  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper establishes properties of a convolution type integral transform whose kernel is a Macdonald type Bessel function of zero order. An inversion formula is developed and the transform is applied to obtain the solution of some related integral equations.

D. Naylor

1986-01-01

383

Transforms, algorithms and applications  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fourier transforms and other related transforms are an essential tool in applications of science, engineering and technology. In fact, much of the work currently being done in mathematics, physics and engineering has its roots in Fourier's pioneering idea of representing an arbitrary function as the...

Soares, M. J.

384

Biochemical transformation of coals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

1999-03-23

385

Ultradiscrete Miura transformation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An ultradiscrete analogue of the Miura transformation is constructed through the bilinear form of the discrete KdV and modified KdV equations. This transformation maps solutions of the 'box and ball system with a carrier' to those of the 'box and ball system'. Explicit examples of solutions are also discussed.

2007-03-12

386

Ultradiscrete Miura transformation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An ultradiscrete analogue of the Miura transformation is constructed through the bilinear form of the discrete KdV and modified KdV equations. This transformation maps solutions of the 'box and ball system with a carrier' to those of the 'box and ball system'. Explicit examples of solutions are also discussed.

Kubo, S. [Statistics Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, 19-1 Wakamatsu-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8668 (Japan); Isojima, S. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan)]. E-mail: isojima@gem.aoyama.ac.jp; Murata, M. [Graduate School of Mathematical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 3-8-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8914 (Japan); Satsuma, J. [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Sagamihara-shi, Kanagawa 229-8558 (Japan)

2007-03-12

387

Advanced Hough Transform Implementations.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the Hough transform, a feature in an input space I votes for parameters in a transform space P with which it is compatible. It it also uses negative votes to vote against parameters with which it is incompatible, background bias and inherent noise in P...

C. M. Brown M. B. Curtiss D. B. Sher

1983-01-01

388

A Generalised Hadamard Transform  

CERN Multimedia

A Generalised Hadamard Transform for multi-phase or multilevel signals is introduced, which includes the Fourier, Generalised, Discrete Fourier, Walsh-Hadamard and Reverse Jacket Transforms. The jacket construction is formalised and shown to admit a tensor product decomposition. Primary matrices under this decomposition are identified. New examples of primary jacket matrices of orders 8 and 12 are presented.

Horadam, K J

2005-01-01

389

Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

2012-04-01

390

Generalized Lorentz Transformations  

CERN Document Server

Generalized Lorentz transformations with modified velocity parameter are considered. Lorentz transformations depending on the mass of the observer are suggested.The modified formula for the addition of velocities remarkably preserves the constancy of the velocity of light for all observers. The Doppler red shift is affected and can provide a test of such generalisations.

Gupta, Virendra

2013-01-01

391

Adaptive Wavelet Transforms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

392

Quantitative analysis of radiation-induced changes in sperm morphology  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] When developing spermatogenic cells are exposed to radiation, chemical carcinogens or mutagens, the transformation in the morphology of the mature sperm can be used to determine the severity of the exposure. In this study five groups of mice with three mice per group received testicular doses of X irradiation at dosage levels ranging from 0 rad to 120 rad. A random sample of 100 mature sperm per mouse was analyzed five weeks later for the quantitative morphologic transformation as a function of dosage level. The cells were stained with gallocyanin chrome alum (GCA) so that only the DNA in the sperm head was visible. The ACUity quantitative microscopy system at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was used to scan the sperm at a sampling density of 16 points per linear micrometer and with 256 brightness levels per point. The contour of each cell was extracted using conventional thresholding techniques on the high-contrast images. For each contour a variety of shape features was then computed to characterize the morphology of that cell. Using the control group and the distribution of their shape features to establish the variability of a normal sperm population, the 95% limits on normal morphology were established. Using only four shape features, a doubling dose of approximately 39 rad was determined. That is, at 39 rad exposure the percentage of abnormal cells was twice that occurring in the control population. This compared to a doubling dose of approximately 70 rad obtained from a concurrent visual procedure

1982-01-01

393

Coordinate transformations in quaternion spaces  

CERN Document Server

The quaternion space can be used to describe the electromagnetic field and gravitational field. Some coordinate transformations in the quaternion space can be derived from the characteristics of the quaternion, including Lorentz transformation and Galilean transformation etc., when the coordinate system is transformed into another. And some coordinate transformations in the octonion space can be obtained correspondingly. The results explain that the Lorentz transformation is only one of some coordinate transformations.

Weng, Zihua

2008-01-01

394

Efficient selection of banks of transformers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper show a procedure to select the most profitable transformer banks in an specific service or in new investments with emphasis in the reduction of the operational losses, the cost in useful life, and the increase of the system efficiency using techniques of artificial intelligence. The method constitutes a tool that can be used in field conditions without invasive test and with data of easy acquisition according to the state of the art. The program was developed to analyze any type of transformers or transformer bank connection? single phase, three phase transformers or two or three transformers in symmetric or asymmetric configuration for three phase and single phase services. The economic analysis is made by the Cost of Cycle Life (CCV) of the analyzed configuration. As a case the results obtained in the gas station La Calzada of the Cienfuegos municipality is presented.

2009-01-01

395

Transformations of Quadrilateral Lattices  

CERN Document Server

Motivated by the classical studies on transformations of conjugate nets, we develop the general geometric theory of transformations of their discrete analogues: the multidimensional quadrilateral lattices, i.e. lattices x: Z^N -> R^M, whose elementary quadrilaterals are planar. Our investigation is based on the discrete analogue of the theory of the rectilinear congruences, which we also present in detail. We study, in particular, the discrete analogues of the Laplace, Combescure, Levy, radial and fundamental transformations and their interrelations. The composition of these transformations and their permutability is also investigated from a geometric point of view. The deep connections between "transformations" and "discretizations" is also investigated for quadrilateral lattices. We finally interpret these results within the D-bar formalism.

Doliwa, A; Mañas, M

1997-01-01

396

Genetic Transformation in Citrus  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-01-01

397

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species.

Donmez D; Simsek O; Izgu T; Aka Kacar Y; Yalcin Mendi Y

2013-01-01

398

Genetic transformation in citrus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

2013-07-25

399

Complex Hilbert Transform Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hilbert transform is a basic tool in constructing analytical signals for a various applications such as amplitude modulation, envelope and instantaneous frequency analysis, quadrature decoding, shift-invariant multi-rate signal processing and Hilbert-Huang decomposition. This work introduces a complex Hilbert transform (CHT) filter, where the real and imaginary parts are a Hilbert transform pair. The CHT filtered signal is analytic, i.e. its Fourier transform is zero in negative frequency range. The CHT filter is constructed by half-sample delay operators based on the B-spline transform interpolation and decimation procedure. The CHT filter has an ideal phase response and the magnitude response is maximally flat in the frequency range 0 ? ? ? ?. The CHT filter has integer coefficients and the implementation in VLSI requires only summations and register shifts. We demonstrate the feasibility of the CHT filter in reconstruction of the sign modulated CMOS logic pulses in a fibre optic link.

Juuso T. Olkkonen; Hannu Olkkonen

2011-01-01

400

?????????????????????? Comparatively Analysis of the Washing Methods for Transformer’s Condenser  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????Since the manufacturer of transformer usually consider only flux and heat dissipation of the transformer’s condenser while it is designed and manufactured, the using environment of the transformer’ condenser and field main- tenance is ignored and the cooling tube is closely spaced. Thus lead to some pollution problem by the environment and the maintenance cost is increased. This article comparatively analysis two kinds of washing methods. The result shows that using air washing has better effect than charged water washing. With that we can reduce washing workload, im- prove work efficiency and the quality.

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2012-01-01